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Diplomacy in Action

2009 INCSR: U.S. Government Assistance


Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Report
February 27, 2009

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Department of State (INL) Budget

2/12/09

 

FY 07-09 International Narcotics and Enforcement Funding ($000)           

  

FY 2007 Actual FY 2007 Supp FY 2008 Enacted FY 2008 Supp FY 2009
President's
Request
FY 2009
Bridge
Supp
ACP Country Programs      
 

 

 

Bolivia Total 66,000.00 0.00 29,757.00 0.00 31,000.00 0.00
Interdiction/Eradication 35,000.00 0.00 29,757.00 0.00 31,000.00 0.00
Alter.Dev./Inst.Building 31,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Colombia Total 465,000.00 0.00 244,618.00 0.00 329,557.00 0.00
Interdiction/Eradication 298,930.00 0.00 244,618.00 0.00 298,970.00 0.00
Alter.Dev./Inst.Building 139,920.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Rule of Law 26,150.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 30,587.00 0.00
Ecuador Total 17,300.00 0.00 6,943.00 0.00 7,200.00 0.00
Interdiction/Eradication 8,900.00 0.00 6,943.00 0.00 7,200.00 0.00
Alter.Dev./Inst.Building 8,400.00 0.00

 

0.00 0.00 0.00
Peru Total 103,165.00 0.00 36,546.00 0.00 37,000.00 0.00
Interdiction/Eradication 56,000.00 0.00 36,546.00 0.00 37,000.00 0.00
Alter.Dev./Inst.Building 47,165.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Brazil 4,000.00 0.00 992.00 0.00 1,000.00 0.00
Critical Flight Safety Program 61,035.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Panama 4,000.00 0.00 992.00 0.00 1,000.00 0.00
Venezuela 1,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal Andean Counterdrug Program 721,500.00 0.00 319,848.00 0.00 406,757.00 0.00
FY 08 Alt Dev of $192,500 is in ESF Funding and is not included in the ACI total.
FY07 Alt Development transfer funding directly to USAID for Colombia includes previous $10M commitment to Demob/IDP
Africa
 

 

 

 

 

 

Africa Regional 500.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2,500.00 0.00
Burkina Faso 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00
Cape Verde 0.00 0.00 496.00 0.00 500.00 0.00
Democratic Republic of Congo 0.00 0.00 1,488.00 0.00 1,700.00 0.00
Djibouti 0.00 0.00 298.00 0.00 300.00 0.00
Ethiopia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 500.00 0.00
Ghana 0.00 0.00 496.00 0.00 500.00 0.00
Guinea 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00
Guinea-Bissau 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00
Kenya 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00
Liberia 1,000.00 0.00 4,096.00 0.00 4,130.00 0.00
Mauritania 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 300.00 0.00
Mozambique 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 300.00 0.00
Nigeria 400.00 0.00 1,190.00 0.00 1,200.00 0.00
Sierra Leone 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 250.00 0.00
South Africa 500.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Sudan 9,800.00 0.00 13,578.00 10,000.00 24,000.00 0.00
Tanzania 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 450.00 0.00
Uganda 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 350.00 0.00
Women's Justice Empowerment Initiative 7,500.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal, Africa 19,700.00 0.00 21,642.00 10,000.00 37,380.00 0.00
East Asia and the Pacific            
Burma 350.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
China 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 600.00 0.00
Timor-Leste 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 1,010.00 0.00
Indonesia 4,550.00 0.00 6,150.00 0.00 9,450.00 0.00
Laos 900.00 0.00 1,567.00 0.00 1,000.00 0.00
Malaysia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 400.00 0.00
Mongolia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 420.00 0.00
Philippines 1,700.00 0.00 794.00 0.00 1,150.00 0.00
East Asia and Pacific Regional 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 300.00 0.00
Thailand 900.00 0.00 1,686.00 0.00 1,400.00 0.00
Vietnam 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 200.00 0.00
Subtotal, East Asia and the Pacific 8,400.00 0.00 10,217.00 0.00 15,930.00 0.00
Europe        

 

 

Turkey 0.00 0.00 298.00 0.00 300.00 0.00
Subtotal, Europe 0.00 0.00 298.00 0.00 300.00 0.00
Near East      
 

 

 

Algeria 0.00 0.00 198.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Egypt 0.00 0.00 1,984.00 0.00 3,000.00 0.00
Iraq 20,048.00 150,000.00 0.00 85,000.00 75,000.00 0.00
Jordan 0.00 0.00 1,488.00 0.00 1,500.00 0.00
Lebanon 0.00 60,000.00 496.00 0.00 6,000.00 0.00
Morocco 1,000.00 0.00 496.00 0.00 1,000.00 0.00
Tunisia 0.00 0.00 198.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
West Bank/Gaza 86,362.00 0.00 7,000.00 18,000.00 25,000.00 50,000.00
Yemen 0.00 0.00 496.00 0.00 750.00 0.00
Subtotal, Near East 107,410.00 210,000.00 12,356.00 103,000.00 112,250.00 50,000.00
South Asia    
 

 

 

 

Afghanistan 209,739.88 42,000.00 272,574.00 35,000.00 250,000.00 101,000.00
Bangladesh 0.00 0.00 198.00 0.00 800.00 0.00
India 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 400.00 0.00
Nepal 0.00 0.00 30.00 0.00 10,000.00 0.00
Pakistan 24,000.00 0.00 21,822.00 0.00 32,000.00 0.00
Sri Lanka 0.00 0.00 20.00 0.00 350.00 0.00
Subtotal–South Asia 233,739.88 42,000.00 294,644.00 35,000.00 293,550.00 101,000.00
Western Hemisphere
 
   
 

 

 

Argentina 0.00 0.00 198.00 0.00 305.00 0.00
Bahamas 500.00 0.00 496.00 0.00 500.00 0.00
Bolivia 0.00 0.00 397.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Caribbean and Central America (Transit Zone) 1,700.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Merida Initiative (Central America) 0.00 0.00 0.00 24,800.00 100,000.00 0.00
Merida Initiative (Mexico) 0.00 0.00 0.00 215,500.00 450,000.00 48,000.00
Chile 0.00 0.00 99.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Colombia (Rule of Law/Judicial/Human Rights) 0.00 0.00 39,428.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Colombia–Transfer from ACP for CNP Eradication Support 0.00 0.00 2,479.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Dominican Republic 0.00 0.00 992.00 2,500.00 1,150.00 0.00
Eastern Caribbean 0.00 0.00 496.00 0.00 500.00 0.00
Ecuador 0.00 0.00 99.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
El Salvador 0.00 0.00 744.00 0.00 800.00 0.00

Guatemala

2,200.00 0.00 3,472.00 0.00 5,320.00 0.00
Haiti 14,850.00 0.00 8,927.00 2,500.00 15,000.00 0.00
Honduras 0.00 0.00 744.00 0.00 750.00 0.00
Jamaica 900.00 0.00 992.00 0.00 1,010.00 0.00
Mexico 36,678.00 0.00 26,553.00 0.00 27,816.00 0.00

Nicaragua

0.00 0.00 972.00 0.00 1,600.00 0.00
Paraguay 0.00 0.00 278.00 0.00 300.00 0.00
Southern Cone 500.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Trinidad and Tobago 0.00 0.00 397.00 0.00 500.00 0.00
Subtotal, Western Hemisphere 57,328.00 0.00 87,763.00 245,300.00 605,551.00 48,000.00
Global    
 

 

 

 

