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Appendix H: Multinational Response to September 11


Patterns of Global Terrorism
Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
May 21, 2002
Report
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NATO Press Release 12 September, 2001

On September 12th, the North Atlantic Council met again in response to the appalling attacks perpetrated yesterday against the United States.

The Council agreed that if it is determined that this attack was directed from abroad against the United States, it shall be regarded as an action covered by Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, which states that an armed attack against one or more of the Allies in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.

The commitment to collective self-defence embodied in the Washington Treaty was first entered into in circumstances very different from those that exist now, but it remains no less valid and no less essential today, in a world subject to the scourge of international terrorism. When the Heads of State and Government of NATO met in Washington in 1999, they paid tribute to the success of the Alliance in ensuring the freedom of its members during the Cold War and in making possible a Europe that was whole and free. But they also recognised the existence of a wide variety of risks to security, some of them quite unlike those that had called NATO into existence. More specifically, they condemned terrorism as a serious threat to peace and stability and reaffirmed their determination to combat it in accordance with their commitments to one another, their international commitments and national legislation.

Article 5 of the Washington Treaty stipulates that in the event of attacks falling within its purview, each Ally will assist the Party that has been attacked by taking such action as it deems necessary. Accordingly, the United States' NATO Allies stand ready to provide the assistance that may be required as a consequence of these acts of barbarism.

Statement by NATO Secretary General, Lord Robertson 2 October, 2001

This morning, the United States briefed the North Atlantic Council on the results of the investigation into who was responsible for the horrific terrorist attacks which took place on September 11.

The briefing was given by Ambassador Frank Taylor, the United States Department of State Coordinator for Counter-terrorism.

This morning's briefing follows those offered by United States Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage and United States Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, and illustrates the commitment of the United States to maintain close cooperation with Allies.

Today's was classified briefing and so I cannot give you all the details. Briefings are also being given directly by the United States to the Allies in their capitals.

The briefing addressed the events of September 11 themselves, the results of the investigation so far, what is known about Osama bin Laden and the al-Qaida organisation and their involvement in the attacks and in previous terrorist activity, and the links between al-Qaida and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

The facts are clear and compelling. The information presented points conclusively to an al-Qaida role in the September 11 attacks.

We know that the individuals who carried out these attacks were part of the world-wide terrorist network of al-Qaida, headed by Osama bin Laden and his key lieutenants and protected by the Taliban.

On the basis of this briefing, it has now been determined that the attack against the United States on September 11 was directed from abroad and shall therefore be regarded as an action covered by Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, which states that an armed attack on one or more of the Allies in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all.

I want to reiterate that the United States of America can rely on the full support of its 18 NATO Allies in the campaign against terrorism.

Press Release—Organization of the Islamic Conference

Given the international repercussions still being felt around the world since the terrorist attacks against major facilities and buildings in the United States of America, Dr. Abdelouahed Belkeziz, Secretary-General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), reaffirmed the OIC position announced immediately after the attacks and strongly condemning the terrorist attacks that caused the death of a great number of innocent people.

The Secretary-General stated that those acts are diametrically opposed to the religion and teachings of Islam, which proscribe the unjust taking of a human life and stress the sanctity of human life. Moreover, those acts are in clear contradiction with innumerable resolutions adopted by the Organization of the Islamic Conference which condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and are also in contradiction with the Code of Conduct on Combating International Terrorism and the OIC 1998 Convention on Combating Terrorism, which makes it crystal clear that Islam repudiates and denounces terrorism and exhorts the Member States to "refrain from assisting or supporting terrorists in any way, shape or form, including the harboring of terrorists and granting them financial help or other forms of assistance." The Secretary-General also reaffirmed his support of the contents of the UN Security Council resolutions Nos. 1267, 1333, and 1368 and the UN General Assembly recommendation No. 1/56, which were all adopted unanimously. He urged the Member States to continue to respond positively to the contents of those resolutions and recommendations.

The Secretary-General further expressed his satisfaction at the positive cooperation shown by the Member States with regard to the recent campaign against international terrorism in all its forms and manifestations but also underscored the need to distinguish the terrorism practiced by groups and individuals from the national resistance of peoples for liberation from occupation and colonialism.

The Secretary-General stressed the willingness of the Organization of the Islamic Conference to participate in any effort aimed at reaching a consensus on the definition of terrorism.

