printable banner

U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

2010 INCSR: U.S. Government Assistance


Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Report
March 1, 2010

Share


 

Department of State (INL) Budget
($000)

 

 

FY 2008 Base

FY 2008 Supp

FY 2009 Bridge Supp

FY 2009 Base

FY 2009 Spring Supp

FY 2010 Estimate

Andean Counterdrug Program (ACP) [1]

 

 

 

 

 

Bolivia

30,154

0

0

26,000

0

0

Brazil

992

0

0

1,000

0

0

Colombia [2]

244,618

0

0

230,128

0

0

Ecuador

7,042

0

0

7,500

0

0

Panama

992

0

0

2,200

0

0

Peru

36,546

0

0

47,672

0

0

Venezuela

0

0

0

500

0

0

TOTAL ACP

320,344

0

0

315,000

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE)

Africa

 

 

 

 

 

 

Africa Regional (TSCTP)

0

0

0

3,000

0

2,500

Africa Regional (West)

0

0

0

0

0

0

Benin

0

0

0

0

0

0

Burkina Faso

0

0

0

100

0

0

Cape Verde

377

0

0

500

0

603

Democratic Republic of Congo

1,488

0

0

1,500

0

1,700

Djibouti

298

0

0

300

0

0

Ethiopia

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gambia

0

0

0

0

0

0

Ghana

496

0

0

500

0

500

Guinea

0

0

0

100

0

0

Guinea-Bissau

719

0

0

100

0

1,500

Kenya

0

0

0

0

0

0

Liberia

4,096

0

0

4,130

0

6,000

Mali

0

0

0

0

0

0

Mauritania

0

0

0

0

0

0

Mozambique

0

0

0

0

0

300

Niger

0

0

0

0

0

0

Nigeria

590

0

0

720

0

500

Senegal

0

0

0

0

0

0

Sierra Leone

0

0

0

250

0

250

Somalia

0

0

0

0

0

0

South Africa

0

0

0

0

0

0

Sudan

13,578

0

0

15,400

0

16,000

Sudan (from Recession)

0

10,000

0

0

0

0

Tanzania

0

0

0

0

0

450

Togo

0

0

0

0

0

0

Uganda

0

0

0

0

0

235

Zambia

0

0

0

0

0

0

Subtotal, Africa

21,642

10,000

0

26,600

0

30,538

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

East Asia and the Pacific

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cambodia

0

0

0

0

0

0

China

0

0

0

600

0

800

East Asia and Pacific Regional

0

0

0

0

0

1,300

Indonesia

6,150

0

0

6,150

0

11,570

Laos

1,567

0

0

1,000

0

1,000

Malaysia

0

0

0

0

0

0

Mongolia

0

0

0

0

0

0

Philippines

794

0

0

800

0

1,365

Thailand

1,686

0

0

1,400

0

1,740

Timor-Leste

20

0

0

20

0

800

Vietnam

0

0

0

0

0

0

Subtotal, East Asia and the Pacific

10,217

0

0

9,970

0

18,575

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Europe

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turkey

298

0

0

300

0

0

Subtotal, Europe

298

0

0

300

0

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Near East

 

 

 

 

 

 

Algeria

198

0

0

0

0

0

Egypt

1,984

0

0

2,000

0

1,000

Iraq

0

85,000

0

0

20,000

52,000

Israel

0

0

0

0

0

0

Jordan

1,488

0

0

1,000

0

1,500

Lebanon

496

0

0

6,000

0

20,000

Morocco

496

0

0

1,000

0

750

NEA Regional (TSCTP)

0

0

0

0

0

2,000

Tunisia

198

0

0

0

0

0

West Bank/Gaza

0

25,000

50,000

25,000

109,000

100,000

Yemen

496

0

0

0

0

1,000

Subtotal, Near East

5,356

110,000

50,000

35,000

129,000

178,250

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South and Central Asia

 

 

 

 

 

 

