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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Appendix C: Background Information on Other Terrorist Groups


Patterns of Global Terrorism
Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
May 21, 2002
Report
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Contents

Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB)
Al-Ittihad al-Islami (AIAI)
Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)
Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei (NTA)
Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR)
Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF)
Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA)
First of October Antifacist Resistance Group (GRAPO)
Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami (HUJI)
Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B)
Islamic Army of Aden (IAA)
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Al Jama'a al-Islamiyyah al-Muqatilah bi-Libya
Japanese Red Army (JRA)
Jemaah Islamiya (JI)
Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia (KMM)
Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)
Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)
New People's Army (NPA)
Orange Volunteers (OV)
People Against Gangersterism and Drugs (PAGAD)
Red Hand Defenders (RHD)
Revolutionary Proletarian Initiative Nuclei (NIPR)
Revolutionary United Front (RUF)
The Tunisian Combatant Group (TCG)
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)
Turkish Hizballah
Ulster Defense Association/Ulster Freedom Fighters (UDA/UVF)


Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB)

Description

The ABB, the breakaway urban hit squad of the Communist Party of the Philippines New People's Army, was formed in the mid-1980s. The ABB was added to the Terrorist Exclusion list in December 2001.

Activities

Responsible for more than 100 murders and believed to have been involved in the murder in 1989 of US Army Col. James Rowe in the Philippines. In March 1997 the group announced it had formed an alliance with another armed group, the Revolutionary Proletarian Army (RPA). In March 2000, the group claimed credit for a rifle grenade attack against the Department of Energy building in Manila and strafed Shell Oil offices in the central Philippines to protest rising oil prices.

Strength

Approximately 500.

Location/Area of Operation

The largest RPA/ABB groups are on the Philippine islands of Luzon, Negros, and the Visayas.

External Aid

Unknown.

Al-Ittihad al-Islami (AIAI) a.k.a. Islamic Union

Description

Somalia's largest militant Islamic organization rose to power in the early 1990s following the collapse of the Siad Barre regime. Aims to establish an Islamic regime in Somalia and force the secession of the Ogeden region of Ethiopia.

Activities

Primarily insurgent-style attacks against Ethiopian forces and other Somali factions. The group is believed to be responsible for a series of bomb attacks in public places in Addis Ababa in 1996 and 1997 as well as the kidnapping of several relief workers in 1998. AIAI sponsors Islamic social programs, such as orphanages and schools, and provides pockets of security in Somalia.

Strength

Estimated at some 2,000 members, plus additional reserve militias.

Location/Area of Operation

Primarily in Somalia, with limited presence in Ethiopia and Kenya.

External Aid

Receives funds from Middle East financiers and Western diaspora remittances, and suspected training in Afghanistan. Maintains ties to al-Qaida. Past weapons deliveries from Sudan.

Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)

Description

A diverse coalition of former members of the National Army for the Liberation of Uganda (NALU), Islamists from the Salaf Tabliq group, Hutu militiamen, and fighters from ousted regimes in Congo. The conglomeration of fighters formed in 1995 in opposition to the government of Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni.

Activities

The ADF seeks to use the kidnapping and murder of civilians to create fear in the local population and undermine confidence in the Government. The group is suspected to be responsible for dozens of bombings in public areas. A Ugandan military offensive in 2000 destroyed several ADF camps, but ADF attacks continued in Kampala in 2001.

Strength

A few hundred fighters.

Location/Area of Operation

Western Uganda and eastern Congo.

External Aid

Received past funding, supplies, and training from the Government of Sudan. Some funding suspected from sympathetic Hutu groups.

Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei (NTA)

Description

Clandestine leftist extremist group that appeared in the Friuli region in Italy in 1995. Adopted the class struggle ideology of the Red Brigades of the 1970s-80s and a similar logo—an encircled five-point star—for their declarations. Opposes what it perceives as US and NATO imperialism and condemns Italy's foreign and labor polices.

Activities

Criticized US/NATO presence in Italy and attacked property owned by USAir Forces personnel at Aviano Air Base. Claimed responsibility for a bomb attack in September 2000 against the Central European Initiative office in Trieste and a bomb attack in August 2001 against the Venice Tribunal building. Threw gasoline bombs at the Venice and Rome headquarters of the then-ruling party, Democrats of the Left, during the NATO intervention in Kosovo.

