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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Preface and Introduction


Patterns of Global Terrorism
Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
May 21, 2002
Report
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Photo of President George W. Bush as he addresses Joint Session of Congress on September 20, 2001 (Reuters copyrighted photo)

Photo of Secretary of State Colin L. Powell (Department of State photo) Preface by Secretary of State Colin L. Powell

In 2001, terrorism cast its lethal shadow across the globe—yet the world's resolve to defeat it has never been greater.

When the terrorists struck on September 11, their target was not just the United States, but also the values that the American people share with men and women all over the world who believe in the sanctity of human life and cherish freedom. Indeed, citizens from some 80 countries were murdered in the attacks.

Nations of every continent, culture, and creed, of every region, race, and religion, answered President Bush's call for a global coalition against terrorism. In the months since the attacks, we and our Coalition partners have taken systematic measures to break terrorism's global reach.

Country by country, region by region, we have strengthened law enforcement and intelligence cooperation and we have tightened border controls to make it harder for terrorists to move about, communicate, and plot. One by one, we are severing the financial bloodlines of terrorist organizations.

As the result of the Coalition's operations in Afghanistan, al-Qaida and Taliban leaders are now either captured, killed, or on the run. And there are fewer and fewer places they can run to—except into the long arms of Justice.

Coalition forces have lifted the yoke of oppression from the backs of the Afghan people. Afghanistan's political transformation is underway toward a government that represents citizens of every ethnic background, women as well as men. The world community already has committed an initial $4.5 billion to put the country back on its feet and its future back into the hands of its people, so that Afghanistan will never again become safe ground for terrorists.

But the campaign against international terrorism isn't only about Afghanistan and bringing the perpetrators, planners, and abettors of the September 11 attacks to account. It is also about bringing the international community's combined strengths to bear against the scourge of terrorism in its many manifestations throughout the world.

The terrorist threat is global in scope, many faceted, and determined. The world's response must be equally comprehensive, multi-dimensional, and steadfast.

We and our Coalition partners must be prepared to conduct a long, hard campaign, measured in years and fought on many fronts with every tool of statecraft—political, diplomatic, legal, economic, financial, intelligence, and when necessary, military.

In this global campaign against terrorism, no country has the luxury of remaining on the sidelines. There are no sidelines. Terrorists respect no limits, geographic or moral. The frontlines are everywhere and the stakes are high. Terrorism not only kills people. It also threatens democratic institutions, undermines economies, and destabilizes regions.

This chilling report details the very clear and present danger that terrorism poses to the world and the efforts that the United States and our partners in the international community are making to defeat it.

The cold, hard facts presented here compel the world's continued vigilance and concerted action.

Signed,
Colin L. Powell

Photo of Ambassador Francis X. Taylor, Coordinator for Counterterrorism (Department of State photo)Introduction by Ambassador Francis X. Taylor

History will record 2001 as a watershed year in the international fight against terrorism. On September 11, the United States suffered its bloodiest day on American soil since the Civil War, and the world experienced the most devastating international terrorist attack in recorded history. Out of the horror, we have fought back, rallying the most diverse international coalition ever assembled. The events of 9/11 galvanized civilized nations as no other event has; ironically, by their own hand, terrorists set in motion their own ultimate demise.

Early results from this unprecedented international cooperation and common resolve have been encouraging. Afghanistan has been liberated and is working to establish a government representative of its people and one that is not a threat to its neighbors. The Taliban has been overthrown, and the terrorist infrastructure it supported has been all but destroyed. Al-Qaida-linked organizations and people around the world are being pressed by aggressive intelligence and law enforcement operations that have resulted in more than 1,000 arrests/detentions since September 11.

Despite our early success in Afghanistan and against al-Qaida, we still have a long way to go to assure final victory in the global war against terrorism. But one thing is certain: If terrorists questioned our resolve to defeat them and their nefarious objectives before, they cannot question it now.

