AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENT
The United States of America (hereinafter the "United States"), of the one part; and
The Republic of Austria,
The Kingdom of Belgium,
The Republic of Bulgaria,
The Republic of Cyprus,
The Czech Republic,
The Kingdom of Denmark,
The Republic of Estonia,
The Republic of Finland,
The French Republic,
The Federal Republic of Germany,
The Hellenic Republic,
The Republic of Hungary,
The Italian Republic,
The Republic of Latvia,
The Republic of Lithuania,
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg,
The Republic of Malta,
The Kingdom of the Netherlands,
The Republic of Poland,
The Portuguese Republic,
The Slovak Republic,
The Republic of Slovenia,
The Kingdom of Spain,
The Kingdom of Sweden,
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
being parties to the Treaty establishing the European Community and being Member States of the European Union (hereinafter the "Member States"), and the European Community, of the other part;
Desiring to promote an international aviation system based on competition among airlines in the marketplace with minimum government interference and regulation;
Desiring to facilitate the expansion of international air transport opportunities, including through the development of air transportation networks to meet the needs of passengers and shippers for convenient air transportation services;
Desiring to make it possible for airlines to offer the traveling and shipping public competitive prices and services in open markets;
Desiring to have all sectors of the air transport industry, including airline workers, benefit in a liberalized agreement;
Desiring to ensure the highest degree of safety and security in international air transport and reaffirming their grave concern about acts or threats against the security of aircraft, which jeopardize the safety of persons or property, adversely affect the operation of air transportation, and undermine public confidence in the safety of civil aviation;
Noting the Convention on International Civil Aviation, opened for signature at Chicago on December 7, 1944;
Recognizing that government subsidies may adversely affect airline competition and may jeopardize the basic objectives of this Agreement;
Affirming the importance of protecting the environment in developing and implementing international aviation policy;
Noting the importance of protecting consumers, including the protections afforded by the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air, done at Montreal May 28, 1999;
Intending to build upon the framework of existing agreements with the goal of opening access to markets and maximizing benefits for consumers, airlines, labor, and communities on both sides of The Atlantic;
Recognizing the importance of enhancing the access of their airlines to global capital markets in order to strengthen competition and promote the objectives of this Agreement;
Intending to establish a precedent of global significance to promote the benefits of liberalization in this crucial economic sector;
Have agreed as follows:
For the purposes of this Agreement, unless otherwise stated, the term :
1. "Agreement"means this Agreement, its Annexes and Appendix, and any amendments
2. "Air transportation" means the carriage by aircraft of passengers, baggage, cargo, and mail, separately or in combination, held out to the public for remuneration or hire;
3. "Convention" means the Convention on International Civil Aviation, opened for signature at Chicago on December 7, 1944, and includes:
4. "Full cost" means the cost of providing service plus a reasonable charge for administrative overhead;
5. "International air transportation" means air transportation that passes through the airspace over the territory of more than one State;
6. "Party" means either the United States or the European Community and its Member States;
7. "Price"means any fare, rate or charge for the carriage of passengers, baggage and/or cargo (excluding mail) in air transportation, including surface transportation in connection with international air transportation, if applicable, charged by airlines, including their agents, and the conditions governing the availability of such fare, rate or charge;
8. "Stop fornon-traffic purposes" means a landing for anypurpose otherthan takingon or discharging passengers, baggage, cargo and/or mail in air transportation;
9. `Territory"means, forthe United States, the land areas (mainland and islands), internal waters and territorial sea under its sovereignty or jurisdiction, and, for the European Community and its Member States, the land areas (mainland and islands), internal waters and territorial sea in which the Treaty establishing the European Community is applied and under the conditions laid down in that Treaty and any successor instrument; application of this Agreement to Gibraltar airport is understood to be without prejudice to the respective legal positions of the Kingdom of Spain and
The United Kingdom with regard to the dispute over sovereignty over the territory in which the airport is situated, and to the continuing suspension of Gibraltar Airport from European Community aviation measures existing as at 18 September2006as between MemberStates, in accordance with the Ministerial statement on Gibraltar Airport agreed in Cordoba on September 2006; and
10. "User charge" means a charge imposed on airlines for the provision of airport, airport environmental, air navigation, or aviation security facilities or services including related services and facilities .
Fair and Equal Opportunity
Each Party shall allow a fair and equal opportunity for the airlines of both Parties to compete in providing the international air transportation governed by this Agreement .
Grant of Rights
1 . Each Party grants to the other Party the following rights for the conduct of international air transportation by the airlines of the other Party:
2. Each airline may on any or all flights and at its option :
3. The provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall apply subject to the requirements that :
4. Each Party shall allow each airline to determine the frequency and capacity of the international air transportation it offers based upon commercial considerations in the marketplace . Consistent with this right, neither Party shall unilaterally limit the volume of traffic, frequency or regularity of service, or the aircraft type or types operated by the airlines of the other Party, nor shall it require the filing of schedules, programs for charter flights, or operational plans by airlines of The other Party, except as may be required for customs, technical, operational, or environmental (consistent with Article 15) reasons under uniform conditions consistent with Article 15 of the Convention.
5. Any airline may perform international air transportation without any limitation as to change, at any point, in type or number of aircraft operated; provided that, (a) for U.S. airlines, with the exception of all-cargo services, the transportation is part of a service that serves the United States, and (b) for Community airlines, with the exception of (i) all-cargo services and (ii) combination services between the United States and a member of the ECAA as of the date of signature of this Agreement, the transportation is part of a service that serves a Member State .
6. Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to confer on :
7. Community airlines' access to U.S. Government procured transportation shall be governed by Annex 3.
On receipt of applications from an airline of one Party, in the form and manner prescribed for operating authorizations and technical permissions, the other Party shall grant appropriate authorizations and permissions with minimum procedural delay, provided .
Revocation of Authorization
1 . Either Party may revoke, suspend or limit the operating authorizations or technical permissions or otherwise suspend or limit the operations of an airline of the other Party where :
2. Unless immediate action is essential to prevent further noncompliance with subparagraph 1(c) of this Article, the rights established by this Article shall be exercised only after consultation with the other Party.
3. This Article does not limit the rights of either Party to withhold, revoke, limit or impose conditions on the operating authorization or technical permission of an airline or airlines of the other Party in accordance with the provisions of Article 8 (Safety) or Article 9 (Security) .
Additional Matters related to Ownership, Investment, and Control
Notwithstanding any other provision in this Agreement, the Parties shall implement the provisions of Annex 4 in their decisions under their respective laws and regulations concerning ownership, investment and control.
Application of Laws
1. The laws and regulations of a Party relating to the admission to or departure from its territory of aircraft engaged in international air navigation, or to the operation and navigation of such aircraft while within its territory, shall be applied to the aircraft utilized by the airlines of the other Party, and shall be complied with by such aircraft upon entering or departing from or while within the territory of the first Party.
2. While entering, within, or leaving the territory of one Party, the laws and regulations applicable within that territory relating to the admission to or departure from its territory of passengers, crew or cargo on aircraft (including regulations relating to entry, clearance, immigration, passports, customs and quarantine or, in the case of mail, postal regulations) shall be complied with by, or on behalf of, such passengers, crew or cargo of the other Party's airlines,
1 . The responsible authorities of the Parties shall recognize as valid, for the purposes of operating the air transportation provided for in this Agreement, certificates of airworthiness, certificates of competency, and licenses issued or validated by each other and still in force, provided that the requirements for such certificates or licenses at least equal the minimum standards that maybe established pursuant to the Convention. The responsible authorities may, however, refuse to recognize as valid for purposes of flight above their own territory, certificates of competency and licenses granted to or validated for their own nationals by such other authorities .
2. The responsible authorities of a Party may request consultations with other responsible authorities concerning the safety standards maintained by those authorities relating to aeronautical facilities, aircrews, aircraft, and operation of the airlines overseen by those authorities . Such consultations shall take place within 45 days of the request unless otherwise agreed . If following such consultations, the requesting responsible authorities find that those authorities do not effectively maintain and administer safety standards and requirements in these areas that at least equal the minimum standards that may be established pursuant to the Convention, the requesting responsible authorities shall notify those authorities of such findings and the steps considered necessary to conform with these minimum standards, and those authorities shall take appropriate corrective action. The requesting responsible authorities reserve the right to withhold, revoke or limit the operating authorization or technical permission of an airline or airlines for which those authorities provide safety oversight in the event those authorities do not take such appropriate corrective action within a reasonable time and to take immediate action as to such airline or airlines if essential to prevent further noncompliance with the duty to maintain and administer the aforementioned standards and requirements resulting in an immediate threat to flight safety.
3. The European Commission shall simultaneously receive all requests and notifications under this Article.
4. Nothing in this Article shall prevent the responsible authorities of the Parties from conducting safety discussions, including those relating to the routine application of safety standards and requirements or to emergency situations that may arise from time to time .
1 . In accordance with their rights and obligations under international law, the Parties reaffirm that their obligation to each other to protect the security of civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference forms an integral part of this Agreement . Without limiting the generality of their rights and obligations under international law, the Parties shall in particular act in conformity with the following agreements: the Convention on Offenses and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, done at Tokyo September 14, 1963, the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, done at The Hague December 16, 1970, the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, done at Montreal September 23, 1971, and the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, done at Montreal February 24, 1988.
2. The Parties shall provide upon request all necessary assistance to each other to address any threat to the security of civil aviation, including the prevention of acts of unlawful seizure of civil aircraft and other unlawful acts against the safety of such aircraft, of their passengers and crew, and of airports and air navigation facilities.
3. The Parties shall, in their mutual relations, act in conformity with the aviation security standards and appropriate recommended practices established by the International Civil Aviation Organization and designated as Annexes to the Convention ; they shall require that operators of aircraft of their registries; operators of aircraft who have their principal place of business or permanent residence in their territory ; and the operators of airports in their territory act in conformity with such aviation security provisions .
4. Each Party shall ensure that effective measures are taken within its territory to protect aircraft and to inspect passengers, crew, and their baggage and carry-on items, as well as cargo and aircraft stores, prior to and during boarding or loading; and that those measures are adjusted to meet increased threats to the security of civil aviation. Each Party agrees that the security provisions required by the other Party for departure from and while within the territory of that other Party must be observed. Each Party shall give positive consideration to any request from the other Party for special security measures to meet a particular threat.
5. With full regard and mutual respect for each other's sovereignty, a Party may adopt security measures for entry into its territory. Where possible, that Party shall take into account the security measures already applied by the other Party and any views that the other Party may offer. Each Party recognizes, however, that nothing in this Article limits the ability of a Party to refuse entry into its territory of any flight or flights that it deems to present a threat to its security .
6. A Party may take emergency measures including amendments to meet a specific security threat. Such measures shall be notified immediately to the responsible authorities of the other Party.
