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Diplomacy in Action

Policy and Program Developments


International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
March 2006
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Overview for 2005

Vigorous international drug control efforts kept the drug trade on the defensive in 2005. Our long-standing, international campaign to curb the flow of cocaine and heroin to the United States advanced significantly during the year. Coordinated international enforcement programs limited drug crop expansion, strengthened interdiction efforts, destroyed processing facilities, and weakened major trafficking organizations. Drug seizures set new records for cocaine interdiction in the Western Hemisphere. Better enforcement and judicial reforms led to the arrest of several long-sought drug kingpins, while tougher enforcement of chemical control and money laundering laws in key countries further hobbled the major trafficking organizations' ability to refine drugs and bank their profits.

The Drug Threat

Cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and synthetic amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are the drugs that most threaten the United States. Cutting off their supply has been and will continue to be our primary international counternarcotics goal. Although U.S. cocaine consumption has been declining recently, cocaine continues to be our greatest concern. An estimated 300 metric tons or more of cocaine hydrochloride (HCl) enter the country annually, feeding addiction, fueling crime, and damaging the economic and social health of the United States. As all cocaine originates in the Andean countries of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, we have channeled a significant portion of our international resources toward eliminating coca cultivation, disrupting cocaine production, and preventing the drug from reaching the United States.

Coca and Cocaine

Colombia—the source of roughly 90 percent of the cocaine destined for the U.S. and other world markets—leads the world in coca cultivation. Peru and Bolivia lag behind, a distant second and third respectively. The USG has directed a large share of its counternarcotics resources to attacking Colombian coca cultivation, while helping to thwart a resurgence of coca cultivation in Peru and Bolivia. In 2005, USG-supported Colombian police units reported eliminating over 170,000 hectares of coca. Aerial eradication removed 138,775 hectares of this amount, while manual eradication destroyed the other 31,285 hectares. If harvested and refined, the coca eradicated could have yielded over 150 metric tons of cocaine with a street value of over $15 billion.

Bolivia and Peru, which had drastically reduced their coca cultivation in the past five years, now face campaigns to roll back these achievements. The challenge comes from increasingly active cocalero (coca grower) associations that link coca cultivation to issues of cultural identity and national pride. These farmer's unions, often exploited by trafficking interests, glorify coca cultivation and consumption as ancient and sacred indigenous traditions that must be protected against international efforts to destroy them. They portray coca reduction programs as a means for a mainly white, urban governing minority to limit the economic advancement of a rural indigenous majority.

Cocalero influence has been greatest in Bolivia, where the Bolivian cocaleros' founder and leader, Evo Morales, won the country's presidency in the December 2005 Bolivian Election. Bolivia's coca cultivation grew by eight percent in 2005 to 25,500 hectares, thanks in part to cocalero activism and the government's desire to avoid violent confrontation. It was the fourth year in succession that the figure has risen. Between 2001 to 2005, coca cultivation in Bolivia has gradually expanded by 36 percent, from 19,500 to 26,500 hectares. Though this amount is half of Bolivia's peak cultivation figure of 52,000 hectares in 1989, the trend is disquieting, as it shows no signs of being reversible in the short run.

In Peru, though government programs surpassed their 2005 coca eradication goal, they still may not have kept pace with expanding coca cultivation. Cocaleros in those rural valleys, where in previous years the violent Sendero Luminoso guerrillas held sway, have become more violent and better organized. New terrorist groups claiming an affiliation with Sendero Luminoso have openly identified with coca growers and drug traffickers. They have organized increasingly violent ambushes of police and intimidation of alternative development teams in coca growing areas.

USG estimates of coca cultivation for 2005 were not available at time of publication. The Government of Peru's Office of Drug Control, however, has accepted as accurate the United Nation's June 2005 estimate of 50,000 hectares of coca under cultivation in Peru.

Interdiction

Cocaine seizures in the Western hemisphere set new records in 2005. Colombian interdiction programs seized 228 metric tons of cocaine in the course of the year, a record for any country, including the United States. Of this amount, the Colombian National Police secured 94 metric tons, while the remaining 124 metric tons were seized by the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Colombian forces destroyed 104 HCl and 773 base labs.

Other important drug-affected countries in the Hemisphere also reported seizing impressive amounts of cocaine: Bolivia, 10.7 metric tons; Peru, 15.6 metric tons; Venezuela, 54.2 metric tons; Mexico, 21 metric tons. In all, these countries seized approximately 329 metric tons of cocaine, more than the estimated 300 metric tons that enter the United States every year. Its retail value on the streets of the U.S. would have been approximately $33 billion.

Opium and Heroin

Opium poppy is the source of heroin. Containing its cultivation presents its own set of challenges. Unlike coca, which currently grows in significant amounts in only three Andean countries, opium poppy is cultivated in nearly every region of the world. In contrast to coca, a perennial which takes at least a year to mature into usable leaf, opium poppy is an easily planted annual crop with as many as three harvests per year. The gum is harvestable in less than six months. It is therefore much harder to eliminate.

Most of the heroin used in the United States comes from poppies grown in Colombia and Mexico, though their opium gum production accounts for less than four percent of the world's total production. Mexico's geographical location allows Mexican growers and refiner to supply some 30 to 40 percent of the U.S. heroin market, mostly west of the Mississippi River. Colombia supplies most of the remainder of the states east of the Mississippi. Since eliminating poppy cultivation in Colombia and Mexico is crucial to reducing U.S.-bound heroin flows, we have had long-standing joint eradication programs in both countries.

Colombian law enforcement and alternative development programs eradicated 2,000 hectares of opium poppy in 2005. Of these, 1,624hectares were sprayed and 376 hectares uprooted through voluntary manual eradication programs. The 2005 cultivation and production data were not available at the time of publication.

In Mexico, in the first 11 months of 2005, the Government of Mexico (GOM) reported eradicating slightly over 20,000 hectares of opium poppy, approximately the same annual level of opium eradication that Mexican authorities have reported in previous years. The 2005 cultivation and production data were not available at time of publication.

Burma is the world's second largest producer of illicit opium after Afghanistan, accounting for most of Southeast Asian heroin. In 2005, Burma produced an estimated 380 metric tons of opium, less than eight percent of the opium produced in Afghanistan. Burma's opium poppy is grown predominantly in the "Golden Triangle" border region of Shan State—in areas near the borders of China, Laos, and Thailand controlled by former insurgent groups (less than one percent of Burma's poppy crop is grown outside of Shan State).