Criminal Youth Gangs 0.00 0.00 7,935.00 0.00 5,000.00 0.00
Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness 8,000.00 0.00 4,903.00 7,000.00 3,500.00 0.00
International Organizations 5,400.00 0.00 3,967.00 0.00 4,500.00 0.00
CICAD 1,400.00 0.00 1,406.80 0.00 2,430.00 0.00
UNODC 4,000.00 0.00 2,110.20 0.00 1,620.00 0.00
USEU 0.00 0.00 450.00 0.00 450.00 0.00
Interregional Aviation Support 63,000.00 0.00 54,654.00 0.00 55,100.00 0.00
Trafficking in Persons 5,000.00 0.00 5,951.00 0.00 7,767.00 0.00
INL Anticrime Programs 13,500.00 0.00 11,903.00 0.00 14,000.00 0.00
Alien Smuggling/Border Security 1,250.00 0.00 992.00 0.00 1,500.00 0.00
Cyber Crime, IPR and CIP 3,750.00 0.00 3,472.00 0.00 4,000.00 0.00
Fighting Corruption 4,500.00 0.00 3,967.00 0.00 4,500.00 0.00
Financial Crimes/Money Laundering/CT 4,000.00 0.00 3,472.00 0.00 4,000.00 0.00
Global Peacekeeping Operations
 

 

 
  4,000.00 0.00
Civilian Police Program 2,000.00 0.00 1,984.00 0.00 6,000.00 0.00
ILEA Operations 16,500.00 0.00 18,846.00 0.00 17,000.00 0.00
Subtotal, Global 113,400.00 0.00 110,143.00 7,000.00 116,867.00 0.00
PD&S 19,000.00 0.00 19,342.00 0.00 20,233.00 0.00
Subtotal, INCLE 558,977.88 252,000.00 556,405.00 400,300.00 1,202,061.00 199,000.00
TOTAL INL PROGRAMS 1,280,477.88 252,000.00 876,253.00 400,300.00 1,608,818.00 199,000.00

 

International Training

 

 

International counternarcotics training is managed/funded by INL and carried out by the DEA, U.S. Customs and Border Service, and U.S. Coast Guard. Major objectives are:

 

Contributing to the basic infrastructure for carrying out counternarcotics law enforcement activities in countries which cooperate with and are considered significant to U.S. narcotics control efforts;

 

Improving technical skills of drug law enforcement personnel in these countries; and

 

Increasing cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement officials.

 

INL training continues to focus on encouraging foreign law enforcement agency self-sufficiency through infrastructure development. The big goal of our counternarcotics efforts overseas supports effective host country enforcement institutions, which can remove drugs from circulation before they can reach the United States. U.S. law enforcement personnel stationed overseas help promote creation of host government systems that improve cooperation and joint efforts with the United States.

 

The regional training provided at the ILEAs consists of both general law enforcement training as well as specialized training for mid-level managers in police and other law enforcement agencies. INL-funded training supports the major U.S. and international strategies for combating narcotics trafficking worldwide. Emphasis will be placed on contributing to the activities of international organizations, such as the UNODC and the OAS. Through the meetings of major donors, the Dublin Group, UNODC and other international meetings, we will coordinate with other providers of training, and urge them to shoulder greater responsibility in providing training, which serves their particular strategic interests.

 

INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of U.S. law enforcement agencies in response to requests for assistance from U.S. Embassies. This will avoid duplication of effort and ensure that presentations represent the full range of USG policies and procedures.
International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs)

 

The mission of the regional International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) is to support emerging democracies, help protect U.S. interests through international cooperation, and promote social, political and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEA program has provided high-quality training and technical assistance, supported institution building and enforcement capability, and fostered relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts in the world. ILEAs have also encouraged strong partnerships among regional countries to address common problems associated with criminal activity.

 

The ILEA concept and philosophy is the result of a united effort by all participants—government agencies and ministries, trainers, managers, and students—to achieve the common foreign policy goal of cohesive international law enforcement. This goal is to train professionals who will shape the future of the rule of law, human dignity, personal safety and global security.

 

The ILEAs are a new concept aimed at addressing regional law enforcement priorities. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs. The Core program, a series of specialized training courses and regional seminars tailored to region-specific needs and emerging global threats, typically includes 50 participants, normally from three or more countries. The specialized courses, comprised of about 30 participants, are normally one or two weeks long and often run simultaneously with the Core program. Lastly, there are regional seminars with different topical focus such as transnational crimes, financial crimes, and counterterrorism.

 

The ILEAs help to develop an extensive network of alumni who exchange information with their regional and U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations. Many ILEA graduates become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective societies. The Department of State works with the Departments of Justice (DOJ), Homeland Security (DHS) and the Treasury, and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA programs. To date, the combined ILEAs have trained over 28,000 officials from over 75 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America.

 

Africa. ILEA Gaborone (Botswana) opened in 2001. Its main feature is a six-week intensive personal and professional development program–the Law Enforcement Executive Development Program (LEEDP)—designed for law enforcement mid-level managers. The LEEDP brings together approximately 40 participants from several nations for instruction in areas such as combating transnational criminal activity, supporting democracy by stressing the rule of law in international and domestic police operations, and by raising the professionalism of officers involved in the fight against crime. ILEA Gaborone also offers specialized courses for police and other criminal justice officials to enhance their capacity to work with U.S. and regional counterparts to combat international criminal activities. These courses concentrate on specific methods and techniques in a variety of subjects, such as counterterrorism, anti-corruption, financial crimes, border security, drug enforcement, firearms and many others.


 

Instruction is provided to participants from Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.

 

United States and Botswana trainers provide instruction. ILEA Gaborone has offered specialized courses on money laundering/terrorist financing-related topics such as Criminal Investigation (presented by FBI) and International Banking & Financial Forensic Program (presented by DHS and the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center), and International Money Laundering Scheme (presented by ICE). ILEA Gaborone trains approximately 500 students annually.

 

Asia. ILEA Bangkok (Thailand) opened in March 1999. This ILEA focuses on enhancing regional cooperation against the principal transnational crime threats in Southeast Asia—illicit drug trafficking, financial crimes, and alien smuggling. ILEA Bangkok provides a Core course–the Supervisory Criminal Investigator Course (SCIC)—designed to strengthen management and technical skills for supervisory criminal investigators and other criminal justice managers. In addition, it also presents one Senior Executive program and about 18 specialized courses—each lasting one to two weeks—on a variety of criminal justice topics. The principal objectives of the ILEA are the development of effective law enforcement cooperation within the member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), East Timor and China (including Hong Kong and Macau), and the strengthening of each country’s criminal justice institutions to increase its abilities to cooperate in the suppression of transnational crime.


 

Instruction is provided to participants from Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Macau, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Subject matter experts from the United States, Thailand, Japan, Netherlands, Philippines and Hong Kong provide instruction. ILEA Bangkok has offered specialized courses on money laundering/terrorist financing-related topics such as Computer Crime Investigations (presented by FBI and DHS) and Complex Financial Investigations (presented by IRS, FBI and DEA). ILEA Bangkok trains approximately 800 students annually.

 

Europe. ILEA Budapest (Hungary) opened in 1995. Its mission has been to support the region’s emerging democracies by combating an increase in criminal activity that emerged against the backdrop of economic and political restructuring following the collapse of the Soviet Union. ILEA Budapest offers three different types of programs: an eight-week Core course, Regional Seminars and Specialized courses in a variety of criminal justice topics. Instruction is provided to participants from Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.


 

Trainers from 17 federal agencies and local jurisdictions from the United States, Hungary, Canada, Germany, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Russia, Interpol and the Council of Europe provide instruction. ILEA Budapest has offered specialized courses on money laundering/terrorist financing-related topics such as Investigating/Prosecuting Organized Crime and Transnational Money Laundering (both presented by DOJ/OPDAT). ILEA Budapest trains approximately 800 students annually.

