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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

U.S. Government Assistance


International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
March 2003
Report
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DoS (INL) Budget by Program ($000)

 

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Request

FY 2004
Request

ACI Country Programs

 

 

 

 

    Bolivia: Interdiction & Eradication

48,000

49,000

49,000

               Alt Dev/Institution Building1

39,600

6,000

42,000

42,000

    Colombia: Interdiction & Eradication

243,500

275,000

313,000

               Alt Dev/Institution Building

130,400

164,000

150,000

    Ecuador: Interdiction & Eradication

15,000

21,000

20,000

               Alt Dev/Institution Building

10,000

16,000

15,000

    Peru: Interdiction & Eradication

75,000

66,000

66,000

               Alt Dev/Institution Building

67,500

69,000

50,000

    Brazil

6,000

12,000

12,000

    Venezuela

5,000

8,000

5,000

    Panama

5,000

9,000

9,000

Total ACI Country Programs

645,000

731,000

731,000

 

INCLE Country Programs

 

 

 

 

    Other Latin America

 

 

 

 

          The Bahamas

1,200

1,200

1,000

          Guatemala

3,500

3,400

3,000

          Jamaica

1,550

1,300

1,500

          Mexico

12,000

25,000

12,000

37,000

          Latin America Regional

10,000

4,000

9,500

5,000

               Subtotal

28,250

29,000

27,400

47,500

    Africa

 

 

 

 

          Nigeria

2,270

1,760

2,250

          South Africa

2,034

1,442

1,770

          Africa Regional

3,196

3,798

2,980

               Subtotal

7,500

7,000

7,000

    Asia and the Middle East

 

 

 

 

          Afghanistan

3,000

60,000

40,000

          Indonesia

4,000

          Laos

4,200

3,000

3,000

          Pakistan

2,500

15,000

4,000

38,000

          Pakistan Border
          Security Supplemental

73,000

          Philippines

2,000

          Thailand

4,000

3,750

2,000

          Asia/Middle East Regional

5,050

4,500

1,000

          Southwest Asia Initiative

3,000

               Subtotal

91,750

79,000

18,250

86,000

Total INCLE Country Programs

127,500

114,000

52,650

140,500

 

INCLE Global Programs

 

 

 

 

    Interregional Aviation Support

60,000

65,000

70,000

    Systems Support/Upgrades

6,000

4,000

5,000

    International Organizations

16,000

13,000

14,000

    Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

5,000

5,000

5,000

    Regional Narcotics Training

5,000

5,000

    INL Anticrime Programs

15,330

9,000

9,000

    Civilian Police Contingent

5,000

2,700

    International Law Enforcement
    Academy

14,500

14,500

14,500

    Trafficking in Persons

7,670

10,000

10,000

Total INCLE Global Programs

129,500

130,500

130,200

 

Program Development & Support

13,000

13,850

13,850

 

      Total ACI Programs

645,000

731,000

731,000

      Total INCLE Programs

270,000

114,000

197,000

284,550

Total INL Program2

915,000

114,000

928,000

1,015,550

1The $6 million supplemental funding for Colombia in FY 2002 was appropriated as INCLE funding.
2The totals do not include FSA and SEED Act funding transfers from USAID, nor do they include PKO funding.

International Training

International counternarcotics training is managed/funded by INL and carried out by the DEA, U.S. Customs Service, and U.S. Coast Guard. Major objectives are:

  • Contributing to the basic infrastructure for carrying out counternarcotics law enforcement activities in countries which cooperate with and are considered significant to U.S. narcotics control efforts;

  • Improving technical skills of drug law enforcement personnel in these countries; and

  • Increasing cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement officials.

INL training continues to focus on encouraging foreign law enforcement agency self-sufficiency through infrastructure development. The effectiveness of our counternarcotics efforts overseas should be viewed in terms of what has been done to bring about the establishment of effective host country enforcement institutions, thereby taking drugs out of circulation before they begin their journey toward the United States. U.S. law enforcement personnel stationed overseas are increasingly coming to see their prime responsibility as promoting the creation of host government systems that are compatible with and serve the same broad goals as ours.

During FY 2002, law enforcement training continued to devote increased attention to the development and support of infrastructure building in those countries which posed the greatest threat to the U.S. as a result of their role as source or transit countries for narcotics destined for the United States. INL received positive feedback both from U.S. Embassies and foreign governments on the direct benefits gained from this training, including the discovery of illegal narcotics as a result of techniques learned during a program.

The regional training provided at the ILEA's consists of both general law enforcement training as well as specialized training for mid-level managers in police and other law enforcement agencies.

INL-funded training will continue to support the major U.S. and international strategies for combating narcotics trafficking worldwide. Emphasis will be placed on contributing to the activities of international organizations, such as the UNODC and the OAS. Through the meetings of major donors, the Dublin Group, UNODC and other international fora, we will coordinate with other providers of training, and urge them to shoulder greater responsibility in providing training, which serves their particular strategic interests.

INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of U.S. law enforcement agencies in response to requests for assistance from U.S. Embassies. This will avoid duplication of effort and ensure that presentations represent the full range of USG policies and procedures.

Drug Enforcement Administration

The primary responsibility of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is to reduce the threat posed to our nation by illicit narcotics. The majority of illegal drugs impacting American society are produced outside of the United States and smuggled into our country. These illegal drugs are smuggled from their country of origin and often transit other nations before arriving in the United States. Thus, a strong international commitment to counternarcotics law enforcement is required to effectively blunt this menace. In cooperation with other U.S. agencies and foreign law enforcement counterparts, DEA strives the disrupt the illicit narcotics distribution chain; arrest and prosecute those involved in all aspects of the illegal drug trade and seize their profits and assets.

DEA's contribution to our nation's international counternarcotics strategy is accomplished through the 79 offices located in 58 nations that DEA maintains worldwide. The DEA overseas mission is comprised of the following components:

  • Conduct bilateral investigative activities
  • Coordinate intelligence gathering
  • Coordinate training programs for host country police agencies
  • Assist in the development of host country drug law enforcement institutions and engage in foreign liaisons
The emphasis placed on each component is determined by conditions and circumstances within the host nation. In nations where the law enforcement infrastructure is advanced and well developed, the DEA office may tailor its activities to specific areas that best support host nation efforts. In countries lacking a robust law enforcement capability, DEA personnel may provide assistance in all four of the mission areas annotated above. The following sections highlight the assistance that DEA provided during 2002 to host nation counterparts in support of the four established mission components.

Bilateral Investigations

Throughout fiscal year 2002, DEA offices in Thailand have mounted numerous enforcement efforts against International Impact Target, the United Wa State Army (UWSA). These collective enforcement efforts centered on the disruption of the UWSA's methamphetamine and heroin trafficking activities. Noteworthy bilateral investigations mounted by Thai authorities and DEA-trained Sensitive Investigative Units in northern Thailand resulted in a March, 2002 seizure of 26.6 kilograms of heroin and a January, 2002 seizure of 250 kilograms of methamphetamine.

The DEA Bangkok Country Office manages interdiction programs at the Don Muang International Airport, targeting both couriers and express mail packages. These programs have been extremely successful in identifying West African and other drug couriers smuggling kilogram quantities of heroin to the U.S., as well as identifying trafficking trends for the internal Thai drug market. Notable seizures include: a March 2002 seizure of 4,800 tablets of MDMA destined for Thailand from Amsterdam and 500 grams of heroin destined for Australia.

On January 6, 2002 Japanese Customs at the Port of Moji, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Fukuoka Prefectural Police and the National Police Agency of Japan seized approximately 150 kilograms of methamphetamine from a Chinese vessel (M/V Minshiyuhao) and arrested seven Chinese crewmembers. Japanese police sources have advised the Tokyo Country Office that the methamphetamine was produced and shipped from North Korea.

In June 2000, the DEA Bangkok Country Office, in concert with the Royal Thai Police, Nana Drug Enforcement Unit began an investigation of Nigerian heroin trafficker Napoleon MAVELLOUS. MAVELLOUS was reported to be the most prolific and prominent Nigerian trafficker in the region. During the course of the investigation, a cooperating source and an undercover DEA Special Agent were enlisted to infiltrate the MAVELLOUS organization. On March 10, 2002, the enforcement operation culminated with the delivery of 7.5 kilograms of heroin and the arrest of MAVELLOUS and five other members of his organization.

On March 19, 2002, the Office of Narcotics Control Board, Khon Kaen Narcotics Unit, which is sponsored by the DEA Udorn Resident Office, seized 2,000 kilograms of caffeine and arrested five individuals. The seizure was derived from information developed by the Office of Narcotics Control Board in Bangkok indicating that a suspicious shipment of 80 sacks of "white flour" was being transported. The quantity of caffeine seized could be utilized in the production of up to 40 million tablets of methamphetamine. This is the first large seizure of a chemical utilized in the manufacture of methamphetamine in northeast Thailand.

On April 5, 2002, a joint investigation involving the DEA offices in Hong Kong, Bangkok and Beijing, as well as the Bureau of Narcotics Control, Ministry of Public Security, Royal Thai Police, Hong Kong Customs, Guangzhou Customs, Guangzhou Public Security Bureau (PSB) and Yunnan PSB culminated in the seizure of approximately 317 kilograms of heroin and the arrest of 13 subjects. The principal target of this investigation, Paiboon TANKITTAYA-KAWIL, and his associates were instrumental in coordinating heroin shipments from Burma across southern China to Guangzhou. This investigation is significant, as it was the first time that the exchange of "real-time intelligence" had led to a major seizure in China.