The remaining 90-plus percent of the world's opium gum production occurs in Afghanistan. Afghanistan supplies all but a small amount of the heroin going to Europe and Russia. Because of the limited reach of Afghan law enforcement, endemic corruption, and a weak judicial system, the Afghan Government has been unable to enforce a total ban against opium cultivation. Low opium prices after a large harvest last year, threats of destruction and appeals from President Karzai to the provincial governors and the people of Afghanistan to forego the planting of opium in return for alternative development assistance appear to have resulted in major reductions in overall poppy cultivation in 2005, most notably in Nangarhar Province. The latest USG crop survey, released in November 2005, revealed that approximately 107,400 hectares of poppy were cultivated during the 2005 crop season, 48 percent less than in 2004. The crop had an estimated potential yield of 4,475 metric tons of opium, down only ten percent because favorable weather increased yields.

Synthetic Drugs

Amphetamine-Type Stimulants. Global demand for Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS), such as methamphetamine, amphetamine, and MDMA ("ecstasy'), has steadily increased throughout both the industrialized and the developing world. ATS drugs have displaced cocaine as the stimulant of choice in many countries, especially in those of Central and Northern Europe, and Southeast Asia. The relative ease and low cost of manufacturing ATS drugs from readily available chemicals appeals as much to small drug entrepreneurs as to the large international syndicates. Since they do not rely on organic sources such as coca and opium poppy, synthetics allow individual trafficking organizations to control the whole process, from manufacture to sale on the street. Synthetics can be made anywhere and offer enormous profit margins.

Methamphetamine. Methamphetamine abuse remains the fastest-growing drug threat in the United States today. Transnational drug trafficking organizations, based in Mexico and California, control a large percentage of the U.S. methamphetamine trade. Mexico is the principal foreign supplier of methamphetamine and most frequently used transit country for ATS precursors (especially Pseudoephedrine-PSE) destined for the United States. USG drug enforcement authorities believe that PSE imported into Canada continues to be diverted to the United States for illegal drug manufacture. Since Canada enacted regulations in 2002 to control PSE and other precursor and essential chemicals, a drop in seizures suggests that flows are diminishing.

Methamphetamine has displaced heroin as the principal trafficked drug in Burma and Thailand. Almost every country chapter in this year's INCSR indicates a rise in methamphetamine or other ATS drug trafficking and consumption. Methamphetamine production in the U.S. shows no sign of slowing, as demonstrated by DEA's National Clandestine Drug Data reporting of the seizure of several thousand U.S. methamphetamine laboratories in 2004, with the largest numbers in Missouri (2,707), and Tennessee (1,259).

Ecstasy. There continues to be substantial global demand for MDMA (ecstasy), the amphetamine analogue 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Clandestine laboratories in the Netherlands, and to a lesser extent in Belgium, are the principal suppliers of MDMA to the international market, but there also seems to be a good deal of production in Canada. The Netherlands took notable steps against the ecstasy trade in 2005, as highlighted in November when Dutch authorities dismantled the largest MDMA laboratory ever discovered in that country. Labs in Poland are major suppliers of amphetamines to the European market, with the United Kingdom and the Nordic countries among the heaviest consumers of amphetamine. In the United States, however, over the past five years ecstasy use has plummeted among the teenage population most at risk. According to the December 2005 Monitoring the Future report, annual prevalence rates among teenagers are between a half and a third of what they were in early 2001.

Cannabis (Marijuana)

Cannabis (marijuana) production and consumption is a problem in nearly every country, not least in the United States. Drug organizations in Mexico and Canada produce more than 5,000 metric tons of marijuana, which is then marketed to more than 20 million users in the United States. Colombia, Jamaica, and Paraguay also export marijuana to the United States. Of greatest concern to the USG is the high potency cannabis produced on a large scale in Canada. Plants are grown in laboratory conditions using specialized timers, ventilation, moveable lights on tracks, nutrients sprayed on exposed roots and special fertilizer that maximize THC levels. The result is a particularly powerful, dangerous, and addictive drug. The higher the THC content, the greater is the danger. Despite suggestions that marijuana use has no long-term consequences, the latest scientific information indicates that marijuana is associated with learning difficulties as well as memory disturbances and may contribute to schizophrenia.

Attacking Trafficking Organizations

The drug trade depends upon reliable and efficient distribution systems to get its product to market. While most illicit distribution systems have short-term back-up channels to compensate for temporary law enforcement disruptions, a network under intense enforcement pressure cannot function for long. Working closely with our neighbors and allies, our strategy targets the leadership of the main trafficking groups, focusing on the operations along the network that bring drugs to the United States. Our goal is not simply to disrupt these organizations, but to remove the leadership, the facilitators who launder money and provide the chemicals needed for the production of illicit drugs, and their networks. By capturing the leaders of trafficking organizations, we demonstrate both to the criminals and to the governments fighting them that even the most powerful drug syndicates are vulnerable to concerted action by U.S. and host-government authorities.

Mexican drug syndicates oversee much of the drug trafficking in the United States. They have a strong presence in most of the primary U.S. distribution centers, directing the movement of cocaine, heroin, ATS drugs, and marijuana. Three years ago, in 2003, USG and Mexican officials developed a common targeting plan against major drug trafficking organizations in both countries. We also implemented secure mechanisms for data sharing. As a result, Mexican Federal enforcement and military authorities inflicted serious damage on several important trafficking organizations.

Mexican authorities struck at the leadership and key operating figures in major drug syndicates. These included: Juan Jose Alvarez Tostado, the financial mastermind of the Carrillo Fuentes Organization; Gulf Cartel principal operator Guadalupe Eugenio Rivera "El Gordo" Mata; Jose Gustavo "El Chapulin" Contreras Lopez, the leader of an Arellano Felix Organization (AFO) cell, based in the border region of Tijuana (Baja California), and engaged in kidnappings and murders related to drug trafficking. The top target was the Sinaloa cartel of Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman Loera, one of Mexico's best-known drug lords and a key figure in moving cocaine from Colombia to Mexico and on to the United States. In 2005, Mexican authorities arrested Guzman Loera's son, Archivaldo, Guzman's brother, Miguel Angel, and an important enforcer for "El Chapo's" organization, Joaquin Angel Rios Felix. In November in Mexico City, Mexican federal agents arrested Ricardo ("The Doctor") Garcia Urquiza, an important drug trafficker, money launderer, and associate of Vicente Carrillo Fuentes. Mexican authorities have described him as one of the most important drug traffickers arrested in Mexico in 2005.

In 2005, as in previous years, Sensitive Investigative Units (SIUs) within the Mexican Federal Investigative Agency served as effective mechanisms for sharing sensitive intelligence data in both directions without compromise. They played an important role in successful investigations against drug trafficking organizations on both sides of the border.

