The law provides criminal penalties for corruption by officials, and the government generally implemented these laws effectively.
Corruption: There were sporadic allegations of governmental corruption during the year but no formal proceedings against government officials for corruption. The Law Enforcement Agency and the Department of Justice are responsible for combating corruption. Both collaborated with civil society, operated effectively and independently, and were sufficiently resourced.
Whistleblower Protection: The law provides for whistleblower protection. It provides for protection for government officials and employees, and any individual who denounces irregularities, fraud, or crime. The law states that it is the individual’s obligation and duty to report any irregularity, fraud, or crime and that it is the government’s obligation and duty to protect whistleblowers against any kind of retaliation (such as threats, attacks, insults, and harassment). If applicable, the government must ensure that “any damage” to the whistleblower is repaired and it may, in certain instances, act as the whistleblower’s representative in court.
Nongovernmental officials and employees are protected under the law by means of several measures including anonymous testimony and witness protection.
There were no reports of whistleblowing during the year.
Financial Disclosure: Public officials are not subject to financial disclosure laws.
Public Access to Information: The law provides for public access to government information, and the government provided access for citizens and noncitizens, including foreign media.