The US Government and our Coalition partners have worked countless hours to ensure that the lives of those murdered on 9/11 were not lost in vain. Since September 11, we have launched a worldwide campaign against terrorism. The Department of State has been an integral part of that effort. The Secretary and senior Department officials have traveled to every corner of the globe to develop and sustain the campaign, and officials from around the world have visited the President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and other government officials to demonstrate their support and offer diplomatic and material assistance to this common effort. As this annual report demonstrates, their support has been much more than rhetorical. This unprecedented Coalition of nations has sought to synchronize diplomatic, intelligence, law enforcement, economic, financial, and military power to attack terrorism globally. Indeed, the overwhelming response we have received in the wake of the September 11 tragedy is dramatic proof that people—of all nations and all faiths—understand that the murders inflicted at the Twin Towers, at the Pentagon, and in Pennsylvania, were truly an attack on the world and civilization itself.

"How will we fight and win this war? We will direct every resource at our command—every means of diplomacy, every tool of intelligence, every instrument of law enforcement, every financial influence, and every necessary weapon of war—to the disruption and to the defeat of the global terror network."

--George W. Bush

The President's call to arms outlined a global campaign of unprecedented scale and complexity along multiple fronts:

Diplomatic

Diplomatic action for the campaign began within minutes of the attack.
State Department officials immediately began working with foreign officials around the world to forge a
coalition to support our response. The fruits of that labor have been assessed by President Bush as having resulted in the "greatest worldwide coalition in history." Since September 11, the President has met with leaders from more than 50 nations, and Secretary Powell has met with even more foreign ministers and other representatives of our Coalition partners. Senior members of the Departments of State and Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency, as well as my staff and I, have also met with numerous foreign officials in Washington and have traveled to every continent to help fashion the diplomatic framework needed to wage the campaign to combat terrorism with a global reach. Diplomacy abroad is also the leading edge of every nation's homeland security, and the global Coalition against terrorism has required—and will continue to require—intensive and innovative effort in that arena. Since September 11, for instance, the Department of State has begun formal dialogues with China and Pakistan on terrorism, and Department officials have brought their expertise to numerous conferences around the world, such as the one hosted by Polish President Kwasniewski, designed to strengthen the capabilities of our global partners in defeating terrorism (see Poland section for details).

In addition, numerous multilateral fora such as the EU, OAS, NATO, G-7, G-8 and others have taken substantive steps to enhance information sharing, tighten border security, and combat terrorist financing. On 28 September the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1373 (see appendix F), which requires all states to prevent and suppress the financing of terrorist acts, including freezing funds and other financial assets. The resolution also obliges all states to improve border security, clamp down on the recruitment of terrorists, intensify information sharing and law enforcement cooperation in the international campaign against terrorism, and deny terrorists and their supporters any support or safehaven. This resolution augments the positive trend of Security Council resolutions 1267 and 1333 (passed in 1999 and 2000, respectively) which imposed targeted or "smart" sanctions against the Taliban in Afghanistan (see box in Afghanistan section).

The existing 12 UN Conventions against terrorism represent a solid international foundation for nations to support this global struggle. In December, the United States ratified the two newest, the UN Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and the UN Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings. All nations should become parties to all 12 of these conventions so that terrorists can be more readily apprehended and prosecuted wherever they are located.

Public diplomacy has been an important aspect of our efforts as well. The Department of State has aggressively sought to counter distorted views of the United States overseas, to emphasize that the war on terrorism is not a war against Islam, and to underscore that terrorists are not martyrs but cowards and criminals. Senior US officials have conveyed these messages in hundreds of media interviews, and ambassadors have organized thousands of outreach activities around the world to build and maintain an international Coalition. The United States maintains Coalition Information Centers in London and Islamabad. The Department of State has an active speakers' program to explain US policies to foreign and domestic audiences. The Office of International Information Programs maintains an informative and frequently visited website featuring publications such as "The Network of Terrorism" and "Islam in the United States."

Forging the Global Coalition (Reuters copyrighted photos)

Intelligence

Cooperation among intelligence agencies around the world has expanded to unprecedented levels.
Sharing of intelligence about terrorists, their movements, and their planned attacks is an absolute prerequisite for successful interdiction. Governments in every region of the world have been able to use this information to expose the criminal netherworld in which terrorists operate. Undoubtedly, planned attacks have been prevented, and lives have been saved (see the case studies in Singapore and Italy sections). Our military campaign in Afghanistan as well as law-enforcement and intelligence operations by Coalition members have yielded a wealth of intelligence that will require further exploitation for action. Such information will be extremely valuable in identifying and interdicting other terrorist cells around the world. Effective intelligence exchange allows countries to act preemptively to counter terrorists before they act. It closes an important seam that terrorists exploit to their advantage. There is room for continued improvement, but the initial results have been very encouraging.