Institutional Reform

A pivotal element of USG international drug control policy has been to help governments strengthen their enforcement, judicial, and financial institutions to narrow the opportunities for infiltration by the drug trade. In drug source and transit countries, law enforcement agencies often arrest influential drug criminals only to see them released following a questionable or inexplicable decision by a single judge.

This still occurs, but not as often. Each year, there are fewer of these abuses, as governments work for basic reforms involving transparency, efficiency, and better pay for police and judges. Reform efforts advanced in 2005. For example, the Mexican government proposed ambitious justice sector reforms to re-organize federal law enforcement agencies, introduce oral testimony at criminal trials, and create a more professional public defender system. In Colombia, USG agencies have provided training, technical assistance, and equipment to enhance the system's capacity and capabilities and to make it more transparent to the public. Chile completed its multi-year, nationwide criminal justice reform project in June 2005, adopting a new adversarial judicial system relying on oral trials rather than document-based legal proceedings. There are similarly encouraging developments outlined in many of the country chapters of this report.

Extradition

Extradition to the United States is still the sanction international drug criminals fear most. The host of notorious foreign drug criminals serving long prison terms in the U.S. is a sober reminder to the most powerful international criminals of what can happen when they can no longer use bribes and intimidation to manipulate the local judicial process. Over the past decade, governments have been increasingly willing to risk domestic political repercussions and extradite drug kingpins to the United States.

Colombia and Mexico now extradite drug criminals to the United States on a regular basis. The number of extraditions from Colombia to the United States has increased significantly in recent years. In President Uribe's administration, extraditions have increased dramatically, with 304 Colombian nationals and 11 nonnationals extradited by the end of 2005.

In early 2005, Colombia extradited FARC leader Anayibe Rojas Valderama (aka "Comandante Sonia") and other criminal associates for drug trafficking and terrorism charges. Colombia also extradited Cali Cartel leader Miguel Rodriguez Orejuela in 2005. Other high-ranking drug trafficking targets arrested and/or extradited include Consolidated Priority Targets and members of the North Valley Cartel's Top 10 list, such as Gabriel Puerta Parra, Jose Rendon Ramirez, John Cano Carrera, and Dagaberto Florez

In 2005 for the fourth consecutive year, Mexican authorities extradited a record number of fugitives to the United States. As of mid December, Mexico had extradited 40 fugitives to the United States, up from 34 in 2004, 31 in 2003, and 25 in 2002. These included Mexican citizens and narcotics and money laundering defendants.

In a watershed decision in late 2005, the Mexican Supreme court removed a significant obstacle to the extradition of fugitives facing life imprisonment in the United States for major drug trafficking and violent crimes. Reversing a 2004 decision, the court ruled that life in prison without the possibility of parole did not violate the Mexican Constitution's prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment. Criminals subject to the death penalty in the United States, however, cannot be extradited since the Mexican Constitution prohibits capital punishment.

In another departure from past practice, the Afghan Government for the first time permitted the extradition of one of its citizens for drug trafficking to a foreign country. Afghanistan will extradite Haji Baz Mohammad under the 1988 UN Drug Convention to the U.S. to stand trial on narcotics charges. Other countries that extradited criminals to the U.S. in 2005 for prosecution were the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ghana, and Paraguay.

Controlling Drug Processing Chemicals

Cocaine, heroin and synthetic drugs cannot be manufactured without certain critical chemicals, many of which are subject to international controls. Cocaine and heroin refining operations generally require widely available essential chemicals. Substitutes for unavailable chemicals can be used for most of the chemicals used in the manufacturing process, but there are some indispensable chemicals—potassium permanganate for cocaine and acetic anhydride for heroin—for which there are few readily obtainable substitutes. Synthetic drug manufacture requires even more specific precursor chemicals, such as ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or phenylpropanolamine. These chemicals, used mainly for pharmaceutical purposes, have important but specific legitimate uses. They are commercially traded in smaller quantities to discrete users. Governments must have efficient legal and regulatory regimes to control such chemicals, without placing undue burdens on legitimate commerce. The United States, other major chemical trading countries, and the UN's International Narcotics Control Board worked in 2005 to improve controls on cocaine and heroin processing chemicals, and those used for manufacturing synthetic drugs.

Bilaterally, we continued to work closely with the Canadian government in 2005 to curtail the diversion of drug processing chemicals to criminal interests in the United States. Pseudoephedrine (PSE), a common cold remedy and the main component in the manufacturing of methamphetamine, is legally imported into Canada from China, India, and Germany. U.S. counternarcotics authorities assess that a portion of those imports is diverted to the United States for the production of illicit drugs. Other precursor chemicals available in Canada and used in the production of synthetic drugs are sassafras oil, piperonal, and gamma butyrolactone (GBL). These precursors are used in the manufacturing of ecstasy (medthylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA), methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB).

In November 2005, the Canadian Government implemented the first major amendments to augment the 2003 Precursor Control Regulations. These changes strengthen verification of import and export licensing procedures, require that companies requesting those licenses provide additional detail in their initial requests provide guidelines on the suspension and revocation of licenses for abusers, and add controls of six chemicals that can be used to produce GHB and/or methamphetamine.

Controlling Supply

The USG's goal is to reduce and ultimately cut off the flow of illegal drugs to the United States. Our strategy targets drug supply at critical points along a five-point grower-to-user chain that links the consumer in the United States to the grower in a source country. In the case of cocaine or heroin, the chain starts with the growers cultivating coca or opium poppies, for instance, in the Andes or Afghanistan. It ends with the cocaine or heroin user in a U.S. town or city. The intermediate links are the processing (drug refining), transit (transport), and wholesale distribution stages.

Our international programs target the first three links of the grower-to-user chain: cultivation, processing, and transit. The closer we can attack to the source, the better are our chances of halting the flow of drugs altogether. Crop control is the most cost-effective means of cutting supply. Drugs cannot enter the system from crops that have been destroyed or left unharvested. It is the equivalent of removing a malignant growth before it can spread uncontrollably into the rest of the system. In theory, with no drug crops to harvest, there would be no cocaine or heroin for distribution, nor would there be any need for costly enforcement and interdiction operations.

In the real world, however, theory falters. Widespread (aerial and chemical) eradication is not legal in many countries. Even when eradication is feasible, destroying a lucrative crop, even an illegal one, carries enormous political, economic and social consequences for the producing country. In most cases, it means threatening the livelihood of the poorest sector of the population. Democratic governments that take away vital income without any viable quid pro quo seldom survive for long. Developing, implementing, and reaping the benefits of practical, long-term alternatives for the affected population can take decades. So we also must focus upon the succeeding links: the processing and distribution stages of laboratory destruction and interdiction of drug shipments.