 

Global. ILEA Roswell (New Mexico) opened in September 2001. It offers a curriculum comprised of courses similar to those provided at a typical Criminal Justice university/college. These three-week courses have been designed and are taught by academicians for foreign law enforcement officials. This Academy is unique in its format and composition with a strictly academic focus and a worldwide student body. The participants are middle to senior level-law enforcement and criminal justice officials from Eastern Europe; Russia, the states of the former Soviet Union; Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries; and the People’s Republic of China (including the Special Autonomous Regions of Hong Kong and Macau); and member countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) plus other East and West African countries; and the Caribbean and Central and South American countries. The students are drawn from pools of ILEA graduates from the Academies in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone and San Salvador. ILEA Roswell trains approximately 350 students annually.


 

Latin America. ILEA San Salvador (El Salvador) opened in 2005. Its training program is similar to the ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest and Gaborone. It offers a six-week Law Enforcement Management Development Program (LEMDP) for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. In 2009, ILEA San Salvador will deliver four LEMDP sessions and approximately 20 Specialized courses that will concentrate on attacking international terrorism, illegal trafficking in drugs, alien smuggling, terrorist financing and financial crimes investigations. Segments of the LEMDP focus on terrorist financing (presented by the FBI) and financial evidence/money laundering application (presented by DHS/FLETC and IRS). Instruction is provided to participants from: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. ILEA San Salvador trains approximately 800 students per year.


 

The ILEA Regional Training Center in Lima (Peru) opened in 2007 to complement the mission of ILEA San Salvador. The center augments the delivery of region-specific training for Latin America and concentrates on specialized courses on critical topics for countries in the Southern Cone and Andean Regions. The RTC trains approximately 300 students per year.
 

 

Drug Enforcement Administration

The primary responsibility of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is to reduce the threat posed to our nation by illicit narcotics through vigorous law enforcement. The majority of illegal drugs impacting American society are produced outside of the United States and smuggled into our country. These illegal drugs are smuggled from their country of origin and often transit other nations before arriving in the United States. Thus, a strong international commitment to counter- narcotics law enforcement is required to address this menace. In cooperation with other U.S. agencies and foreign law enforcement counterparts, DEA strives to disrupt the illicit narcotics distribution chain; arrest and prosecute those involved in all aspects of the illegal drug trade and seize their profits and assets.

 

DEA’s contribution to our nation’s international counternarcotics strategy is accomplished through the 87 offices located in 63 countries that DEA maintains worldwide, in cooperation with its U.S-based offices. The DEA overseas mission is comprised of the following components:

 

  • Conduct bilateral investigative activities;
  • Coordinate counternarcotics intelligence gathering;
  • Conduct training programs for host country police agencies in countries receiving U.S. counternarcotics assistance;
  • Assist in the development of host country drug law enforcement institutions and develop mutually beneficial law enforcement relationships with foreign law enforcement agencies.

 

The emphasis placed on each component is determined by conditions and circumstances within the host nation. In nations where the law enforcement infrastructure is advanced and well developed, the DEA office tailors its activities to specific areas that best support host nation efforts. In countries lacking a robust law enforcement capability, DEA personnel may provide assistance in all four mission objectives. The following sections highlight the assistance/joint enforcement work in which DEA played a crucial role during 2008 in support of DEA’s four established mission components.

 

Bilateral Investigative Activities


 

Drug Flow Attack Strategy


 

In response to the National Drug Control Strategy calling for market disruption by attacking the flow of drugs, the DEA developed an International Drug Flow Attack Strategy. The primary objective of the strategy is to cause major disruption to the flow of drugs, money, and chemicals between the source zones and the United States.

 

This effort began with a threat assessment to ensure the most efficient use of interagency resources for the disruption of drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) operating in the source and transit zones. The threat assessment used interagency expertise as well as knowledge gained from previous joint enforcement operations.

 

Drug Flow Attack Strategy Highlights:


 

  • During 2008 DEA, working with its host country counterparts, continued to disrupt and dismantle the major Mexican and Central American DTOs through the arrest of Consolidated Priority Organization Targets (CPOTs) and other High Value Targets who occupy key positions in DTOs responsible for the smuggling of the vast majority of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and marijuana into the United States.
     
  • March 11, 2008, the Government of Mexico’s Special Investigations Unit (SIU), in outstanding cooperation and coordination with DEA, arrested the then head of the Arellano-Felix Organization (AFO) CPOT Gustavo Riviera-Martinez as the result of a provisional arrest warrant issued out of the Southern District of California.
     
  • May 1, 2008, the Government of Honduras’ National Police, coordinating with DEA, arrested CPOT Jorge Mario Paredes-Cordova. Paredes was transported by DEA aircraft to the United States and arraigned in Miami, Florida, where he faced numerous drug-related charges stemming from an indictment out of the Southern District of New York.
     
  • On June 6, 2008, the Government of Spain approved the extradition of DEA fugitive and international weapons trafficker Monzer al Kassar from Spain to the United States on terrorism charges pursuant to a provisional arrest warrant. Al Kassar is currently awaiting trial in the Southern District of New York on charges stemming from DEA indictments.
     
  • On September 4, 2008, Spanish authorities arrested DEA CPOT Edgar Guillermo Vallejo-Guarin, one of DEA’s top international narcotics fugitives, in Madrid, based on a provisional arrest warrant from the Southern District of Florida. This operation combined the efforts of DEA Madrid, the Charlotte District Office, the Miami Field Division, DEA Bogota, the Spanish Guardia Civil and the Spanish National Police.
     
  • September 16, 2008, CPOT Antonio Ezequiel Cardenas-Guillen, brother of former Gulf Cartel leader Osiel Cardenas-Guillen, was arrested in coordination with DEA by Mexican authorities. Cardenas-Guillenwas indicted in the Southern District of Texas based on a Federal Bureau of Investigation case, and in the District of Columbia as the result of a DEA investigation.
     
  • October 9, 2008, William Tamamayo-Hernandez was arrested by Panamanian Police in coordination with DEA in the Republic of Panama. Tamamayo-Hernandez was one of the primary leaders of an assassination cell for CPOT Juan Carlos Ramirez-Abadia’s and his DTO. On August 12, 2008, Tamamayo-Hernandez was indicted in the Eastern District of New York for multiple counts of murder, conspiracy to import cocaine, and international drug conspiracy.
     
  • October 25, 2008, CPOT Eduardo Arellano-Felix was arrested by Mexican authorities in coordination with DEA, in Baja California, Mexico. Arellano-Felix, one of the original leaders of the AFO, was indicted on December 4, 2003, in the Southern District of California.
     
  • November 7, 2008, Jaime Gonzalez-Duran was taken into custody by the Secretaria de Seguridad Publica in coordination with DEA. Gonzales-Duran was the third highest ranking member of the Gulf Cartel who controlled day-to-day operations for the Cartel. He reported directly to high level Cartel member Miguel Trevino-Morales and CPOT Heriberto LAZCANO-Lazcano. Gonzalez-Duran was indicted on March 13, 2008 in the District of Columbia.
     
  • December 14, 2008, CPOT Esteban Rodriguez-Olivera was arrested by Mexican authorities in coordination with DEA at the international airport in Mexico City, Mexico. Rodriguez-Olivera was the co-leader of the Rodriguez-Olivera Drug Trafficking Organization. He had been indicted on January 13, 2006 in the District of Columbia and was indicted again in March 2008 in the Eastern District of New York.

 

DEA and host nation counterparts have also continued to keep pressure on DTOs operating in Afghanistan. This means successfully identifying, disrupting, and dismantling major drug trafficking organizations that fuel the insurgency and profit from the narco-economy:

 

  • In October 2008, Haji Juma Khan was arrested and his trial was pending in the Southern District of New York on narco-terrorism charges. Khan is one of the world’s most significant heroin and opium traffickers. From his base of operations in Afghanistan, Khan allegedly used high level connections in the Afghan central and provincial government to facilitate drug trafficking and other illegal activities. Moreover, Khan was suspected of providing direct support to the Taliban from his drug trafficking revenue in the form of cash payments. Khan also supplied weapons and manpower to the Taliban leadership in support of their insurgent activities, investigations show.
     