7. The Parties underline the importance of working towards compatible practices and standards as a means of enhancing air transport security and minimizing regulatory divergence . To this end, the Parties shall fully utilize and develop existing channels for the discussion of current and proposed security measures. The Parties expect that the discussions will address, among other issues, new security measures proposed or under consideration by the other Party, including The revision of security measures occasioned by a change in circumstances ; measures proposed by one Party to meet the security requirements of the other Party ; possibilities for the more expeditious adjustment of standards with respect to aviation security measures; and compatibility of the requirements of one Party with the legislative obligations of the other Party. Such discussions should serve to foster early notice and prior discussion of new security initiatives and requirements.
8. Without prejudice to the need to take immediate action in order to protect transportation security, the Parties affirm that when considering security measures, a Party shall evaluate possible adverse effects on international air transportation and, unless constrained by law, shall take such factors into account when it determines what measures are necessary and appropriate to address those security concerns.
9. When an incident or threat of an incident of unlawful seizure of aircraft or other unlawful acts against the safety of passengers, crew, aircraft, airports or air navigation facilities occurs, the Parties shall assist each other by facilitating communications and other appropriate measures intended to terminate rapidly and safely such incident or threat.
10. When a Party has reasonable grounds to believe that the other Party has departed from The aviation security provisions of this Article, the responsible authorities of that Party may request immediate consultations with the responsible authorities of the other Party. Failure to reach a satisfactory agreement within 15 days from the date of such request shall constitute grounds to withhold, revoke, limit, or impose conditions on the operating authorization and technical permissions of an airline or airlines of that Party. When required by an emergency, a Party may take interim action prior to the expiry of 15 days .
11. Separate from airport assessments undertaken to determine conformity with the aviation security standards and practices referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article, a Party may request the cooperation of the other Party in assessing whether particular security measures of that other Party meet the requirements of the requesting Party . The responsible authorities of the Parties shall coordinate in advance the airports to be assessed and the dates of assessment and establish a procedure to address the results of such assessments . Taking into account the results of the assessments, the requesting Party may decide that security measures of an equivalent standard are applied in the territory of the other Party in order that transfer passengers, transfer baggage, and/or transfer cargo may be exempted from re-screening in the territory of the requesting Party . Such a decision shall be communicated to the other Party .
1. The airlines of each Party shall have the right to establish offices in the territory of the other Party for the promotion and sale of air transportation and related activities.
2. The airlines of each Party shall be entitled, in accordance with the laws and regulations of The other Party relating to entry, residence, and employment, to bring in and maintain in the territory of the other Party managerial, sales, technical, operational, and other specialist staff who are required to support the provision of air transportation .
3. a. Without prejudice to subparagraph (b) below, each airline shall have in relation to groundhandling in the territory of the other Party:
(i) the right to perform its own groundhandling ("self handling') or, at its option
(ii) the right to select among competing suppliers that provide groundhandling services in whole or in part where such suppliers are allowed market access on the basis of the laws and regulations of each Party, and where such suppliers are present in the market.
b. The rights under (i) and (ii) in subparagraph (a) above shall be subject only to specific constraints of available space or capacity arising from the need to maintain safe operation of the airport. Where such constraints preclude self- handling and where there is no effective competition between suppliers that provide groundhandling services, all such services shall be available on both an equal and an adequate basis to all airlines; prices of such services shall not exceed their full cost including a reasonable return on assets, after depreciation .
4. Any airline of each Party may engage in the sale of air transportation in the territory of the other Party directly and/or, at the airline's discretion, through its sales agents or other intermediaries appointed by the airline . Each airline shall have the right to sell such transportation, and any person shall be free to purchase such transportation, in the currency of that territory or in freely convertible currencies.
5. Each airline shall have the right to convert and remit from the territory of the other Party to its home territory and, except where inconsistent with generally applicable law or regulation, the country or countries of its choice, on demand, local revenues in excess of sums locally disbursed . Conversion and remittance shall be permitted promptly without restrictions or taxation in respect
Thereof at the rate of exchange applicable to current transactions and remittance on the date the carrier makes the initial application for remittance .
6. The airlines of each Party shall be permitted to pay for local expenses, including purchases of fuel, in the territory of the other Party in local currency . At their discretion, the airlines of each Party may pay for such expenses in the territory of the other Party in freely convertible currencies according to local currency regulation.
7. In operating or holding out services under the Agreement, any airline of a Party may enter into co-operative marketing arrangements, such as blocked-space or code-sharing arrangements, with:
8. The airlines of each Party shall be entitled to enter into franchising or branding arrangements with companies, including airlines, of either Party or third countries, provided that the airlines hold the appropriate authority and meet the conditions prescribed under the laws and regulations normally applied by the Parties to such arrangements . Annex 5 shall apply to such arrangements.
9. The airlines of each Party may enter into arrangements for the provision of aircraft with crew for international air transportation with :
10. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, airlines and indirect providers of cargo transportation of the Parties shall be permitted, without restriction, to employ in connection with international air transportation any surface transportation for cargo to or from any points in the territories of the Parties, or in third countries, including transport to and from all airports with customs facilities, and including, where applicable, the right to transport cargo in bond under applicable laws and regulations . Such cargo, whether moving by surface or by air, shall have access to airport customs processing and facilities . Airlines may elect to perform their own surface transportation or to provide it through arrangements with other surface carriers, including surface transportation operated by other airlines and indirect providers of cargo air transportation . Such intermodal cargo services may be offered at a single, through price for the air and surface transportation combined, provided that shippers are not misled as to the facts concerning such transportation.
