Whereas, the Government of the United States of America and the Government of theFederal Republic of Nigeria (hereinafter, "the Parties");
Desiring to promote an international aviation system based on competition among airlines
in the marketplace with minimum government interference and regulation ;
Desiring to facilitate the expansion of international air transport opportunities ;
Desiring to make it possible for airlines to offer the traveling and shipping public a variety of service options at the lowest prices that are not discriminatory and do not represent abuse of a dominant position, and wishing to encourage individual airlines to develop and implement innovative and competitive prices ;
Desiring to ensure the highest degree of safety and security in international air transport and reaffirming their grave concern about acts or threats against the security of aircraft, which jeopardize the safety of persons or property, adversely affect the operation of air transportation, and undermine public confidence in the safety of civil aviation ; and
Being Parties to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, opened for signature at Chicago on December 7,1944 ;
Have agreed as follows :
For the purposes of this Agreement, unless otherwise stated, the term :
- "Aeronautical authorities" means, in the case of the United States, the Department of Transportation, or its successor, and in the case of Nigeria, the Minister of Aviation, and any person or body authorized to perform the functions being exercised by the said Minister ;
- "Agreement" means this Agreement, its Annexes, and any amendments thereto ;
- "Air transportation" means the public carriage by aircraft of passengers, baggage, cargo, and mail, separately or in combination, for remuneration or hire ;
- "Convention" means the Convention on International Civil Aviation, opened for signature at Chicago on December 7, 1944, and includes :
a . any amendment that has entered into force under Article 94(a) of the Convention and has been ratified by both Parties, and
b . any Annex or any amendment thereto adopted under Article 90 of the Convention, insofar as such Annex or amendment is at any given time effective for both Parties ;
- "Designated airline" means an airline designated and authorized in accordance with Article 3 of this Agreement ;
- "Full cost" means the cost of providing service plus a reasonable charge for administrative overhead ;
- "International air transportation" means air transportation that passes through the airspace over the territory of more than one State ;
- "Price" means any fare, rate or charge for the carriage of passengers (and their baggage) and/or cargo (excluding mail) in air transportation charged by airlines, including their agents, and the conditions governing the availability of such fare, rate or charge ;
- "Stop for non-traffic purposes" means a landing for any purpose other than taking on or discharging passengers, baggage, cargo and/or mail in air transportation ;
- "Territory" means the land areas under the sovereignty, jurisdiction, protection, or trusteeship of a Party, and the territorial waters adjacent thereto ; and
- "User charge" means a charge imposed on airlines for the provision of airport, air navigation, or aviation security facilities or services including related services and facilities .
Grant of Rights
- Each Party grants to the other Party the following rights for the conduct of international air transportation by the airlines of the other Party :
a. the right to fly across its territory without landing ;
b . the right to make stops in its territory for non-traffic purposes ; and
c . the rights otherwise specified in this Agreement .
- Nothing in this Article shall be deemed to confer on the airline or airlines of one Party the rights to take on board, in the territory of the other Party, passengers, their baggage, cargo, or mail carried for compensation and destined for another point in the territory of that other Party .
Designation and Authorization
- Each Party shall have the right to designate as many airlines as it wishes to conduct
international air transportation in accordance with this Agreement and to withdraw or alter such designations . Such designations shall be transmitted to the other Party in writing through diplomatic channels, and shall identify whether the airline is authorized to conduct
the type of air transportation specified in Annex I or in Annex II or both .
- On receipt of such a designation, and of applications from the designated airline, in the form and manner prescribed for operating authorizations and technical permissions, the other Party shall grant appropriate authorizations and permissions with minimum procedural delay, provided :
a . substantial ownership and effective control of that airline are vested in the Party designating the airline, nationals of that Party, or both ;
b . the designated airline is qualified to meet the conditions prescribed under the laws and regulations normally applied to the operation of international air transportation by the Party considering the application or applications ; and
c. the Party designating the airline is maintaining and administering the standards set forth in Article 6 (Safety) and Article 7 (Aviation Security) .