Law Enforcement

The world's law enforcement professionals have launched a global dragnet to identify, arrest, and bring terrorists to justice.
In the United States, the FBI has led the law-enforcement engagement, working with all federal, state, and local law-enforcement agencies. More than 7000 FBI Agents and support personnel have worked diligently with their US and foreign law-enforcement partners to unravel the planning leading to the execution of the 9/11 operation, as well as to interdict other al-Qaida cells and operatives in the US and around the world. Their enhanced law-enforcement efforts, and cooperative work by officials around the world, have resulted in the apprehension of more than 1000 suspected terrorists and the breakup of al-Qaida and other terrorist cells. Many of these arrests, to include that of Zacarias Moussaoui, a suspected al-Qaida operative in the operation, are described in this report.

Artist's sketch of courtroom scene with accused. On 29 May 2001 Mohamed Rashed Daoud al-Owhali, Khalfan Khamis Mohamed, Mohamed Sadeek Odeh, and Wadih el-Hage were convicted of conspiring to murder U.S. citizens and officers and employees of US Embassies in the bombings in 1998 of two US Embassies in Africa that killed 224 persons, among them 12 U.S. citizens. (Reuters copyrighted photo)During 2001 and through March 2002, Secretary Powell designated or redesignated 33 groups as foreign terrorist organizations (see full list at appendix B) under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended by the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996. The designations make it a criminal offense to provide funds or other material support to such organizations, require US financial institutions to block the funds of the groups, and make members of the groups ineligible for US visas and, if they are aliens, deportable.

On 26 October the US Congress enacted the USA PATRIOT Act, which significantly expands the ability of US law enforcement to investigate and prosecute persons who engage in terrorist acts. On 5 December, in accordance with the USA PATRIOT Act, Secretary Powell designated 39 groups as "terrorist exclusion list" organizations (see appendix E). The legal consequences of the designations relate to immigration, and they strengthen the US ability to exclude supporters of terrorism from entering the country or to deport them if they are found within our borders.

The United States brought to conclusion the prosecution of four al-Qaida members for the bombing of the US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. In May, in a courtroom within sight of the World Trade Center, guilty verdicts were handed down on all 302 counts in the trial of the bombing suspects, and all were sentenced to life in prison.

Economic

Money is like oxygen to terrorists, and it must be choked-off.
When President Bush signed Executive Order 13224 on 23 September, he imposed dramatic penalties on those who provide financial support to terrorist organizations. The Order blocks the assets of designated organizations and individuals linked to global terrorism. It prohibits transactions with terrorist groups, leaders, and corporate and charitable fronts listed in the Order. It also establishes America's ability to block the US assets of, and deny access to US markets to, those foreign banks that refuse to freeze terrorist assets. As of March 2002, the Order contained the names of 189 groups, entities, and individuals (see appendix E). Accordingly, approximately 150 countries and independent law-enforcement jurisdictions [for example, Hong Kong, Taiwan] issued orders freezing the assets of suspected terrorists and organizations.

The US Department of Treasury has been leading the war against terrorist financing and has worked with all relevant agencies and departments to identify terrorist financing networks and to find ways to disrupt their operations.

Many nations and independent law-enforcement jurisdictions have made changes in their laws, regulations, and practices in order to suppress terrorism financing more effectively. UNSCR 1373 mandates worldwide improvements, and we are working with the UN Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC) and others to help improve the capability of countries to meet their obligations under the resolution to combat terrorist financing.

The first step has been to deny terrorists access to the world's organized financial structures; simultaneously, we have been moving to prevent the abuse of informal money-transfer systems and charities. Both lines of attack have produced results.