Customs Duties and Charges
1 . On arriving in the territory of one Party, aircraft operated in international air transportation by the airlines of the other Party, their regular equipment, ground equipment, fuel, lubricants, consumable technical supplies, spare parts (including engines), aircraft stores (including but not limited to such items of food, beverages and liquor, tobacco and other products destined for sale to or use by passengers in limited quantities during flight), and other items intended for or used solely in connection with the operation or servicing of aircraft engaged in international air transportation shall be exempt, on the basis of reciprocity, from all import restrictions, property taxes and capital levies, customs duties, excise taxes, and similar fees and charges that are (a) imposed by the national authorities or the European Community, and (b) not based on the cost of services provided, provided that such equipment and supplies remain on board the aircraft.
2. There shall also be exempt, on the basis of reciprocity, from the taxes, levies, duties, fees and charges referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, with the exception of charges based on the cost of the service provided:
3. Equipment and supplies referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article may be required to be kept under the supervision or control of the appropriate authorities .
4. The exemptions provided by this Article shall also be available where the airlines ofone Party have contracted with another airline, which similarly enjoys such exemptions from the other Party, for the loan or transfer in the territory of the other Party of the items specified in paragraphs 1 and 2ofthis Article.
5. Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent either Party from imposing taxes, levies, duties, fees or charges on goods sold other than for consumption on board to passengers during a sector of an air service between two points within its territory at which embarkation or disembarkation is permitted.
6. In the event that two or more Member States envisage applying to the fuel supplied to aircraft of US. airlines in the territories of such Member States for flights between such Member States any waiver of the exemption contained in Article 14 (b) of Council Directive 2003196/EC of 27 October 2003, the Joint Committee shall consider that issue, in accordance with paragraph 4(e) of Article 18.
7. A Party may request the assistance of the other Party, on behalf of its airline or airlines, in securing an exemption from taxes, duties, charges and fees imposed by state and local governments or authorities on the goods specified in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, as well as from fuel through-put charges, in the circumstances described in this Article, except to the extent that the charges are based on the cost of providing the service. In response to such a request, the other Party shall bring the views of the requesting Party to the attention of the relevant governmental unit or authority and urge that those views be given appropriate consideration.
1. User charges that may be imposed by the competent charging authorities or bodies of each Party on the airlines of the other Party shall be just, reasonable, not unjustly discriminatory, and equitably apportioned among categories of users . In any event, any such user charges shall be assessed on the airlines of the other Party on terms not less favorable than the most favorable terms available to any other airline at the time the charges are assessed .
2. User charges imposed on the airlines of the other Party may reflect, but shall not exceed,
The full cost to the competent charging authorities or bodies of providing the appropriate airport, airport environmental, air navigation, and aviation security facilities and services at the airport or within the airport system. Such charges may include a reasonable return on assets, after depreciation. Facilities and services for which charges are made shall be provided on an efficient and economic basis,
3. Each Party shall encourage consultations between the competent charging authorities or bodies in its territory and the airlines using the services and facilities, and shall encourage the competent charging authorities or bodies and the airlines to exchange such information as may be necessary to permit an accurate review of the reasonableness of the charges in accordance with The principles of paragraphs I and 2 of this Article . Each Party shall encourage the competent charging authorities to provide users with reasonable notice of any proposal for changes in user charges to enable users to express their views before changes are made .
4. Neither Party shall be held, in dispute resolution procedures pursuant to Article 19, to be in reach of a provision of this Article, unless (a) it fails to undertake a review of the charge or practice that is the subject of complaint by the other Party within a reasonable amount of time ; or (b) following such a review it fails to take all steps within its power to remedy any charge or practice that is inconsistent with this Article .
1. Prices for air transportation services operated pursuant to this Agreement shall be established freely and shall not be subject to approval, nor may they be required to be filed.
2. Notwithstanding paragraph 1 :
Government Subsidies and Support
1. The Parties recognize that government subsidies and support may adversely affect the fair and equal opportunity of airlines to compete in providing the international air transportation governed by this Agreement.
2. If one Party believes that a government subsidy or support being considered or provided by the other Party for or to the airlines of that other Party would adversely affect or is adversely affecting that fair and equal opportunity of the airlines of the first Party to compete, it may submit observations to that Party. Furthermore, it may request a meeting of the Joint Committee as provided in Article 18, to consider the issue and develop appropriate responses to concerns found to be legitimate.
3. Each Party may approach responsible governmental entities in the territory of the other Party, including entities at the state, provincial or local level, if it believes that a subsidy or support being considered or provided by such entities will have the adverse competitive effects referred to in paragraph 2. If a Party decides to make such direct contact it shall inform promptly the other Party through diplomatic channels. It may also request a meeting of the Joint Committee.
4. Issues raised under this Article could include, for example, capital injections, cross- subsidization, grants, guarantees, ownership, relief or tax exemption, by any governmental entities.
1. The Parties recognize the importance of protecting the environment when developing and implementing international aviation policy. The Parties recognize that the costs and benefits of measures to protect the environment must be carefully weighed in developing international aviation policy.
2. When a Party is considering proposed environmental measures, it should evaluate possible adverse effects on the exercise of rights contained in this Agreement, and, if such measures are adopted, it should take appropriate steps to mitigate any such adverse effects.
3. When environmental measures are established, the aviation environmental standards adopted by International Civil Aviation Organization in Annexes to the Convention shall be followed except where differences have been filed. The Parties shall apply any environmental measures affecting air services under this Agreement in accordance with Article 2 and 3(4) of this Agreement.