On April 6-9, 2002, officers from the Indonesian National Police, Narkoba Unit raided two large-scale, clandestine MDMA laboratories and arrested ANG, Keim Soei. The DEA Singapore Country Office was immediately notified of this seizure and sent agents already in Indonesia to the scene. The first site contained approximately 150 kilograms of powder MDMA, 10,000 MDMA tablets, 100 gallons of Piperidine (PMK), 10 separate pill presses and U.S. $200,000. In response to the discovery of the second lab site, DEA dispatched two chemists from its Special Testing and Research Laboratory to Jakarta, Indonesia to assist in the analysis and dismantling of the lab. It should be noted that approximately 30 samples were provided to DEA for laboratory analysis. On January 13, 2003, ANG was given a death sentence.

The DEA Los Angeles Field Division arrested SUVIT Prasobratanawas circa June 2001, in Los Angeles, California. Subsequently, the Kingdom of Thailand requested the provisional arrest and extradition of SUVIT to face drug charges in Thailand. The Los Angeles Assistant United States Attorney's Office advised that the information contained in the request was sufficient only to obtain the arrest warrant and was insufficient to show probable cause for a successful extradition. On April 24, 2002, after hearing testimony from a DEA Bangkok Country Office Special Agent, Magistrate Judge Jeff Johnson ruled that sufficient probable cause existed for SUVIT to be extradited to Thailand. An appeal is pending.

Thai counterparts have taken aggressive enforcement actions against DEA fugitive WEI Hsueh-Kang, specifically targeting his assets and equities located in Thailand. DEA offices throughout Thailand have provided large amounts of information related to WEI's identified assets in Thailand. WEI Hsueh-Kang is a DEA fugitive, who is also wanted for drug charges in Thailand. In one operation, the Royal Thai Police and the Thai Anti-Money Laundering Office (AMLO) served eight search warrants on residences and businesses related to WEI Hsueh-Kang. The operation yielded the seizure of assets totaling approximately 100 million Thai Baht, or the equivalent 23 million U.S. dollars. During a more recent operation, Thai authorities executed 26 search warrants and arrested and revoked the citizenship of five defendants. This operation was engineered to put pressure on high-level drug traffickers in northern Thailand, against whom the authorities have been unable to develop a prosecutable drug case. The revocation of their Thai citizenship will separate the defendants from their businesses and real property (estimated value of U.S. $1 million) located in Thailand.

As a result of Operation LOVER'S SPEED, a joint operation between the DEA Hong Kong Country Office and the Hong Kong Customs and Excise Department, Controlled Chemicals Group (CCG). The Hong Kong Country Office successfully developed and shared information with the DEA Mexico Country Office for legitimacy verification of a large shipment of Piperonal that was scheduled to arrive in Mexico. Inquiries conducted by the Mexican authorities on the importer disclosed that the importer was not authorized to import the ten tons of Piperonal. Upon recommendations of the Mexico City Country Office, the Mexican authorities detained the ten-ton shipment of Piperonal. Presently, the ten tons of Piperonal is in the custody of the Mexican armed forces.

On August 7, 2002, an investigation coordinated by the Udorn Resident Office resulted in the arrest of five Lao nationals and the seizure of approximately 17. 5 kilograms of heroin and 60,000 methamphetamine tablets. One of these individuals had an ID card certifying him as a "plain clothes officer" of the Ministry of Interior, Peoples' Democratic Republic of Laos.

On August 22, 2002, Swiss Customs officials seized a suitcase belonging to a Singaporean national that contained more than 20,000 MDMA tablets. The suitcase was forwarded to Thai authorities who, in conjunction with members of the Songkhla Resident Office, conducted a controlled delivery in Thailand. Post arrest interviews of the defendant indicate that he was acting as a courier on behalf of an unidentified Malaysian Chinese male.

On August 28, 2002, the Louisville, Kentucky District Office contacted the Bangkok Country Office regarding a parcel that contained approximately 1.5 kilograms of cocaine. U.S. Customs officials at the UPS facility in Louisville, Kentucky had inspected the parcel. The parcel was forwarded to Bangkok for further investigation. Members of the Royal Thai Police in conjunction with the BCO conducted a controlled delivery of the parcel that resulted in the arrest of two West African nationals.

On September 9, 2002, two confidential sources controlled by the Royal Thai Police provided information that resulted in the seizure of 140 kilograms of heroin and the arrest of three individuals. Information provided by these sources indicates that the shipment was part of a larger 700-kilogram shipment that is believed to have been controlled by WEI Hsueh Kang, YANG Jiao Ho (a Tiger Trap fugitive) and an unidentified ethnic Kokang Official. Following this initial action, the Chiang Mai Resident Office provided these details to the Rangoon, Burma Country Office (RCO), who in turn relayed the information to its law enforcement counterparts. On October 9, 2002, Burmese authorities advised the RCO of 11 arrests, and the execution of several search warrants that resulted in the seizure of more than 41 kilograms of heroin, 5,000,000 methamphetamine tablets, and 10 kilograms of crushed/wet methamphetamine.

Based on information supplied by the DEA Managua Office, the Nicaraguan National Police have seized shipments of grenades, dynamite and AK-47 assault rifles on several separate occasions this year. Sources have indicated that these weapons were to be exchanged or sold for quantities of cocaine. Six Nicaraguans and one Guatemalan were arrested in connection with these seizures. Information to date does not indicate that these weapons and/or explosives were intended for use against the United States..

On January 18, 2002, the DEA Costa Rica Country Office reported that the Policia Control de Drogas (PCD) had arrested a Nicaraguan national and seized twenty AK-47s concealed in the container of a tractor trailer just outside the San Jose, Costa Rica metropolitan area. Intelligence indicated that the AK-47s were going to be exchanged with a group of unknown individuals for an unspecified quantity of cocaine somewhere between Costa Rica and Colombia.

On February 27, 2002, in a joint U.S. and Mexico operation, an 800+ foot cross-border tunnel was discovered between Mexico and Boulevard, California. Three Mexican nationals were arrested on the Mexican side. The tunnel was owned and operated by members of the Jose Albino Quintero Meraz drug trafficking organization.

On March 9, 2002, the Government of Mexico arrested Benjamin Arellano Felix, patriarch and leader of the drug trafficking Arellano Felix Organization (AFO). Also arrested was Manual Martinez Gonzalez, brother of AFO assassin Fabian Martinez Gonzalez a.k.a. "El Tiburon". The arrests were the result of a 6-month joint investigation into the activities of Martinez that led investigators to Benjamin's location in Puebla, Mexico. At the time of his arrest, Benjamin acknowledged that his brother, Ramon Arellano Felix, had been killed in February 2002 in a shootout in Mazatlan. Through various sources of information, DEA Mexico has concluded that AFO operations continue under the leadership of another brother, Javier Arellano Felix.

On March 13, 2002, the Government of Mexico arrested Miguel Herrera Barraza aka "El Tarzan", lieutenant and operations and logistics coordinator for the AFO. Herrera was a former Municipal police officer and a former State Judicial Police officer and coordinated drug loads into the U.S. via the Tecate, Mexico corridor.

On April 10, 2002, Special Forces of the Mexican Army (Mexican Gaffes) in conjunction with the Organized Crime Unit (OCU), arrested 43 law enforcement officials in Tijuana, Mexicali and Ensanada areas of Baja California, Mexico. A total of 22 Municipal Police officers (18 in Mexicali, 2 in Tijuana, 2 in Ensenada) and 20 State Judicial Agents from Baja California were arrested. All of the individuals were working for the AFO.

On May 26, 2002, the Mexican Military arrested Jesus Albino Quintero-Meraz and 6 other key lieutenants of the Amado Carrillo Fuentes drug trafficking organization in Boca Del Rio, Veracruz, Mexico. At the time of his arrest, Quintero-Meraz and his associates were in possession of ten handguns, multi-hundred rounds of ammunition, six vehicles and $8,553.00 U.S. currency. Quintero-Meraz was responsible for trafficking multi-ton quantities of cocaine per month into the U.S.

On July 16, 2002, approximately 1.46 million dollars were seized from a Colombian female at the Mexico City, Mexico Airport. The female courier, her son and her sister were destined for Cali, Colombia. The money courier and her husband are both targets of investigation in the Guadalajara, Mexico; Bogota, Colombia and Miami, Florida DEA Offices.

The Republic of Panama continues to be a favored transshipment point and distribution hub for Colombian heroin destined for the United States and, to a lesser extent, Europe. Increasingly, heroin enters Panama either in bulk shipments via maritime smuggling or in multi-kilogram shipments via couriers arriving as passengers aboard commercial aircraft. Recently, heroin has been seized aboard go-fast vessels transporting multi-hundred kilogram quantities of cocaine. As a result of coordinated efforts with Panamanian authorities, the Panama Country Office has reported nearly 245 kilograms of heroin seized in CY 2002.

In 2002, DEA Guatemala intelligence reported that Guatemalan law enforcement officials were stealing narcotics loads from traffickers for profit, offering protection for traffickers and their illicit cargo transiting Guatemala, assassinating drug transporters for the purpose of stealing their shipments, torturing and killing innocent civilians, and committing other criminal acts. Actions of this nature became so brazen that in October 2002, the Guatemalan Portillo administration disbanded the Departamento de Operaciones Anti-Narcoticas (DOAN). A new counternarcotics unit, Servicio de Analisis y Investigaciones Anti-Narcoticas (SAIA), was developed and staffed by newly assigned personnel. Mandatory requirements for personnel assigned to this unit include successfully passing a polygraph, urinalysis, and background check. Placing a greater emphasis on investigations than its predecessors, the SAIA has experienced a few early successes.

On August 10, 2002, the Nicaraguan National Police, working in conjunction with the Managua Country Office, arrested two individuals and seized approximately 445 kilograms of Colombian cocaine from a truck at a Nicaragua/Honduras border crossing.