  • President Bush launched the first offensive in the war on terrorism on 23 September by signing Executive Order 13224, freezing the US-based assets of those individuals and organizations involved with terrorism.
  • All but a handful of the countries in the world have expressed their support for the financial war on terror.
  • Approximately 150 countries and jurisdictions have issued orders freezing terrorist assets, and the international community was helping others improve their legal and regulatory systems so they can move effectively to block terrorist funds.
  • At the end of 2001, the US had designated 158 known terrorists, terrorist organizations, and terrorist financial networks, whose assets are now subject to freezing in the US financial system.
  • Between September 11 and 31 December 2001, the US blocked more than $34 million in assets of terrorist organizations. Other nations also blocked more than $33 million. The funds captured only measure the money in the pipeline at the time the accounts were shut down, which is a small fraction of the total funds disrupted by the closing of the pipeline. At the US Marine Corps Base in Kandahar, Afghanistan, Marines on a Light Armoured Vehicle who are supporting Operation Enduring Freedom prepare to go on patrol.  An AH1W Super Cobra helicopter flies overhead. (Department of Defense photo)
  • On 7 November, the US and its allies closed down operations of two major financial networks—al-Barakaat and al-Taqwa—both of which were used by al-Qaida and Usama Bin Ladin in more than 40 nations as sources of income and mechanisms to transfer funds. As part of that action, the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) was able to freeze $1,100,000 domestically in al-Barakaat-related funds. Treasury also worked closely with key officials in the Middle East to facilitate blocking of al-Barakaat's assets at its financial center of operations.
  • On 4 December, President Bush froze the assets of a US-based foundation—The Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development—that had been funneling money to the terrorist organization HAMAS. In 2000, the foundation had raised $13 million.
  • International organizations are key partners in the war on financial terrorism. Since 28 September, over 100 nations have submitted reports to the United Nations on the actions they have taken to block terrorist finances, as required under United Nations Security Council resolution 1373 which calls on all nations to keep their financial systems free of terrorist funds.
  • The Financial Action Task Force—a 29-nation group promoting policies to combat money laundering— adopted strict new standards to deny terrorist access to the world financial system.
  • The G-20 and IMF member countries have agreed to make public the list of terrorists whose assets are subject to freezing, and the amount of assets frozen.

For the first five months of this effort, the US identified terrorists for blocking and then sought cooperation from our allies around the world. A new stage in international cooperation was reached on 28 December 2001, when the EU took the lead and designated 6 European-based terrorists for asset blocking, on which US followed suit. Nations around the world have different information and different leads, and it is crucial that each of our allies not only blocks the terrorist financiers we identify but also develops its own leads to broaden the effort to identify and take action against those who fund terrorism.

Military

The terrorist attacks of September 11 were acts of war against the United States and a grievous affront to all humanity.
The international community has responded accordingly:

  • On 12 September, the UN Security Council condemned the attacks and reiterated the inherent right of collective self defense in accordance with the UN Charter.
  • On 21 September, Foreign Ministers of the OAS invoked the collective self-defense clause of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance ("Rio Treaty") (refer to appendix H).
  • In Brussels on 5 October, NATO invoked Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, which states that an armed attack on one or more of the allies in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all (refer to appendix H).
  • 136 countries offered a range of military assistance.
  • 89 countries granted overflight authority for US military aircraft.
  • 76 countries granted landing rights for US military aircraft.
  • 23 countries agreed to host US. and Coalition forces involved in military operations in Afghanistan.

 

US Policy

President Bush has laid out the scope of the war on terrorism. Four enduring policy principles guide our counterterrorism strategy:

First, make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals.
The US Government will make no concessions to individuals or groups holding official or private US citizens hostage. The United States will use every appropriate resource to gain the safe return of US citizens who are held hostage. At the same time, it is US Government policy to deny hostage takers the benefits of ransom, prisoner releases, policy changes, or other acts of concession.

Second, bring terrorists to justice for their crimes.
The United States will track terrorists who attack Americans, no matter how long it takes. This was demonstrated again in September 2001, when the United States arrested Zayd Hassan Abd al-Latif Masud al-Safarini, one of the chief perpetrators of the murderous hijacking in 1986 of Pan Am 73 in Karachi, Pakistan. He will stand trial in the United States for crimes committed during that brutal attack in which twenty-two persons—including two US citizens—were killed, and at least 100 persons were injured. Al-Safarini is the fourteenth international terrorist suspect arrested overseas and brought to the United States to stand trial since 1993. Others included Ramzi Yousef and Mir Aimal Kansi (refer to full list at appendix D).