Revocation of Authorization
- Either Party may revoke, suspend or limit the operating authorizations or technical
permissions of an airline designated by the other Party where :
a, substantial ownership and effective control of that airline are not vested in the
other Party, the Party's nationals, or both ;
b . that airline has failed to comply with the laws and regulations referred to in
Article 5 (Application of Laws) of this Agreement ; or
c . the other Party is not maintaining and administering the standards as set forth in
Article 6 (Safety) .
- Unless immediate action is essential to prevent further noncompliance with
subparagraphs lb or Ic of this Article, the rights established by this Article shall be
exercised only after consultation with the other Party .
- This Article does not limit the rights of either Party to withhold, revoke, limit or
impose conditions on the operating authorization or technical permission of an airline or
airlines of the other Party in accordance with the provisions of Article 7 (Aviation
Application of Laws
- While entering, within, or leaving the territory of one Party, its laws and regulations relating to the operation and navigation of aircraft shall be complied with by the other Party's airlines .
- While entering, within, or leaving the territory of one Party, its laws and regulations relating to the admission to or departure from its territory of passengers, crew or cargo on aircraft (including regulations relating to entry, clearance, aviation security, immigration, passports, customs and quarantine or, in the case of mail, postal regulations) shall be complied with by, or on behalf of, such passengers, crew or cargo of the other Party's airlines .
- Each Party shall recognize as valid, for the purpose of operating the air transportation provided for in this Agreement, certificates of airworthiness, certificates of competency, and licenses issued or validated by the other Party and still in force, provided that the rquirements for such certificates or licenses at least equal the minimum standards that may be established pursuant to the Convention . Each Party may, however, refuse to recognize as valid for the purpose of flight above its own territory, certificates of competency and licenses granted to or validated for its own nationals by the other Party .
- Either Party may request consultations concerning the safety standards maintained by the other Party relating to aeronautical facilities, aircrews, aircraft, and operation of the designated airlines . If, following such consultations, one Party finds that the other Party does not effectively maintain and administer safety standards and requirements in these
areas that at least equal the minimum standards that may be established pursuant to the
Convention, the other Party shall be notified of such findings and the steps considered necessary to conform with these minimum standards, and the other Party shall take appropriate corrective action . Each Party reserves the right to withhold, revoke, or limit the operating authorization or technical permission of an airline or airlines designated by the other Party in the event the other Party does not take such appropriate corrective action within a reasonable time .
- In accordance with their rights and obligations under international law, the Parties
reaffirm that their obligation to each other to protect the security of civil aviation against
acts of unlawful interference forms an integral part of this Agreement. Without limiting
the generality of their rights and obligations under international law, the Parties shall in
particular act in conformity with the provisions of the Convention on Offenses and Certain
Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, signed at Tokyo on September 14, 1963, the
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, signed at The Hague on
December 16, 1970, the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the
Safety of Civil Aviation, signed at Montreal on September 23, 1971, and the Protocol for
the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil
Aviation, done at Montreal on February 24, 1988 .
- The Parties shall provide upon request all necessary assistance to each other to
prevent acts of unlawful seizure of civil aircraft and other unlawful acts against the safety
of such aircraft, of their passengers and crew, and of airports and air navigation facilities,
and to address any other threat to the security of civil air navigation .
- The Parties shall, in their mutual relations, act in conformity with the aviation
security standards and appropriate recommended practices established by the International Civil Aviation Organization and designated as Annexes to the Convention ; they shall require that operators of aircraft of their registry, operators of aircraft who have their
principal place of business or permanent residence in their territory, and the operators of
airports in their territory act in conformity with such aviation security provisions .
- Each Party agrees to observe the security provisions required by the other Party for entry into, for departure from, and while within the territory of that other Party and to take adequate measures to protect aircraft and to inspect passengers, crew, and their baggage and carry-on items, as well as cargo and aircraft stores, prior to and during boarding or loading . Each Party shall also give positive consideration to any request from the other Party for special security measures to meet a particular threat .