On December 27, 2002, the DEA Hermosillo, Mexico Office, along with Mexican police and military components, discovered a subterranean tunnel used to smuggle drugs from Nogales, Sonora, Mexico into Nogales, Arizona. The tunnel was approximately 165 feet in length, four feet in height and three feet in width. One of three subjects arrested in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico in connection to the tunnel discovery is the brother-in-law of the tunnel's owner/operator, Mauricio Balbastro-Urtuzuarte. Balbastro-Urtuzuarte is a well documented with DEA and has a long history of tunnel-related activity in the Nogales, Mexico area.

Operation Containment is a closely coordinated regional program involving the Central Asian States, India, Pakistan, Turkey, the Balkan nations, Russia, Germany, the United States and the United Kingdom. The goal of Operation Containment is to reduce the amount of Afghan heroin flowing to Western Europe through enhanced interdiction efforts, intelligence sharing, and database connectivity. The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative Center in Bucharest, Romania acts as a clearinghouse for interdiction and requests for database checks. From June 10 through July 10, 2002, 17 countries participated in a border interdiction blitz that resulted in the seizure of over 600 kilograms of heroin, more than 1574 tons of precursor chemicals and 5000 kilograms of marijuana. In Turkey, DEA Agents worked with Turkish Customs colleagues at Turkey's border crossings with Iran, Bulgaria, and Azerbaijan.

The Berlin Country Office in conjunction with the Vienna and New Delhi Country Offices, the Detroit Field Division, and German and Dutch officials have been targeting an MDMA trafficking organization since 2001. This organization was based in Germany and the Netherlands and was responsible for shipping multi-kilogram quantities of MDMA to the United States. The Detroit Field Division initiated undercover negotiations in Europe. As a result of these negotiations 130,000 MDMA tablets were seized, and three defendants were arrested.

Based on Islamabad Country Office developed information, the Baluchistan Frontier Corps seized approximately 100 kilograms of morphine base near the Pakistan/Afghan border. When authorities located the storage site, the two individuals guarding the site ran from the area. According to DEA Islamabad, an unknown person had planned on picking up the morphine base sometime that evening and transport it through Iran.

DEA Istanbul, Turkey in coordination with the Turkish Jandarma conducted an 8-month long investigation into a heroin drug trafficking organization. Based on intelligence developed by DEA, 7,454 kilograms of morphine base were seized on March 31, 2002 (morphine base converts to heroin at a 1:1 ratio, so this was the equivalent of over 7 metric tons of heroin). This is the largest seizure of opiates ever in Turkey. To date, 14 traffickers have been arrested that were associated with this case.

As part of a border interdiction initiative, on August 23, 2002, Turkish Customs seized approximately 17 metric tons of acetic anhydride at Ipsala, Turkey, which is located on the Turkish/Greek border. The Istanbul Resident Office is assisting Turkish authorities in this investigation. To date, this is the largest known acetic anhydride seizure in Turkey. It is believed that the acetic anhydride was enroute to Southern Turkey and Iran. In a continuation of this investigation on September 4, 2002 an additional 5.5 tons of acetic anhydride were seized in a rural area outside of Istanbul.

DEA London launched a joint investigation with the National Crime Squad of England focusing on identifying synthetic drug producers. This investigation led to the discovery of an MDMA manufacturing organization operating in southern California and Mexico, and the seizure of a sophisticated laboratory in January 2002. It also resulted in the indictment of 22 members of this syndicate.

Based on information provided by the Madrid Country Office the Spanish National Police initiated Title IIIs on cellular telephones utilized by members of a marine transportation organization which was smuggling cocaine. Intelligence revealed that cocaine was being transported onboard the United States registered sailboat "Che" to Spain. On July 6, 2002 the Spanish National Police seized 700 kilograms of cocaine onboard the "Che" and arrested two defendants. The seizure took place approximately 200 nautical miles off the coast of Portugal.

The New Delhi Country Office has been assisting the DEA Houston Field Division in the investigation of the whereabouts of a Houston Field Division Priority Target fugitive. Based on a U.S. request for provisional arrest and the coordinated efforts of the New Delhi Country Office, the Indian Central Bureau of Investigation and the Punjab State Police, the fugitive (who is a U.S. citizen) was arrested by Indian police on November 10, 2002. On January 7, 2003 an extradition request was made to the Government of India. At the present time, the fugitive remains in custody pending judicial proceedings regarding his extradition.

The Pretoria Country Office and Kenyan law enforcement authorities have been investigating a Kenyan-based narcotic trafficking organization responsible for sending Southwest Asian heroin to the United States. A total of nine couriers associated with this organization have been arrested at various U.S. airports and over ten kilograms of heroin seized. This organization has also been responsible for sending approximately $841,000.00 from the United States to Kenya. In September 2002, based on arrest warrants issued by Federal Court in the District of Columbia, Kenyan authorities arrested the two principal members of this organization in Nairobi, Kenya. These individuals will be extradited from Kenya to the United States and will be prosecuted by the Department of Justice in Washington, D.C. This investigation is significant because it will be the first time that a Kenyan national will be extradited to the United States to face federal drug charges..

DEA The Hague in conjunction with Dutch authorities initiated an investigation into an MDMA trafficking group. Intelligence information led authorities to the discovery of an active pill production site and the seizure of approximately 350 kilograms of MDMA powder. A tablet-manufacturing machine with a production capability of 100,000 tablets per hour was also discovered. Dutch authorities estimated that the MDMA powder seized would produce approximately 3.5 million tablets of MDMA.

The Vienna Country Office in conjunction with the Romanian Counter Narcotics Unit and the Austrian Police conducted an investigation into the ecstasy smuggling activities of a Romanian organization. Intelligence revealed that the organization was in the market to sell 500,000 tablets of MDMA. During ensuing negotiations the undercover officer received a sample of the MDMA. Subsequently, the undercover officer obtained approximately 50,000 tablets of MDMA. At that time, three individuals of the organization were arrested and two vehicles seized. Arrest warrants are being executed for the remaining members of this organization.

The Bogota Country Office and Cartagena Resident Office, in conjunction with the Colombian National Police Sensitive Investigations Unit assigned to the north coast of Colombia, led an international investigation into the drug trafficking activities of linear target Dolcey PADILLA-Padilla and members of his organization. PADILLA heads a drug trafficking network responsible for the supply and maritime transportation of multi-ton quantities of cocaine and multi-kilogram quantities of heroin through the Caribbean to the United States and Europe. This investigation culminated in the execution of 37 search warrants, the seizure of approximately $1.2 million dollars in U. S. currency, multiple seizures of cocaine and heroin (28,024 kilograms of cocaine and 24 kilograms of heroin) and the arrest of PADILLA and several of his accomplices. PADILLA and approximately 17 high level associates were indicted in the United States and are pending extradition to face multiple drug trafficking charges.

The La Paz Country Office and the Bolivian National Police (BNP) Anti-Drug Unit coordinated an investigation targeting the cocaine transportation organization headed by Jorge CASTRO-Perez. This organization is responsible for the transportation of multi-hundred kilogram cocaine shipments from Peru through Bolivia and into Brazil. This investigation culminated in the seizure of 204 kilograms of Peruvian cocaine and the arrests of seven defendants.

The Santiago Country Office, in conjunction with the Bogota Country Office and the DEA Washington Field Division, coordinated a multi-national investigation which led to the indictment of Carlos CASTA�O-Gil, Salvadore MANCUSO-Gomez and Juan Carlos SIERRA-Ramirez for conspiracy to import cocaine into the United States. The three suspects are leaders of the Colombia based Auto Defensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC). The investigation and indictment charged that the defendants are responsible for cocaine seized in several multi-ton maritime seizures in the Caribbean and Chile. Judicial extradition requests have been filed with the Colombian government.

The Brasilia Country Office, in coordination with the Brazilian Federal Police (DPF) Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU), targeted the Leonardo DIAS-MENDONCA international cocaine and weapons trafficking organization. This organization was found to be using Brazil as a transshipment base to send cocaine to the United States and Europe and was found to be trading weapons for cocaine with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). This five-year investigation culminated with the arrest of DIAS-Mendonca and the arrests of 24 associates, to include several federal judges. Additionally, this investigation resulted in the seizure of 3,000 kilograms of cocaine and $4,000,000 in cash and assets. DIAS was indicated in the United States, along with Brazilian trafficker Luis Fernando DA COSTA and Tomas MOLINA-ACASIO, commander of the 16th Front of the FARC, for conspiracy to import cocaine into the United States,

The Caracas Country Office and the Venezuelan Federal Police vetted unit, in coordination with the French Navy culminated an investigation into the international maritime transportation activities headed by Juan SANCHEZ with the seizure of 1,720 kilograms of cocaine, fifteen boats and the arrest of 13 defendants. This organization is responsible for transporting multi-ton quantities of cocaine from Venezuela to the United States and Europe via maritime vessels.

The Buenos Aires Country Office, in coordination with the Gendarmeria Nacional de Argentina culminated an investigation into the Reinaldo NINO-FONTECHA heroin trafficking organization with the seizure 8 kilograms of heroin, 20 kilograms of cocaine and the arrest of 17 defendants. The NINO-FONTECHA organization is responsible for the shipment of multi-kilogram quantities of heroin to the United States and multi-kilogram shipments of cocaine to Europe. The Buenos Aires Country Office also coordinated this investigation with the DEA Brasilia Country Office and the DEA Miami and New York Field Divisions. The extradition of NINO-FONTECHA and 12 of his primary associates to New York to face heroin trafficking charges is currently pending.