Third, isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior.
Libya is one of seven designated state sponsors of terrorism. Since the bombing of Pan Am 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland in 1988, the United States and Great Britain have pursued the Libyan perpetrators and sought to bring them to justice. In January 2001, a Scottish court convicted Libyan intelligence service member Abdel Basset al-Megrahi of the murder of 270 persons in connection with the Pan Am 103 attack. The court concluded that there was insufficient evidence to convict another Libyan defendant in the case. On 14 March 2002, a Scottish appellate court upheld Megrahi's conviction.

Fourth, bolster the counterterrorist capabilities of those countries that work with the United States and require assistance.
Under the Antiterrorism Assistance program, the United States provides training and related assistance to law enforcement and security services of selected friendly foreign governments. Courses cover such areas as airport security, bomb detection, hostage rescue, and crisis management. A recent component of the training targets the financial underpinnings of terrorists and criminal money launderers. Counterterrorist training and technical assistance teams are working with countries to jointly identify vulnerabilities, enhance capacities, and provide targeted assistance to address the problem of terrorist financing. At the same time special investigative teams are working with countries to identify and then dry up money used to support terrorism. We are also developing workshops to assist countries in drafting strong laws against terrorism, including terrorist financing. During the past 17 years, we have trained more than 35,000 officials from 152 countries in various aspects of counterterrorism (refer to appendix E).

A broad range of counterterrorism training resources from other US Government agencies, including military training by the Department of Defense, is being brought to bear to bolster international capabilities. We will work with the world community and seek assistance from other partner nations as well.

Our Terrorism Interdiction Program helps friendly countries stop terrorists from freely crossing international borders.

Our Rewards for Justice program offers rewards of up to $5 million for information that prevents or favorably resolves acts of international terrorism against US persons or property worldwide. Secretary Powell has authorized a reward of up to $25 million for information leading to the capture of Usama Bin Ladin and other key al-Qaida leaders (see appendix E).

The military phase of Operation Enduring Freedom began on 7 October 2001, destroying in weeks al-Qaida's grip on Afghanistan by driving their Taliban protectors from power. In addition to the United States, military assets were deployed from many nations, including Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Republic of Korea, Russia, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Forces from 55 countries augmented US forces in the overall effort, each bringing to the Coalition a unique contribution of military assets and expertise (refer to appendix G). As of March 2002, military operations continue in Afghanistan. We have also joined with our partners in Yemen, the Philippines, and Georgia to provide military training to counterterrorist forces focused on al-Qaida-related terrorist activity and groups in those countries. Such training will greatly enhance the capability of our allies to meet and defeat the threat on their soil.

Conclusion

This edition of Patterns is intended to place the global Coalition against terrorism into perspective. It describes results from a multifront effort, leveraging the full capability of the diplomatic, intelligence, law-enforcement, economic, and military communities in combating this international menace. In addition to our traditional country reports, we have included several new sections detailing how the activities of many different parts of the US Government and our allies have joined together to fight the scourge of Twenty-first Century terrorist groups with global reach. We also feature two case studies that emphasize the ongoing importance of global cooperation in the war on terrorism. Through effective law-enforcement and counterterrorism cooperation, the governments of Italy and Singapore have thwarted serious terrorist plots that targeted Western interests and threatened many lives. These cases—among the many that we could cite—demonstrate how the international Coalition against terrorism effectively uses the tools at its disposal to defeat the terrorist threat.

Info on International Terrorists, Up to $25 Million Reward, Rewards for Justice

In conclusion, two points. First, I want to offer my condolences to the families, loved ones, friends, and countrymen of all the victims of terrorism in this past year. We can never replace what you have lost, but we are determined to bring to justice, however long it takes, those who were responsible and to do whatever lies in our power to see that such a tragedy will never happen again. Second, I want to recognize the true heroes of this campaign: the thousands of police, law-enforcement personnel, firefighters, intelligence professionals, military personnel, diplomats, and other government officials, and the citizens around the world who have responded so magnificently to this global menace. Like the passengers of United Airlines Flight 93 who saved many lives with their acts of heroism in the face of death, the worldwide Coalition will prevail to save countless other lives in the future. The events of this past year have truly brought the fight against terrorism to a new personal level. I'm proud to say that Americans and our allies have shown resilience and determination.