Strength

Approximately 20 members.

Location/Area of Operation

Mainly in northeastern Italy, including Friuli, Veneto, and Emilia.

External Aid

None evident.

Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR) a.k.a.Interahamwe, Former Armed Forces (ex-FAR)

Description

The FAR was the army of the Rwandan Hutu regime that carried out the genocide of 500,000 or more Tutsis and regime opponents in 1994. The Interahamwe was the civilian militia force that carried out much of the killing. The groups merged and recruited additional fighters after they were forced from Rwanda into the Democratic Republic of Congo (then-Zaire) in 1994. They are now often known as the Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR), which is the armed branch of the PALIR or Party for the Liberation of Rwanda.

Activities

The group seeks to topple Rwanda's Tutsi-dominated government, reinstitute Hutu-control, and, possibly, complete the genocide. In 1996, a message allegedly from the ALIR threatened to kill the US Ambassador to Rwanda and other US citizens. In 1999, ALIR guerrillas critical of alleged US-UK support for the Rwandan regime kidnapped and killed eight foreign tourists including two US citizens in a game park on the Congo-Uganda border. In the current Congolese war, the ALIR is allied with Kinshasa against the Rwandan invaders.

Strength

Several thousand ALIR regular forces operate alongside the Congolese army on the front lines of the Congo civil war, while a like number of ALIR guerrillas operate behind Rwanda lines in eastern Congo closer to the Rwandan border and sometimes within Rwanda.

Location/Area of Operation

Mostly Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, but some operations in Burundi.

External Support

The Democratic Republic of the Congo provides ALIR forces in Congo with training, arms, and supplies.

Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF) a.k.a. Cholana Kangtoap Serei Cheat Kampouchea

Description

The Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF) emerged in November 1998 in the wake of political violence that saw many influential Cambodian leaders flee and the Cambodian People's Party assume power. With an avowed aim of overthrowing the Government, the group is led by a Cambodian-American, a former member of the opposition Sam Rainsy Party, and its membership includes Cambodian-Americans based in Thailand and the United States and former soldiers from the separatist Khmer Rouge, Royal Cambodian Armed Forces, and various political factions.

Activities

The CFF has on at least one occasion attacked government facilities and planned other bombing attacks. In late November 2000, the CFF staged an attack on several government installations, during which at least eight persons died and more than a dozen were wounded, including civilians.The group's leaders claimed responsibility for the attack. Following a trial of 32 CFF members arrested for the attack, five received life sentences, 25 received lesser jail terms, and two were acquitted. In April 1999, five other members of the CFF were arrested for plotting to blow up a fuel depot outside Phnom Penh with antitank weapons.

Strength

Exact strength is unknown, but totals probably never have exceeded 100 armed fighters.

Location/Area of Operation

Northeastern Cambodia near the Thai border.

External Aid

US-based leadership collects funds from the Cambodian-American community.

Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) a.k.a. Continuity Army Council

Description

Radical terrorist splinter group formed in 1994 as the clandestine armed wing of Republican Sinn Fein (RSF), which split from Sinn Fein in the mid-1980s. "Continuity" refers to the group's belief that it is carrying on the original IRA goal of forcing the British out of Northern Ireland, and CIRA actively seeks to recruit IRA members.

Activities

CIRA has been active in the border areas of Northern Ireland where it has carried out bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, extortion, and robberies. Targets include British military and Northern Ireland security targets and Northern Ireland Loyalist paramilitary groups. Does not have an established presence on the UK mainland. CIRA is not observing a cease-fire and in October said decommissioning weapons would be "an act of treachery."

Strength

Fewer than 50 hard-core activists but is said to have recruited new members in Belfast.

Location/Area of Operation

Northern Ireland, Irish Republic.

External Aid

Suspected of receiving funds and arms from sympathizers in the United States. May have acquired arms and materiel from the Balkans in cooperation with the Real IRA.