The Quito Country Office, in coordination with the Ecuadorian National Police Sensitive Investigative Units culminated an investigation into the Francisco Javier ALARCON-SANTIBA�EZ international cocaine trafficking organization with the execution of five search warrants, the seizure of 2,100 kilograms of cocaine and the arrest of 16 defendants, including Colonel de Estado Mayor Jose Hermel PILA-HUALPA. Colonel PILA was an active member of the Ecuadorian Army and served as the Deputy of Operations. This organization was responsible for sending multi-ton quantities of cocaine to the United States and Europe utilizing maritime shipping containers. Colonel PILA provided security for the cocaine shipments and assisted the organization in securing counterfeit container seals that were used to ship the cocaine to the U.S. and Europe.

The Lima Country Office, the Peruvian National Police Illicit Drug Trafficking Division and the Peruvian Sensitive Investigative Unit conducted an investigation which led to the arrest of priority target Nelson PAREDES-Ortiz, 27 of his associates and the seizure of 1,760 kilograms of cocaine and a cocaine conversion lab. This investigation targeted the multi-ton cocaine smuggling activities of the PAREDES organization from Peru to the United States. The Lima Country Office also coordinated this investigation with the DEA Miami Division and the Bogota and Mexico Country Offices.

The Asuncion Country Office and the Paraguayan Federal Police Major Violators Unit culminated an investigation into the activities of the Carlos RIVERO-FREITAS cocaine trafficking organization. The RIVERO-FREITAS organization was involved in the transportation of multi-hundred kilograms of cocaine from Paraguay to Brazil for shipment to the U. S. and European markets. In conjunction with this investigation, a search warrant was executed at a private residence which resulted in the arrest of one suspect and the seizure of 150 kilograms of cocaine.

During 2002, DEA launched Operation Hurricane II. The operation ran from September 16, 2002 through September 28, 2002 and was the 5th in a series of operations that stressed the development of regional operations; facilitated the flow of information within and between the Caribbean transit zone and the South American source zone; promoted regional connectivity and the development of a nexus between participating counternarcotics entities; and focused on targeting the command structures of major international DTOs. Operation Hurricane II was significant in that the participating Caribbean nations organized and planned this initiative through their participation in the annual International Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC).

Intelligence Gathering

DEA coordinates drug-intelligence gathering and dissemination worldwide. The DEA intelligence component focuses on intelligence collection pertaining to the cultivation and manufacture of illicit substances, the sale of precursor chemicals for making illicit drugs and the transportation routes of these drugs into the United States. The following activities demonstrate the breadth of DEA involvement around the world.

DEA offices throughout Southeast Asia have reported a dramatic increase in the trafficking of MDMA throughout the region, to include the discovery of significant MDMA laboratories in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia and, most notably, in Indonesia. The increasing demand for ecstasy and the availability of precursor chemicals from China and Vietnam provide evidence that nations in Southeast Asia are increasingly vulnerable to becoming havens for large-scale MDMA manufacturers. While still in relatively small quantities, MDMA, trafficked and possibly produced by Southeast Asian drug traffickers, has been seized in the U.S. and Canada. In response, DEA offices throughout Southeast Asia have fully engaged their counterparts to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals and target MDMA trafficking groups.

Intelligence reporting indicates that on occasion, the United Wa State Army has reacted to enforcement pressure in northern Thailand by temporarily shifting narcotics trafficking operations into areas of Laos bordering Burma. During February-April, 2002 several seizures were made totaling 557.1 kilograms of methamphetamine and 35.1 kilograms of heroin. These seizures indicate that Laos is re-emerging as a significant trafficking area for narcotics entering the international market from Burma. The DEA Udorn Resident Office and Vientiane Country Office continues to monitor this trend.

The March, 2002 the International Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC) membership unanimously approved a proposal presented by the IDEC Presidents and DEA to establish four regional Centers for Drug Information (CDIs). These Centers are to be located in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Bogota, Colombia; and Mexico City, Mexico. Upon completion, these four centers will provide law enforcement personnel of forty-one participating nations with the facilities and capability for sharing drug-related tactical and investigative information in a timely manner. Over 150 computers will be provided to participating nations' law enforcement personnel. These computers will provide the foundation for the exchange of information and expand current efforts regarding ongoing investigations, drug movements and seizures, alien smuggling, money laundering, weapons trafficking, clandestine drug laboratories, and other topics of mutual concern.

DEA Athens received intelligence from the DEA Rome Country Office that three containers containing a large quantity of cocaine would be transiting Greece enroute to Italy. DEA Athens working with the Hellenic (Greek) National Police and the Ministry of Financial Crimes Squad seized 220 kilograms of cocaine on January 8th; on January 11th, 702 kilograms of hashish were seized. On January 31st Greek authorities arrested four individuals associated with the shipment, and Swiss authorities arrested the individual who arranged transport.

On August 23, 2002, the Belgian Federal Police advised the Brussels Country Office of the seizure of three diamond cutting tables that were being stored in Antwerp, Belgium, with a final destination of New York. Upon further examination of the tables by personnel from the Brussels Country Office and Belgian authorities it was determined that 1.4 million ecstasy tablets were secreted inside locked storage compartments under the tables. It was decided that a controlled delivery of the tables would be attempted. On September 15, 2002, the tables were shipped via maritime freight to New Jersey, and onward to Brooklyn, New York. Subsequently, three subjects were arrested while attempting to take delivery of the tables.

The Ottawa Country Office working in conjunction with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and numerous DEA domestic offices dismantled an internet-based drug trafficking operation. Operation Webslinger, a multi-jurisdictional investigation, targeted the illegal trafficking of "date rape" drugs such as GHB and its derivatives, GBL and 1.4 Butanediol by individuals and organizations supplying these drugs over the internet. The operation resulted in the arrest of 115 individuals and 3,300 gallons of the drugs, the equivalent of approximately 25 million dosage units in 84 cities across the United States and Canada. The laboratory supplying these drugs to customers is located in Canada.

During 2002, the Paris Country Office initiated an investigation targeting the sale of Sassafras Oil, a precursor in the manufacturing of MDMA, from France via the Internet. A customer from Frankfurt, Kentucky expressed an interest in purchasing two litters of Sassafras Oil. Thereafter, the Paris Country Office and the Lexington, Kentucky Resident Office put into effect a controlled delivery of the Sassafras Oil. In October 2002, the defendant was arrested after receiving the package. A search warrant executed on the defendant's apartment resulted in the seizure of precursor chemicals, new glassware and packaging material for a fully operational MDMA laboratory. An additional search warrant at another location resulted in the seizure of notes and formulas for the production of MDMA. Special Agents also seized several books related to the operation of clandestine laboratories and bomb making.

Centers for Drug Information (CDIs) are intelligence fusion centers that are designed to support the disruption and dismantlement of drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) via the development, coordination and dissemination of counternarcotics information. These centers will facilitate targeted investigations and resources will be synchronized in order to better support counternarcotics operations against the entire spectrum of the drug trade. This connectivity is essential to the development of unified action that rapidly identifies and attacks DTOs. The CDIs will achieve this by establishing essential elements of information that focus collection, analysis and dissemination resources against DTOs that have a regional impact; providing standard operating procedures (SOP) for information sharing; improving multi-lateral coordination and operation/intelligence integration by generating inter and intra regional information sharing; developing information relating to actionable, operational and strategic drug trafficking activities; facilitating timely, effective and secure sharing of investigative information, operational leads and actionable information; producing daily significant activity reports and joint regional strategies.

CDIs are presently being established in the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Colombia and Bolivia.

Coordinate Training Programs for Host Nation Police Agencies

DEA's international training activities are conducted in coordination with DEA's foreign offices, U.S. Missions, and the Department of State International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs section. The full range of the international counternarcotics training program is addressed in the International Training Section of the INCSR.

The U.S. Department of State funded Southeast Asian International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) began offering courses in March 1999. ILEA has trained over 1,600 law enforcement and judicial officials from nine Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, People's Republic of China, and the Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions of China. In addition to directing the ILEA, DEA has continued to sponsor host nation counter narcotics officials and serve as trainers at the ILEA.

The Buenos Aires Country Office hosted five schools, to include three Basic Narcotics Investigator Schools, one Chemical Diversion Investigations School and one Jet Way Airport Interdiction School. The Buenos Aires Country Office additionally sponsored three Basic Chemical Safety Schools in the provinces of San Juan, Salta and Corrientes. The courses were attended by an average of 55-70 people per class and were comprised of federal and provincial police officers involved in drug enforcement activities.

The Quito Country Office hosted a Money Laundering School put on by the Office of International Training and a Chemical Diversion School assisted by the Chemical Diversion Unit from DEA Headquarters. Approximately 40 people, representing the federal and state drug and financial enforcement and regulatory agencies, were represented at each school.

Institution Building and Foreign Liaison

DEA Agents establish close relationships and networks with their counterparts that foster cooperation in international drug law enforcement. DEA Agents meet with their counterparts to discuss policy and legislative issues and provide assistance in developing drug control laws and regulations. DEA also provides training and material support to foreign law enforcement partners to help them combat major drug trafficking organizations and the production and transportation of illicit drugs. The activities described below are representative of DEAs efforts in foreign liaison and institution building activities.

In April 2002, DEA sponsored the 20th annual International Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC) in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. At the conference, senior drug law enforcement officials from 58 nations were in attendance. Attendee's from Europe, Asia and the Western Hemisphere met to discuss and exchange insights on counternarcotics enforcement activities. Presenters described their counternarcotics enforcement activities and strategies and shared lessons learned from joint regional investigations and operations. Members adopted strategies and shared lessons learned from multilateral; investigations and operations. Members adopted initiatives pertaining to the development of regional multinational enforcement investigations and operations targeting major drug traffickers in the hemisphere. They also adopted initiatives for increased enforcement and regulatory action to reduce the use of general aviation for trafficking purposes. The conference, hosted by the United States, provided a forum for the delegates to exchange information and build personal relationships that are key to enhancing closer coordination among law enforcement agencies.