  • On January 23, 2008, DEA Foreign-deployed Advisory and Support Teams provided additional testimony to a Federal Grand Jury in the District of Columbia which resulted in the issuance of an indictment charging Khan Mohammed with drug trafficking and terrorism. The basis for the indictment stemmed from Mohammed’s negotiations for rockets and bomb-making materials that Mohammed believed would be used against the U.S. Military and Coalition Forces. On May 15, 2008, Khan Mohammed was the first defendant ever to be convicted in U.S. federal court of narco-terrorism since the statute was enacted in March 2006.
     
  • Haji Bashir Noorzai, the leader of the largest Southwest Asian-based heroin-trafficking organization, was convicted in September 2008. Noorzai’s organization was responsible for smuggling hundreds of kilograms of heroin from Afghanistan and Pakistan into the U.S. In addition, Noorzai provided weapons and manpower to the Taliban in exchange for protection of his opium crops, heroin labs, and transportation routes.

 

On-Going Operations


 

Operation All Inclusive 2008-1: Operation All Inclusive (OAI) was designed to disrupt the flow of drugs, money, and precursor chemicals from the source zone (South America), through the transit zone (Mexico/Central America/Caribbean), and into the United States. This investigative operation expanded the geographical area coverage into the central Caribbean, Bolivia, and Peru; and provided U.S. interagency analytical support to seven countries. From January 2008 through September 30, 2008, DEA’s operation in this sphere resulted in the seizure of 100.41 metric tons of cocaine, 225 kilograms of heroin, 130.45 metric tons of marijuana, $92,310,578 and 1,278 arrests.


 

Enlace Program. The Enlace Program was established in the Southern Cone countries of South America more than five years ago to exchange law enforcement officers with the South American countries. The program has supported investigations and initiatives which have benefited both the DEA mission and missions of the host nations. Information and officer exchanges between neighboring countries in support of investigations have enabled Spanish, Guarani, Quechua, and other language speakers to conduct real-time translations of authorized wire intercepts resulting in sizeable seizures and arrests, share real-time intelligence, and target members of international drug trafficking organizations. Also, having transit country officers working with neighboring countries has enabled the successful coordination of international controlled deliveries and financial and transportation investigations, as well as the follow-up movement and illicit trafficking of narcotics, chemicals, and money. The Enlace Program has become an excellent example of the power of law enforcement networking.


 

Operation Broken Bridge. Operation Broken Bridge, a 24-hour, 7 days-a-week operation is a progression from Operation Rum Punch that was initiated by the Dominican Republic Narcotics Counter Drug Unit (DNCD) and the DEA Santo Domingo Country Office. The DNCD and DEA have been conducting an interagency coordinated counter-drug operation in the vicinity of Hispaniola since August 2007. The objective of Operation Broken Bridge is to disrupt suspect aircraft flown from Venezuela and Colombia to the Dominican Republic, and further to dismantle drug trafficking organizations using air drops over water and land and, on occasion, conducting landings in the Dominican Republic. Participating elements include the DEA, Caribbean Field Division, Joint Interagency Task Force-South, Customs Border Patrol, host nation law enforcement and military support, and the intelligence community. Seizure statistics for Operation Broken Bridge through December 2008 include 2,066 kilograms of cocaine, one kilogram of heroin, five vehicles, two aircrafts and 22 arrests.


 

Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT). The Bahamas participates actively as a partner in Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT), a multi-agency, international drug interdiction cooperative effort established in 1982. OPBAT is the largest and oldest cooperative effort overseas by any government involved in drug enforcement. OPBAT participants on the U.S. side include DEA, U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), Department of Homeland Security, and Department of State. On the Bahamian and Turks and Caicos side, counterparts include the Royal Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Police Forces. With the departure of the U.S. Army after 21 years of support to OPBAT, the DEA Aviation Division has been given the responsibility of replacing aviation support for the program in the central Bahamas. Cumulative OPBAT statistics through the final quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 include seizures of approximately 2,318 kilograms of cocaine, 460,037 pounds of marijuana, four kilograms of heroin, and $10,744,576 in USC, as well as 148 arrests.


 

Operation Containment. Operation Containment is an intensive, multinational, law enforcement initiative established in 2002 and is led by DEA. It involves countries in Central Asia, the Caucuses, the Middle East, Europe, and Russia. During fiscal year 2008, Operation Containment resulted in the seizure of 6.4 metric tons of heroin, 1 metric ton of morphine, 1.6 metric tons of opium gum, 1 metric ton of precursor chemicals, 24.4 metric tons of cannabis, 238.935 metric tons of hashish, and 15 seized drug labs.


 

Operation Panama Express. Operation Panama Express is a joint operation designed to disrupt and dismantle major maritime drug smuggling organizations operating from the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The operation is conducted by DEA and several other federal, state, and local law enforcement authorities, including the Joint Inter-Agency Task Force. Between 2000 through December 2008, as the result of Operation Panama Express, 576 metric tons of cocaine has been seized, 208 metric tons of cocaine has been destroyed when vessels carrying these illicit drugs were scuttled by their crews to avoid capture or when the boats were sunk by law enforcement, and 1,676 individuals have been arrested. During the 4th Quarter of 2008 alone, Operation Panama Expressstrike force effected 15 interdictions, to include two self-propelled semi-submersible vessels, resulting in the arrest of 60 individuals, and seizure of 99 kilograms of heroin and 27,989 kilograms of cocaine.


 

Operation Windjammer. On May 19, 2005, based on information provided by DEA Cartagena and DEA Kingston, a priority target Investigation was initiated against a multi-ton, Jamaica-based, cocaine trafficker multi-ton quantities of cocaine to the U.S. and Europe via Panama and Mexico. On January 3, 2006, a two-count indictment was handed down by the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia alleging that the target, his father, and five co-conspirators were conspiring to transport cocaine into the U.S. In support of Operation Windjammer, the DEA Kingston CO played a significant role in obtaining vital evidence that was utilized to implicate the target in a conspiracy to transship cocaine into the U.S. As evidenced by this indictment, Operation Windjammer was tailored to assist DEA, via host nation counterparts, in pursuing Priority Target and/or significant narcotics traffickers impacting the U.S. via Jamaica. Cumulative statistics through December 2008, resulting from the success of Operation Windjammer include the seizure of 281.6 pounds of hashish oil, 26.80 tons of marijuana, 160.7 kilograms of cocaine, $31,910 in U.S. currency, and 24 arrests.


 

Coordinate Counternarcotics Intelligence Gathering


 

Colombia. DEA Colombia expanded its joint intelligence gathering efforts with Colombian agencies in 2008. The objectives of these intelligence gathering programs include information related to new groups emerging from the demobilization process of paramilitary organizations, intelligence on methamphetamine production and transportation in Colombia, information related to Colombia/Venezuela cross-border drug trafficking activity, and a final intelligence program which targeted the Colombian Ports and the transportation organizations using the ports.


 

Europe/Africa. Law enforcement information, seizures, and market indicators suggest that increasing amounts of cocaine are being smuggled from South America to European markets, including through West Africa. While Spain and Portugal remain the primary arrival zones for Europe-bound cocaine shipments, multi-ton quantities of cocaine are smuggled to Europe via several African countries, to include Nigeria, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Morocco, Mauritania, Senegal, Ivory Coast and Guinea-Conakry. In order to combat these networks, DEA, in coordination with European and African law enforcement agencies, has developed and implemented a program to gain increased understanding of narcotics trafficking in West Africa, fill intelligence gaps, and promote intelligence sharing.