- When an incident or threat of an incident of unlawful seizure of aircraft or other unlawful acts against the safety of passengers, crew, aircraft, airports or air navigation facilities occurs, the Parties, on request, shall assist each other by facilitating communications and other appropriate measures intended to terminate rapidly and safely such incident or threat .
- The aeronautical authorities of either Party may request at any time immediate consultations concerning the application or implementation of this article with the aeronautical authorities of the other Party . Failure to reach a satisfactory agreement within
15 days from the date of such request shall constitute grounds to withhold, revoke, limit, or
impose conditions on the operating authorization and technical permissions of an airline or
airlines of that Party . When required by an emergency, a Party may take interim action
prior to the expiry of 15 days .
- The airlines of each Party shall have the right to establish offices in the territory of
the other Party for the promotion and sale of air transportation .
- The designated airlines of each Party shall be entitled, in accordance with the laws and regulations of the other Party relating to entry, residence, and employment, to bring in and maintain in the territory of the other Party managerial, sales, technical, operational, and
other specialist staff required for the provision of air transportation .
- Each designated airline shall have the right to perform its own ground-handling in the territory of the other Party ("self-handling") or, at its option, select among competing
agents for such services in whole or in part . The rights shall be subject only to physical
constraints resulting from considerations of airport safety . Where such considerations
preclude self-handling, ground services shall be available on an equal basis to all airlines ;
charges shall be based on the costs of services provided ; and such services shall be
comparable to the kind and quality of services as if self-handling were possible .
- Any airline of each Party may engage in the sale of air transportation in the territory of the other Party directly and, at the airline's discretion, through its agents, except as may be specifically provided by the charter regulations of the country in which the charter originates that relate to the protection of passenger funds, and passenger cancellation and refund rights . Each airline shall have the right to sell such transportation, and any person shall be free to purchase such transportation, in the currency of that territory or in freely convertible currencies .
- Each airline shall have the right to convert and remit to its country, on demand, local revenues in excess of sums locally disbursed . Conversion and remittance shall be permitted promptly without restrictions or taxation in respect thereof at the rate of exchange applicable to current transactions and remittance on the date the carrier makes the initial application for remittance .
- The airlines of each Party shall be permitted to pay for local expenses, including purchases of fuel, in the territory of the other Party in local currency or in freely convertible currencies according to local currency regulation .
- In operating or holding out the authorized services on the agreed routes, any
designated airline of one Party may enter into cooperative marketing arrangements such as
blocked-space, code-sharing or leasing arrangements, with
a . an airline or airlines of either Party ; and
b . an airline or airlines of a third country, provided that such third country authorizes or allows comparable arrangements between the airlines of the other Party and other airlines on services to, from and via such third country ; provided that all airlines in such arrangements (i) hold the appropriate authority and (ii) meet the requirements normally applied to such arrangements .
- Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, airlines and indirect providers of cargo transportation of both Parties shall be permitted, without restriction, to employ in connection with international air transportation any surface transportation for cargo to or from any points in the territories of the Parties or in third countries, including transport to and from all airports with customs facilities, and including, where applicable, the right to transport cargo in bond under applicable laws and regulations . Such cargo, whether moving by surface or by air, shall have access to airport customs processing and facilities. Airlines may elect to perform their own surface transportation or to provide it through arrangements with other surface carriers, including surface transportation operated by other airlines and indirect providers of cargo air transportation . Such intermodal cargo services may be offered at a single, through price for the air and surface transportation combined, provided that shippers are not misled as to the facts concerning such transportation .
Customs Duties and Charges
- On arriving in the territory of one Party, aircraft operated in international air
transportation by the designated airlines of the other Party, their regular equipment, ground
equipment, fuel, lubricants, consumable technical supplies, spare parts (including engines), aircraft stores (including but not limited to such items of food, beverages and liquor, tobacco and other products destined for sale to or use by passengers in limited quantities during flight), and other items intended for or used solely in connection with the operation or servicing of aircraft engaged in international air transportation shall be exempt, on the basis of reciprocity, from all import restrictions, property taxes and capital levies, customs duties, excise taxes, and similar fees and charges that are (a) imposed by the national authorities, and (b) not based on the cost of services provided, provided that such
equipment and supplies remain on board the aircraft .