In May 2002, the DEA Rangoon, Burma Country Office sponsored a visit to Washington D.C. of General Kyaw Thein, Directorate of Defense Intelligence Services, and Colonel Hkam Awng, Central Committee for Drug Abuse and Control. During the visit, Burmese counterparts met with officials from several U.S. Government agencies to discuss drug control efforts ongoing in Burma and U.S. certification benchmarks. This is the first high-level visit of drug control officials from Burma, since the current regime seized power in 1989.

The DEA Hong Kong Country Office hosted the second "Far East Regional Precursor Chemical Conference" in May 2002. The purpose of this conference was to serve as a catalyst to promote law enforcement cooperation among the participants and to enhance the ongoing ephedrine tracking initiative. Ephedrine is the primary precursor chemical used in the production of methamphetamine. Twelve countries were represented, to include the United States (DEA Office of Diversion Control), Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Japan, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, India, South Korea, Macau Special Administrative Region, and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, as well as corresponding DEA Attaches.

Burma was placed on the Financial Action Task Force's list of non-cooperating territories in June 2001, because of the poor quality of its anti-money laundering law and enforcement efforts. The Government of Burma responded by enacting new money laundering legislation, which addressed the FATF's recommendations and made money laundering itself a predicate offense. The DEA Rangoon Country Office is proactively sharing expertise in the establishment of a financial investigation unit, which will enforce the money laundering law, as well as any orders issued by the central bank to block the assets of narcotics traffickers and terrorist organizations. The Rangoon Country Office sponsored a workshop in June 2002, where DEA's experience in conducting drug-related money laundering investigations was shared.

On June 7, 2002, utilizing input from the DEA Manila Country Office, Philippine President Macapagal-Arroyo signed the "Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002". This new law drastically strengthens counternarcotics efforts by establishing a single mission agency modeled after the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. It establishes a high-level Dangerous Drugs Board responsible for formulating policy, a Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) responsible for implementation and enforcement, and a PDEA Academy responsible for recruiting and training PDEA officers. Additionally, the law significantly increases all drug-related penalties, introduces penalties related to precursors and essential chemicals, and establishes some asset seizure and forfeiture provisions.

DEA has continued to foster a professional relationship with Chinese counterparts. Prior to opening the DEA Beijing Country Office in 1999, DEA routinely engaged Chinese counterparts in bilateral investigations from its Hong Kong Country Office. This relationship has significantly expanded since establishing a permanent presence in Beijing. To that end, DEA co-hosted the first bilateral intelligence sharing meeting between counter narcotics officials of the United States and China on October 29-30, 2002 in Beijing China. DEA Assistant Administrator for Intelligence, Steven Casteel and Director General Yang Fengrui of the National Narcotics Control Commission led their respective delegations. This conference was viewed as an important step in advancing Sino-American counter narcotics cooperation.

Successful drug trafficking organizations utilize collaborative and transnational efforts to accomplish their mission. The Caribbean, Latin American and Central American offices of DEA combat these drug trafficking trends by establishing regional initiatives. Currently, five regional investigations have been selected as "regional priority targets" The five selected targets unite law enforcement efforts by the sharing of intelligence and the planning of unified operations against the trafficking groups conducting activities in and through various nations.

Law enforcement officials from the countries involved in the current five regional priority target investigations met on a quarterly basis in CY 2002 in Miami, Florida to share investigative leads and devise operations directed at the selected targets. In 2002, five of six regional priority targets were indicted or arrested.

In February 2002, DEA Turkey and the Turkish National Police hosted the Southwest Asia Heroin Strategy Conference in Ankara, Turkey. This conference led to the development of Operation Containment. At that meeting, Ministers and officials from 25 countries agreed to regional plans to stem the flow of heroin from Afghanistan. DEA further led other planning meetings in Bucharest in April and an Interdiction Conference in May.

Based on the initiative of the Lagos Country Office, a West African Joint Operations counter narcotics association was established. During August-September 2002, a number of West African countries participated in a joint coordinated air, land, and sea counter narcotics operation. This operation was conducted to disrupt the transshipment of narcotics through the African sub-region, and to stimulate the sharing of drug intelligence information among participating countries. The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency of Nigeria and the Narcotics Control Board of Ghana co-sponsored the operation with the Lagos Country Office. This operation resulted in the arrest of 164 individuals and the seizure of 17 kilograms of heroin, 11.5 kilograms of cocaine, 1362 kilograms of marijuana and $193,970.00 in U.S. currency. This operation was unprecedented in the African sub-region.

In February 2002, DEA Nicosia witnessed an eradication project in the Baaka Valley, Lebanon. Under the direction of the Lebanese Police and with the assistance of the Lebanese military, acres of young poppy fields were plowed under. The Lebanese eradication program was supported by the Syrian military as well. This is the first time in many years that personnel from the Nicosia Country Office were allowed to enter the Baaka Valley, much less observe the eradication of opium poppies. This is a significant event, which will enhance and solidify the cooperation between DEA and Lebanon.


INL-Funded DEA Training

 

Number of Participants

Number of Programs

Drug Enforcement Administration

 

 

Training in U.S.

 

 

     SIU Training Seminars

265

7

Training in Host Countries

  

  

     SIU Training Seminars

113

2

     In-Country Drug Enforcement Seminar

273

8

     Basic Drug Enforcement Seminar

389

12

     Advanced Drug Enforcement Seminar

66

2

     International Asset Forfeiture Seminar

130

5

     Airport Operations Seminar

93

3

     Specialized Seminars

140

4

     ILEAs (Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone)

723

18

Total INL-Funded DEA Training FY 2002

2,192

61

United States Coast Guard

Overview

The Coast Guard's multiyear campaign plan to combat the dynamic maritime drug trafficking threat, Campaign Steel Web, is continually evolving to reflect changes in drug trafficking trends.

Steel Web 2003 is fully aligned with the National Drug Control Strategy (NDCS), and complements the contributions of our law enforcement (Customs, DEA, and local LEAs) and DoD partners in this effort.

Three pillars form the foundation of Steel Web 2003:

  • Denial of maritime drug smuggling routes by developing a dynamic interdiction presence in the transit and arrival zones, in response to tactical intelligence information, focusing limited resources to maximize the seizure rate of cocaine being smuggled via three major smuggling vectors: Eastern Caribbean, Western Caribbean and Eastern Pacific. 

  • Strengthening ties with source and transit zone nations to increase their capabilities in maritime law enforcement, reduce drug-related activities and enhance legitimate commerce within their territorial limits. Support local, state and federal interagency efforts to combat drug smuggling through coordinated operations planning and execution.

  • Implement the latest research and development (R&D) and off-the-shelf technologies available, to better equip Coast Guard assets to detect, monitor and interdict suspect vessels, and to locate contraband during boardings and searches.
The key to success of Steel Web 2003 is adherence to the concept of centralized operational planning and decentralized execution, which includes maintaining the flexibility to respond to tactical intelligence and information. Pursuit of international engagement opportunities is also necessary, which occurs at the tactical, theater and strategic levels. Partnering with law enforcement officials of other nations helps develop indigenous interdiction forces, and enhances the cumulative impact of interdiction efforts directed at drug traffickers in the region. The fruits of R&D and off-the-shelf technology are enabling more effective deployment of assets.

Combined Operations

The Coast Guard conducted Operation Caribe Venture, Operation Rip Tide, Operation Bluestorm, Operation Bluewater, Operation Carib Royale, Operation Venus and Operation Rio Coco during 2002.

  • Operation Caribe Venture was a wide-ranging international effort to deny smugglers the use of maritime routes along the islands of the eastern Caribbean. Caribe Venture was a multi-phase operation that included counternarcotics forces from the French West Indies, Grenada, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, the Dominican Republic, United Kingdom and Netherlands.

  • Operation Rip Tide: A continuing combined U.S./Jamaica/Grand Caymans (UK) effort to deny smugglers the use of maritime smuggling routes into Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Rip Tide is coordinated by the 7th Coast Guard District in Miami, and was conducted three times in 2002.

  • Rio Coco: A new international effort to deny smugglers the use of maritime routes through Honduras and Nicaragua using Nicaraguan and Honduran shipriders under a trilateral arrangement. This operation had the added benefit of reducing tensions along a disputed maritime region.

  • The U.S. Coast Guard also conducted Op Bluestorm with Nicaragua, which was run by a joint operation command center that included Nicaraguan Navy/Police and Coast Guard personnel.

  • Other CD operations included: Op Bluewater in the Eastern Caribbean with the USCG, UK, Trinidad & Tobago, St Vincent & Grenadines and Grenada; Op Venus with the Venezuelan Coast Guard, and Op Carib Royale in the French West Indies (Martinique).
International Agreements

Increasing numbers of bilateral agreements between the U.S. and Caribbean nations is moving us toward our goal of a "seamless" territorial sea and airspace. In 2002, the six-part CD model agreements with both Nicaragua and Haiti entered into force. In addition, the U.S. government participated in final negotiations for a Caribbean Regional Maritime Counterdrug Agreement, which should be open for signature in early 2003.

Recent bilateral agreements have been reached with Panama and Nicaragua, which include International Maritime Interdiction Support (IMIS) provisions. These provisions allow for the transfer of detainees directly from a USG vessel to an awaiting USG aircraft in Panama and Nicaragua, as well as expedited entry of U.S. law enforcement personnel to provide technical assistance. These agreements have significantly improved the operational and logistical efficiency of our counternarcotics operations by allowing units to remain on patrol.

International Cooperative Efforts

In 2002, the Coast Guard was involved in 58 narcotics smuggling events, which resulted in the seizure of 40 vessels, the arrest of 207 suspected smugglers, and the seizure of 117,780 pounds of cocaine and 40,316 pounds of marijuana. Of the 58 events, 53 involved some type of foreign support or cooperation (direct unit participation, exercise of bilateral agreements, granting permission to board, logistics support, etc.). The Coast Guard seized 116,580 pounds of cocaine (99 percent of total seized) and 30,500 pounds of marijuana (76 percent of total seized) during these 53 events.