First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) Grupo de Resistencia Anti-Fascista Primero de Octubre

Description

Formed in 1975 as the armed wing of the illegal Communist Party of Spain during the Franco era. Advocating the overthrow of the Spanish Government and replacement with a Marxist-Leninist regime, GRAPO is vehemently anti-US, calls for the removal of all US military forces from Spanish territory, and has conducted and attempted several attacks against US targets since 1977. The group issued a communiqu� following the 11 September attacks in the United States, expressing its satisfaction that "symbols of imperialist power" were decimated and affirming that "the war" has only just begun.

Activities

GRAPO has killed more than 90 persons and injured more than 200. The group's operations traditionally have been designed to cause material damage and gain publicity rather than inflict casualties, but the terrorists have conducted lethal bombings and close-range assassinations. In May 2000, the group killed two security guards during a botched armed robbery attempt of an armored truck carrying an estimated $2 million, and in November 2000, members assassinated a Spanish policeman in a possible reprisal for the arrest that month of several GRAPO leaders in France. The group also has bombed business and official sites employment agencies and the Madrid headquarters of the ruling Popular Party, for example including the Barcelona office of the national daily El Mundo in October 2000, when two police officers were injured.

Strength

Unknown but likely fewer than a dozen hard-core activists. Spanish and French officials have made periodic large-scale arrests of GRAPO members, crippling the organization and forcing it into lengthy rebuilding periods. The French and Spanish arrested several key leaders in 2001.

Location/Area of Operation

Spain

External Aid

None

Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami (HUJI) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)

Description

HUJI, a Sunni extremist group that follows the Deobandi tradition of Islam, was founded in 1980 in Afghanistan to fight in the jihad against the Soviets. It is also affiliated with the Jamiat Ulema-I-Islam Fazlur Rehman faction (JUI-F) and the Deobandi school of Sunni Islam. The group, led by chief commander Amin Rabbani, is made up primarily of Pakistanis and foreign Islamists who are fighting for the liberation of Kashmir and its accession to Pakistan.

Activities

Has conducted a number of operations against Indian military targets in Kashmir. Linked to the Kashmiri militant group al-Faran that kidnapped five Western tourists in Kashmir in July 1995; one was killed in August 1995 and the other four reportedly were killed in December of the same year.

Strength

Exact numbers are unknown, but there may be several hundred members in Kashmir.

Location/Area of Operation

Pakistan and Kashmir. Trained members in Afghanistan until fall of 2001.

External Aid

Specific sources of external aid are unknown.

Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJI-B) (Movement of Islamic Holy War)

Description

The mission of HUJI-B, led by Shauqat Osman, is to establish Islamic rule in Bangladesh. HUJI-B has connections to the Pakistani militant groups Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami (HUJI) and Harak ul-Mujahidin (HUM), who advocate similar objectives in Pakistan and Kashmir.

Activities

HUJI-B was accused of stabbing a senior Bangladeshi journalist in November 2000 for making a documentary on the plight of Hindus in Bangladesh. HUJI-B was suspected in the July 2000 assassination attempt of Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina.

Strength

HUJI-B has an estimated cadre strength of over several thousand members.

Location/Area of Operation

Operates and trains members in Bangladesh, where it maintains at least six camps.

External Aid

Funding of the HUJI-B comes primarily from madrassas in Bangladesh. The group also has ties to militants in Pakistan that may provide another funding source.

Islamic Army of Aden (IAA) a.k.a. Aden-Abyan Islamic Army (AAIA)

Description

The Islamic Army of Aden (IAA) emerged publicly in mid-1998 when the group released a series of communiqu�s that expressed support for Usama Bin Ladin, appealed for the overthrow of the Yemeni Government and the commencement of operations against US and other Western interests in Yemen.

Activities

Engages in bombings and kidnappings to promote its goals. Kidnapped 16 British, Australian, and US tourists in late December 1998 near Mudiyah in southern Yemen. Since the capture and trial of the Mudiyah kidnappers and the execution in October 1999 of the group's leader, Zein al-Abidine al-Mihdar (a.k.a. Abu Hassan), individuals associated with the IAA have remained involved in terrorist activities. In 2001 the Yemeni Government convicted an IAA member and three associates for their roles in the October 2000 bombing of the British Embassy in Sanaa.

Strength

Not known.

Location/Area of Operation

Operates in the southern governorates of Yemen—primarily Aden and Abyan.