- There shall also be exempt, on the basis of reciprocity, from the taxes, levies, duties, fees and charges referred to in paragraph I of this Article, with the exception of charges based on the cost of the service provided :
a. aircraft stores introduced into or supplied in the territory of a Party and taken on board, within reasonable limits, for use on outbound aircraft of an airline of the other Party engaged in international air transportation, even when these stores are to be used on a part of the journey performed over the territory of the Party in which they are taken on board ;
b . ground equipment and spare parts (including engines) introduced into the territory of a Party for the servicing, maintenance, or repair of aircraft of an airline of the
other Party used in international air transportation ;
c . fuel, lubricants and consumable technical supplies introduced into or supplied in the territory of a Party for use in an aircraft of an airline of the other Party engaged in international air transportation, even when these supplies are to be used on a part of the journey performed over the territory of the Party in which they are taken on board ; and
d . promotional and advertising materials introduced into or supplied in the territory of one Party and taken on board, within reasonable limits, for use on outbound aircraft of an airline of the other Party engaged in international air transportation, even when these stores are to be used on a part of the journey performed over the territory of the Party in which they are taken on board .
- Equipment and supplies referred to in paragraphs I and 2 of this Article may be required to be kept under the supervision or control of the appropriate authorities .
- The exemptions provided by this Article shall also be available where the designated airlines of one Party have contracted with another airline, which similarly enjoys such exemptions from the other Party, for the loan or transfer in the territory of the other Party of the items specified in paragraphs I and 2 of this Article .
- User charges that may be imposed by the competent charging authorities or bodies of each Party on the airlines of the other Party shall be just, reasonable, not unjustly discriminatory, and equitably apportioned among categories of users . In any event, any such user charges shall be assessed on the airlines of the other Party on terms not less favorable than the most favorable terms available to any other airline at the time the charges are assessed .
- User charges imposed on the airlines of the other Party may reflect, but shall not exceed, the full cost to the competent charging authorities or bodies of providing the appropriate airport, airport environmental, air navigation, and aviation security facilities and services at the airport or within the airport system . Such charges may include a reasonable return on assets, after depreciation . Facilities and services for which charges are made shall be provided on an efficient and economic basis .
- Each Party shall encourage consultations between the competent charging authorities or bodies in its territory and the airlines using the services and facilities, and shall encourage the competent charging authorities or bodies and the airlines to exchange such information as may be necessary to permit an accurate review of the reasonableness of the charges in accordance with the principles of paragraphs I and 2 of this Article . Each Party shall encourage the competent charging authorities to provide users with reasonable notice of any proposal for changes in user charges to enable users to express their views before changes are made.
- Neither Party shall be held, in dispute resolution procedures pursuant to Article 14, to be in breach of a provision of this Article, unless (a) it fails to undertake a review of the charge or practice that is the subject of complaint by the other Party within a reasonable amount of time; or (b) following such a review it fails to take all steps within its power to remedy any charge or practice that is inconsistent with this Article .
- Each Party shall allow a fair and equal opportunity for the designated airlines of
both Parties to compete in providing the international air transportation governed by this
- Each Party shall allow each designated airline to determine the frequency and
capacity of the international air transportation it offers based upon commercial
considerations in the marketplace . Consistent with this right, neither Party shall
unilaterally limit the volume of traffic, frequency or regularity of service, or the aircraft
type or types operated by the designated airlines of the other Party, except as may be
required for customs, technical, operational, or environmental reasons under uniform
conditions consistent with Article 15 of the Convention .
- Neither Party shall impose on the other Party's designated airlines a first-refusal
requirement, uplift ratio, no-objection fee, or any other requirement with respect to
capacity, frequency or traffic that would be inconsistent with the purposes of this
- Neither Party shall require the filing of schedules, programs for charter flights, or
operational plans by airlines of the other Party for approval, except as may be required on a
non-discriminatory basis to enforce the uniform conditions foreseen by paragraph 2 of this
Article or as may be specifically authorized in an Annex to this Agreement . If a Party
requires filings for information purposes, it shall minimize the administrative burdens of
filing requirements and procedures on air transportation intermediaries and on designated
airlines of the other Party .