The Coast Guard has worked out informal counternarcotics cooperative efforts with Mexico, which have improved overall effectiveness. In 2002, the Coast Guard provided direct support to the Mexican Navy in six cases; the most significant of these was the F/V MACEL with 20,387 pounds of cocaine.

The Coast Guard continued to enjoy exceptional cooperation from the Government of Colombia in maritime interdiction resulting in the seizure of over 38,000 pounds of cocaine in 2002. The U.S.-Colombia Ship Boarding Agreement allows the U.S. to exercise jurisdiction over CO flagged vessels located outside the CO EEZ, if the U.S. has initiated an ongoing investigation. The Colombians authorized all 66 requests for USCG boardings of claimed Colombian flagged vessels in 2002. Successful cocaine seizures as a result of the agreement include F/V PAULO (25,150 pounds) and F/V PUNTA DEL ESTE (10,300 pounds).


USCG Technical Assistance

FY02 (Completed)

Country

Course Title

Start Date

Finish Date

Funding Source

Albania

Maritime Interdiction Techniques Mobile Training Team

22-Jan-02

1-Feb-02

JCTP

Albania

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer and Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

6-May-02

23-May-02

IMET

Antigua (Trade Winds)

SAR Planning/OPCEN Procedures Mobile Training Team

16-Apr-02

25-Apr-02

INL

Antigua (RSSTU)

Maritime Commerce Control, Infrastructure Development Mobile Training Team

1-Oct-01

30-Sep-02

INL

Azerbaijan

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer and Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

1-Sep-02

14-Sep-02

IMET

Bahamas (Trade Winds)

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

6-Apr-02

13-Apr-02

IMET

Belize

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Small Boat Ops, Hull Maintenance Mobile Training Team

4-Mar-02

15-Mar-02

IMET

Bolivia

Water Survival Training

25-Feb-02

9-Mar-02

Embassy

Bolivia

Maritime Commerce Control, Infrastructure Development Mobile Training Team

1-Oct-01

30-Sep-02

Embassy

Chile (UNITAS)

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

25-Jun-02

27-Jul-02

UNITAS

Colombia (UNITAS)

Counter Narcotics Joint Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

16-Feb-02

23-Feb-02

UNITAS

Colombia

Counter Narcotics Joint Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

7-Apr-02

13-Apr-02

IMET

Costa Rica

Maritime Commerce Control, Infrastructure Development Mobile Training Team

1-Oct-01

30-Sep-02

INL

Costa Rica

Outboard Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

18-Nov-01

1-Dec-02

INL

Costa Rica

Caterpillar Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

11-Mar-02

22-Mar-02

INL

Croatia

Maritime Assessment

17-Mar-02

30-Mar-02

EXBS/DOS

Dominican Republic

SAR Planning/OPCEN Procedures Mobile Training Team

11-Mar-02

22-Mar-02

FMS

Djibouti

Pre-training Maritime Survey

8-May-02

15-May-02

TCA

Ecuador

Pre-Training Maritime Assessment

5-Nov-01

9-Nov-01

DOD/TCA

El Salvador

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Joint Boarding Officer, Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

14-Jan-02

31-Jan-02

IMET

Eritrea

Pre-Training Maritime Assessment

16-May-02

26-May-02

TCA

Estonia

Maritime Crisis Management Mobile Training Team

12-Jul-02

IMET

Georgia

Maritime Commerce Control, Infrastructure Development Mobile Training Team

1-Oct-01

30-Sep-02

USCS

Georgia

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

12-Jun-02

23-Jun-02

EXBS/DOS

Ghana

Pre-training Maritime survey

27-Jan-02

2-Feb-02

IMET

Ghana

Maritime Law Enforcement/Fisheries Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

11-Aug-02

17-Aug-02

IMET

Greece

Olympic Maritime Security Assessment

10-Aug-02

17-Aug-02

DOS/ATA

Guyana

SAR Planning/OPCEN Procedures Mobile Training Team

07 Jan 02

18-Jan-02

FMS

Guyana

Engineering Assessment Mobile Training Team

11-Mar-02

14-Mar-02

TCA

Honduras

Small Boat Operations Mobile Training Team

10-Feb-02

23-Feb-02

INL

Honduras

Small Boat Operations Mobile Training Team

25-Feb-02

1-Mar-02

TCA

Honduras

Maritime Law Enforcement/Fisheries Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

10-Aug-02

21-Aug-02

TCA

Iceland

Search Coordination and Planning Mobile Training Team

22-Oct-01

6-Oct-01

FMS

Jamaica

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Joint Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

20-Jan-02

2-Feb-02

IMET

Japan

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Joint Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

07 Feb 02

24-Feb-02

FMS

Jordan

Port Security/Port Vulnerability Mobile Training Team

1-Apr-02

13-Apr-02

IMET

Jordan

Search Coordination and Planning Mobile Training Team

15-Apr-02

19-Apr-02

IMET

Jordan

Outboard Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

9-Sep-02

13-Sep-02

IMET

Kenya

Crisis Command and Control Mobile Training Team

9-Jun-02

22-Jun-02

IMET

Latvia

Marine Safety and Environmental Security Seminar

29-Jul-02

4-Aug-02

IMET

Lebanon

Outboard Motor Maint, Eng/Log Admin Mobile Training Team

18-Aug-02

7-Sep-02

IMET

Lebanon

Marine Safety and Environmental Security Seminar

3-Aug-02

9-Aug-02

IMET

Lebanon

Model Maritime Service Code

25 Jan 02

2-Feb-02

INL

Lebanon

Model Maritime Service Code

25-Feb-02

1-Mar-02

INL

Lebanon

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Joint Boarding Officer, Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

17-Feb-02

9-Mar-02

IMET

Lebanon

Port Security/ Port Vulnerability Mobile Training Team

14-Apr-02

20-Apr-02

IMET

Lithuania

Maritime Crisis Mgt Seminar Mobile Training Team

9-Sep-02

20-Sep-02

IMET

Malawi

Pre-Training Maritime Survey

26-Jul-02

5-Aug-02

IMET

Maldives

Coastal SAR Mobile Training Team

2-Jun-02

6-Jun-02

IMET

Malta

Port Security/ Port Vulnerability Mobile Training Team

17-Aug-02

25-Aug-02

IMET

Mauritania

Pre-Training Maritime Survey

03 Frb 02

9-Feb-02

IMET

Mauritania

Maritime Law Enforcement/Fisheries Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

7-Sep-02

22-Sep-02

IMET

Mexico

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Outboard Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

3-Jun-02

28-Jun-02

DOD

Mexico

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Outboard Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

1-Sep-02

28-Sep-02

DOD

Mexico

SAST PACTACLET/IONSCAN Training

22-Sep-02

28-Sep-02

INL

Mexico

SAST PACTACLET/IONSCAN Training

10-Nov-02

15-Nov-02

INL

Netherlands Antilles

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

27-May-02

31-May-02

FMS

Netherlands Antilles

SAR Procedures Mobile Training Team

12-Aug-02

23-Aug-02

FMS

Nicaragua

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

14-Aug-02

29-Aug-02

IMET

Panama

Maritime Commerce Control, Infrastructure Development Mobile Training Team

1-Oct-00

30-Sep-01

INL

Paraguay

Coast Guard Subject Matter Exchange Mobile Training Team

8-Jun-02

15-Jun-02

TCA

Peru

Maritime Commerce Control, Infrastructure Development Mobile Training Team

1-Oct-00

30-Sep-01

INL

Poland

Search Coordination and Planning Mobile Training Team

15-Oct-01

19-Oct-02

IMET

Portugal

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

3-Mar-02

16-Mar-02

IMET

Qatar

Port Security/ Port Vulnerability Mobile training team

31-Mar-01

4-Apr-01

TCA

Samoa

Search Coordination and Planning Mobile Training Team

18-Feb-02

22-Feb-02

IMET

Singapore

Coastal Search and Rescue Ops Mobile Training Team

25-Mar-02

6-Apr-02

Direct

Seychelles

Coastal Search and Rescue Ops Mobile Training Team

13-Sep-02

19-Sep-02

IMET

Tonga

SAR Procedures Mobile Training Team

4-Feb-02

15-Feb-02

IMET

Tunisia

Maritime Law Enforcement/Fisheries Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

14-Apr-02

27-Apr-02

IMET

Uruguay

Small Boat Maintenance Subject Matter Expert Exchange

16-Jun-02

21-Jun-02

TCA

Vanuatu

Model Maritime Service Code

25-Jul-02

3-Aug-02

IMET


USCG Technical Assistance

FY03 (Proposed)

Country

Course Title

Start Date

Finish Date

Funding Source

Albania

Hull Maint and Damage Control

20-Feb-03

3-Mar-03

IMET

Albania

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer and Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

11-May-03

18-May-03

IMET

Algeria

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Joint Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

11-Jun-03

20-Jun-03

IMET

Azerbaijan

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer and Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

23-May-03

31-May-03

IMET

Azerbaijan

82' Patrol Boat Course

14-Jun-03

28-Jun-03

FMS

Azerbaijan

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

31-May-03

14-Jun-03

IMET

Bahamas (Trade Winds)

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

14-Apr-03

21-Apr-03

IMET

Belize

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Maritime Law Enforcement Instructor Mobile Training Team