4. If one Party believes that a matter involving aviation environmental protection raises concerns for the application or implementation of this Agreement, it may request a meeting of the Joint Committee, as provided in Article 18, to consider the issue and develop appropriate responses to concerns found to be legitimate.
The Parties affirm the importance of protecting consumers, and either Party may request a meeting of the Joint Committee to discuss consumer protection issues that the requesting Party identifies as significant.
Computer Reservation Systems
1. Computer Reservation Systems (CRS) vendors operating in the territory of one Party shall be entitled to bring in, maintain, and make freely available their CRSs to travel agencies or travel companies whose principal business is the distribution of travel-related products in the territory of the other Party provided the CRS complies with any relevant regulatory requirements of the other Party.
2. Neither Party shall, in its territory, impose or permit to be imposed on the CRS vendors of The other Party more stringent requirements with respect to CRS displays (including edit and display parameters), operations, practices, sales, or ownership than those imposed on its own CRS vendors.
3. Owners/Operators of CRSs of one Party that comply with the relevant regulatory requirements of the other Party, if any, shallhave thesameopportunity to ownCRSs within the territory of the other Partyasdo owners/operators of that Party.
The Joint Committee
1. A Joint Committee consisting of representatives of the Parties shall meet at least once a year to conduct consultations relating to this Agreement and to review its implementation.
2. A Party may also request a meeting of the Joint Committee to seek to resolve questions relating to the interpretation or application of this Agreement. However, with respect to Article 20 or Annex 2, the Joint Committee may consider questions only relating to the refusal by either Participant to implement the commitments undertaken, and the impact ofcompetition decisions on The application of this Agreement. Such a meeting shall begin at the earliest possible date, but not later than 60 days from the date of receipt of the request, unless otherwise agreed.
3. The Joint Committee shall review, no later than at its first annual meeting and thereafter as appropriate, the overall implementation of the Agreement, including any effects of aviation infrastructure constraints on the exercise of rights provided for in Article 3, the effects of security measures taken under Article 9, the effects on the conditions of competition, including in the field of Computer Reservation Systems, and any social effects of the implementation of the Agreement.
4. The Joint Committee shall also develop cooperation by :
5. The Parties share the goal of maximizing the benefits for consumers, airlines, labor, and communities on both sides of the Atlantic by extending this Agreement to include third countries. To this end, the Joint Committee shall work to develop a proposal regarding the conditions and procedures, including any necessary amendments to this Agreement, that would be required for third countries to accede to this Agreement .
6. The Joint Committee shall operate on the basis of consensus.
1. Any dispute relating to the application or interpretation of this Agreement, other than issues arising under Article 20 or under Annex 2, that is not resolved by a meeting of the Joint Committee may be referred to a person or body for decision by agreement of the Parties . If the Parties do not so agree, the dispute shall, at the request of either Party, be submitted to arbitration in accordance with the procedures set forth below.
2. Unless the Parties otherwise agree, arbitration shall be by a tribunal of three arbitrators to be constituted as follows:
3. Except as otherwise agreed, the tribunal shall determine the limits of its jurisdiction in accordance with this Agreement and shall establish its own procedural rules . At the request of a Party, the tribunal, once formed, may ask the other Party to implement interim relief measures pending the tribunal's final determination. At the direction of the tribunal or at the request of either Party, a conference shall be held not later than 15 days after the tribunal is fully constituted for the tribunal to determine the precise issues to be arbitrated and the specific procedures to be followed .
4. Except as otherwise agreed or as directed by the tribunal:
5. The tribunal shall attempt to render a written decision within 30 days after completion of The hearing or, if no hearing is held, within 30 days after the last reply is submitted . The decision of
The majority of the tribunal shall prevail .
6. The Parties may submit requests for clarification of the decision within 10 days after it is rendered and any clarification given shall be issued within 15 days of such request.
7. If the tribunal determines that there has been a violation of this Agreement and the responsible Party does not cure the violation, or does not reach agreement with the other Party on a mutually satisfactory resolution within 40 days after notification of the tribunal's decision, the other Party may suspend the application of comparable benefits arising under this Agreement until such time as the Parties have reached agreement on a resolution of the dispute. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as limiting the right of either Party to take proportional measures in accordance with international law.
8. The expenses of the tribunal, including the fees and expenses of the arbitrators, shall be shared equally by the Parties. Any expenses incurred by the President of the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization, or by any Vice President of that Council, in connection with the procedures of paragraph 2(b) of this Article shall be considered to be part of the expenses of the tribunal.
1. The Parties recognize that competition among airlines in the transatlantic market is important to promote the objectives of this Agreement, and confirm that they apply their respective competition regimes to protect and enhance overall competition and not individual competitors .
2. The Parties recognize that differences may arise concerning the application of their respective competition regimes to international aviation affecting the transatlantic market, and that competition among airlines in that market might be fostered by minimizing those differences.
3. The Parties recognize that cooperation between their respective competition authorities serves to promote competition in markets and has the potential to promote compatible regulatory results and to minimize differences in approach with respect to their respective competition reviews of inter-carrier agreements. Consequently, the Parties shall further this cooperation to the extent feasible, taking into account the different responsibilities, competencies and procedures of the authorities, in accordance with Annex 2 .