- Each Party shall allow prices for air transportation to be established by each
designated airline based upon commercial considerations in the marketplace . Intervention
by the Parties shall be limited to :
a . prevention of unreasonably discriminatory prices or practices ;
b . protection of consumers from prices that are unreasonably high or restrictive due
to the abuse of a dominant position ; and
c . protection of airlines from prices that are artificially low due to direct or indirect
governmental subsidy or support .
- Each Party may require notification to or filing with its aeronautical authorities of
prices to be charged to or from its territory by airlines of the other Party . Notification or
filing by the airlines of both Parties may be required not more than 30 days before the
proposed date of effectiveness . In individual cases, notification or filing may be permitted
on shorter notice than normally required . Neither Party shall require the notification or
filing by airlines of the other Party of prices charged by charterers to the public, except as
may be required on a non-discriminatory basis for information purposes .
- Neither Party shall take unilateral action to prevent the inauguration or continuation
of a price proposed to be charged or charged by (a) an airline of either Party for
international air transportation between the territories of the Parties, or (b) an airline of one
Party for international air transportation between the territory of the other Party and any
other country, including in both cases transportation on an interline or intraline basis . If
either Party believes that any such price is inconsistent with the considerations set forth in
paragraph I of this Article, it shall request consultations and notify the other Party of the
reasons for its dissatisfaction as soon as possible . These consultations shall be held not
later than 30 days after receipt of the request, and the Parties shall cooperate in securing
information necessary for reasoned resolution of the issue. If the Parties reach agreement
with respect to a price for which a notice of dissatisfaction has been given, each Party shall
use its best efforts to put that agreement into effect . Without such mutual agreement, the
price shall go into effect or continue in effect .
Either Party may, at any time, request consultations relating to this Agreement. Such
consultations shall begin at the earliest possible date, but not later than 60 days from the
date the other Party receives the request unless otherwise agreed .
Settlement of Disputes
- Any dispute arising under this Agreement, except those that may arise under
paragraph 3 of Article 12 (Pricing), that is not resolved by a first round of formal
consultations may be referred by agreement of the Parties for decision to some person or
body. If the Parties do not so agree, the dispute shall, at the request of either Party, be
submitted to arbitration in accordance with the procedures set forth below .
- Arbitration shall be by a tribunal of three arbitrators to be constituted as follows :
a. Within 30 days after the receipt of a request for arbitration, each Party shall
name one arbitrator . Within 60 days after these two arbitrators have been named, they
shall by agreement appoint a third arbitrator, who shall act as President of the arbitral
b . If either Party fails to name an arbitrator, or if the third arbitrator is not
appointed in accordance with subparagraph a of this paragraph, either Party may request
the President of the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization to appoint the
necessary arbitrator or arbitrators within 30 days . If the President of the Council is of the
same nationality as one of the Parties, the most senior Vice President who is not
disqualified on that ground shall make the appointment .
- Except as otherwise agreed, the arbitral tribunal shall determine the limits of its
jurisdiction in accordance with this Agreement and shall establish its own procedural rules . The tribunal, once formed, may recommend interim relief measures pending its final
determination . At the direction of the tribunal or at the request of either of the Parties, a
conference to determine the precise issues to be arbitrated and the specific procedures to be followed shall be held not later than 15 days after the tribunal is fully constituted.
- Except as otherwise agreed or as directed by the tribunal, each Party shall submit a
memorandum within 45 days of the time the tribunal is fully constituted . Replies shall be
due 60 days later. The tribunal shall hold a hearing at the request of either Party or on its
own initiative within 15 days after replies are due .
- The tribunal shall attempt to render a written decision within 30 days after
completion of the hearing or, if no hearing is held, after the date both replies are submitted .
The decision of the majority of the tribunal shall prevail .