Our programs can shift resources to those links where we can achieve both an immediate impact and long-term results. The right combination of effective law enforcement actions and alternative development programs can deliver truly remarkable results, as coca reductions in the Andean region demonstrate. We work closely with the governments of the coca-growing countries to find the best way to eliminate illegal coca within the context of each country's individual circumstances. Alternative development programs play a vital role in countries seeking to free their agricultural sector from reliance on the drug trade by offering farmers opportunities to abandon illegal activities and join the legitimate economy. In the Andean countries, such programs provide funds and technical assistance to strengthen public and private institutions, expand rural infrastructure; improve natural resources management, introduce alternative legal crops, and develop local and international markets for these products.

Illegal Drugs, Spraying, and the Environment

Questions inevitably arise over the environmental risks of regular use of herbicides on illegal drug crops. Colombia is currently the only country that allows regular aerial spraying of coca and opium poppy. The Colombian government has approved the herbicide that is being used to conduct aerial eradication in the growing areas. The only active ingredient in the herbicide used in the aerial eradication program is glyphosate, one of the most widely used agricultural herbicides in the world. It has been tested widely in the United States, Colombia, and elsewhere in the world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved glyphosate for general use in 1974 and re-registered it in September 1993. EPA has approved its use on food croplands, forests, residential areas, and around aquatic areas. It is one of the top five pesticides, including herbicides, used in the United States.

Environmental Consequences of Illicit Coca Cultivation

The environmental impact of approved herbicides must be weighed against the devastating potential of all aspects of coca cultivation. Coca cultivation in the Andean region has led to the destruction of approximately six million acres of rainforest in the past twenty years. Working in remote areas beyond settled populations, coca growers routinely slash and burn virgin forestland to make way for their illegal crops. Tropical rains quickly erode the thin topsoil of the fields, increasing soil runoff, depleting soil nutrients, and, by destroying timber and other resources that would otherwise be available for more sustainable uses, decreasing biological diversity. The destructive cycle continues, as growers regularly abandon nonproductive parcels to prepare new plots. At the same time, traffickers destroy jungle forests to build clandestine landing strips and laboratories for processing raw coca and poppy into cocaine and heroin.

Illicit coca growers tend to be negligent and indiscriminate in their use of fertilizers and pesticides. Largely ignorant about the consequences of indiscriminate use of strong chemicals, they dump large quantities of highly toxic herbicides and fertilizers on their crops. These chemicals include paraquat and endosulfan, both of which qualify under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's highest classification for toxicity (Category I) and are legally restricted for sale within Colombia and the United States.

The most toxic chemicals are those used at each stage of cocaine production. USG studies conducted in the early 1990s in Bolivia and Peru indicated that one kilogram of cocaine base required the use of three liters of concentrated sulfuric acid, 10 kilograms of lime, 60 to 80 liters of kerosene, 200 grams of potassium permanganate, and one liter of concentrated ammonia. These toxic pesticides, fertilizers, and processing chemicals are then dumped into the nearest waterway or on the ground. They saturate the soil and contaminate waterways and poison water systems and dependent species in the process.

Interdiction in the Transit Zone

Despite the international community's best efforts to attack the drug supply within source countries, the United States and our allies must continue to provide an effective presence in the transit zone, specifically for cocaine moving north out of South America. This has required a well-coordinated effort between transit zone countries and USG agencies including DOD, DHS, and DOJ. Source country intelligence combined with post seizure intelligence has improved dramatically in the last several years to yield better actionable intelligence within the transit zone. The Joint Inter-Agency Task Force-South with billeted international partners from throughout the Caribbean Basin has focused on intelligence to detect and monitor maritime drug movements while maneuvering interdiction assets into position to effect a seizure. The USG's efforts to create and expand authorities based on bilateral agreements with Caribbean and Latin American countries have eased the burden on these countries' law enforcement assets to conduct at sea boardings and search for contraband. These bilateral agreements have also allowed the USG to gain jurisdiction over cases and remove the corrosive pressure from large Trafficking Organizations on some foreign governments. This team effort led to unprecedented success by removing over 150 metric tons of cocaine from the maritime transit zone in 2005 by USG assets. Continued success will depend on the allocation of tightly constrained resources to improve on the inroads and agreements reached in the last several years.

Fighting Corruption

Though corruption may seem a less obvious threat than the challenge of armed insurgents, the weakening of government institutions through bribery and intimidation ultimately poses just as great a danger to democratic governments. Terrorist groups or guerrilla armies overtly seek to topple and replace governments through violence. Drug syndicates, however, work behind the scenes, seeking to subvert governments in order to guarantee themselves a secure operating environment by co-opting key officials. Unchecked, the drug trade is capable of taking de facto control of a country by essentially buying off a majority of key government officials, including a president. With a president, defense chief, and interior minister secretly on its payroll, a criminal organization can operate with near impunity behind the fa´┐Żade of sovereign legitimate government. While this has yet to happen, there have been several close calls in the recent past. By keeping the focus on eliminating corruption, we can prevent the nightmare of a government entirely manipulated by drug lords from becoming a reality.

Fighting the drug trade is a dominant element in a broader struggle against corruption. Drug organizations possess and wield the ultimate instrument of corruption: money. The drug trade has access to almost unimaginable quantities of it. No commodity is so widely available, so cheap to produce, and as easily renewable as illegal drugs. They offer dazzling profit margins that allow criminals to generate illicit revenues on a scale without historical precedent. For example, assuming an average U.S. retail street price of one hundred dollars a gram, a metric ton of pure cocaine is worth $100 million on the streets of the United States—twice as much if the drug is cut with additives. That same metric ton typically would have cost around $3,000,000 ($3,000 per kilogram) when it left Colombia. Few legitimate businesses can boast of a 30-fold return. At $100 per gram, the 329 metric tons of cocaine seized in Mexico and Latin America in 2005 could in theory be worth as much as $30 billion to the drug trade, more than the gross domestic product of many of the countries of Central America. If only a portion of these profits flows back to the drug syndicates, we are still speaking of hundreds of millions, if not billions, of dollars.

To put these sums into perspective, in FY 2005 the State Department's budget for international drug control operations was approximately $1.2 billion. That equates to roughly 12 metric tons of cocaine. The drug syndicates have lost that amount in a single shipment, with no serious consequences, except to the unfortunate subordinate responsible for the loss.