11-Jan-03

1-Feb-03

IMET

Colombia

Port Security and Vulnerability Assessment Mobile Training Team Course

16-Nov-02

23-Nov-02

FMS

Colombia

Maritime Crisis Management Seminar Mobile Training Team

15-Feb-03

1-Mar-03

FMS

Djibouti

Small Boat Operators Mobile Training Team

2-Mar-03

15-Mar-03

IMET

Dominican Republic

Engineering and Logistics Admin Mobile Training Team

2-Nov-02

16-Nov-02

FMS

Gabon

Pre-Training Survey

1-Mar-03

8-Mar-03

DoS

Georgia

82' Patrol Boat Course

4-Oct-02

27-Oct-02

EXBS

Greece

Maritime Crisis Management Seminar Mobile Training Team

27-Oct-02

8-Nov-02

DOS

Guyana

44' Subject Matter Exchange Mobile Training Team

26-Oct-02

1-Nov-02

TCA

Guyana

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

11-Jan-03

25-Jan-03

INL

Haiti

Maritime Needs survey

18-Nov-02

23-Nov-02

IMET

Haiti

Engineering and Logistics Admin and Outboard Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

25-Jan-03

15-Feb-03

INL

Lebanon

Coastal Search and Rescue Ops Mobile Training Team

9-Jan-03

19-Jan-03

IMET

Lebanon

Marine Safety Seminar Mobile Training Team

1-Feb-03

9-Feb-03

IMET

Malta

Maritime Crisis Management Seminar Mobile Training Team

7-Mar-03

23-Mar-03

IMET

Mexico

Outboard Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

1-Mar-03

8-Mar-03

DOD

Mexico

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer and Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

9-Mar-03

29-Mar-03

DOD

Netherlands Antilles

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Maritime Law Enforcement Instructor Mobile Training Team

1-Mar-03

15-Mar-03

FMS

Nicaragua

Maritime Law Enforcement Subject Matter Exchange

3-Mar-03

8-Mar-03

TCA

Panama

Port Security and Vulnerability Assessment

23-Feb-03

28-Feb-03

Direct

Philippines

Maritime Needs Assessment

1-Mar-03

16-Mar-03

JAITFW

Taiwan

Small Boat Operators Mobile Training Team

7-Nov-02

24-Nov-02

Direct

Thailand

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

2-Mar-03

17-Mar-03

INL

Tunisia

Fisheries Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Maritime Law Enforcement Instructor Mobile Training Team

114mar03

30-Mar-03

IMET

Turkmenistan

OPCEN Procedures Mobile Training Team

11-Nov-02

24-Nov-02

DOS

Unitas

Caribbean Phase

10-Feb-03

11-Mar-03

UNITAS

Uruguay

44' Subject Matter Exchange Mobile Training Team

2-Feb-03

8-Feb-03

TCA

Western Samoa

Coastal Search and Rescue Ops Mobile Training Team

13-Feb-03

22-Feb-03

IMET

Madagascar

Small Boat Operators Mobile Training Team

16-Mar-03

22-Mar-03

FMS

Venezuela

Outboard Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

16-Mar-03

22-Mar-03

DOD

El Salvador

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Maritime Law Enforcement Instructor Mobile Training Team

16-Mar-03

29-Mar-03

IMET

Mexico

Small Boat Operators Mobile Training Team

22-Mar-03

5-Apr-03

DOD

Malta

CG Maritime Commerce Control, SAR Development Mobile Training Team

22-Mar-03

30-Mar-03

IMET

Seychelles

CG Waterside Port Security Mobile Training Team

23-Mar-03

31-Mar-03

IMET

Venezuela

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

23-Mar-03

29-Mar-03

DOD

Jamaica

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Joint Boarding Officer, Instructor Mobile Training Team

29-Mar-03

12-Apr-03

IMET

Portugal

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

4-Apr-03

20-Apr-03

IMET

Ecuador

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

5-Apr-03

13-Apr-03

DOD

Guyana

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Maritime Law Enforcement Instructor Mobile Training Team

14-Apr-03

25-Apr-03

INL

Lithuania

CG Waterside Port Security Mobile Training Team

18-Apr-03

4-May-03

IMET

Colombia

Coastal Search and Rescue Ops Mobile Training Team

20-Apr-03

26-Apr-03

FMS

Mexico

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

26-Apr-03

3-May-03

DOD

Belize

Advanced Port Security/Port Vulnerability Assessment Mobile Training Team

26-Apr-03

10-May-03

INL

Kenya

Coastal Search and Rescue Ops Mobile Training Team

10-Apr-03

21-Apr-03

IMET

Lebanon

CG Port Security/Port Vulnerability Mobile Training Team

18-Apr-03

4-May-03

IMET

Haiti

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer and Hull Maint and Damage Control Mobile Training Team

1-May-03

15-May-03

IMET

Estonia

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

1-May-03

25-May-03

IMET

Colombia

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

3-May-03

10-May-03

DOD

Trinidad & Tobago

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer and Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

3-May-03

24-May-03

INL

Haiti

Advanced Outboard Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

4-May-03

10-May-03

IMET

Mexico

CG Small Boat Operators Mobile Training Team

10-May-03

17-May-03

DOD

Barbados

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

17-May-03

31-May-03

INL

Mexico

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

31-May-03

7-Jun-03

DOD

Thailand

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer and Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

1-Jun-03

23-Jun-03

INL

Russia

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

1-Jun-03

7-Jun-03

DoS

Russia

CG Port Security/Port Vulnerability Mobile Training Team

3-Jun-03

10-Jun-03

DoS

Ukraine

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

6-Jun-03

14-Jun-03

DoS

Mexico

Outboard Motor Maint Mobile Training Team

7-Jun-03

15-Jun-03

DOD

Malawi

Fisheries Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Maritime Law Enforcement Instructor Mobile Training Team

7-Jun-03

14-Jun-03

IMET

Bahamas

Coastal Search and Rescue Ops Mobile Training Team

14-Jun-03

22-Jun-03

IMET

Mexico

Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer and Interdiction Planning Mobile Training Team

14-Jun-03

28-Jun-03

DOD

Jamaica

Small Boat Operators Mobile Training Team

21-Jun-03

12-Jul-03

INL

Mexico

Small Boat Operators Mobile Training Team

28-Jun-03

12-Jul-03

DOD

Oman

CG Port Security/Port Vulnerability Mobile Training Team

1-Jul-03

14-Jul-03

TCA

Barbados

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

13-Jul-03

19-Jul-03

INL

Latvia

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

1-Aug-03

7-Aug-03

DoS

Eritrea

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

1-Aug-03

11-Aug-03

IMET

Lithuania

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

1-Aug-03

11-Aug-03

DoS

Ghana

Fisheries Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer, Maritime Law Enforcement Instructor Mobile Training Team

15-Aug-03

24-Aug-03

IMET

Estonia

Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Instructor Mobile Training Team

22-Aug-03

31-Aug-03

IMET

Dominican Republic
Advanced Counter Narcotics Maritime Law Enforcement Boarding Officer Mobile Training Team

13-Sep-03

27-Sep-03

INL

United States Customs Service

The United States Customs Service processes goods and merchandise entering and exiting the United States. Inspectors, mail examiners and canine officers are tasked with intercepting contraband, illicit goods and unreported currency as it crosses our borders. Interdiction efforts are targeted to have a minimum impact on legitimate trade, utilizing techniques of selectivity to identify high-risk shipments for intensive examination. U.S. Customs has responded to the nation's terrorism priorities by developing strategic programs to increase port security. Seizure statistics show that the U.S. Customs Service is a highly successful border control agency operating with a high level of efficiency and integrity. On the average day, U.S. Customs examines 1.3 million arriving passengers, 410,000 arriving conveyances, seizes $500,000 in currency and 2 tons of narcotics, arrests 65 fugitives or violators, while processing high volumes of passengers and commercial merchandise. The State Department Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs and the U.S. Customs Service promote international cooperation through interagency agreements that provide funding for training and assistance programs throughout the world. The agreements enable the U.S. Customs Service to provide a variety of training, high tech tools and strategies for combating transnational crime and increasing international law enforcement success.

International Training and Assistance

U.S. Customs conducted a number of programs in response to emerging priorities in 2002:

  • U.S. Customs provided technical training and assistance in support of the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) programs currently operating in Bangkok, Budapest and Gaborone. The mission of the ILEA is to promote social, political, and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve this goal, ILEA provides high-quality training and technical assistance, supports institution building and enforcement capability and fosters improved relationships between American law enforcement agencies and their counterparts in the region. ILEA encourages strong partnerships among regional countries, to address common problems associated with criminal activity. U.S. Customs has developed and conducted specialized training on topics which include: International Controlled Deliveries and Rug Investigation conducted jointly with DEA; Complex Financial Investigations conducted jointly with IRS; and Intellectual Property Rights conducted with the FBI. Customs provided assistance for 15 ILEA programs.

  • African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) was formalized to provide training and technical assistance to meet the requirements of provisions for textile manufacturing and exportation. The preparations include development of textile visa systems, implementation of measures to combat textile transshipment. The U.S. send survey and textile transshipment teams to AGOA countries to implement the Act. In 2002 AGOA provided training in South Africa and Kenya for a total of 35 countries. Textile verification teams were fielded to 2 countries. Videos were produced and used on field training on the topics of textile factory production verifications, integrity, risk management, and commercial fraud.

  • Post-funded short-term advisory projects were conducted in Panama, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Qatar, China, and Israel during 2002. While the focus of each advisory project was tailored to the recipient country, the general theme was port security, professionalization of border control agencies and interdiction training.
Industry Partnership Programs

Currently, the U.S. Customs Service has three active Industry Partnership Programs (IPP) that are designed to deter and prevent narcotics from being smuggled into the United States via commercial cargo and conveyances, and to enlist the trade's support in narcotics interdiction-related activities, both domestically and abroad. The programs are:

  • The Carrier Initiative Program (CIP), established in 1984, is a joint effort among air, sea, and land, railroad carriers and U.S. Customs. There are over 4,100 carriers currently participating in the CIP. The program encourages the carriers to improve their security practices in striving to prevent narcotics from getting onboard their conveyances.