Afghanistan

272,574

35,000

101,000

250,000

133,000

420,000

Bangladesh

198

0

0

200

0

350

Nepal

30

0

0

330

0

3,700

Pakistan

21,822

0

0

22,000

65,500

130,000

Sri Lanka

20

0

0

20

0

0

Subtotal—South and Central Asia

294,644

35,000

101,000

272,550

198,500

554,050

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Western Hemisphere

 

 

 

 

 

 

Argentina

198

0

0

305

0

300

Bahamas

496

0

0

500

0

0

Bolivia

0

0

0

0

0

20,000

Brazil

0

0

0

0

0

1,000

Chile

99

0

0

0

0

0

Colombia

0

0

0

0

0

248,900

Colombia (Rule of Law/Judicial/Human Rights)

41,908

0

0

45,000

0

0

Colombia—Transfer from ACP for CNP Eradication Support

2,479

0

0

0

0

0

Costa Rica

0

0

0

0

0

0

Dominican Republic

992

2,500

0

3,650

0

4,450

Eastern Caribbean

496

0

0

500

0

0

Ecuador

0

0

0

0

0

4,500

El Salvador

744

0

0

0

0

0

Guatemala

3,472

0

0

3,000

0

0

Guyana

0

0

0

0

0

0

Haiti

8,927

2,500

0

17,500

0

21,107

Honduras

744

0

0

0

0

0

Jamaica

992

0

0

1,010

0

0

Mexico

26,553

215,500

48,000

246,000

160,000

190,000

Nicaragua

972

0

0

0

0

0

Panama

0

0

0

0

0

0

Paraguay

278

0

0

300

0

500

Peru

0

0

0

0

0

40,000

Suriname

0

0

0

0

0

0

Trinidad and Tobago

397

0

0

400

0

0

Venezuela

0

0

0

0

0

0

Subtotal, Western Hemisphere

89,747

245,300

48,000

388,165

160,000

612,364

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Centrally-Managed

 

 

 

 

 

 

Criminal Youth Gangs

7,935

0

0

5,000

0

8,000

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

11,903

0

0

10,000

0

14,000

International Organizations

3,967

0

0

4,900

0

4,500

CICAD

1,407

0

0

1,563

0

1,000

UNODC

2,110

0

0

2,853

0

3,500

USEU

450

0

0

484

0

0

Interregional Aviation Support

54,654

0

0

52,420

0

60,088

Critical Flight Safety Program

0

0

0

0

0

20,750

Trafficking in Persons

5,951

0

0

8,400

0

9,262

INL Anticrime Programs

11,903

0

0

14,441

0

15,900

Alien Smuggling/Border Security

992

0

0

1,347

0

1,000

Cyber Crime and IPR

3,472

0

0

5,000

0

5,000

Fighting Corruption

3,967

0

0

4,347

0

4,750

International Organized Crime

0

0

0

0

0

1,000

Financial Crimes/Money Laundering/CT

3,472

0

0

3,747

0

4,150

Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative

0

0

0

3,000

0

5,000

Civilian Police Program

1,984

0

0

5,400

0

4,000

ILEA Operations

18,846

0

0

17,000

0

37,200

PD&S

19,342

0

0

21,854

0

24,523

Subtotal, Centrally-Managed

136,485

0

0

142,415

0

203,223

TOTAL INCLE

558,389

400,300

199,000

875,000

487,500

1,597,000

TOTAL BUDGET

878,733

400,300

199,000

1,190,000

487,500

1,597,000

 

International Training

 

International counternarcotics training is managed/funded by INL and carried out by the DEA, U.S. Customs and Border Service, and U.S. Coast Guard. Major objectives are:

 

  • Contributing to the basic infrastructure for carrying out counternarcotics law enforcement activities in countries which cooperate with and are considered significant to U.S. narcotics control efforts;
     
  • Improving technical skills of drug law enforcement personnel in these countries; and
     
  • Increasing cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement officials.