External Aid

Not known.

Irish Republican Army (IRA) a.k.a. Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA), the Provos (Now almost universally referred to as the PIRA to distinguish it from RIRA and CIRA.)

Description

Terrorist group formed in 1969 as clandestine armed wing of Sinn Fein, a legal political movement dedicated to removing British forces from Northern Ireland and unifying Ireland. Has a Marxist orientation. Organized into small, tightly knit cells under the leadership of the Army Council.

Activities

The IRA has been observing a cease-fire since 1997 and in October 2001 took the historic step of putting an unspecified amount of arms and ammunition "completely beyond use." The International Commission on Decommissioning characterized the step as a significant act of decommissioning. The IRA retains the ability to conduct operations. Its traditional activities have included bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, punishment beatings, extortion, smuggling, and robberies. Bombing campaigns were conducted against train and subway stations and shopping areas on mainland Britain. Targets included senior British Government officials, civilians, police, and British military targets in Northern Ireland. The IRA's current cease-fire (since July 1997) was preceded by a cease-fire from 1 September 1994 to February 1996.

Strength

Several hundred members, plus several thousand sympathizers-despite the possible defection of some members to RIRA or CIRA.

Local/Area of Operation

Northern Ireland, Irish Republic, Great Britain, Europe.

External Aid

Has in the past received aid from a variety of groups and countries and considerable training and arms from Libya and the PLO. Is suspected of receiving funds, arms, and other terrorist related materiel from sympathizers in the United States. Similarities in operations suggest links to ETA.

Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyyah al-Muqatilah bi-Libya a.k.a. Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, Fighting Islamic Group, Libyan Fighting Group, Libyan Islamic Group

Description:

Emerged in 1995 among Libyans who had fought against Soviet forces in Afghanistan. Declared the Government of Libyan leader Muammar Qadhafi un-Islamic and pledged to overthrow it. Some members maintain a strictly anti-Qadhafi focus and organize against Libyan Government, interests but others are aligned with Usama Bin Ladin's al-Qaida organization or are active in the international mujahidin network.

Activities:

Claimed responsibility for a failed assassination attempt against Qadhafi in 1996 and engaged Libyan security forces in armed clashes during the mid to late 1990s. Currently engages in few armed attacks against Libyan interests either in Libya or abroad. Some members may be aligned with al-Qaida or involved in al-Qaida activities.

Strength

Not known but probably has several hundred active members.

Location/Area of Operation

Probably maintains a clandestine presence in Libya, but since late 1990s many members have fled to various Middle Eastern and European countries.

External Aid

Not known. May obtain some funding through private donations, various Islamic non-governmental organizations, and criminal acts.

Japanese Red Army (JRA) a.k.a. Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB)

Description

An international terrorist group formed around 1970 after breaking away from Japanese Communist League-Red Army Faction. Fusako Shigenobu led the JRA until her arrest in Japan in November 2000. The JRA's historical goal has been to overthrow the Japanese Government and monarchy and to help foment world revolution. After her arrest Shigenobu announced she intended to pursue her goals using a legitimate political party rather than revolutionary violence, and the group announced it would disband in April 2001. May control or at least have ties to Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB); also may have links to Antiwar Democratic Front—an overt leftist political organization—inside Japan. Details released following Shigenobu's arrest indicate that the JRA was organizing cells in Asian cities, such as Manila and Singapore. The group had a history of close relations with Palestinian terrorist groups—based and operating outside Japan—since its inception, primarily through Shigenobu. The current status of the connections is unknown.

Activities

During the 1970s, JRA carried out a series of attacks around the world, including the massacre in 1972 at Lod Airport in Israel, two Japanese airliner hijackings, and an attempted takeover of the US Embassy in Kuala Lumpur. In April 1988, JRA operative Yu Kikumura was arrested with explosives on the New Jersey Turnpike, apparently planning an attack to coincide with the bombing of a USO club in Naples, a suspected JRA operation that killed five, including a US servicewoman. He was convicted of the charges and is serving a lengthy prison sentence in the United States. Tsutomu Shirosaki, captured in 1996, is also jailed in the United States. In 2000, Lebanon deported to Japan four members it arrested in 1997 but granted a fifth operative, Kozo Okamoto, political asylum. Longtime leader Shigenobu was arrested in November 2000 and faces charges of terrorism and passport fraud.

