Part 1: Political and Human Rights Conditions
The United Republic of Tanzania is a multiparty republic consisting of the mainland and the Zanzibar archipelago. The union is headed by a president, who is also the head of government; its unicameral legislative body is the National Assembly. The Zanzibar archipelago, although integrated into the country's governmental and party structure, has its own president, court system, and legislature and exercises considerable autonomy. In the December 2005 union presidential and legislative elections, Jakaya Kikwete was elected president, and the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi party made significant gains in parliament. Observers considered the union elections on both the mainland and Zanzibar to be largely free and fair. The 2005 presidential elections in Zanzibar had serious irregularities and politically motivated violence.
There were a number of continuing human rights problems, including use of excessive force by police and prison guards, police impunity, harsh prison conditions, corruption and inefficiency in the lower courts, partial limits to freedom of speech and press, government corruption, restriction of the movement of refugees, societal violence against women, trafficking in persons, and child labor.
Part 2: U.S. Government Democracy Objectives
The U.S. objectives to promote democracy and human rights in the country are focused on key institutions that support public accountability. This includes strengthening civil society, the press, the legislature, and the judicial system in order to combat corruption. The United States also focuses on other human rights issues, including trafficking in persons.
Part 3: Supporting Top Priorities and Other Aspects of Human Rights and Democratic Governance
The United States promotes democracy through public outreach, programmatic support, and diplomatic engagement. U.S. officials emphasize publicly, including through media appearances and articles in the press, that respect for human rights and press freedom are cornerstones of the country's democratic growth. In public appearances and newspaper pieces, U.S. officials address topics including political reconciliation in Zanzibar and corruption.
The U.S. Government provided vital support to the government's anticorruption efforts, strengthening the government's capacity and the legal framework to prosecute corruption cases. The United States supports an advisory team to strengthen the legislature's oversight capacity with the aim of improving government transparency and accountability. To improve the legal environment for prosecuting corruption, the United States trained 189 media personnel on the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Act (PCCA) of 2007. The U.S. Government also supported President Kikwete's efforts to increase the effectiveness of the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau (PCCB). The United States trained more than 200 PCCB investigators on investigation techniques and case management and 80 magistrates on the PCCA and how to use it effectively in court. Partnering with civil society organizations, the United States also implemented 83 public expenditure tracking systems in districts throughout the country. These tracking systems enabled citizens to begin holding their government accountable for the delivery of public services. Finally, to increase the demand for anticorruption reform, the United States trained 312 journalists in basic investigative journalism techniques.
In 2008 the United States played a critical role in the government's efforts to separate police and prosecutorial functions in rural districts. The U.S. Government supported these efforts by training 157 newly recruited prosecutors in basic courtroom advocacy and prosecution techniques, bridging the gap between law school and practice for young attorneys. The new recruits have been posted by the Department of Public Prosecution to districts throughout the country and have taken over prosecution functions from the police in those districts. The United States also works with government officials as well as international and local NGOs to raise awareness about trafficking in persons and to encourage prosecution of traffickers. The United States provided antitrafficking training and technical assistance to police, immigration officials, and prosecutors on the mainland and in Zanzibar. The training covered prevention, investigation, and prosecution of trafficking in persons cases and included information on broader respect for human rights. The United States also supported the creation of legal aid societies and the formation of a network of legal aid providers. The U.S. Government funds initiatives to address the worst forms of child labor and promote formal and transitional education to prevent such labor, particularly in the rural areas.
The United States works to improve respect for human rights and democracy through public recognition of activists, exchange programs, and additional assistance efforts. The chief of mission honored the community of people with albinism and their efforts to fight discrimination and violence with the annual Martin Luther King, Jr., Drum Major for Justice Award. The United States assisted NGOs to conduct voter education workshops, provide education on women's inheritance rights, and provide legal assistance in an underserved rural area. The U.S. Government sponsored local citizens for visit and exchange programs in the United States in several fields related to human rights and good governance, including electoral procedures, women's rights, and accountability in government and business.