 

China. DEA has been working closely with law enforcement agencies in China, Pakistan, and Afghanistan to target the flow of Afghan heroin to China. Authorities in all three countries have reported increased arrests of couriers smuggling Afghan heroin to China. Increased intelligence sharing among the countries has led to the identification and disruption of several West African drug trafficking organizations. Investigations have revealed that West African criminal networks are the primary smugglers of Afghan heroin into China.


 

Centers for Drug Information Program. During the 2002 Summit of the Americas, the Heads of State in the Western Hemisphere adopted several resolutions calling for the intensification of collaborative efforts in the fight against illicit drugs in the Americas. As part of the response to these resolutions, the International Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC) Presidents and DEA developed a regional strategy to target transnational drug trafficking organizations. One of the solutions proposed was the creation of the Centers for Drug Information (CDI). The IDEC Regional Presidents unanimously approved the proposal and DEA was tasked with implementing the CDI Program. The CDI Program is a web-based program using the internet as its communication backbone. The Centers were designed to provide coordination, analysis, and daily summaries of events that have occurred and are staffed by analysts from the host nation, the Joint Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-S) and DEA.


 

This DEA-managed initiative became operational during June 2003, with 41 participating countries and protectorates located throughout the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America and South America. A fifth Regional Center (Kabul, Afghanistan) was established in 2005. The program presently supports 50 countries and protectorates and includes over 250 users. Most recently, a Southeast Asia Regional Center, located in Bangkok, Thailand came online. Discussions continue in regards to expansion to Europe, Africa and additional Southeast Asian countries. Expansion will allow all CDI users increased capability to share globally.

 

Conduct Training Programs for Host Nation Police Agencies


 

DEA's international training activities are conducted in coordination with DEA's foreign offices, U.S. Embassies, the Department of Defense, and the Department of State, Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL).

 

Bilateral Training Programs:


 

DEA offers both in-country and regional training programs conducted by mobile training teams. In-country programs are seminars conducted in a host country and only include participants from that country. Regional training is designed to bring together a combination of participants from a number of countries sharing common drug trafficking issues or routes. An advance pre-school planning and assessment trip is conducted by a training team member to design each school to the specific requirements of the students registered for the courses. In FY 2008, DEA conducted bilateral training seminars funded by INL for 318 participants from 11 countries.

 

Asset Forfeiture/Money Laundering Training Programs:


 

An inter-agency Terrorist Financing Working Group in Washington coordinates Department of State funding for approximately six international asset forfeiture and money laundering seminars per year. The actual training modules are developed by DEA in a joint effort with DOJ. During FY 2008, a total of 244 participants from seven countries were trained at six Basic and Advanced Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Seminars.

 

International Narcotics Enforcement Management Seminar (INEMS) Program:


 

The INEMS is a three-week program. Funded by the Department of State, it is conducted by the International Training Section of DEA in the United States principally for upper-level law enforcement managers. In addition to management concepts, the supervisors are exposed to the current and innovative enforcement techniques used by DEA and other U.S. enforcement agencies. Each country trainee group is required to present an overview of the narcotics situation in their home country. In FY 2008 the INEMS course trained 15 participants from 12 countries.

 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-Russia Council Counter Narcotics Training Project:


 

DEA provides mobile training teams to support the NATO-Russia Council (NRC) Training Project on Counter Narcotics training of Afghan and Central Asian personnel. This project is implemented by the UNODC. The mobile training seminars are being conducted in each of the Central Asia countries of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. NRC training programs will occur throughout FY 2009 in Afghanistan and Central Asia. DEA conducts one-week specialized counternarcotics courses in the region in support of the NRC program.

 

Development of Host Country Drug Law Enforcement Institutions


 

DEA’s fourth Key Mission Objective is to assist in the development of host country drug law enforcement institutions and form effective cooperative relationships with foreign law enforcement organizations.

 

DEA helps foreign countries fight drug criminals by identifying and working with those foreign law enforcement organizations which have the integrity and the courage to develop and pass strong counternarcotics laws and build strong law enforcement institutions into existence to suppress crime. For example, DEA’s successful operations in cooperation with the Colombian National Police (CNP) are an outgrowth of its long-term, strategy to develop strong working relationships with reliable, honest governmental institutions. The fact that the CNP has been able to remain steadfast in the face of continuing threats of violence and the temptations of corruption by DTOs is a testimony to the honesty and valor of its leadership, and individual member officers.

 

DEA has excellent working relationships with law enforcement in other countries as well, and these partnerships have resulted in tremendous successes across the globe. DEA’s cooperative efforts with host countries have helped DEA to develop more self-sufficient, effective drug law enforcement programs. For example, DEA’s efforts to develop counternarcotics counterparts in Afghanistan have resulted in increasingly well-trained and successful counternarcotics units capable of taking on greater investigative roles.

 

During June 2008, the Europe and Africa Region, in conjunction with the Office of Diversion Control, hosted a Diversion Investigative Strategy Meeting in Gaborone, Botswana to discuss an African Chemical Control Investigative Strategy. Representatives from the 14 African nations of Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Gabon, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Nigeria, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Uganda and Zambia attended the meeting, as well as representatives from DEA Headquarters and DEA COs in Brussels, Cairo, Frankfurt, Lagos, Pretoria, and Paris.

 

Additionally, in September 2008, the Europe and Africa Region hosted the Regional African Executive Seminar Botswana. The seminar focused on encouraging West African law enforcement entities to cooperate on developing viable, prosecutable investigations against the most significant drug trafficking organizations and narco-terrorist organizations operating in West Africa. The seminar included law enforcement representatives from South Africa, Botswana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Liberia, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Cape Verde, Mali, Burkina Faso, as well as DEA personnel.

 

International Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC):


 

DEA actively participates in a variety of several international meetings to promote international law enforcement cooperation. One forum is the annual International Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC) that brings together upper-level drug law enforcement officials from around the world to share drug-related intelligence and develop operational strategies that can be used against international drug traffickers. The yearly conferences focus on such areas of common concern as the growing sophistication of drug trafficking organizations and money laundering.

 

In July 2008 the Turkish National Police in cooperation with DEA co-hosted IDEC XXVI. This year’s IDEC General Assembly brought together over 300 high-level drug law enforcement officials from 93 countries throughout the world. IDEC XXVII focused on pharmaceutical abuse, the nexus of drugs and terrorism, money laundering, and intelligence sharing across multi-national law enforcement agencies. IDEC was established in 1983 and to date 16 different countries have hosted the conference. This was Turkey's first time as host of IDEC and only the second time the event has been held outside of North and South America. The DEA's sponsored IDEC General Assembly has grown over the past 26 years and is now attended by more nations than any other multilateral counternarcotics forum except for the UN-sponsored conference.

 

United States Coast Guard

Overview:

The Coast Guard’s multiyear campaign plan to combat the dynamic maritime drug trafficking threat, “Campaign Steel Web,” is continually evolving to reflect changes in drug trafficking trends.

Steel Web is fully aligned with the National Drug Control Strategy (NDCS), the National Interdiction Command and Control Plan (NICCP), and other directives complementing the contributions of our law enforcement (DOJ/DEA, DHS/ICE, CIS, CBP, and local LEAs) and DOD partners in this effort.

Three pillars form the foundation of Steel Web:
 

  • Flexible, Intelligence Driven Operations: The United States Coast Guard (USCG) Operational Commanders aggressively conduct and support coordinated, flexible operations in the transit zone in response to tactical intelligence and information. In addition to benefiting from intelligence generated by other USG agencies, the Coast Guard also is a major source for actionable intelligence to Joint Interagency Task Force South (JIATF-S). The Coast Guard also continues to coordinate operations with local, state, and federal law enforcement and agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.
     