Strength

About six hardcore members; undetermined number of sympathizers. At its peak the group claimed to have 30 to 40 members.

Location/Area of Operation

Location unknown, but possibly in Asia and/or Syrian-controlled areas of Lebanon.

External Aid

Unknown.

Jemaah Islamiya (JI)

Description

Jemaah Islamiya is an Islamic extremist group with cells operating throughout Southeast Asia. Recently arrested JI members in Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines have revealed links with al-Qaida. The JI's stated goal is to create an Islamic state comprising Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the southern Philippines. Three Indonesian extremists, one of whom is in custody in Malaysia, are the reported leaders of the organization.

Activities

Began developing plans in 1997 to target US interests in Singapore and, in 1999, conducted videotaped casings of potential US targets in preparation for multiple attacks in Singapore. A cell in Singapore acquired four tons of ammonium nitrate, which has not yet been found.

In December 2001, Singapore authorities arrested 15 Jemaah Islamiyah members, some of whom had trained in al-Qaida camps in Afghanistan, who planned to attack the US and Israeli Embassies and British and Australian diplomatic buildings in Singapore. Additionally, the Singapore police discovered forged immigration stamps, bombmaking materials, and al-Qaida-related material in several suspects' homes.

Strength

Exact numbers are unknown but press reports approximate that the Malaysian cells may comprise 200 members.

Location/Area of Operation

The JI has cells in Singapore and Malaysia; press reports indicate the JI is also present in Indonesia and possibly the Philippines.

External Aid

Largely unknown, probably self-financing; possible al-Qaida support.

Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia (KMM)

Description

Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia (KMM) favors the overthrow of the Mahathir government and the creation of an Islamic state comprising Malaysia, Indonesia, and the southern Philippines. Malaysian authorities believe that smaller, more violent, extremist groups have split from KMM. Zainon Ismail, a former mujahid in Afghanistan, established KMM in 1995. Nik Adli Nik Abdul Aziz, currently detained under Malaysia's Internal Security Act (ISA), assumed leadership in 1999. Malaysian police assert that three Indonesian extremists, one of whom is in custody, have disseminated militant ideology to the KMM.

Activities

Malaysia is currently holding 48 alleged members of the KMM and its more extremist wing under the ISA for activities deemed threatening to Malaysia's national security, including planning to wage a jihad, possession of weaponry, bombings and robberies, the murder of a former state assemblyman, and planning attacks on foreigners, including US citizens. Several of the arrested militants have reportedly undergone military training in Afghanistan, and some fought with the Afghan mujahidin during the war against the former Soviet Union. Others are alleged to have ties to Islamic extremist organizations in Indonesia and the Philippines.

Strength

Malaysian police assess the KMM to have 70 to 80 members. The Malaysian press reports that police are currently tracking 200 suspected Muslim militants.

Location/Area of Operation

The KMM is reported to have networks in the Malaysian states of Perak, Johor, Kedah, Selangor, Terengganu, and Kelantan. They also operate in Wilayah Persukutuan, the federal territory comprising Kuala Lumpur. According to press reports, the KMM has ties to radical Indonesian Islamic groups and has sent members to Ambon, Indonesia to fight against Christians.

External Aid

Largely unknown, probably self-financing.

Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)

Activities

Founded in 1989 as the successor to the Holy Spirit Movement, the LRA seeks to overthrow the incumbent Ugandan Government and replace it with a regime that will implement the group's brand of Christianity. The LRA frequently kills and kidnaps local Ugandan civilians in order to discourage foreign investment and precipitate a crisis in Uganda.

Strength

Estimated 2,000.

Location/Area of Operation

Northern Uganda and southern Sudan

External Aid

The LRA has been supported by the Government of Sudan.

Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF)

Description

An extreme loyalist group formed in 1996 as a faction of the mainstream loyalist Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) but did not emerge publicly until February 1997. Composed largely of UVF hardliners who have sought to prevent a political settlement with Irish nationalists in Northern Ireland by attacking Catholic politicians, civilians, and Protestant politicians who endorse the Northern Ireland peace process. In October 2001 the British Government ruled that the LVF had broken the cease-fire it declared in 1998. The LVF decommissioned a small but significant amount of weapons in December 1998, but it has not repeated this gesture.