Jeddah, 11-10-2001

Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs

Twenty-fourth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs

OEA/Ser.F/II.24
RC.24/RES.1/01
21 September, 2001 Washington, D.C.
Original: Portuguese

Terrorist Threat to The Americas
(Resolution adopted at the first plenary session, held on 21 September 2001)

THE TWENTY-FOURTH MEETING OF CONSULTATION OF MINISTERS OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS ACTING AS ORGAN OF CONSULTATION IN APPLICATION OF THE INTER-AMERICAN TREATY OF RECIPROCAL ASSISTANCE,

CONSIDERING the terrorist attacks perpetrated in the United States of America on September 11, 2001, against innocent people from many nations;

RECALLING the inherent right of states to act in the exercise of the right of individual and collective self-defense in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and with the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty);

EMPHASIZING that Article 2 of the Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS) proclaims as essential purposes of the Organization to strengthen the peace and security of the continent and to provide for common action on the part of member states in the event of aggression;

CONSIDERING that the obligation of mutual assistance and common defense of the American republics is essentially related to their democratic ideals and to their will to cooperate permanently in the fulfillment of the principles and purposes of a policy of peace; and

TAKING NOTE of resolution CP/RES. 797 (1293/01), dated September 19, 2001, of the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States acting as Provisional Organ of Consultation of the Rio Treaty, which called for a Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs to serve as the Organ of Consultation under the Rio Treaty, in connection with the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States,

RESOLVES:

That these terrorist attacks against the United States of America are attacks against all American states and that in accordance with all the relevant provisions of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty) and the principle of continental solidarity, all States Parties to the Rio Treaty shall provide effective reciprocal assistance to address such attacks and the threat of any similar attacks against any American state, and to maintain the peace and security of the continent.

That, if a State Party has reason to believe that persons in its territory may have been involved in or in any way assisted the September 11, 2001 attacks, are harboring the perpetrators, or may otherwise be involved in terrorist activities, such State Party shall use all legally available measures to pursue, capture, extradite, and punish those individuals.

That the States Parties shall render additional assistance and support to the United States and to each other, as appropriate, to address the September 11 attacks, and also to prevent future terrorist acts.

That the States Parties shall keep the Organ of Consultation duly informed of all measures that they take in accordance with this resolution.

That this Meeting of Foreign Ministers in its capacity as Organ of Consultation shall remain open for the purpose of ensuring the prompt and effective implementation of this resolution and, if necessary, of taking appropriate additional measures to address this matter.

That we hereby designate a committee, to be composed of the representatives to the OAS Permanent Council of each State Party to the Rio Treaty, for the purpose of engaging in additional consultations and of taking measures in furtherance of the foregoing.

That we hereby request that all of the American Governments and the Organization of American States lend their full cooperation in the implementation of this resolution.

That the Permanent Council be entrusted with taking appropriate measures for implementing resolution RC.23/doc.7/01, adopted by the Twenty-third Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs.

That the Security Council of the United Nations shall be informed promptly of the text of the present resolution and of any decisions that may be taken in connection with this matter.

2001 ASEAN Declaration on Joint Action To Counter Terrorism

We, the Heads of State/Government of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) gathered in Bandar Seri Begawan for the Seventh ASEAN Summit,

Recalling the agreement among Heads of State/Government during the Second Informal Summit in December 1997 in Kuala Lumpur to take firm and stern measures to combat transnational crime,

Reaffirming our primary responsibility in ensuring the peaceful and progressive development of our respective counties and our region,

Deeply concerned over the formidable challenge posed by terrorism to regional and international peace and stability as well as to economic development,

Underlying the importance of strengthening regional and international cooperation in meeting the challenges confronting us,

Do hereby,

Unequivocally condemn in the strongest terms the horrifying terrorist attacks in New York City, Washington D.C. and Pennsylvania on September 11 2001 and consider such acts as an attack against humanity and an assault on all of us;

Extend our deepest sympathy and condolences to the people and Government of the United States of America and the families of the victims from nations all around the world, including those of our nationals;

View acts of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed wherever, whenever and by whomsoever, as a profound threat to international peace and security which require concerted action to protect and defend all peoples and the peace and security of the world;

Reject any attempt to link terrorism with any religion or race;

Believe terrorism to be a direct challenge to the attainment of peace, progress and prosperity of ASEAN and the realisation of ASEAN Vision 2020;

Commit to counter, prevent and suppress all forms of terrorist acts in accordance with the charter of the United Nations and other international law, especially taking into account the importance of all relevant UN resolutions;