  • International Engagement: The Coast Guard continues to emphasize international partnering with intelligence interdiction forces, including the planning and execution of both large and small-scale joint and combined operations. The fact that bilateral maritime agreements and International Maritime Interdiction Support (IMIS) arrangements are in place throughout the theaters of operations facilitates this type of cooperation. Additionally, the Coast Guard provides Training and Technical Assistance (through deployable training teams, resident training and subject matter expertise exchanges) to partner nations’ maritime services to serve as force multipliers in drug trafficking operations.
     
  • Technological Initiatives: The Coast Guard is actively addressing operational shortfalls through research, development, and fielding detection, monitoring, and other non-lethal technologies.

Coast Guard foreign assistance efforts are designed to improve the effectiveness of U.S. counternarcotics partners around the world.

Combined Operations:

The Coast Guard conducted several maritime counterdrug combined operations in 2008. Combined operations partner countries and territories included: Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, the United Kingdom and its Overseas Territories, Netherlands and Netherlands Antilles, Belgium, and France and its Overseas Territories. In FY2008, Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) conducting combined operations onboard British Naval Vessels removed a total of 17,087 pounds of cocaine. In FY 2008, LEDETs conducting combined operations onboard Dutch Naval Vessels removed 8,100 pounds of cocaine.

International Agreements:

There are now 28 bilateral maritime counterdrug agreements in place between the United States and our Central, South American and Caribbean partner nations. These arrangements help the Coast Guard move toward its goal of eliminating safe havens for drug smugglers. This year, the USCG reached agreement with the Ecuadorian Navy on Operational Procedures for maritime counterdrug cooperation, filling a large gap that the DTOs were routinely using. Most recently, the USCG signed a set of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), in accord with a Letter of Intent with the Mexican Navy. This SOP facilitates cooperation in cases involving Mexican flagged vessels suspected of engaging in maritime drug smuggling activities. Discussions for a similar agreement with Peru are in progress. In addition, the United States, Belize, and France have signed and taken the necessary steps to bring the Caribbean Regional Maritime Counterdrug Agreement (CRA) into force. However, two more countries need to take action to bring the CRA to come into effect. This important agreement has been pending since 2003.

International Cooperative Efforts:

In FY 2008, the Coast Guard disrupted 85 drug smuggling attempts, which resulted in the seizure of 35 vessels, the detention of 196 suspected smugglers, and the removal of 367,926 pounds of cocaine and 22,174 pounds of marijuana. Nearly all of the 85 interdiction activities involved some type of foreign partner support or cooperation, through direct unit participation, exercise of bilateral agreements, granting permission to board, or logistics support.

In an effort to thwart law enforcement efforts, DTOs are increasingly utilizing Self-Propelled Semi-Submersibles (SPSS) to smuggle cocaine. In FY 2008 there was a dramatic increase in the use of Self-Propelled Semi-Submersible (SPSS) vessels. From a total of 23 operations using of semi-submersibles between 2001 and 2007, they increased to at least 75 in 2008. SPSS vessels carried an estimated 423 metric tons (MT) of cocaine in FY 2008, of which only 71 MT were removed (56.3 MT removed by the Coast Guard in eight operations). Because the SPSS’s are a relatively easy means of smuggling, they have displaced most other modes of drug trafficker maritime transportation with the exception of go-fast boats. The design of the SPSS vessels makes it difficult for law enforcement to detect large loads of illegal drugs, but the USCG continues to work closely with interagency and international partners to explore better ways to detect and interdict SPSS vessels. To counter this growing threat, the Coast Guard works closely with the Department of Justice and congressional staffs to draft and pass legislation to make operation of these vessels on an international voyage illegal. This legislation, the “Drug Trafficking Vessel Interdiction Act of 2008, 18 U.S.C. 2285”, was signed into law by the President in October 2008. This law facilitates the establishment of new tactics to enable evidence collection and prosecution even when contraband cannot be seized.

The USCG routinely embarked law enforcement officials (ship riders) from Panama, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Belize, Honduras, The Bahamas, and in the Pacific from Palau to exercise bilateral agreements, improve cooperation, and maximize the efforts of law enforcement assets on the high seas, and in the territories of partner nations.

International Training and Technical Assistance:

In FY 2008, the USCG provided International Training and Technical Assistance in support of drug interdiction programs through a variety of support efforts.

The USCG Technical Assistance Field Team (TAFT) provides engineering expertise, vessel assessments, and major repair contracting services to the maritime services of the countries in the Eastern Caribbean’s Regional Security System. USCG ships used the service’s legislative authority “to conduct training and technical assistance in conjunction with normal operations” in several countries to continue the USCG’s international engagement mission. Several USCG engineering deployments provided crucial technical assistance to the Haitian Coast Guard and aided the Haitian efforts to improve the operational readiness of its small boat fleet. This detachment led training courses in port security, outboard motor maintenance, and small boat seamanship. The USCG has also partnered with U.S. Navy forces off the Gulf of Guinea to plan for and execute operations under the Africa Partnership Station in 2008. These efforts will continue in 2009.

The USCG’s International Training Division’s Mobile Training Teams (MTTs) deliver one-to-two-week long courses to partner nation maritime services around the world. Typical courses include Maritime Law Enforcement (MLE), Boarding and Advanced Boarding Officer, Joint MLE Boarding, Maritime Operations Planning and Management, MLE Instructor, Port Security/ Port Vulnerability, Incident Command System, and Small Boat Operations. Courses consist of formal classroom instruction with either on-board or on-locale hands-on skill training. In FY 2008, over 1,920 students from 55 countries from around the world received instruction.

Individual students also receive instruction in USCG resident training programs. These students develop a broad range of skills from boat handling and boat and engine repair to senior officer leadership training. In FY 2008, 257 students from 68 partner nations enrolled in resident courses at USCG training installations.

The third and fourth regular Trilateral Maritime Counter Drug Summits involving the U.S., Ecuador and Colombia, were held in Cartagena and Key West respectively during 2008. This year, the summits were expanded to include participation from Panama and Mexico. Results of these meetings include significant improvements in information exchange and operational coordination that have enhanced our collective ability to combat narcotics smuggling.

In November 2008, Colombia hosted the First Maritime Counter Drug Symposium of the Americas. The Symposium brought together representatives from 34 hemispheric and transatlantic countries to analyze and discuss their different maritime strategies to combat drug trafficking. Discussions focused on the waterways used by the different countries in the Americas, especially those located in, and affected by the Transit Zone for narcotics between the producing and consuming countries. The next Symposium will be held in the Dominican Republic in November 2009.
 

U.S. Customs and Border Protection

The Department of Homeland Security’s U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) process all goods, vehicles, and people entering and exiting the United States. CBP officers intercept contraband, improperly classified merchandise, unlicensed technology and materiel, weapons, ammunition, fugitives, undocumented immigrants, and unreported currency at America’s 327 international ports of entry.

CBP uses a wide range of interdiction techniques, including the targeting of suspect shipments and persons through the use of risk management techniques. Using such scientific methods enables CBP to be effective in its primary mission while minimizing its impact on legitimate trade and travel. CBP uses this “selectivity” to identify high-risk shipments for more intensive examination.

Since its creation in 2003, CBP is also charged with the border regulatory functions of passport control and agriculture inspections in order to provide comprehensive, seamless border control services. This is intended to simplify border security operations and is termed, “One Face at the Border.” Of current importance is CBP’s role in protecting the borders of the United States from the introduction of weapons of mass effect and terrorists. CPB maintains its position as the nation’s first line of defense against the introduction of narcotics and dangerous drugs from foreign sources.