Next Steps

The international drug trade is a complex, dynamic organism that learns quickly from its mistakes. It is nothing if not adaptable. Every time we score a major success-and over the past decade and a half we have had many-the drug trade learns from it. Successful operations weed out the weaker elements, leaving the more agile and sophisticated criminals in place. In time, this selection process eventually leaves us with a very astute adversary.

The drug trade itself also evolves naturally, like any business in a competitive market place. We are now dealing with second or even third-generation transnational drug syndicates. They embrace modern management techniques, employ state-of-the-art communications, and hire the best technical and financial expertise.

The drug trade, however, has an inherent weakness: it is simultaneously a criminal organization and a business. It has to straddle two worlds. As a criminal organization, it operates in the shadows with virtual impunity. But to prosper as a business, it must emerge into the legitimate commercial world and lose its protective cover. Once in the legitimate world, it becomes vulnerable. It needs raw materials, processing chemicals, transportation networks, and, most important of all, a means of getting its profits into legitimate commercial and financial channels.

In the past twenty years, working with our international partners, we have successfully increased pressures on the drug trade and narrowed opportunities at every stage of their operations, from cultivation and production to transport and marketing. Without lessening pressure at all these points, we must now intensify our efforts to strike at the critical point-the financial end. Just as a business that cannot reinvest its profits soon fails, without a steady flow of funds, the drug trade cannot function effectively. Since governments individually control domestic access the global financial system, working together they have the potential to make it all but impossible for drug profits to enter the legitimate international financial system. Our goal is to transform that potential into a reality and reduce the drug trade from serious threat to a common nuisance.

Demand Reduction

Drug "demand reduction" aims to reduce worldwide use and abuse of illicit drugs worldwide. The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on health, welfare, security and economic stability of all countries. Recognizing this problem, the National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD#25) on International Drug Control Policy urges the Secretary of State "to expand U.S. international demand reduction assistance and information sharing programs in key source and transit countries". As opposed to drug production and trafficking, the NSPD addresses rising global demand for drugs as the principal threat to the U.S. As outlined in the NSPD, drug trafficking organizations and their linkages to international terrorist groups also constitute a serious threat to U.S. national security by generating money that increasingly threatens global peace and stability. Demand reduction assistance has subsequently evolved as a key foreign policy tool to address the inter-connected threats of drugs, crime, and terrorism. More recently it is recognized as a key complimentary component in efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, particularly in countries with high intravenous drug users.

Foreign countries recognize the vast U.S. experience and efforts in reducing drug demand. In return for cooperation with supply reduction efforts, many drug producing and transit countries request U.S. assistance with demand reduction technology, since drug consumption also has debilitating effects on their society and children. Demand reduction assistance thereby helps secure foreign country support for U.S. driven supply reduction efforts, while at the same time reducing consumption in that country and reducing a major source of terrorist financing.

Our demand reduction strategy encompasses a wide range of initiatives to address the needs and national security threat posed by the illicit drug trade. These include efforts to prevent the onset of use, intervention at "critical decision points" in the lives of vulnerable populations to prevent both first use and further use, and effective treatment programs for the addicted. Other aspects encompass education and community coalition development efforts to increase public awareness of the deleterious consequences of drug use/abuse. This latter effort involves the development of coalitions of private/public social institutions, the faith community, and law enforcement entities to mobilize national and international opinion against the drug trade and to encourage governments to develop and implement strong counternarcotics policies and programs. The demand reduction program also provides for evaluations of the effectiveness of these efforts and for "best practice" research studies to use these findings to improve similar services provided in the U.S. and around the world.

In 2005, INL's assistance targeted the cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, addressed the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, and addressed the heroin threat from Asia, Afghanistan and Colombia. It also focused on countries in Southeast Asia and Africa where intravenous drug use is fueling an HIV/AIDS epidemic. INL continued to fund bilateral training at various locations throughout the world on topics such as community/grassroots coalition building and networking, U.S. policies and programs, science-based drug prevention programming, and treatment within the criminal justice system. As a result of INL's training assistance, the first counternarcotics community coalition network outside the United States was established in Peru. INL funded a symposium on Drug Demand Reduction in Kabul, Afghanistan that was attended by over 500 of the country's senior religious leaders and resulted in a major Fatwa against drug production, trafficking and abuse in that country. INL's training targeting predominantly Muslim populations also resulted in the establishment of mosque-based outreach drug treatment centers in 25 provinces throughout Afghanistan, 12 centers in Indonesia religious schools and a total of 6 in Pakistan, Southern Philippines and Malaysia.

INL funding has provided new updated curricula to 24 Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) programs in Latin America and Asia. INL funding also supported drug treatment training in Vietnam to address the connection between intravenous drug use and HIV/AIDS, and to reduce overall drug consumption. INL funded comprehensive multi-year scientific studies on pilot projects and programs developed from INL-funded training to learn how these initiatives can help assist U.S.-and foreign-based demand reduction efforts. An outcome-based evaluation of INL-funded, school-based D.A.R.E. training in Colombia revealed that drug use was reduced from 54 percent to 10 percent in the eight target cities participating in the program. Other recent research on the long-term impact of INL-funded treatment training in Peru revealed that overall drug use was reduced from 90 percent to 34 percent in the targeted population. A leading journal on drug addiction, Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, devoted its entire November 2005 edition to "best practices" in drug abuse treatment that resulted from INL assistance to Southeast Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe.

Methodology for Estimating Illegal Drug Production

How Much Do We Know? The INCSR contains a variety of illicit drug-related data. These numbers represent the United States Government's best effort to sketch the current dimensions of the international drug problem. Some numbers are more certain than others. Drug cultivation figures are relatively hard data derived by proven means, such as imagery with ground truth confirmation. Other numbers, such as crop production and drug yield estimates, become softer as more variables come into play. As we do every year, we publish these data with an important caveat: the yield figures are potential, not final numbers. Although they are useful for determining trends, even the best are ultimately approximations.

Each year, we revise our estimates in the light of field research. The clandestine, violent nature of the illegal drug trade makes such field research difficult. Geography is also an impediment, as the harsh terrain on which many drugs are cultivated is not always easily accessible. This is particularly relevant given the tremendous geographic areas that must be covered, and the difficulty of collecting reliable information over diverse and treacherous terrain.

What We Know With Reasonable Certainty. The number of hectares under cultivation during any given year is our most solid statistic. For nearly twenty years, the United States Government has estimated the extent of illicit cultivation in a dozen nations using proven statistical methods similar to those used to estimate the size of licit crops at home and abroad. We can therefore estimate the extent of cultivation with reasonable accuracy.