Activities

Bombings, kidnappings, and close-quarter shooting attacks. LVF bombs often have contained Powergel commercial explosives, typical of many loyalist groups. LVF attacks have been particularly vicious: The group has murdered numerous Catholic civilians with no political or terrorist affiliations, including an 18-year-old Catholic girl in July 1997 because she had a Protestant boyfriend. The terrorists also have conducted successful attacks against Irish targets in Irish border towns. In 2000 and 2001, the LVF also engaged in a violent feud with other loyalists in which several individuals were killed.

Strength

Approximately 150 activists.

Location/Area of Operation

Northern Ireland, Ireland.

External Aid

None.

New People's Army (NPA)

Description

The military wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), the NPA is a Maoist group formed in March 1969 with the aim of overthrowing the government through protracted guerrilla warfare. The chairman of the CPP's Central Committee and the NPA's founder, Jose Maria Sison, directs all CPP and NPA activity from the Netherlands, where he lives in self-imposed exile. Fellow Central Committee member and director of the CPP's National Democratic Front (NDF) Luis Jalandoni also lives in the Netherlands and has become a Dutch citizen. Although primarily a rural-based guerrilla group, the NPA has an active urban infrastructure to conduct terrorism and uses city-based assassination squads. Derives most of its funding from contributions of supporters in the Philippines, Europe, and elsewhere, and from so-called "revolutionary taxes" extorted from local businesses.

Activities

The NPA primarily targets Philippine security forces, politicians, judges, government informers, former rebels who wish to leave the NPA, and alleged criminals. Opposes any US military presence in the Philippines and attacked US military interests before the US base closures in 1992. Press reports in 1999 and in late 2001 indicated that the NPA is again targeting US troops participating in joint military exercises as well as US Embassy personnel. The NPA claimed responsibility for the assassination of congressmen from Quezon (in May) and Cagayan (in June) and many other killings.

Strength

Slowly growing; estimated at over 10,000.

Location/Area of Operations

Operates in rural Luzon, Visayas, and parts of Mindanao. Has cells in Manila and other metropolitan centers.

External Aid

Unknown.

Orange Volunteers (OV)

Description

Terrorist group that appeared about 1998-99 and is comprised largely of disgruntled loyalist hardliners who split from groups observing the cease-fire. OV seeks to prevent a political settlement with Irish nationalists by attacking Catholic civilian interests in Northern Ireland.

Activities

The group has been linked to pipe-bomb attacks and sporadic assaults on Catholics. Following a successful security crackdown at the end of 1999, the OV declared a cease-fire in September 2000 and remained quiet in 2001.

Strength

Up to 20 hardcore members, some of whom are experienced in terrorist tactics and bombmaking.

Location/Area of Operations

Northern Ireland.

External Aid

None.

People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD)

Description

PAGAD was formed in 1996 as a community anti-crime group fighting drugs and violence in the Cape Flats section of Cape Town but by early 1998 had also become antigovernment and anti-Western. PAGAD and its Islamic ally Qibla view the South African Government as a threat to Islamic values and consequently promote greater political voice for South African Muslims. Abdus Salaam Ebrahim currently leads both groups. PAGAD's G-Force (Gun Force) operates in small cells and is believed responsible for carrying out acts of terrorism. PAGAD uses several front names including Muslims Against Global Oppression (MAGO) and Muslims Against Illegitimate Leaders (MAIL) when launching anti-Western protests and campaigns.

Activities

PAGAD's activities were severely curtailed in 2001 by law enforcement and prosecutorial efforts against leading members of the organization. There were no urban terror incidents from September 2000 through 2001, compared to nine bombings in the Western Cape in 2000 that caused serious injuries and a total of 189 bomb attacks since 1996. PAGAD's previous bombing targets have included South African authorities, moderate Muslims, synagogues, gay nightclubs, tourist attractions, and Western-associated restaurants. PAGAD is believed to have masterminded the bombing on 25 August 1998 of the Cape Town Planet Hollywood.

