This report is submitted pursuant to the requirements for a congressionally mandated annual report codified at 22 U.S.C. § 2349aa-7(b). During Fiscal Year (FY) 2011, the U.S. government provided assistance related to international terrorism through the State Department, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Justice, the Department of the Treasury, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. This report does not include assistance related to international terrorism provided through the Department of Defense.
Note: All monetary figures are in U.S. dollars.
Antiterrorism Programs (ATA): ATA, $199.69 million in Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related programs (NADR) funds, supported 537 courses, workshops, and technical consultations that trained 11,025 participants from 64 countries. Course topics included crisis management and response, identifying travel document fraud, cyber security, bomb detection and disposal, airport security, border control, response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction, and hostage negotiation and rescue. Eighteen capabilities-assessment and program-review visits were completed. These on-site visits assessed critical counterterrorism capabilities and were used to inform Country Assistance Plans and to evaluate progress. As an example of the program’s effectiveness, the Turkish National Police Counterterrorism Unit exploited hard drives seized from an al-Qa’ida-inspired cell in Ankara subsequent to the group’s arrest – a product of the ATA-provided investigative training and forensics lab in terrorism-related investigations. Court prosecutors readily accepted the evidence collected by these investigators and analyzed in this lab.
Counterterrorism Engagement (CTE): CTE, $7 million in NADR funds, supported training and workshops hosted by the UN, the Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF), and other multilateral and regional bodies. The program also provided seed money to leverage support for counterterrorism capacity building training and programs through the Organization of American States (OAS) Inter-American Committee on Counterterrorism (CICTE), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. Specific examples of projects include OAS/CICTE workshops which discussed existing cyber security capabilities and capacity gaps, the planning and execution of a national cyber security Crisis Management Exercise (CME), and UNICRI’s international workshops provided a framework for UN Member States to share lessons learned on past programs in countering radicalization leading to violent extremism.
An additional $2.5 million in CTE funds supported the State Department’s Regional Strategic Initiative, which seeks to create a network of coordinated country teams to deny terrorists safe haven. Implementers included U.S. technical experts from the Departments of State, Homeland Security, Justice, and Treasury, as well as international technical experts.
Border Security: Through the Terrorist Interdiction Program/Personal Identification Secure Comparison and Evaluation System (TIP/PISCES), $42.05 million sustained, upgraded, and expanded TIP/PISCES system capabilities at 175 ports of entry (POEs) in 17 countries, including biometric equipment upgrades at 40 POEs in nine countries. During the May-July deployment in Iraq, nine POEs were upgraded and 197 host nation staff were trained to use the new capabilities. During the July-October deployment in Cambodia, TIP/PISCES staff installed upgraded five POEs and trained 260 host nation staff. Our agreements for providing this equipment and training included provisions for sharing information gathered at borders and other international POEs. TIP/PISCES processed an estimated 200,000 travelers every day.
Countering Violent Extremism (CVE): Through the CVE Local Grants Program, the State Department provided U.S. embassies with small grants, typically between $25,000 - 75,000, to support local efforts to counter violent extremist ideology and recruitment in communities confronting significant radicalization risks. $1.12 million in NADR funds were used for small grants, sponsoring 11 projects in Afghanistan, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bosnia, Cambodia, Malaysia, Maldives, Papua New Guinea, and Uganda.
In collaboration with UNICRI, the State Department supported a pilot project on the disengagement and rehabilitation of incarcerated violent extremists. This initiative created a multilateral forum for policymakers, practitioners and experts. Funding of $1.3 million will enable UNICRI to expand this initiative by including a technical assistance component, to respond to government requests for assistance to build new disengagement and rehabilitation programs, improve existing programs, or address more broadly problems of radicalization in prisons.
Counterterrorism Finance Training (CTF): CTF programs used $20.45 million in NADR funding as well as previous years’ funding for anti-money laundering and counterterrorism finance (AML/CTF) training and technical assistance programs for participants from 29 countries. Intra-departmental collaboration ensured that the recipients of NADR funds implemented action plans in compliance with international standards against money laundering and terrorist financing.
• The FDIC is the lead agency for financial regulatory training while Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) provided analytical exchanges with foreign FIUs.
• DHS’s Immigration and Customs Enforcement Division conducted a variety of courses globally, including interdicting bulk cash smuggling and operational cash interdiction.
• DOJ’s Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Section provided expertise in the drafting of laws and regulations.
• DOJ’s Office of Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training activity is detailed in the “Justice Sector and Rule of Law Assistance” section below.
• The IRS Criminal Investigations Office focused on developing forensic accounting techniques, an investigative, “follow the money” technique used to examine financial records and data to help determine hidden assets and money movement techniques, and to determine otherwise hidden links between terrorists and their financiers.
The FBI’s Terrorist Financing and Money Laundering Course: The FBI continued international training in countering terrorist financing, money laundering, financial fraud, and complex financial crimes. The FBI conducted 24 courses and trained 1,044 participants in 86 countries. Although implemented through the FBI, other departments financed the training initiatives. The State Department provided $1,087,882 in International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) funding for training at the International Law Enforcement Academies in Thailand, Hungary, Botswana, and El Salvador. The State Department also provided $1,021,250 in NADR funds for Basic and Advanced Terrorist Financing and Money Laundering training conducted jointly with the IRS. The FBI allocated base funding for training in Bangkok, Thailand, for the Pacific Training Initiative and at the FBI Academy for the Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar for Latin America and for one conducted in the Arabic Language.
Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) Threat Reduction: The State Department provided NADR funds for the destruction of MANPADS, as part of a program to prevent acquisition of MANPADS and other advanced weapons by terrorists, insurgents, or other non-state actors, and to reduce threats of accidental explosions. Since the program's inception in FY 2003, these efforts led to the destruction of over 32,500 MANPADS missiles in 30 countries and thousands more being better secured by partner governments. In FY 2011, the Department engaged 35 countries to reduce the impact of MANPADS, excess small arms/light weapons, and unstable ammunition. The State Department and its interagency partners focused on Libya and its neighbors. In addition, $5.75 million of NADR funds supported a Quick Reaction Force that inspected over 1000 bunkers at 117 discrete ammunition storage areas, disabling, destroying, and/or identifying approximately 5,000 MANPADS in cooperation with the host governments.
The Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism (WMDT) program received $2 million in NADR funding for projects that improved international capabilities to prevent, detect, and respond to a CBRN terrorist attack. Its primary objective was to support the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT), a multinational partnership of 82 countries aimed at strengthening international collaboration. The WMDT program facilitated the launch of GICNT Working Groups in Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Detection. Both working groups began the process of developing practical best practices documents.
The Global Threat Reduction (GTR) program received $70 million in NADR funding. It was the main U.S. global bio-security effort and the largest most comprehensive U.S. effort to engage biological, chemical, and nuclear experts worldwide. Funding supported efforts to prevent terrorists and proliferating states from acquiring CBRN-related expertise, materials, technologies, and equipment in frontline states such as Yemen, Pakistan, Iraq, and Afghanistan. The GTR program is active across critical regions such as South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. By raising awareness of the global nuclear technical community and foreign governments regarding nuclear security and nonproliferation, GTR strives to decrease the likelihood that terrorists will gain the expertise needed to develop an improvised nuclear device. GTR closed gaps in states’ abilities to prevent and respond to nuclear smuggling and nuclear terrorism.
GTR is one of the few non-proliferation groups that work to secure WMD materials on the ground in Yemen. GTR is working with the Yemeni life scientists and making tremendous gains in every district of Yemen, to improve laboratory safety and security, concerning especially dangerous pathogens. GTR engagement with CDC’s Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) trains Yemeni epidemiologists to conduct surveillance of any unusual disease outbreaks, working in the most dangerous regions of Yemen. Through GTR’s program, the FETP in Yemen have identified numerous outbreaks of disease in the first two years of the program, and have shown that the identification of these diseases leads to a significant decrease in the length of the outbreak and the number of people affected.
Justice Sector and Rule of Law: The Counter Terrorism Unit (CTU) in DOJ’s Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training (OPDAT) supported efforts to build effective criminal justice sectors that respect the rule of law. The CTU received $14.6 million in NADR funding from the State Department. Since the inception of the CTU, OPDAT has deployed NADR-funded Resident Legal Advisors (RLAs) to Bangladesh, Indonesia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Paraguay, the Philippines, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates to increase host government capacity to effectively investigate and prosecute financial crimes that could fund terrorism. The RLAs in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates remained active, and a RLA program was implemented in Malaysia. The CTU worked in close coordination with OPDAT’s regional units, as well as sections of DOJ Criminal Division and National Security Division, the FBI, and other U.S. government agencies. In FY 2011, the CTU focused on:
1. Addressing capacity to combat money laundering and terrorism financing in Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates.
2. Building capacity to prosecute terrorism crimes in Indonesia, Iraq, Mali, Mauritania, and Turkey.
3. Non-proliferation and export enforcement. Export Control and Related Border Security-related training and technical assistance was delivered to Argentina, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Slovakia, and Thailand.
DOJ’s International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) worked with foreign governments to develop professional and transparent law enforcement institutions that protected human rights, combated corruption, and reduced the threat of transnational crime and terrorism. ICITAP had field offices in 18 countries, funded programs in 37 countries, and conducted 1,267 training activities for approximately 30,000 participants. ICITAP also conducted 187 foreign assistance actions in partnership with 23 different U.S. government partners. The State Department provided $2.6 million in INCLE funds for a South Sudan information-led policing program that assisted South Sudan in its efforts to secure the borders by establishing traffic patrol units.
The State Department provided $1.1 million in Assistance to Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia (AEECA) funds to continue developing a biometric visa database system for the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and also provided $250,000 of AEECA funds to field a full-time counterterrorism advisor to provide assistance to Bosnia’s State Investigation and Protection Agency to develop its capacity to collect, analyze, and disseminate criminal intelligence. The State Department provided $500,000 to implement an integrated border management strategy with the Kosovo Border Police and Kosovo Customs that included counterterrorism measures utilizing effective policies and procedures to hinder the trafficking of illicit goods and persons at all border crossing points.