- The Parties may submit requests for clarification of the decision within 15 days
after it is rendered and any clarification given shall be issued within 15 days of such
- Each Party shall, to the degree consistent with its national law, give full effect to
any decision or award of the arbitral tribunal .
- The expenses of the arbitral tribunal, including the fees and expenses of the
arbitrators, shall be shared equally by the Parties . Any expenses incurred by the President
of the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organization in connection with the
procedures of paragraph 2b of this Article shall be considered to be part of the expenses of
the arbitral tribunal .
- This Agreement may be amended by mutual agreement of the Parties . Any
amendments so agreed shall be effected by an exchange of notes .
- In the event of the conclusion of any general multilateral agreement concerning air
transportation to which the Parties become bound, the Parties shall consult to determine
whether and to what extent the present Agreement should be amended to be consistent with the provisions of such multilateral agreement .
Either Party may, at any time, give notice in writing to the other Party of its decision to
terminate this Agreement. Such notice shall be sent simultaneously to the International
Civil Aviation Organization. This Agreement shall terminate at midnight (at the place of
receipt of the notice to the other Party) immediately before the first anniversary of the date
of receipt of the notice by the other Party, unless the notice is withdrawn by agreement of
the Parties before the end of this period .
Registration with ICAO
This Agreement and all amendments thereto shall be registered with the International Civil
Aviation Organization .
Entry into Force
- This Agreement shall apply provisionally upon signature and shall enter into force
upon an exchange of diplomatic notes confirming that each Party has become a party to the
general multilateral conventions concerning air transportation that are listed in paragraph I
of Article 7 and that each Party has completed all necessary internal procedures .
- Upon entry into force, this Agreement shall supersede the Air Transport
Agreement, with Memorandum of Understanding, between the Federal Military
Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Government of the United States of
America, signed at Lagos April 27, 1978 .
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized by their respective
Governments, have signed this Agreement .
DONE at Abuia,Ngeria, this2 6 day of August , 2000, in duplicate, in the English language .
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA :
Scheduled Air Transportation
Airlines of each Party designated under this Annex shall, in accordance with the terms of
their designation, be entitled to perform scheduled international air transportation between
points on the following routes :
A. Routes for the airline or airlines designated by the Government of the United
- From points behind the United States via the United States and intermediate points
to a point or points in Nigeria and beyond .
- For all-cargo service or services, between Nigeria and any point or points .
B . Routes for the airline or airlines designated by the Government of Nigeria :
- From points behind Nigeria via Nigeria and intermediate points to a point or points
in the United States and beyond .
- For all-cargo service or services, between the United States and any point or points .
Each designated airline may, on any or all flights and at its option:
- operate flights in either or both directions ;
- combine different flight numbers within one aircraft operation ;
- serve behind, intermediate, and beyond points and points in the territories of the
Parties on the routes in any combination and in any order ;
- omit stops at any point or points ;
- transfer traffic from any of its aircraft to any of its other aircraft at any point on the
- serve points behind any point in its territory with or without change of aircraft or
flight number and may hold out and advertise such services to the public as through
services; without directional or geographic limitation and without loss of any right to carry traffic otherwise permissible under this Agreement ; provided that, with the exception of all-cargo services, the service serves a point in the territory of the Party designating the airline .
Change of Gauge
On any segment or segments of the routes above, any designated airline may perform
international air transportation without any limitation as to change, at any point on the
route, in type or number of aircraft operated ; provided that, with the exception of all-cargo
services, in the outbound direction, the transportation beyond such point is a continuation
of the transportation from the territory of the Party that has designated the airline and, in
the inbound direction, the transportation to the territory of the Party that has designated the
airline is a continuation of the transportation from beyond such point .
Charter Air Transportation
A.Airlines of each Party designated under this Annex shall, in accordance with the
terms of their designation, have the right to carry international charter traffic of passengers
(and their accompanying baggage) and/or cargo (including, but not limited to, freight
forwarder, split, and combination (passenger/cargo) charters) :
- Between any point or points in the territory of the Party that has designated the
airline and any point or points in the territory of the other Party ; and
- Between any point or points in the territory of the other Party and any point or
points in a third country or countries, provided that, except with respect to cargo charters,
such service constitutes part of a continuous operation, with or without a change of aircraft,
that includes service to the homeland for the purpose of carrying local traffic between the
homeland and the territory of the other Party .