On the average day, CBP processes 1.13 million passengers and pedestrians, 70,900 containers by land and sea, 251,000 incoming international air passengers, 74,100 passengers/crew arriving by ship, 304,000 incoming privately owned vehicles; seizes $187,186 in undeclared or illicit currency, 5,138 pounds of narcotics; and arrests 2,472 fugitives or violators at or between ports of entry; all while facilitating commercial trade and collecting $88.3 million in fees, duties and tariffs (2007 statistics).

The State Department Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs and CBP promote international cooperation. CBP does so through interagency agreements and by designing and implementing training and assistance programs for its foreign counterparts worldwide. CBP also delivers a variety of training, high-tech tools and border security-related programs for combating transnational crime thereby promoting global cooperation and the international law enforcement effort.

CBP Advisors and Attachés:

A variety of far-reaching CBP initiatives includes the Container Security Initiative (CSI) that operates globally to pre-screen high-risk cargo shipments before they are loaded onto vessels. CBP has also deployed a growing network of long-term advisors and attachés who serve abroad in U.S. Embassies and consulates, coordinating closely with our foreign counterparts. These individuals play a key role in engaging other governments as our allies in the on-going war against drug-smuggling.

Attachés play a prominent role in representing the interests of CBP in the international arena. They have a broad mandate, ranging from enforcement and investigative activities on behalf of CBP to serving as delegates in such groups as the Shared Border Accords Coordinating Committee in Canada. They also established International Border Enforcement Team priorities and facilitated the exchange of information, improving member awareness of law enforcement activity, policies, and resources relating to regional border enforcement efforts. Their efforts help to ensure that shared assets can be harnessed together to fight smuggling and they have proven to be effective channels for sharing intelligence as well.

The attaché assigned to Mexico, for example, will be heavily involved in the Merida Initiative, a significant effort funded by the State Department to strengthen and improve the capabilities of customs and border control agencies in Mexico and throughout Central America, including the Dominican Republic and Haiti. The Merida Initiative will encompass the acquisition and deployment of Non-Intrusive Inspection Equipment, canine enforcement training, upgrades to automated systems, and improvements in immigration control programs. The goal is to enable the governments of Mexico and other countries to defeat the drug cartels on their own ground by disrupting their operations locally before the drugs reach America’s borders.

In Panama, the CBP Attaché works with Panamanian Immigration and Customs and other counterparts to identify and interdict travelers in possession of fraudulent documents, contraband or those engaged in narcotics and bulk cash smuggling. The CBP Attaché working with CBP Operation Wingclip in Miami and the National Targeting Center (NTC) has been able to support seizures of substantial amounts of smuggled and undeclared money and checks and financial instruments connected to businesses suspected of laundering proceeds of narcotics trafficking in the Colon Free Trade Zone. Many of these seizures form the basis for Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), JTTF and other criminal investigations in the United States.

Activities with Operation Wingclip, CBP Miami and the Defense Attaché Office resulted in the dismantling of a money laundering ring operating between Bolivia, Panama and the United States that was believed to be laundering narcotics proceeds. This resulted in the seizure of over $ 100,000 in checks and cash and the interdiction of the perpetrator by CBP MiamI. In August 2008 CBP provided 20 Panamanian Customs Officers with formal border security training in the interdiction of narcotics and other contraband cargo through targeting and risk management. CBP has also embedded Border Patrol Agents and CBP Officers with Panamanian Officers at Checkpoints to provide operational assistance in the interdiction of narcotics, illegal immigrants, and contraband.

The Attaché in Brasilia arranged for senior level Brazilian customs officials to observe canine training at the CBP Canine Enforcement Training Center (CETC) at Front Royal, Virginia and then to have two instructors from CETC spend two weeks observing the Brazilian canine training program as a means of strengthening their drug-detection activities. The CBP Attaché in the Dominican Republic assisted DEA and local authorities in the recent seizure of 1,500 gallons of liquid cocaine concealed in shampoo bottles at the port of Haina.

CBP Advisors are more narrowly focused than attachés in their missions. The advisors in Ecuador and Peru, for example, are assigned to Port Security programs, both airport and seaport, that have produced significant drug seizures, particularly when the contraband was concealed in containers destined for the United States or Europe. While not operational, the advisors have achieved this by helping their foreign colleagues establish intelligence units capable of collecting and analyzing documents to target high-risk shipments. They have also assisted by giving training and guidance to foreign customs and border control agents in detecting and intercepting bulk currency shipments under the auspices of Operation Firewall, as well as detecting fraudulent travel documents. Advisors have also been influential in recommending the training for, and maintenance of appropriate Non-intrusive Inspection Equipment. Their behind-the-scenes efforts and advice have led to record-breaking numbers of drug and currency seizures and arrests.

Although CBP does not have CBP Advisors assigned to U.S. Embassy Bogota, CPB provided a variety of support to the U.S. Embassy Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) in 2008: Conducted a two-phase national assessment of the Colombian canine program, covering 10 cities; conducted the first regional Canine Enforcement Training in Bogota, to include Colombian and Peruvian Canine Officers; and invited Colombian officials to attend International Rail Interdiction Training in El Paso, Texas.

International Training and Assistance:

In 2008, CBP Office of International Affairs (INA) provided technical training and assistance in support of the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) programs currently operating in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, and San Salvador.

CBP supported ILEA programs by developing and conducting core and specialized training on a variety of topics, including: Land Border Interdiction; Contraband Concealment Techniques; International Controlled Deliveries and Drug Investigations (conducted jointly with the Drug Enforcement Administration); Complex Financial Investigations (conducted jointly with Immigration and Customs Enforcement); and Customs Forensics Lab capabilities and techniques. Twelve such training programs were conducted in 2008.

Budapest: In April 2008, a CBP Border Patrol Agent to served as an instructor representing CBP Office of Border Patrol. Course of instruction included a basic overview of OBP Checkpoint operations. A total of 47 enforcement officers attended the Budapest ILEA from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Hungary.

Port Security Initiatives:

In response to increased threats of terrorism, CBP supported programs seeking to identify high-risk shipments destined for the United States. One important program supporting this objective is the Container Security Initiative (CSI). CSI addresses the threat to border security and global trade posed by the potential use of maritime shipping containers by terrorists. CSI consists of security protocols and procedures that, if fully implemented, ensure that all maritime shipping containers posing a potential risk for terrorism, are identified, inspected and secured at foreign ports before they are placed on vessels destined for the United States. CBP is now stationing multidisciplinary teams, consisting of representatives from both CBP and ICE that work together with their host government counterparts. Their mission is to jointly target and pre-screen containers and to develop investigative leads related to the terrorist threat to cargo destined for the United States. A total of over 50 foreign ports are participants in either the CSI or the Secure Freight Initiative (SFI).

Secure Freight Initiative (SFI): SFI is focused on applying advanced technologies in radiation scanning and x-ray imaging equipment to enhance the physical security of the international supply chain. Focused on strategic trade corridors, which are defined as a shipping lane that has service to the United States and includes foreign seaports that handle maritime containerized cargo that either transits or originates from areas of strategic importance or possess potentially high-risk cargo as defined by CBP’s Automated Targeting System (ATS), SFI involves partnerships with foreign governments, ocean carriers, and terminal operators to design and implement security structures tailored to the specific location's operational requirements and risk factors. The resulting designs are implemented to ensure port efficiency, trade facilitation, and enhanced cargo security.