What We Know With Less Certainty. How much of a finished product a given area will produce is difficult to estimate. Small changes in factors such as soil fertility, weather, farming techniques, and disease can produce widely varying results from year to year and place to place. To add to our uncertainty, most illicit drug crop areas are not easily accessible to the United States Government, making scientific information difficult to obtain. Therefore, we are estimating the potential crop available for harvest. Not all of these estimates allow for losses, which could represent up to a third or more of a crop in some areas for some harvests. The value in estimating the size of the potential crop is to provide a consistent basis for a comparative analysis from year to year.

Harvest Estimates. We have gradually improved our yield estimates. Our confidence in coca leaf yield estimates, as well as in the finished product, has risen in the past few years, based upon the results of field studies conducted in Latin America. In all cases, however, multiplying average yields times available hectares indicates only the potential, not the actual final drug crop available for harvest. The size of the harvest depends upon the efficiency of farming practices and the wastage caused by poor practices or difficult weather conditions during and after harvest. Up to a third or more of a crop may be lost in some areas during harvests.

In addition, mature coca (two to six years old) is more productive than immature or aging coca. Variations such as these can dramatically affect potential yield and production. Additional information and analysis is allowing us to make adjustments for these factors. Similar deductions for local consumption of unprocessed coca leaf and opium may be possible as well through the accumulation of additional information and research.

Processing Estimates. The wide variation in processing efficiency achieved by traffickers complicates the task of estimating the quantity of cocaine or heroin that could be refined from a crop. Differences in the origin and quality of the raw material used, the technical processing method employed, the size and sophistication of laboratories, the skill and experience of local workers and chemists, and decisions made in response to enforcement pressures obviously affect production.

Figures Change as Techniques and Data Quality Improve. Each year, research produces revisions to United States Government estimates of potential drug production. This is typical of annualized figures for most other areas of statistical tracking that must be revised year to year, whether it be the size of the U.S. wheat crop, population figures, or the unemployment rate. For the present, these illicit drug statistics represent the state of the art. As new information becomes available and as the art improves, so will the precision of the estimates.

Worldwide Illicit Drug Cultivation
1998-2005 (All Figures in Hectares)

 

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

Opium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Afghanistan

107,000

206,700

61,000

30,750

1,685

64,510

51,500

41,720

India

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iran

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pakistan

 

3,100

 

622

213

515

1,570

3,030

Total SW Asia

107,000

209,800

61,000

31,372

1,898

65,025

53,070

44,750

Burma

40,000

30,900

47,130

78,000

105,000

108,700

89,500

130,300

China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laos

5,600

10,000

18,900

23,200

22,000

23,150

21,800

26,100

Thailand

 

 

 

750

820

890

835

1,350

Vietnam

 

 

 

1,000

2,300

2,300

2,100

3,000

Total SE Asia

45,600

40,900

66,030

102,950

130,120

135,040

114,235

160,750

Colombia

 

2,100

4,400

4,900

6,500

7,500

7,500

6,100

Lebanon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guatemala

 

330

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

 

3,500

4,800

2,700

4,400

1,900

3,600

5,500

Total Other

 

5,930

9,200

7,600

10,900

9,400

11,100

11,600

Total Opium

152,600

256,630

136,230

141,922

142,918

209,465

178,405

217,100

Coca

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolivia

26,500

24,600

23,200

21,600

19,900

14,600

21,800

38,000

Colombia1

 

114,100

113,850

144,450

169,800

136,200

122,500

101,800

Peru

38,000

27,500

29,250

34,700

34,000

34,200

38,700

51,000

Ecuador

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Coca

64,500

166,200

166,300

200,750

223,700

185,000

183,000

190,800

Cannabis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

 

 

 

3,900

3,900

3,900

3,700

4,600

Colombia

 

5,000

5,000

5,000

5,000

5,000

5,000

5,000

Jamaica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Cannabis

 

5,000

5,000

8,900

8,900

8,900

8,700

9,600

1Colombian coca cultivation survey results for 2005 will not be available until the spring of 2006.
 
Worldwide Illicit Drug Cultivation
1990-1997 (All Figures in Hectares)
 

 

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

Opium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Afghanistan

39,150

37,950

38,740

29,180

21,080

19,470

17,190

12,370

India

2,050

3,100

4,750

5,500

4,400

 

 

 

Iran

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pakistan

4,100

3,400

6,950

7,270

6,280

8,170

8,205

8,220

Total SW Asia

45,300

44,450

50,440

41,950

31,760

27,640

25,395

20,590

Burma

155,150

163,100

154,070

154,070

146,600

153,700

160,000

150,100

China

 

 

1,275

1,965

 

 

 

 

Laos

28,150

25,250

19,650

19,650

18,520

25,610

29,625

30,580

Thailand

1,650

2,170

1,750

2,110

2,110

2,050

3,000

3,435

Total SE Asia

6,150

3,150

 

177,795

167,230

181,360

192,625

184,185

Colombia

191,100

193,670

176,745

 

 

 

1,160

 

Lebanon

6,600

6,300

6,540

20,000

20,000

20,000

3,400

3,200

Guatemala

 

90

150

 

440

na

1,145

845

Mexico

 

 

39

50

438

730

3,765

5,450

Vietnam

4,000

5,100

5,050

5,795

3,960

3,310

 

 

Total Other

10,600

11,490

11,779

25,845

24,838

24,040

9,470

9,495

Total Opium

247,000

249,610

238,964

245,590

223,828

233,040

227,490

214,200

Coca

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolivia

45,800

48,100

48,600

48,100

47,200

45,500

47,900

50,300

Colombia

79,500

67,200

50,900

45,000

39,700

37,100

37,500

40,100

Peru

68,800

94,400

115,300

108,600

108,800

129,100

120,800

121,300

Ecuador

 

 

 

 

 

 

40

120

Total Coca

194,100

209,700

214,800

201,700

195,700

211,700

206,240

211,820

Cannabis

 

 

 

 

  

  

  

 

Mexico

4,800

6,500

6,900

10,550

11,220

16,420

17,915

35,050

Colombia

5,000

5,000

5,000

4,986

5,000

2,000

2,000

1,500

Jamaica

317

527

305

308

744

389

950

1,220

Total Cannabis

10,117

12,027

12,205

15,844

16,964

18,809

20,865

37,770

 
Worldwide Potential Illicit Drug Production
1998-2005 (All Figures in Metric Tons)
 

 

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

Opium Gum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Afghanistan

4,475

4,950

2,865

1,278

74

3,656

2,861

2,340

India

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iran

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pakistan

 

70

 