B. In the performance of services covered by this Annex, airlines of each Party
designated under this Annex shall also have the right : (1) to make stopovers at any points
whether within or outside of the territory of either Party ; (2) to carry transit traffic through
the other Party's territory ; (3) to combine on the same aircraft traffic originating in one
Party's territory, traffic originating in the other Party's territory, and traffic originating in
third countries; and (4) to perform international air transportation without any limitation as
to change, at any point on the route, in type or number of aircraft operated ; provided that,
except with respect to cargo charters, in the outbound direction, the transportation beyond
such point is a continuation of the transportation from the territory of the Party that has
designated the airline and in the inbound direction, the transportation to the territory of the
Party that has designated the airline is a continuation of the transportation from beyond
such point .
C. Each Party shall extend favorable consideration to applications by airlines of the
other Party to carry traffic not covered by this Annex on the basis of comity and reciprocity .
A. Any airline designated by either Party performing international charter air
transportation originating in the territory of either Party, whether on a one-way or roundtrip
basis, shall have the option of complying with the charter laws, regulations, and rules
either of its homeland or of the other Party . If a Party applies different rules, regulations,
terms, conditions, or limitations to one or more of its airlines, or to airlines of different
countries, each designated airline shall be subject to the least restrictive of such criteria .
B. However, nothing contained in the above paragraph shall limit the rights of either
Party to require airlines designated under this Annex by either Party to adhere to
requirements relating to the protection of passenger funds and passenger cancellation and
refund rights .
Except with respect to the consumer protection rules referred to in the preceding paragraph,
neither Party shall require an airline designated under this Annex by the other Party, in
respect of the carriage of traffic from the territory of that other Party or of a third country
on a one-way or round-trip basis, to submit more than a declaration of conformity with the
applicable laws, regulations and rules referred to under section 2 of this Annex or of a
waiver of these laws, regulations, or rules granted by the applicable aeronautical
Principles of Non-Discrimination Within and Competition among Computer Reservations Systems
Recognizing that Article 11 (Fair Competition) of this Agreement guarantees the airlines of
both Parties "a fair and equal opportunity to compete,"
Considering that one of the most important aspects of the ability of an airline to compete is
its ability to inform the public of its services in a fair and impartial manner, and that,
therefore, the quality of information about airline services available to travel agents who
directly distribute such information to the traveling public and the ability of an airline to
offer those agents competitive computer reservations systems (CASs) represent the
foundation for an airline's competitive opportunities, and
Considering that it is equally necessary to ensure that the interests of the consumers of air
transport products are protected from any misuse of such information and its misleading
presentation and that airlines and travel agents have access to effectively competitive
computer reservations systems :
- The Parties agree that CRSs will have integrated primary displays for which :
a . Information regarding international air services, including the construction of
connections on those services, shall be edited and displayed based on non-discriminatory
and objective criteria that are not influenced, directly or indirectly, by airline or market
identity . Such criteria shall apply uniformly to all participating airlines .
b . CRS data bases shall be as comprehensive as possible .
c . CRS vendors shall not delete information submitted by participating airlines ;
such information shall be accurate and transparent ; for example, code-shared and changeof-
gauge flights and flights with stops should be clearly identified as having those
d . All CRSs that are available to travel agents who directly distribute information
about airline services to the traveling public in either Party's territory shall not only be
obligated to, but shall also be entitled to, operate in conformance with the CRS rules that
apply in the territory where the CRS is being operated .
e . Travel agents shall be allowed to use any of the secondary displays available
through the CRS so long as the travel agent makes a specific request for that display .