  • The Business Anti-Smuggling Coalition (BASC), initiated in March 1996, is a business-led, Customs-supported alliance created to combat narcotics smuggling via commercial trade. BASC was designed to complement and enhance the CIP program. The idea Behind BASC is to examine the entire process of manufacturing and shipping merchandise from foreign countries to the United States. The program also heightens business awareness about narcotics smuggling in the import and export communities. Thirty BASC programs were conducted during 2002 in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru and Venezuela.

  • The Americas Counter Smuggling Initiative (ACSI) is a priority undertaking, established by Customs, to build upon the success of the CIP and BASC by strengthening and expanding our counternarcotics security programs with industry and government throughout Central and South America. Since January 1998, Customs has detailed officers to assist businesses and government in developing security programs and initiatives that safeguard legitimate shipments from being used to smuggle narcotics. Target countries include Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela.
Current Status

Port Security Initiatives

In response to increased threats of terrorism, U.S. Customs developed innovative programs that seek to identify high-risk shipments to the United States before they reach our ports. Outlined are the Container Security Initiative (CSI), the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (T-CPAT), and Plan Colombia.

CSI represents a security regime to identify and inspect containers that may contain terrorist weapons or terrorists before the containers are placed on vessels destined for the United States. The 20 world ports handling the highest volume of cargo destined to the U.S. have been classified as "megaports." Sixteen of the original top 20 megaports have agreed to participate in the program. Currently, U.S. Customs personnel are collocated with their foreign counterparts at ports in Canada, the Netherlands and France utilizing the latest technology to profile, identify and examine high-risk shipments before they are shipped to U.S. ports. We will continue to deploy teams to the participating ports as quickly as possible We are looking to expand CSI beyond the top 20 ports, as rapidly as we can. We intend to expand CSI to all ports that ship substantial amounts of cargo to the U.S., and that have the infrastructure and technology in place to participate in the program.

T-CPAT is open to importers, carriers, brokers and other industry sectors to build a seamless security-conscious environment through the entire commercial shipping process. A forum is provided in which the business community and U.S. Customs can meet to exchange information to increase the security of the process beginning with manufacturing, to transportation, through to importation and delivery. C-TPAT combats the threat posed by terrorist elements by employing best business practices and enhanced security measures to eliminate the vulnerability of the trade.

U.S. Customs developed and implemented an initiative focusing on narcotics interdiction efforts, combating the Black Market Peso Exchange, intelligence gathering, and bilateral cooperative efforts between the governments of the U.S. and Colombia. In support of Plan Colombia, U.S. Customs provided training and assistance focusing on integrity, border interdiction, trade fraud, intelligence collection, industry partnership programs, and financial crimes issues in Colombia. In addition, an Andean Regional Initiative was developed to counter the effects of Plan Colombia in the Andean Region. During 2002, our $1 million in basic inspection tools and high-tech equipment was designated for delivery to Colombian National Police and Anti-Narcotic Police.

Plan Colombia

U.S. Customs has actively supported Colombia through several initiatives in 2002 through Plan Colombia. Air and Marine interdiction support is being provided to replace detection and monitoring aircraft upgrades. In addition, U.S. Customs supports the Colombian National Police (CNP) and the Direccion de Impuestos y Aduanas Nactionales (DIAN) with training and equipment. Through Industry Partnership programs, U.S. Customs assists private sector entities in improving security. Financial Investigations programs aimed at combating the Black market Peso Exchange (BMPE) enhance the capabilities of DIAN to address smuggling, financial crime, integrity and trade fraud issues, and to expand their investigative abilities. A Special Investigative Unit (SIU) comprised of Colombian Judicial Police (DIJIN) officials was established in Bogota specifically to target BMPE-related money laundering crimes.

The U.S. Customs Attach� Bogota has assisted Colombia law enforcement with numerous seizures of currency, and has cooperated on several investigations in 2002. U.S. Customs has conducted Title III investigations of Colombian money launderers, assisted with controlled deliveries of counterfeit currency, as well as participating in undercover operations with DIAN. Additionally, U.S. Customs has conducted investigations of arms trafficking, corruption cases and child pornography. The Customs Attach� Bogota extradited several fugitives to the United States during 2002.

A total of 17 airport and seaport interdiction training and advisory programs have been conducted with DIAN and the CNP in 2002, and over 500 officers were trained. A total of 14 currency, internal narcotics carrier and contraband seizures have occurred during training programs with DIAN. The enforcement success rate of DIAN particularly in interdicting inbound currency, has increased.

Computer equipment to combat narcotics trafficking and money laundering was donated to DIAN in 2002. Inspection equipment was also procured for DIAN and the CNP in support of the Port Security Program and will be donated in 2003.

Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements

Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements (CMAA) negotiations are currently on-going with the Governments of Brazil, Chile, India, Kuwait and Paraguay. CMAAs provide for mutual assistance in the enforcement of customs-related laws, and the U.S. Customs utilized these agreements to assist in evidence collection for criminal cases involving narcotics smuggling and money laundering. U.S. courts have ruled that evidence gathered via these executive agreements is fully admissible in U.S. court cases.

International Training in the U.S.

International Visitors Program (IVP). Visiting foreign officials consult with appropriate high level managers in U.S. Customs Headquarters, and conduct on-site observational tours of selected ports and field operations. The focus includes narcotics enforcement policies, port security issues, counterterrorism programs and intelligence operations. The IVP was delivered to 850 participants for 257 programs to benefit 124 countries during 2002.

International Border Interdiction Training (IBIT). The Customs Port of Hidalgo hosted several IBIT programs during 2002. During separate courses, first and second-line field supervisors from border control agencies in the countries of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan completed IBIT—a course designed to introduce to operational managers the contraband interdiction methods and techniques used by U.S. Customs in the United States. Interdiction training of the front-line field officers in the participating countries follows the IBIT program as part of a larger Contraband Enforcement Team training program.

International Training in Host Countries

Overseas Enforcement Training (OET). This program combines formal classroom training and field exercises for border control personnel. The curriculum includes narcotics interdiction, identifying falsified travel documents, targeting search techniques, WMD and hazardous materials identification in the border environment. In 2002 the curriculum was updated to include an overview of terrorism, particularly as it pertains to inspectional personnel. The OET program was delivered to 166 participants in 7 countries.

Train-the-Trainer Workshop. The Train-the-Trainer Workshop is oriented to prepare a nucleus of instructors who can teach border control interdiction techniques as part of a formal classroom training program. The program institutionalizes training methodology and prepares a cadre of trainers for the host governments. During 2002, the program was delivered to 12 instructors for the State Border Service Academy in Bosnia-Herzegovina prior to their grand opening. The State Border Service is a relatively new agency with broad border control responsibilities both at formal border crossings and the "green border" between.

Short Term Advisory (STA). This program commits an on-site U.S. Customs expert to assist the host government agencies with selected projects of institution building and improved interdiction capabilities. These may focus on specific narcotics threats, port security, and counterproliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Advisors are also fielded for strategic planning, port security and contraband interdiction, commercial processing, investigations, automation and border/trade facilitation. During 2002, STAs were conducted in numerous locations throughout the former Soviet republics focusing on WMD counterproliferation, and in Bosnia-Herzegovina to re-enforce Contraband Enforcement Team Training.

Contraband Enforcement Team Training. This course assists host country border control agencies to develop and operate a mobile Contraband Enforcement Team. It is offered as a 3-phase program: an observational tour to the U.S. for a small group of prospective supervisors; in-country formal training for the prospective team members; and a U.S. short-term advisor who remains for 1-2 weeks following the in-country training. During 2002, U.S. Customs delivered 2 CET programs to 36 officers in 2 countries.

Airport Interdiction Training. During the airport-focused contraband interdiction training, participants are taught to identify irregularities through observational skills, interviewing techniques, document analysis and physical inspection of persons, aircraft, baggage and cargo. The goal is to develop targeting and risk assessment skills to identify falsified documents, high-risk passengers and cargo shipments, and to interdict narcotics and other contraband in the airport environment. U.S. Customs delivered airport interdiction programs to 72 participants in three countries during 2002.

Land Border Interdiction Training. This course is specialized for the risks at the land border environment. The course combines classroom training and field exercises. It offers training in interview strategies, counterfeit travel documents, targeting for narcotics/weapons of mass destruction (WMD) contraband, search techniques, port security, and safety practices for hazardous materials. Land Border Interdiction programs were delivered to 96 officers in four countries during 2002.

Integrity/Anticorruption. This course is designed to promote professionalism and integrity within the workforce of agencies particularly vulnerable to bribery and corruption. The focus is on integrity awareness training and development of internal investigation organizations. The Integrity course was delivered to 220 participants in 7 countries during 2002. Additionally, U.S. Customs was involved in a country assessment in Hong Kong as part of the Independent Commission Against Corruption. U.S. Customs received the World Customs Organization Award for Excellence for the Anti-Corruption and Integrity Awareness Program.

Canine Training (U.S.-Based). The Canine Training Program is designed to assist countries that export significant amounts of narcotics to the U.S. to initiate and maintain a viable detector dog program. Canine training was delivered to 4 participants from Trinidad during 2002.

Looking Ahead

The Department of Homeland Security begins operations in January 2003. The U.S. Customs Service, with its tradition in revenue collection and border protection, will take its place along with the other agencies designated to combat terrorism. The long-standing mission of the U.S. Customs Service in providing security to its citizens through targeted examination and interdiction will play a major role in the new organization. Port security functions will be in the forefront, with enforcement activities to promote domestic security and to fight the threat of international terrorism.

The year of 2003 will be marked with many changes, but the underlying role of U.S. Customs will continue in promoting legitimate trade and identifying contraband at our borders.



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