In the wake of the horror of September 11, the world has never been so focused on the threat of international terrorism nor more resolute in the need to counter this threat using the full power—diplomatic, intelligence, economic, law enforcement, financial, and military—available to the international community. Success will require patience and a continuous, relentless commitment on the part of many people in many professions, in many countries. As President Bush has said, "Ours is the cause of freedom. We've defeated freedom's enemies before, and we will defeat them again."

Ambassador Francis X. Taylor
Coordinator for Counterterrorism

Note

Adverse mention in this report of individual members of any political, social, ethnic, religious, or national group is not meant to imply that all members of that group are terrorists. Indeed, terrorists represent a small minority of dedicated, often fanatical, individuals in most such groups. It is those small groups—and their actions—that are the subject of this report.Rescue squad member helps survivor with oxygen mask, while he and other survivors holding clothing and kerchiefs to their noses and mouths walk through smoke and debris away from the World Trade Center site in New York City after two airliners crashed into the towers on September 11, 2001. (Reuters copyrighted photo)

Furthermore, terrorist acts are part of a larger phenomenon of politically inspired violence, and at times the line between the two can become difficult to draw. To relate terrorist events to the larger context, and to give a feel for the conflicts that spawn violence, this report will discuss terrorist acts as well as other violent incidents that are not necessarily international terrorism.

Legislative Requirements

This report is submitted in compliance with Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656f(a), which requires the Department of State to provide Congress a full and complete annual report on terrorism for those countries and groups meeting the criteria of Section (a)(1) and (2) of the Act. As required by legislation, the report includes detailed assessments of foreign countries where significant terrorist acts occurred, and countries about which Congress was notified during the preceding five years pursuant to Section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (the so-called terrorist-list countries that have repeatedly provided state support for international terrorism). In addition, the report includes all relevant information about the previous year's activities of individuals, terrorist organizations, or umbrella groups known to be responsible for the kidnapping or death of any US citizen during the preceding five years and groups known to be financed by state sponsors of terrorism.

In 1996 Congress amended the reporting requirements contained in the above-referenced law. The amended law requires the Department of State to report on the extent to which other countries cooperate with the United States in apprehending, convicting, and punishing terrorists responsible for attacking US citizens or interests. The law also requires that this report describe the extent to which foreign governments are cooperating, or have cooperated during the previous five years, in preventing future acts of terrorism. As permitted in the amended legislation, the Department is submitting such information to Congress in a classified annex to this unclassified report.

Definitions

No one definition of terrorism has gained universal acceptance. For the purposes of this report, however, we have chosen the definition of terrorism contained in Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656f(d). That statute contains the following definitions:

Outside an orphanage in Kabul, Afghan children line up to shake hands with New York City Police Detective Thomas MacDonald after he and other police officers and firefighters from New York brought 29 tons of food and blankets to the orphanage. (Reuters copyrighted photo)

The term "terrorism" means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant1 targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.

The term "international terrorism" means terrorism involving citizens or the territory of more than one country.

The term "terrorist group" means any group practicing, or that has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism.

The US Government has employed this definition of terrorism for statistical and analytical purposes since 1983.

Domestic terrorism is probably a more widespread phenomenon than international terrorism. Because international terrorism has a direct impact on US interests, it is the primary focus of this report. However, the report also describes, but does not provide statistics on, significant developments in domestic terrorism.

___________________

1For purposes of this definition, the term "noncombatant" is interpreted to include, in addition to civilians, military personnel who at the time of the incident are unarmed and/or not on duty. For example, in past reports we have listed as terrorist incidents the murders of the following US military personnel: Col. James Rowe, killed in Manila in April 1989; Capt. William Nordeen, US defense attache killed in Athens in June 1988; the two servicemen killed in the Labelle discotheque bombing in West Berlin in April 1986; and the four off-duty US Embassy Marine guards killed in a cafe in El Salvador in June 1985. We also consider as acts of terrorism attacks on military installations or on armed military personnel when a state of military hostilities does not exist at the site, such as bombings against US bases in Europe, the Philippines, or elsewhere.



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