As an integral element of its counterterrorism policy, the United States government provides foreign nations with training and equipment designed to help boost their counterterrorism capacity. Assistance falls into seven categories: antiterrorism programs, counterterrorism engagement, border security, countering violent extremism, counterterrorism finance training, weapons threat reduction, and justice sector and rule of law.
This report is submitted pursuant to the requirements for a congressionally mandated annual report codified at 22 U.S.C. § 2349aa-7(b). During Fiscal Year (FY) 2010, the U.S. government provided assistance related to international terrorism through the Department of State, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Justice, the Department of the Treasury, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. This report does not include assistance related to international terrorism provided through the Department of Defense.
The Antiterrorism Assistance (ATA) Program continued to serve as the primary provider of U.S. government antiterrorism training and equipment to law enforcement agencies of partner nations. In FY 2010, US$ 215 million in Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related programs (NADR) funds supported ATA, providing 340 courses, workshops, and technical consultations that trained 6,823 participants from 64 countries. Cyber-security training was a major focus. Additional course topics included: crisis management and response; identifying travel document fraud; dignitary protection; bomb detection and disposal; airport security; border control; response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction; countering terrorist financing; interdiction of terrorist organizations; and, hostage negotiation and rescue. In FY 2010, the ATA Program completed 23 capabilities-assessment and program-review visits. These on-site capability assessments quantified counterterrorism critical capabilities and were used as a basis for Country Assistance Plans and to evaluate subsequent progress.
The Counterterrorism Engagement (CTE) Fund: The Counterterrorism Engagement (CTE) program aims to build political will among foreign government officials and civil societies, and support the efforts of multilateral organizations to promote more effective policies and programs. In FY 2010, US$ 3 million of NADR funds supported training and workshops hosted by the UN and other multilateral and regional bodies. These programs were directed toward bringing terrorists to justice, securing travel documents, countering terrorist financing, countering violent extremism, improving critical energy infrastructure protection, and, cyber security. An additional US$ 3 million supported the Regional Strategic Initiative, which seeks to create a network of coordinated country teams to deny terrorists safe haven. CTE Fund efforts focus on priority countries/regions including Latin America, Yemen, the Sahel, and Southeast Asia. Implementers include U.S. technical experts from the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Justice, the Department of State, and the Department of Treasury, as well as international technical experts.
Through the Terrorist Interdiction Program/Personal Identification Secure Comparison and Evaluation System (TIP/PISCES), FY 2010 NADR funding of US$ 54.5 million sustained, upgraded, and expanded TIP/PISCES system capabilities at 155 points of entry in 17 countries. TIP/PISCES helped countries at risk of terrorist activity enhance their border security capabilities by providing a computerized watch-listing system and training that enabled host nations to identify suspect travelers. Our agreements for providing this equipment and training included provisions for sharing information gathered at borders and other international entry points. During FY 2010, TIP/PISCES processed an estimated 150,000 travelers every day.
Through the Ambassador’s Fund for Counterterrorism, the U.S. government married the tools of soft power and counterterrorism assistance to help combat extremist ideology and prevent radicalization. In FY 2010, US$ 2.5 million in NADR funds were used for small-grants, which enhanced law enforcement projects challenging violent extremist narratives, empowering moderate voices, and engaging at-risk youth. The Fund sponsored projects in Argentina, Bangladesh, Bosnia, Cambodia, Kenya, Malaysia, and Yemen.
FY 2010 CTF programs were an interagency effort supported by the State Department, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and the Departments of Justice (DOJ), Homeland Security (DHS), and Treasury. The Counterterrorism Finance Unit (CTF) within the Department of State’s Bureau of Counterterrorism (S/CT) used US$ 21 million in FY 2010 NADR funding for anti-money laundering and counterterrorism finance (AML/CTF) training and technical assistance programs.
These programs were implemented by a number of federal agencies to build comprehensive and effective legal frameworks and regulatory regimes; establish active and capable financial investigative units (FIUs); strengthen the investigative skills of law enforcement entities; bolster prosecutorial and judicial development; and sustain designated training and technical assistance programs to build AML/CTF capacity. Partner countries included Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa, the Philippines, Turkey, and Yemen.
The S/CT-CTF Unit worked with the Department of State’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) to ensure that the recipients of these NADR funds implemented action plans in compliance with international standards against money laundering and terrorist financing. S/CT-CTF used its funding to draw on the technical expertise of the FDIC, FBI, IRS, DOJ, DHS, and Treasury to implement its training and technical assistance programs.
The FDIC is the lead agency for financial regulatory training while Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) provided analytical exchanges with foreign FIUs. DHS’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Division conducted a variety of courses globally, including interdicting bulk cash smuggling and operational cash interdiction. DOJ’s Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Section (AMLS) provided expertise in the drafting of laws and regulations. The IRS’ Criminal Investigations (IRS/CI) Office focused on developing forensic accounting techniques.