4. The Joint Committee shall be briefed annually on the results of the cooperation under Annex 2.
Second Stage Negotiations
1. The Parties share the goal of continuing to open access to markets and to maximize benefits for consumers, airlines, labor, and communities on both sides of the Atlantic, including the facilitation of investment so as to better reflect the realities of a global aviation industry, the strengthening of the transatlantic air transportation system, and the establishment of a framework that will encourage other countries to open their own air services markets . The Parties shall begin negotiations not later than 60 days after the date of provisional application of this Agreement, with the goal of developing the next stage expeditiously .
2. To that end, the agenda for the second stage negotiations shall include the following items of priority interest to one or both Parties:
3. The Parties shall review their progress towards a second stage agreement no later than 18 months after the date when the negotiations are due to start in accordance with paragraph 1 . If no second stage agreement has been reached by the Parties within twelve months of the start of the review, each Party reserves the right thereafter to suspend rights specified in this Agreement . Such suspension shall take effect no sooner than the start of the International Air Transport Association (IA TA) traffic season that commences no less than twelve months after the date on which notice of suspension is given.
Relationship to Other Agreements
1. During the period of provisional application pursuant to Article 25 of this Agreement, the bilateral agreements listed in section 1 of Annex 1, shall be suspended, except to the extent provided in section 2 of Annex 1 .
2. Upon entry into force pursuant to Article 26 of this Agreement, this Agreement shall supersede the bilateral agreements listed in section 1 of Annex 1, except to the extent provided in section 2 of Annex 1.
3. If the Parties become parties to a multilateral agreement, or endorse a decision adopted by
The International Civil Aviation Organization or another international organization, that addresses matters covered by this Agreement, they shall consult in the Joint Committee to determine whether this Agreement should be revised to take into account such developments.
Either Party may, at any time, give notice in writing through diplomatic channels to the other Party of its decision to terminate this Agreement. Such notice shall be sent simultaneously to the International Civil Aviation Organization. This Agreement shall terminate at midnight GMT at the end of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) traffic season in effect one year following
The date of written notification of termination, unless the notice is withdrawn by agreement of the Parties before the end of this period.
Registration with ICAO
This Agreement and all amendments thereto shall be registered with the International Civil Aviation Organization.
Pending entry into force pursuant to Article 26 :
1. The Parties agree to apply this Agreement from 28 October 2007 .
2. Either Party may at any time give notice in writing through diplomatic channels to the other Partyofa decision to no longer apply this Agreement. In that event, application shall cease at midnight GMT at the end of the International Air Transport Association (IA TA) traffic season in effect one year following the date of written notification, unless the notice is withdrawn by agreementofthe Parties before the endof this period.
Entry into Force
This Agreement shall enter into force one month after the date of the later note in an exchange of diplomatic notes between the Parties confirming that all necessary procedures for entry into force ofthis Agreement have been completed. For purposes of this exchange, the United States shall deliver to the European Community the diplomatic note to the European Community and its Member States, and the European Community shall deliver to the United States the diplomatic note or notes from the European Community and its Member States . The diplomatic note or notes from the European Community and its Member States shall contain communications from each Member State confirming that its necessary procedures for entry into force of this Agreement have been completed.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized, have signed this Agreement .
DONE at[ )on thisf ]day of ,20Q-, in duplicate.
FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF AUSTRIA
FOR THE KINGDOM OF BELGIUM
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS
FOR THE CZECH REPUBLIC
FOR THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF FINLAND
FOR THE FRENCH REPUBLIC
FOR THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF
FOR THE HELLENIC REPUBLIC
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY
FOR THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA
FOR THE GRAND DUCHY OF
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF MALTA
FOR THE KINGDOM OF THE
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND
FOR THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC
FOR THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA
FOR THE KINGDOM OF SPAIN
FOR THE KINGDOM OF SWEDEN
FOR THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
FOR THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
As provided in Article 22 of this Agreement, the following bilateral agreements between the United States and Member States shall be suspended or superseded by this Agreement:
Notwithstanding section 1 of this Annex, for areas that are not encompassed within the definition of `Territory" in Article 1 of this Agreement, the agreements in paragraphs (e) (Denmark-United States), (g) (France-United States), and (v) (United Kingdom-United States) of that section shall continue to apply, according to their terms.
Notwithstanding Article 3 of this Agreement, U.S. airlines shall not have the right to provide all- cargo services, that are not part of a service that serves the United States, to or from points in the Member States, except to or from points in the Czech Republic, the French Republic, the Federal RepublicofGermany, the Grand DuchyofLuxembourg, the Republic ofMalta, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, and the Slovak Republic .
Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Agreement, this section shall apply to scheduled and charter combination air transportation between Ireland and the United States with effect from the beginning of IATA Winter season 2006/2007 until the end of the IATA Winter season 2007/2008,
a. (i) Each U.S. and Community airline may operate 3 non-stop flights between the United States and Dublin for each non-stop flight that the airline operates between the United States and Shannon. This entitlement for non-stop Dublin flights shall be based on an average of operations over the entire three-season transitional period. A flight shall be deemed to be a non-stop Dublin, or a non-stop Shannon, flight, according to the first point of entry into, or the last point of departure from, Ireland.
(ii) The requirement to serve Shannon in subparagraph (a)(i) of this Section shall terminate if any airline inaugurates scheduled or charter combination service between Dublin and the United States, in either direction, without operating at least one non-stop flight to Shannon for every three non-stop flights to Dublin, averaged over the transition period.
b. For services between the United States and Ireland, Community airlines may serve only Boston, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, and 3 additional points in the United States, to be notified to the United States upon selection or change. These services may operate via intermediate points in other Member States or in third countries .
c. Code sharing shall be authorized between Ireland and the United States only via other points in the European Community . Other code-share arrangements will be considered on the basis of comity and reciprocity .