Strength

Estimated at several hundred members. PAGAD's G-Force probably contains fewer than 50 members.

Location/Area of Operation

Operates mainly in the Cape Town area, South Africa's foremost tourist venue.

External Aid

Probably has ties to Islamic extremists in the Middle East.

Red Hand Defenders (RHD)

Description

Extremist terrorist group formed in 1998 composed largely of Protestant hardliners from loyalist groups observing a cease-fire. RHD seeks to prevent a political settlement with Irish nationalists by attacking Catholic civilian interests in Northern Ireland. In July 2001 the group issued a statement saying it considered all nationalists as "legitimate targets." RHD is a cover name often used by elements of the banned Ulster Defense Association and the Loyalist Volunteer Force.

Activities

In recent years, the group has carried out numerous pipe bombings and arson attacks against "soft" civilian targets such as homes, churches, and private businesses, including a bombing outside a Catholic girls school in North Belfast in September. RHD claimed responsibility for the car-bombing murder in March 1999 of Rosemary Nelson, a prominent Catholic nationalist lawyer and human rights campaigner in Northern Ireland, and for the murder of a Catholic journalist in September 2001.

Strength

Up to 20 members, some of whom have considerable experience in terrorist tactics and bombmaking.

Location/Area of Operation

Northern Ireland.

External Aid

None.

Revolutionary Proletarian Initiative Nuclei (NIPR)

Description

Clandestine leftist extremist group that appeared in Rome in 2000. Adopted the logo of the Red Brigades of the 1970s and 1980s—an encircled five-point star—for their declarations. Opposes Italy's foreign and labor polices.

Activities

Claimed responsibility for bomb attack in April 2001 on building housing a US-Italian relations association and an international affairs institute in Rome's historic center. Claimed to have carried out May 2000 explosion in Rome at oversight committee facility for implementation of the law on strikes in public services. Claimed responsibility for explosion in February 2002 on Via Palermo adjacent to Interior Ministry in Rome.

Strength

Approximately 12 members.

Location/Area of Operation

Mainly in Rome, Milan, Lazio, and Tuscany.

External Aid

None evident.

Revolutionary United Front (RUF)

Description

The RUF is a loosely organized guerrilla force seeking to retain control of the lucrative diamond-producing regions of the country. The group funds itself largely through the extraction and sale of diamonds obtained in areas of Sierra Leone that it controls.

Activities

During 2001, reports of serious abuses by the RUF declined significantly. The resumption of the Government's Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration program in May was largely responsible. From 1991-2000, the group used guerrilla, criminal, and terror tactics, such as murder, torture, and mutilation, to fight the government, intimidate civilians, and keep UN peacekeeping units in check. In 2000 they held hundreds of UN peacekeepers hostage until their release was negotiated, in part, by the RUF's chief sponsor, Liberian President Charles Taylor. The group also has been accused of attacks in Guinea at the behest of President Taylor.

Strength

Estimated at several thousand supporters and sympathizers.

Location/Area of Operation

Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea

External Aid

A UN experts panel report on Sierra Leone said President Charles Taylor of Liberia provides support and leadership to the RUF. The UN has identified Libya, Gambia, and Burkina Faso as conduits for weapons and other materiel for the RUF.

The Tunisian Combatant Group (TCG)

Description

Also referred to as the Tunisian Islamic Fighting Group, the TCG's goals reportedly include establishing an Islamic government in Tunisia and targeting Tunisian and Western interests. Founded probably in 2000 by Tarek Maaroufi and Saifallah Ben Hassine, the group has come to be associated with al-Qa'ida and other North African Islamic extremists in Europe who have been implicated in anti-US terrorist plots there during 2001. In December, Belgian authorities arrested Maaroufi and charged him with providing stolen passports and fraudulent visas for those involved in the assassination of Ahmed Shah Massood, according to press reports.

Activities

Tunisians associated with the TCG are part of the support network of the international Salafist movement. According to Italian authorities, TCG members there engage in false document trafficking and recruitment for Afghan training camps. Some TCG associates are suspected of planning an attack against the US, Algerian, and Tunisian diplomatic interests in Rome in January. Members reportedly maintain ties to the Algerian Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC).