5

5

11

37

66

Total SW Asia

4,475

5,020

2,865

1,283

79

3,667

2,898

2,406

Burma

380

292

484

630

865

1,085

1,090

1,750

China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laos

28

49

200

180

200

210

140

140

Thailand

 

 

 

9

6

6

6

16

Vietnam

 

 

 

10

15

15

11

20

Total SE Asia

408

341

684

829

1,086

1,316

1,247

1,926

Colombia

 

30

63

68

 

 

75

61

Lebanon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guatemala

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

 

73

101

58

71

21

43

60

Total Other

 

115

164

126

71

21

118

121

Total Opium

4,883

5,476

3,713

2,238

1,236

5,004

4,263

4,453

Coca Leaf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolivia1

18,800

17,500

17,210

16,600

20,200

26,800

22,800

52,900

Colombia

 

108,000

115,500

147,918

 

583,000

521,400

437,600

Peru

56,300

48,800

52,300

59,600

52,600

54,400

69,200

95,600

Ecuador

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Coca

75,100

174,300

185,010

224,118

72,800

664,200

613,400

586,100

Cannabis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

 

10,440

13,500

7,900

7,400

7,000

3,700

8,300

Colombia

 

4,000

 

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000

4,000

Jamaica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belize

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Others

 

3,500

3,500

3,500

3,500

3,500

3,500

3,500

Total Cannabis

 

17,940

17,000

15,400

14,900

14,500

11,200

15,800

 
 1Beginning in 2001, USG surveys of Bolivian coca take place cover the period June to June.
 
Worldwide Potential Illicit Drug Production
1990-1997 (All Figures in Metric Tons)
 

 

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

Opium Gum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Afghanistan

2,184

2,174

1,250

950

685

640

570

415

India

30

47

77

90

 

 

Iran

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pakistan

85

75

155

160

140

175

180

165

Total SW Asia

2,299

2,296

1,482

1,200

825

815

750

580

Burma

2,365

2,560

2,340

2,030

2,575

2,280

2,350

2,255

China

 

 

19

25

 

 

 

 

Laos

210

200

180

85

180

230

265

275

Thailand

25

30

25

17

42

24

35

40

Vietnam

45

25

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total SE Asia

2,645

2,815

2,564

2,157

2,797

2,534

2,650

2,570

Colombia

66

63

65

 

 

 

 

 

Lebanon

 

1

1

 

4

 

34

32

Guatemala

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

13

Mexico

46

54

53

60

49

40

41

62

Total Other

112

118

119

60

53

40

86

107

Total Opium

5,056

4,285

4,165

3,417

3,675

3,389

3,486

3,257

Coca Leaf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolivia

70,100

75,100

85,000

89,800

84,400

80,300

78,000

77,000

Colombia

347,000

302,900

229,300

35,800

31,700

29,600

30,000

32,100

Peru

130,200

174,700

183,600

165,300

155,500

223,900

222,700

196,900

Ecuador

 

 

 

 

100

100

40

170

Total Coca

547,300

552,700

497,900

290,900

271,700

333,900

330,740

306,170

Cannabis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

8,600

11,700

12,400

5,540

6,280

7,795

7,775

19,715

Colombia

4,133

4,133

4,133

4,138

4,125

1,650

1,650

1,500

Jamaica

214

356

206

208

502

263

641

825

Belize

 

 

 

 

 

 