Cooperation With Respect to Competition Issues in the Air Transportation Industry
The cooperation as set forth in this Annex shall be implemented by the Department of Transportation of the United States of America and the Commission of the European Communities (hereinafter referred to as "the Participants"), consistent with their respective functions in addressing competition issues in the air transportation industry involving the United States and the European Community.
The purpose of this cooperation is:
1. To enhance mutual understanding of the application by the Participants of the laws, procedures and practices under their respective competition regimes to encourage competition in the air transportation industry;
2. To facilitateunderstanding between the Participants of theimpact of air transportation industry developments on competition in the international aviation market;
3. To reduce the potential for conflicts in the Participants' application of their respective competition regimes to agreements and other cooperative arrangements which have an impact on The transatlantic market; and
4. To promote compatible regulatory approaches to agreements and other cooperative arrangements through a better understanding of the methodologies, analytical techniques including The definition of the relevant market(s) and analysis of competitive effects, and remedies that the Participants use in their respective independent competition reviews .
For thepurposeofthis Annex, the term"competition regime"means the laws,procedures and practices that govern the Participants' exercise of their respective functions in reviewing agreements and other cooperative arrangements among airlines in the international market. For
The European Community, this includes, but is not limited to, Articles 81, 82, and 85 of the Treaty Establishing the European Community and their implementing Regulations pursuant to the said Treaty, as well as any amendments thereto. For the Department of Transportation, this includes, but is not limited to, sections 41308, 41309, and 41720 of Title 49 of the United States Code, and its implementing Regulations and legal precedents pursuant thereto.
Areas of Cooperation
Subject to the qualifications in subparagraphs 1(a) and 1(b) of Article 5, the types of cooperation between the Participants shall include the following :
(1) Meetings between representatives of the Participants, to include competition experts, in principle on a semi-annual basis, for the purpose of discussing developments in the air transportation industry, competition policy matters of mutual interest, and analytical approaches to the application of competition law to international aviation, particularly in the transatlantic market.
The above discussions may lead to the development of a better understanding of the Participants' respective approaches to competition issues, including existing commonalities and to more compatibility in those approaches, in particular with respect to inter-carrier agreements .
(2) Consultations at any time between the Participants, by mutual agreement or at the request of either Participant, to discuss any matter related to this Annex, including specific cases .
(3) Each Participant may, at its discretion, invite representatives of other governmental authorities to participate as appropriate in any meetings or consultations held pursuant to paragraphs 1 or 2 above.
(4) Timely notifications of the following proceedings or matters, which in the judgment of the notifying Participant may have significant implications for the competition interests of the other Participant:
(5) Notifications of the availability, and any conditions governing that availability, of information and data filed with a Participant, in electronic form or otherwise, that, in the judgment of that Participant, may have significant implications for the competition interests of the other Participant ; and (6) Notifications of such other activities relating to air transportation competition policy as may seem appropriate to the notifying Participant.
Use and Disclosure of Information
(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Annex, neither Participant is expected to provide information to the other Participant if disclosure of the information to the requesting Participant :
(2) Each Participant shall to the extent possible maintain the confidentiality of any information provided to it in confidence by the other Participant under this Annex and to oppose any application for disclosure of such information to a third party that is not authorized by the supplying Participant to receive the information. Each Participant intends to notify the other Participant whenever any information proposed to be exchanged in discussions or in any other manner may be required to be disclosed in a public proceeding.
(3) Where pursuant to this Annex a Participant provides information on a confidential basis to the other Participant for the purposes specified in Article 2, that information should be used by the receiving Participant only for that purpose.
(1) Each Participant is designating a representative to be responsible for coordination of activities established under this Annex.
(2) This Annex, and all activities undertaken by a Participant pursuant to it, are - a. intended to be implemented only to the extent consistent with all laws, regulations, and practices applicable to that Participant; and
b. intended to be implemented without prejudice to the Agreement between the European Communities and the Government of the United States of America Regarding the Application of their Competition Laws.
U.S. Government Procured Transportation
Community airlines shall have the right to transport passengers and cargo on scheduled and charter flights for which a U.S. Government civilian department, agency, or instrumentality (1) obtains the transportation for itself or in carrying out an arrangement under which payment is made by the Government or payment is made from amounts provided for the use of the Government, or (2) provides the transportation to or for a foreign country or international or other organization without reimbursement, and that transportation is (a) between any point in the United States and any point in a Member State, except - with respect to passengers only - between points for which there is a city-pair contract fare in effect, or (b) between any two points outside the United States .
This paragraph shall not apply to transportation obtained or funded by the Secretary of Defense or
The Secretary of a military department.
Additional Matters Related to Ownership, Investment and Control
Ownership of Airlines of a Party
1. Ownership by nationals of a Member State or States of the equity of a U .S. airline shall be permitted, subject to two limitations. First, ownership by all foreign nationals of more than 25percent of a corporation's voting equity is prohibited. Second, actual control of a U.S. airline byforeign nationals is also prohibited. Subject to the overall 25 percent limitation on foreign ownership of voting equity:
2. Ownership by U. S. nationals of a Community airline shall be permitted subject to twolimitations. First, the airline must be majority owned by Member States and/or by nationals ofMember States. Second, the airline must be effectively controlled by such states and/or suchnationals.