Strength

Unknown

Location/Area of Operation

Western Europe, Afghanistan.

External Aid

Unknown.

Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)

Description

Traditional Marxist-Leninist revolutionary movement formed in 1983 from remnants of the Movement of the Revolutionary Left, a Peruvian insurgent group active in the 1960s. Aims to establish a Marxist regime and to rid Peru of all imperialist elements (primarily US and Japanese influence). Peru's counterterrorist program has diminished the group's ability to carry out terrorist attacks, and the MRTA has suffered from infighting, the imprisonment or deaths of senior leaders, and loss of leftist support. In 2001, several MRTA members remained imprisoned in Bolivia.

Activities

Previously conducted bombings, kidnappings, ambushes, and assassinations, but recent activity has fallen drastically. In December 1996, 14 MRTA members occupied the Japanese Ambassador's residence in Lima and held 72 hostages for more than four months. Peruvian forces stormed the residence in April 1997 rescuing all but one of the remaining hostages and killing all 14 group members, including the remaining leaders. The group has not conducted a significant terrorist operation since and appears more focused on obtaining the release of imprisoned MRTA members.

Strength

Believed to be no more than 100 members, consisting largely of young fighters who lack leadership skills and experience.

Location/Area of Operation

Peru with supporters throughout Latin America and Western Europe. Controls no territory.

External Aid

None.

Turkish Hizballah

Description

Turkish Hizballah is a Kurdish Islamic (Sunni) extremist organization that arose in the late 1980s in the Diyarbakir area in response to Kurdistan Workers' Party atrocities against Muslims in southeastern Turkey, where (Turkish) Hizballah seeks to establish an independent Islamic state. The group comprises loosely organized factions, the largest of which are Ilim, which advocates the use of violence to achieve the group's goals, and Menzil, which supports an intellectual approach.

Activities

Beginning in the mid-1990s, Turkish Hizballah which is unrelated to Lebanese Hizballah expanded its target base and modus operandi from killing PKK militants to conducting low-level bombings against liquor stores, bordellos, and other establishments that the organization considered "anti-Islamic." In January 2000, Turkish security forces killed Huseyin Velioglu, the leader of (Turkish) Hizballah's Ilim faction, in a shootout at a safehouse in Istanbul. The incident sparked a year-long series of operations against the group throughout Turkey that resulted in the detention of some 2,000 individuals; authorities arrested several hundred of those on criminal charges. At the same time, police recovered nearly 70 bodies of Turkish and Kurdish businessmen and journalists that (Turkish) Hizballah had tortured and brutally murdered during the mid to late-1990's. The group began targeting official Turkish interests in January 2001, when 10-20 operatives participated in the assassination of the Diyarbakir police chief, the group's most sophisticated operation to date.

Strength

Possibly a few hundred members and several thousand supporters.

Location/Area of Operation

Primary area of operation is in southeastern Turkey, particularly the Diyarbakir region.

External Aid

Turkish officials charge that Turkish Hizballah receives at least some assistance, including training, from Iran.

Ulster Defense Association/Ulster Freedom Fighters (UDA/UVF)

Description

The UDA, the largest loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland, was formed in 1971 as an umbrella organization for loyalist paramilitary groups. It remained a legal organization until 1992, when the British Government proscribed it. Among its members are Johnny Adair, the only person ever convicted of directing terrorism in Northern Ireland, and Michael Stone, who killed three in a gun and grenade attack on an IRA funeral. The UDA joined the UVF in declaring a cease-fire in 1994; it broke down in January 1998 but was later restored. In October 2001, the British Government ruled that the UDA had broken its cease-fire. The organization's political wing, the Ulster Democratic Party, was dissolved in November 2001.

Activities

The group has been linked to pipe bombings and sporadic assaults on Catholics in Northern Ireland; it stepped up attacks in 2001. William Stobie, the group's former quartermaster who admitted to passing information about the UDA to the British Government, was murdered in December; the Red Hand Defenders claimed responsibility for the killing.

Strength

Estimates vary from 2,000 to 5,000 members, with several hundred active in paramilitary operations.

Location/Area of Operation

Northern Ireland.

External Aid

None.



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