49

60

Others

3,500

3,500

3,500

3,500

3,500

3,500

3,500

3,500

Total Cannabis

16,447

19,689

20,239

13,386

14,407

13,208

13,615

25,600

 
Parties to the 1998 UN Convention
 

Country

Date Signed

Date Became a Party

1. Afghanistan

20 December 1988

14 February 1992

2. Albania

Accession

27 June 2001

3. Algeria

20 December 1988

9 May 1995

4. Andorra

Accession

23 July 1999

5. Angola

Accession

26 October 2005

6. Antigua and Barbuda

Accession

5 April 1993

7. Argentina

20 December 1988

28 June 1993

8. Armenia

Accession

13 September 1993

9. Australia

14 February 1989

16 November 1992

10. Austria

25 September 1989

11 July 1997

11. Azerbaijan

Accession

22 September 1993

12. Bahamas

20 December 1988

30 January 1989

13. Bahrain

28 September 1989

7 February 1990

14. Bangladesh

14 April 1989

11 October 1990

15. Barbados

Accession

15 October 1992

16. Belarus

27 February 1989

15 October 1990

17. Belgium

22 May 1989

25 October 1995

18. Belize

Accession

24 July 1996

19. Benin

Accession

23 May 1997

20. Bhutan

Accession

27 August 1990

21. Bolivia

20 December 1988

20 August 1990

22. Bosnia and Herzegovina

Succession

01 September 1993

23. Botswana

Accession

13 August 1996

24. Brazil

20 December 1988

17 July 1991

25. Brunei Darussalam

26 October 1989

12 November 1993

26. Bulgaria

19 May 1989

24 September 1992

27. Burkina Faso

Accession

02 June 1992

28. Burundi

Accession

18 February 1993

29. Cambodia

Accession

7 July 2005

30. Cameroon

27 February 1989

28 October 1991

31. Canada

20 December 1988

05 July 1990

32. Cape Verde

Accession

08 May 1995

33. Central African Republic

Accession

15 October 2001

34. Chad

Accession

09 June 1995

35. Chile

20 December 1988

13 March 1990

36. China

20 December 1988

25 October 1989

37. Colombia

20 December 1988

10 June 1994

38. Comoros

Accession

1 March 2000

39. Congo, Democratic Republic of

20 December 1988

28 October 2005

40. Costa Rica

25 April 1989

8 February 1991

41. Cote d'Ivoire

20 December 1988

25 November 1991

42. Croatia

Succession

26 July 1993

43. Cuba

7 April 1989

12 June 1996

44. Cyprus

20 December 1988

25 May 1990

45. Czech Republic

Succession

30 December 1993

46. Denmark

20 December 1988

19 December 1991

47. Djibouti

Accession

22 February 2001

48. Dominica

Accession

30 June 1993

49. Dominican Republic

Accession

21 September 1993

50. Ecuador

21 June 1989

23 March 1990

51. Egypt

20 December 1988

15 March 1991

52. El Salvador

Accession

21 May 1993

53. Eritrea

Accession

30 January 2002

54. Estonia

Accession

12 July 2000

55. Ethiopia

Accession

11 October 1994

56. European Economic Community

8 June 1989

31 December 1990

57. Fiji

Accession

25 March 1993

58. Finland

8 February 1989

15 February 1994

59. France

13 February 1989

31 December 1990

60. Gambia

Accession

23 April 1996

61. Georgia

Accession

8 January 1998

62. Germany

19 January 1989

30 November 1993

63. Ghana

20 December 1988

10 April 1990

64. Greece

23 February 1989

28 January 1992

65. Grenada

Accession

10 December 1990

66. Guatemala

20 December 1988

28 February 1991

67. Guinea

Accession

27 December 1990

68. Guinea-Bissau

Accession

27 October 1995

69. Guyana

Accession

19 March 1993

70. Haiti

Accession

18 September 1995

71. Honduras

20 December 1988

11 December 1991

72. Hungary

22 August 1989

15 November 1996

73. Iceland

Accession

2 September 1997

74. India

Accession

27 March 1990

75. Indonesia

27 March 1989

23 February 1999

76. Iran

20 December 1988

7 December 1992

77. Iraq

Accession

22 July 1998

78. Ireland

14 December 1989

3 September 1996

79. Israel

20 December 1988

20 May 2002

80. Italy

20 December 1988

31 December 1990

81. Jamaica

2 October 1989

29 December 1995

82. Japan

19 December 1989

12 June 1992

83. Jordan

20 December 1988

16 April 1990

84. Kazakhstan

Accession

29 April 1997

85. Kenya

Accession

19 October 1992

86. Korea

Accession

28 December 1998

87. Kuwait

2 October 1989

3 November 2000

88. Kyrgyz Republic

Accession

7 October 1994

89. Lao Peoples Democratic Republic

Accession

1 October 2004

90. Latvia

Accession

24 February 1994

91. Lebanon

Accession

11 March 1996

92. Lesotho

Accession

28 March 1995

93. Liberia

Accession

16 September 2005

94. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Accession

22 July 1996

95. Lithuania

Accession

8 June 1998

96. Luxembourg

26 September 1989

29 April 1992

97. Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Rep.

Accession

18 October 1993

98. Madagascar

Accession

12 March 1991

99. Malawi

Accession

12 October 1995

100. Malaysia

20 December 1988

11 May 1993

101. Maldives

5 December 1989

7 September 2000

102. Mali

Accession

31 October 1995

103. Malta

Accession

28 February 1996

104. Mauritania

20 December 1988

1 July 1993

105. Mauritius

20 December 1988

6 March 2001

106. Mexico

16 February 1989

11 April 1990

107. Micronesia, Federal States of

Accession

6 July 2004

108. Moldova

Accession

15 February 1995

109. Monaco

24 February 1989

23 April 1991

110.Mongolia

Accession

25 June 2003

111. Morocco

28 December 1988

28 October 1992

112. Mozambique

Accession

8 June 1998

113. Myanmar (Burma)

Accession

11 June 1991

114. Nepal

Accession

24 July 1991

115. Netherlands

18 January 1989

8 September 1993

116. New Zealand

18 December 1989

16 December 1998

117. Nicaragua

20 December 1988

4 May 1990

118. Niger

Accession

10 November 1992

119. Nigeria

1 March 1989

1 November 1989

120. Norway

20 December 1988

14 November 1994

121. Oman

Accession

15 March 1991

122. Pakistan

20 December 1988

25 October 1991

123. Panama

20 December 1988

13 January 1994

124. Paraguay

20 December 1988

23 August 1990

125. Peru

20 December 1988

16 January 1992

126. Philippines

20 December 1988

7 June 1996

127. Poland

6 March 1989

26 May 1994

128. Portugal

13 December 1989

3 December 1991

129. Qatar

Accession

4 May 1990

130. Romania

Accession

21 January 1993

131. Russia

19 January 1989

17 December 1990

132. Rwanda

Accession

13 May 2002

133. St. Kitts and Nevis

Accession

19 April 1995

134. St. Lucia

Accession

21 August 1995

135. St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Accession

17 May 1994

136. Samoa

Accession

19 August 2005

137. San Marino

Accession

10 October 2000

138. Sao Tome and Principe

Accession

20 June 1996

139. Saudi Arabia

Accession

9 January 1992

140. Senegal

20 December 1988

27 November 1989

141. Seychelles

Accession

27 February 1992

142. Sierra Leone

9 June 1989

6 June 1994

143. Singapore

Accession

23 October 1997

144. Slovakia

Succession

28 May 1993

145. Slovenia

Succession

6 July 1992

146. South Africa

Accession

14 December 1998

147. Spain

20 December 1988

13 August 1990

148. Sri Lanka

Accession

6 June 1991

149. Sudan

30 January 1989

19 November 1993

150. Suriname

20 December 1988

28 October 1992

151. Swaziland

Accession

3 October 95

152. Sweden

20 December 1988

22 July 1991

153.Switzerland

16 November 1989

14 September 2005

154. Syria

Accession

3 September 1991

155. Tajikistan

Accession

6 May 1996

156. Thailand

Accession

3 May 2002

157. Tanzania

20 December 1988

17 April 1996

158. Togo

3 August 1989

1 August 1990

159. Tonga

Accession

29 April 1996

160. Trinidad and Tobago

7 December 1989

17 February 1995

161. Tunisia

19 December 1989

20 September 1990

162. Turkey

20 December 1988

2 April 1996

163. Turkmenistan

Accession

21 February 1996

164. UAE

Accession

12 April 1990

165. Uganda

Accession

20 August 1990

166. Ukraine

16 March 1989

28 August 1991

167. United Kingdom

20 December 1988

28 June 1991

168. United States

20 December 1988

20 February 1990

169. Uruguay

19 December 1989

10 March 1995

170. Uzbekistan

Accession

24 August 1995

171. Venezuela

20 December 1988

16 July 1991

172. Vietnam

Accession

4 November 1997

173. Yemen

20 December 1988

25 March 1996

174. Yugoslavia

20 December 1988

3 January 1991

175. Zambia

9 February 1989

28 May 1993

176. Zimbabwe

Accession

30 July 1993

Signed but Pending Ratification

 

 

1. Gabon

20 December 1989

 

2. Holy See

20 December 1988

Not UN member

3. Zaire

20 December 1988

 

Other

 

 

1. Anguilla

 

Not UN member

2. Aruba

 

Not UN member

3. Bermuda

 

 

4. BVI

 

Not UN member

5. Congo

 

 

6. Djibouti

 

 

7. DPR Korea

 

 

8. Hong Kong

 

Not UN member

9. Liechtenstein

 

 

10. Marshall Islands

 

 

11. Namibia

 

 

12. Papua New Guinea

 

 

13. Taiwan

 

Not UN member

14. Turks & Caicos

 

Not UN member

15. Vanuatu

 

 

 



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