- A Party shall require that each CRS vendor operating in its territory allow all
airlines willing to pay any applicable non-discriminatory fee to participate in its CRS . A
Party shall require that all distribution facilities that a system vendor provides shall be
offered on a non-discriminatory basis to participating airlines . A Party shall require that
CRS vendors display, on a non-discriminatory, objective, carrier-neutral and marketneutral
basis, the international air services of participating airlines in all markets in which
they wish to sell those services . Upon request, a CRS vendor shall disclose details of its
database update and storage procedures, its criteria for editing and ranking information,
the weight given to such criteria, and the criteria used for selection of connect points and
inclusion of connecting flights .
- CRS vendors operating in the territory of one Party shall be entitled to bring in, maintain, and make freely available their CRSs to travel agencies or travel companies whose principal business is the distribution of travel-related products in the territory of the other Party if the CRS complies with these principles .
- Neither Party shall, in its territory, impose or permit to be imposed on the CRS vendors of the other Party more stringent requirements with respect to access to and use of
communication facilities, selection and use of technical CRS hardware and software, and
the technical installation of CRS hardware, than those imposed on its own CRS vendors .
- Neither Party shall, in its territory, impose or permit to be imposed on the CRS
vendors of the other Party more restrictive requirements with respect to CRS displays
(including edit and display parameters), operation, or sale than those imposed on its own
CRS vendors .
CRSs in use in the territory of one Party that comply with these principles and other
relevant non-discriminatory regulatory, technical, and security standards shall be entitled to
effective and unimpaired access in the territory of the other Party . One aspect of this is that
a designated airline shall participate in such a system as fully in its homeland territory as it
does in any system offered to travel agents in the territory of the other Party .
Owners/operators of CRSs of one Party shall have the same opportunity to own/operate
CRSs that conform to these principles within the territory of the other Party as do
owners/operators of that Party . Each Party shall ensure that its airlines and its CRS
vendors do not discriminate against travel agents in their homeland territory because of
their use or possession of a CRS also operated in the territory of the other Party .
The following provisions shall expire on March 31, 2006 :
Scheduled Air Transportation
A. Frequencies . Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, airlines
designated by the United States may operate scheduled, combination air transportation
between the United States and Nigeria for only the following numbers of weekly
Until March 31, 2002, a total of seven frequencies .
From April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003, a total of 14 frequencies .
From April 1, 2003 through March 31, 2004, a total of 21 frequencies .
From April 1, 2004 through March 31, 2005, a total of 28 frequencies.
From April 1, 2005 through March 31, 2006, a total of 35 frequencies .
For purposes of this sub-section, a frequency is defined as one round-trip aircraft operation
to and from the first point of arrival in the territory of Nigeria .
B. Fifth-freedom traffic . Notwithstanding Annex I of this Agreement, airlines
designated by the United States may operate scheduled, combination air transportation
with traffic rights between points in Nigeria and points in third countries only as follows :
Through March 31, 2002, two such third-country points, other than London .
From April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2004, four such third-country points, other than
From April 1, 2004 through March 31, 2005, six such third-country points, other than
From April 1, 2005 through March 31, 2006, eight such third-country points, other than
There shall be no limitation on the number of intermediate and beyond points served
without traffic rights to and from Nigeria by airlines of the United States .
C . The Government of the United States may select, or change, third-country points
and airlines to operate frequencies under this section with 30 days notice to the
Government of Nigeria.
D. None of the limitations specified in this Section shall apply to the airlines
designated by the Government of Nigeria .
Charter Air Transportation
Notwithstanding paragraph A of Section 2 of Annex II of this Agreement :
- An airline or airlines of a Party whose designation allows the exercise of charter air
service rights as provided under Annex II shall be permitted to exercise those rights in
accordance with the rules and regulations of the country of traffic origin for the carriage of
international charter traffic on a one-way or round-trip basis, or any waivers of such rules
granted for appropriate reasons . These rules shall be the charter-worthiness rules now or
hereafter published by the aeronautical authorities of each Party pursuant to its statutory
requirements for scheduled and charter services .
- When such rules of one Party apply more restrictive terms, conditions, or
limitations to one or more of its designated airlines, the designated airlines of the other
Party shall be subject to the least restrictive of such terms, conditions or limitations .