CBP implements a multi-layered, risk-based enforcement strategy designed to maximize security without causing economic disruption. This strategy encompasses the following security programs in the maritime environment:

  • The “24-Hour” Manifest Rule
  • Container Security Initiative (CSI)
  • Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)
  • Use of Non Intrusive Inspection (NII) Technology
  • Automated Targeting System (ATS)
  • National Targeting Center for Cargo (NTC-C)
  • Importer Security Filing “10+2”:

SFI represents another component of the CBP’s layered enforcement strategy for protecting the nation. The data from the SFI suite of systems (Radiation Portal Monitors, Non-Intrusive Inspection equipment, and Optical Character Readers) are integrated into CBP’s Automated Targeting System and reviewed alongside the targeting system’s risk assessment rule sets. This data is provided in real-time to CBP officers, who determine if the container should be referred to the host nation for secondary examination prior to lading. For the CBP officer’s stationed at U.S. ports of entry, the NTC-C, or a CSI or SFI port, SFI/ICS provides additional data points that are used in conjunction with advanced manifest data to allow CBP Officers to make a more informed decision when assessing the risk of each container coming to the United States.

CBP will be responsive to the legislative requirements of the 9/11 Act, which require 100% scanning of all U.S.-bound containers by July 12, 2012 and has developed a strategic direction for the SFI program which focuses on identifying and deploying operations to strategic trade corridors worldwide where the implementation of SFI would mitigate risks associated with the potential introduction of weapons of mass effect into the United States by way of maritime containerized cargo. An approach that prioritizes deployments to strategic trade corridors and focuses on placing scanning systems in the most sensible and efficient manner will provide CBP the opportunity to expend resources and efforts on the development of the technology and operational solutions necessary to address key challenges, such as transshipment and high volume port operations, while obtaining additional information on cargo traveling through trade corridors that warrant additional scrutiny.

Plan Colombia: CBP developed and implemented an initiative focusing on joint U.S.–Colombia narcotics interdiction efforts. As part of U.S. support to Plan Colombia, CBP provided Colombia with training and assistance on personnel management systems to assure coordinated operations on border interdiction, and industry partnership programs. Through this support, CBP provided basic tools, vehicles, high-tech equipment, training and technical assistance to Colombian National Police, Colombian Customs, and other Colombian law enforcement agencies. This CBP initiative ended in 2008. Goals and objectives were met and the funding expired. CBP continues to support the U.S. Embassy in Bogota as needed on border security issues.

Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements: CBP delivers a portion of U.S. support provided to host nations under Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements (CMAA). CMAA’s provide for mutual assistance in the enforcement of customs-related laws. Under CMAA protocols, CBP provides assistance to its foreign counterparts in the collection of evidence for criminal cases. U.S. courts have ruled that evidence gathered via these executive agreements is fully admissible in U.S. court cases.

Training in the United States: CBP currently lists 43 training courses available to foreign specialists. This catalog of offerings is constantly being updated to reflect current techniques and methodologies as well as the stated needs of our foreign partners. In 2008, several new courses were added to the catalog, including Special Teams Operations (STOP), Commodity Identification, X-ray Systems, and the Corruption in the Global Environment course.

International Visitors Program: The State Department’s International Visitors Program (IVP) provides an opportunity for foreign officials to consult with their U.S. counterparts and appropriate high level managers in CBP Headquarters as well as to participate in on-site tours of selected U.S. ports and field operations to observe actual CBP operations. The focus of this program includes narcotics enforcement, port security, counter terrorism and intelligence operations. In 2008 the IVP hosted five foreign delegations. This incorporated senior government officials from a broad array of countries including South Africa, Colombia, Kuwait, Azerbaijan, and Kenya.

Canine Training: CBP’s Canine Center Front Royal (CCFR) continues to provide State Department-funded training courses, designed to assist foreign countries in the proper use of detector dogs. Canine El Paso Training Center (CETC) provides each country with a clear and logical framework for the initial training and employment of detector dog teams for the successful interdiction of smuggled narcotics, explosives, and currency. CCFR also provides support to countries in the initial development and evaluation of canine training programs, as well as the enhancement of existing canine interdiction and breeding programs. Training is provided to federal police and customs officers, trainers, and supervisors on all facets of canine training and utilization. Over the past 28 years, over 520 officers, representing over 50 countries, have been trained at the CCFR in Front Royal, Virginia. In 2008, canine training was provided to Peru, Colombia, Israel, and Kuwait.

Port of Entry Interdiction Training: This general description encompasses four specific training courses concerning border security issues found at the various types of international border environments, i.e., land (IBIT), seaport (ISIT), rail (IRIT) and airport (IACIT). Training has been designed for the problems encountered and interdiction techniques useful for each type of operation. Each training class is normally five days in duration and is comprised of interactive classroom discussion and practical exercises using actual CBP border facilities. In FY 2008, 26 of these courses were conducted. In addition to port of entry operations, CBP provides training in techniques used by smugglers who do not use official ports of entry to cross borders but who smuggle contraband between ports of entry. CBP uses Native American trackers as well as Border Patrol Agents to conduct this training in a variety of geographic environments.

HAZMAT Training: This training is comprehensive and is designed to enhance the participant’s knowledge and effectiveness in responding to emergencies involving hazardous materials. It is conducted at CBP’s Advanced Training Center in Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia. It is designed to be very interactive. Approximately 60% of the training involves practical exercises.

International Bulk Currency Smuggling: 2008 saw increased interest in this topic. CBP assisted Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents in six foreign training missions. The training was developed to assist foreign governments in identifying techniques used by bulk currency smugglers and to design and implement programs to counter that threat.

Training in Host Countries:

Overseas Enforcement Training: This training combines formal classroom training and field exercises for host nation border control personnel. Although many relate to counter proliferation and terrorism, they run the gamut of issues faced by CBP and our foreign border control counterparts, including narcotics interdiction. The curriculum includes Border Enforcement Training, Supply Chain Security, Detection, Interdiction and Investigation; Concealment Methods, Bulk Currency Smuggling, False and Fraudulent Documents, Train-the-trainer, Anti-Corruption, Targeting and Risk Management, Hazardous Materials, and X-ray Systems. These courses are also conducted at foreign ports of entry. They include both basic training and follow-on training to training already received at U.S port facilities.

CBP also initiated several regional training programs in 2008 which included attendees from neighboring countries. In addition to sharing lessons learned, CBP fostered goodwill and cooperation among adjoining countries on border security issues. It is hoped that this practice will assist in establishing regional and global associations of border control officials who share concerns about transnational criminal networks and who will cooperate in their dismantling.

Short Term Advisory Training: This training allows on-site CBP experts to assist host government agencies with selected projects, such as building institutions and improving interdiction capabilities. These may focus on specific narcotics threats, port security initiatives and the counter proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). CBP advisors are also deployed to help with host nation strategic planning, commercial processing, investigations, canine enforcement, automation, and border/trade facilitation.

Integrity/Anti-Corruption Training: This training is designed to promote professionalism and integrity within the workforce of those agencies that are particularly vulnerable to bribery and corruption. The focus is on integrity awareness and development of internal investigation capabilities. A new course titled Corruption in the Global Environment was designed and developed by CBP Office of International Affairs and the Office of Internal Affairs in 2008 and was vetted by the Office of Training and Development to ensure that it met adult training standards. It greatly expanded the existing curriculum to provide more practical guidance and suggestions on how to identify and resolve corruption issues involving government employees. The course was piloted in Slovakia in August 2008 and was very well received.

In February 2008, CBP arranged and coordinated with the government of the Dominican Republic to provide short term assistance on establishing an internal affairs unit. Similarly, the Office of International Affairs and Internal Affairs provided training in February and March 2008 to Ghanaian Customs on designing a computer database for internal affairs matters.

Looking Ahead:

In 2009, CBP will continue its border security mission through its initiatives that secure the supply chain of international cargo destined for the United States. CBP’s international missions will also focus on evaluating and prioritizing the needs of countries seeking assistance in capacity building. CBP will place continued emphasis on evaluating the effectiveness of all its programs and designing new ones as needs and techniques are updated. CBP advisors will be deployed to assist countries in improving their border security operations and in meeting recognized international standards for security and reporting.



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