The Terrorist Financing and Money Laundering (TF/ML) Course
The FBI continued its extensive international training in countering terrorist financing, money laundering, financial fraud, and complex financial crimes. The FBI successfully conducted 30 courses and trained 1,152 participants from 83 countries. Although implemented through the FBI, other departments financed the training initiatives. The Department of State provided US$ 665,615 in International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) funding for training at the International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEA) in Thailand, Hungary, Botswana, El Salvador, and, the Mexican Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar (Mexican LEEDS). The Department of State also provided US$ 511,363 in NADR funds for the Basic and Advanced Terrorist Financing and Money Laundering (TF/ML) training conducted jointly with the IRS. The Department of Defense provided the funding for the Afghan Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar (Afghan LEEDS) with US$ 120,000 in Afghanistan Security Forces Funds (AFF). The FBI allocated base funding for training at the FBI academy for the Latin American Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar (LALEEDS) and the Arabic Language Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar (ALLEEDS).
Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) Threat Reduction
The Department’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs’ Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) destroyed MANPADS as part of a holistic approach to conventional weapons destruction. This program aimed to reduce threats of accidental explosions and prevent possible acquisition of MANPADS and other advanced weapons by terrorists, insurgents, or other non-state actors. Since the program's inception in FY 2003, these efforts have led to the destruction of over 32,000 MANPADS missiles in 30 countries and thousands more being better secured by partner governments. PM/WRA used FY 2010 NADR funding of approximately US$ 3.3 million to assist six states in destroying excess, loosely secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons and munitions that included 99 MANPADS missiles.
Preventing the Proliferation of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Weapons
The Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism (WMDT) program, which received US$ 2 million in FY 2010 NADR funding, funded projects to improve international capabilities to prevent, prepare for, and respond to a CBRN terrorist attack. Its primary objective was to support the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT), a U.S.-Russian initiative aimed at strengthening international collaboration in combating nuclear terrorism. The WMDT program supported the FBI in sponsoring five training courses that corroborated GICNT core principles and broad nuclear security goals that encompass a range of deterrence, detection, prevention, and response objectives. Courses on Radiological Detection and Investigative Techniques were held in Slovakia, Hungary, Latvia, Georgia, and Bulgaria.
ISN managed the Global Threat Reduction (GTR) program, which received US$ 70 million in NADR funding in FY 2010. This program was the major U.S. global bio-security effort and the largest and most comprehensive U.S. effort to engage biological, chemical, and nuclear experts worldwide. The funding supported efforts aimed at preventing terrorists and proliferating states from acquiring CBRN and related expertise, materials, technologies, and equipment in frontline states such as Pakistan, Iraq, and Afghanistan and across critical regions, such as South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. GTR addressed the security of dangerous biological materials, improved chemical security best practices, and decreased the likelihood that terrorists could gain the expertise needed to develop an improvised nuclear device. In addition, GTR closed urgent gaps in states’ abilities to prevent and respond to nuclear smuggling and nuclear terrorism.
The Counter Terrorism Unit (CTU) in the DOJ’s Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training (OPDAT) supported efforts to build effective criminal justice sectors that respect the rule of law and counterterrorism. The CTU was supported by
US$ 4.5 million in FY 2010 NADR funding from S/CT and ISN. Since the inception of the CTU, OPDAT has deployed NADR-funded Resident Legal Advisors (RLAs) to Bangladesh, Indonesia, Kenya, Pakistan, Paraguay, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates to increase the capacity of host governments to effectively investigate and prosecute financial crimes that may be funding terrorism. In FY 2010, the RLAs in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Kenya, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates remained active. OPDAT worked in close coordination with its regional units, as well as relevant sections of DOJ’s Criminal Division and National Security Division, the FBI, and other U.S. government agencies.
For its counterterrorism assistance efforts, the CTU focused on:
1. Addressing capacity to combat money laundering and terrorism financing. The CTU delivered AML/CTF-related training and technical assistance to Kenya, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, and Jordan.
2. Building capacity to prosecute terrorism crimes. In FY 2010, the CTU delivered counterterrorism training and technical assistance to Turkey and Indonesia.
3. Non-proliferation and export enforcement. In FY 2010, the CTU delivered Export Control and Related Border Security-related training and technical assistance to Malaysia, Taiwan, and Singapore.
DOJ’s International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) worked with foreign governments to develop professional and transparent law enforcement institutions that protect human rights, combat corruption, and reduce the threat of transnational crime and terrorism. During FY 2010, ICITAP had field offices in 19 countries, funded programs in 38 countries, and conducted 1,087 training events that graduated nearly 30,000 participants worldwide. ICITAP also conducted 156 foreign assistance activities in partnership with 27 different U.S. government partners.
In FY 2010, S/CT provided US$ 2.2 million in NADR funds for the placement of a full-time federal senior law enforcement advisor from ICITAP, as well as a full-time senior forensics advisor in Algeria. The three-year initiative will provide assistance to Algeria’s Gendarmerie Nationale (GN) and other law enforcement organizations to counter al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb. Separately, INL provided US$ 2.4 million in INCLE funding for a full-time senior law enforcement advisor to implement a program designed to develop the capacity of the Mauritanian law enforcement to investigate transnational crime and terrorism.