Ensure that, in observing the above, all cooperative efforts to combat terrorism at the regional level shall consider joint practical counter-terrorism measures in line with specific circumstances in the region and in each member country;

Recommit ourselves to pursue effective policies and strategies aimed at enhancing the well-being of our people, which will be our national contribution in the fight against terrorism;

Note that, towards this end, ASEAN had established a regional framework for fighting transnational crime and adopted an ASEAN Plan of Action that outlines a cohesive regional strategy to prevent, control and neutralise transnational crime;

Approve fully the initiatives of the Third ASEAN Ministers Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC) held in October 2001 to focus on terrorism and deal effectively with the issue at all levels and endorse the convening of an Ad Hoc Experts Group Meeting and special sessions of the SOMTC and AMMTC that will focus on terrorism;

Warmly welcome Malaysia's offer to host the Special AMMTC on issues of terrorism in April 2002. This meeting would represent a significant step by ASEAN to the United Nations' call to enhance coordination of national, sub-regional and international efforts to strengthen a global response to this serious challenge and threat to international security;

In strengthening further ASEAN's counter-terrorism efforts, we task our Ministers concerned to follow-up on the implementation of this declaration to advance ASEAN's efforts to fight terrorism by undertaking the following additional practical measures:

Review and strengthen our national mechanisms to combat terrorism;

Call for the early signing/ratification of or accession to all relevant anti-terrorist conventions including the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism;

Deepen cooperation among our front-line law enforcement agencies in combating terrorism and sharing "best practices";

Study relevant international conventions on terrorism with the view to integrating them with ASEAN mechanisms on combating international terrorism;

Enhance information/intelligence exchange to facilitate the flow of information, in particular on terrorists and terrorist organisations, their movement and funding, and any other information needed to protect lives, property and the security of all modes of travel;

Strengthen existing cooperation and coordination between the AMMTC and other relevant ASEAN bodes in countering, preventing and suppressing all forms of terrorists acts. Particular attention would be paid to finding ways to combat terrorist organisations, support infrastructure and funding and bringing the perpetrators to justice;

Develop regional capacity building programmes to enhance existing capabilities of ASEAN member countries to investigate, detect, monitor and report on terrorist acts;

Discuss and explore practical ideas and initiatives to increase ASEAN's role in and involvement with the international community including extra-regional partners within existing frameworks such as the ASEAN + 3, the ASEAN Dialogue Partners and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), to make the fight against terrorism a truly regional and global endeavor;

Strengthen cooperation at bilateral, regional and international levels in combating terrorism in a comprehensive manner and affirm that at the international level the United Nations should play a major role in this regard.

We, the Leaders of ASEAN, pledge to remain seized with the matter, and call on other regions and countries to work with ASEAN in the global struggle against terrorism.

Adopted this Fifth Day of November 2001 in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam.

Communique of The Seventy-Sixth Ordinary Session of The Central Organ of The OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution Held at The Ambassadorial Level

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 20 September 2001

The Central Organ of the OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution held its 76th Ordinary Session at Ambassadorial level in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on Thursday, 20 September 2001. H.E. Mr. Simataa Akapelwa, Ambassador of the Republic of Zambia to Ethiopia and Permanent Representative to the OAU, chaired the Session, which was open-ended. It was also the first meeting of the Central Organ to be attended by the new Secretary-General, H.E. Mr. Amara Essy.

The Central Organ considered the Report of the Secretary-General on the preparation of the Inter-Congolese Dialogue, scheduled to start in Addis Ababa on 15 October 2001. It was also briefed on the recent developments in the peace process in Sierra Leone and in the relations between the countries of the Mano River Union. The Central Organ was further briefed on the recent terrorist attacks in the United States of America.

On this occasion, the Secretary-General made statement in which he highlighted the priorities of the General Secretariat in the upcoming months.

At the end of its deliberations, the Central Organ decided as follows:

CONDEMNS unequivocally the horrific terrorist attacks that have caused enormous loss of human life and destruction in New York, Washington DC and Pennsylvania;

EXPRESSES to the Government and people of the United States of America the full solidarity and the deepest condolence of the OAU and the entire people of Africa over this tragedy which affected not only the people of the USA, but humanity as a whole;

STRESSES the urgent need to bring to justice the perpetrators and sponsors of these terrorist attacks and CALLS ON the international community to work in a more coordinated and determined manner to prevent and combat terrorist;

RECALLS the adoption of the OAU Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorist and APPEALS to all Member States that have not yet done so, to sign and ratify this instrument.



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