3. For the purposes of paragraph (b) of Article 4 and subparagraph 1(b) of Article 5 of this Agreement, a member of the ECAA as of the date of signature of this Agreement and citizens of such a member shall be treated as a Member State and its nationals, respectively. The Joint Committee may decide that this provision shall apply to new members of the ECAA and their citizens.
4. Notwithstanding paragraph 2, the European Community and its Member States reservesthe right to limit investments by U.S. nationals in the voting equity of a Community airline made after the signature of this Agreement to a level equivalent to that allowed by the United States for foreign nationals in U.S. airlines, provided that the exercise of that right is consistent with international law.
Ownership and Control of Third-Country Airlines
1. Neither Party shall exercise any available rights under air services arrangements with a third country to refuse, revoke, suspend or limit authorizations or permissions for any airlines of that third country on the grounds that substantial ownership of that airline is vested in the other Party, its nationals, or both .
2. The United States shall not exercise any available rights under air services arrangements to refuse, revoke, suspend or limit authorizations or permissions for any airline of the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Swiss Confederation, a member of the ECAA as of the date of signature of this Agreement, or any country in Africa that is implementing an Open-Skies air services agreement with the United States as of the date of signature of this Agreement, on the grounds that effective control of that airline is vested in a Member State or States, nationals of such a state or states, or both.
3. The Joint Committee may decide that neither Party shall exercise the rights referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article with respect to airlines of a specific country or countries .
Control of Airlines
1. The rules applicable in the European Community on ownership and control of Community air carriers are currently laid down in Article 4 of Council Regulation (EEC) No . 2407/92 of 23 July 1992 on licensing of air carriers. Under this Regulation, responsibility for granting an Operating Licence to a Community air carrier lies with the Member States . Member States apply Regulation 2407/92 in accordance with their national regulations and procedures.
2. The rules applicable in the United States are currently laid down in Sections 40102(a)(2), 41102 and 41103 of Title 49 of the United States Code (U.S.C.), which require that licenses for a U. S. "air carrier" issued by the Department of Transportation, whether a certificate, an exemption, or commuter license, to engage in "air transportation" as a common carrier, be held only by citizens of the United States as defined in 49 U.S. C §40102(a)(15). That section requires that the president and two-thirds of the board of directors and other managing officers of a corporation be U.S. citizens, that at least 75 percent of the voting stock be owned by U.S. citizens, and that the corporation be under the actual control of U .S. citizens. The requirement must be met initially by an applicant, and continue to be met by a U.S. airline holding a license.
3. The practice followed by each Party in applying its laws and regulations is set out in the Appendix to this Annex .
Appendix to Annex 4
1. In the United States, citizenship determinations are necessary for all U.S. air carrier applicants for a certificate, exemption, or commuter license . An initial application for a license is filed in a formal public docket, and processed "on the record" with filings by the applicant and any other interested parties. The Department of Transportation renders a final decision by an Order based on the formal public record of the case, including documents for which confidential treatment has been granted. A "continuing fitness" case may be handled informally by the Department, or may be set for docketed procedures similar to those used for initial applications .
2. The Department's determinations evolve through a variety of precedents, which reflect, among other things, the changing nature of financial markets and investment structures and DOT's willingness to consider new approaches to foreign investment that are consistent with U.S. law. DOT works with applicants to consider proposed forms of investment and to assist them in fashioning transactions that fully comply with U.S. citizenship law, and applicants regularly consult with DOT staff before finalizing their applications. At any time before a formal proceeding has begun, DOT staff may discuss questions concerning citizenship issues or other aspects of the proposed transaction and offer suggestions, where appropriate, as to alternatives that would allow a proposed transaction to meet U.S. citizenship requirements.
3. In making both its initial and continuing citizenship and fitness determinations, DOT considers the totality of circumstances affecting the U. S. airline, and Department precedents have permitted consideration of the nature of the aviation relationship between the United States and the homeland(s) of any foreign investors. In the context of this Agreement, DOT would treat investments from EU nationals at least as favorably as it would treat investments from nationals of bilateral or multilateral Open-Skies partners .
4. In the European Union, paragraph 5 of Article 4 of Regulation 2407/92 provides that the European Commission, acting at the request of a Member State, shall examine compliance with the requirements of Article 4 and take a decision if necessary . In taking such decisions the Commission must ensure compliance with the procedural rights recognized as general principles of Community law by the European Court of Justice, including the right of interested parties to be heard in a timely manner.
5. When applying its laws and regulations, each Party shall ensure that any transaction involving investment in one of its airlines by nationals of the other Party is afforded fair and expeditious consideration.
Franchising and Branding
1. The airlines of each Party shall not be precluded from entering into franchise or branding arrangements, including conditions relating to brand protection and operational matters, provided that: they comply, in particular, with the applicable laws and regulations concerning control ; the ability of the airline to exist outside of the franchise is not jeopardized ; the arrangement does not result in a foreign airline engaging in cabotage operations; and applicable regulations, such as consumer protection provisions, including those regarding the disclosure of the identity of the airline operating the service, are complied with . So long as those requirements are met, close business relationships and cooperative arrangements between the airlines of each Party and foreign businesses are permissible, and each of the following individual aspects, among others, of a franchise or branding arrangement would not, other than in exceptional circumstances, of itself raise control issues:
2. Franchising and branding arrangements are independent of, but may coexist with, a code- sharing arrangement that requires that both airlines have the appropriate authority from the Parties, as provided for in paragraph 7 of Article 10 of this Agreement .