 

INL training continues to focus on encouraging foreign law enforcement agency self-sufficiency through infrastructure development. The overarching goal of our counternarcotics efforts overseas is to support effective host country enforcement institutions, which can remove drugs from circulation before they can reach the United States. U.S. law enforcement personnel stationed overseas help promote creation of host government systems that improve cooperation and joint efforts with the United States.

The regional training provided at the ILEAs consists of both general law enforcement training as well as specialized training for mid-level managers in police and other law enforcement agencies.

INL-funded training supports the major U.S. and international strategies for combating narcotics trafficking worldwide. Emphasis is placed on contributing to the training and assistance activities of international organizations, such as the UNODC and the OAS. Through the meetings of major donors, the Dublin Group, UNODC and other international meetings, we will coordinate with other providers of training, and urge them to shoulder greater responsibility in providing training which serves their particular strategic interests.

INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of U.S. law enforcement agencies in response to requests for assistance from U.S. Embassies. This will avoid duplication of effort and ensure that training presentations represent the full range of USG policies and procedures.

 

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs)

 

The mission of the regional International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) is to support emerging democracies, help protect U.S. interests through international cooperation, and promote social, political and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEA program has provided high-quality training and technical assistance, supported institution building and enforcement capability development, and fostered relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts around the world. ILEAs have also encouraged strong partnerships among regional countries to address common problems associated with criminal activity.

The ILEA concept and philosophy is the result of a united effort by all participants—government agencies and ministries, trainers, managers, and students—to achieve the common foreign policy goal of coordinated international law enforcement around the globe. This goal is to train professionals who will shape the future of the rule of law, human dignity, personal safety and global security.

The ILEAs address regional law enforcement priorities. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs. The Core program, a series of specialized training courses and seminars tailored to region-specific needs and emerging global threats. The core program typically includes 50 participants, normally from three or more countries. The specialized courses, comprised of about 30 participants, are normally one or two weeks long. Lastly, regional seminars present various law enforcement topics such as transnational crimes, financial crimes, and counterterrorism.

The ILEAs help to develop an extensive network of alumni who exchange information with their regional and U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations. Many ILEA graduates become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective societies. The Department of State works with the Departments of Justice (DOJ), Homeland Security (DHS) and the Treasury, and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA programs. To date, the combined ILEAs have trained close to 30,000 officials from over 85 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America.

 

Africa

 

ILEA Gaborone (Botswana) opened in 2001. Its main feature is a six-week intensive professional development program—the Law Enforcement Executive Development Program (LEEDP)—designed for law enforcement mid-level managers. The LEEDP brings together approximately 40 participants from several nations for instruction in areas such as combating transnational criminal activity, supporting democracy by stressing the rule of law in international and domestic police operations, and overall professional development through enhanced leadership and management techniques. ILEA Gaborone also offers specialized courses for police and other criminal justice officials to boost their capacity to work with U.S. and regional counterparts. These courses concentrate on specific methods and techniques in a variety of subjects, such as counterterrorism, anticorruption, financial crimes, border security, drug enforcement, firearms, wildlife investigation and many others.

Instruction is provided to participants from Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Comoros, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Trainers from the United States and Botswana provide instruction. ILEA Gaborone trains approximately 500 students annually.

 

Asia

 

ILEA Bangkok (Thailand) opened in March 1999. ILEA Bangkok focuses on enhancing regional cooperation against transnational crime threats in Southeast Asia, primarily illicit drug trafficking, financial crimes, and human trafficking. ILEA Bangkok provides a Core course—the Supervisory Criminal Investigator Course (SCIC)—designed to strengthen management and technical skills for supervisory criminal investigators and other criminal justice managers. In addition, it also presents about 20 specialized courses—each lasting one to two weeks—on a variety of criminal justice topics. The principal objectives of the ILEA are the development of effective law enforcement cooperation within the member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Timor Leste and China (including Hong Kong and Macau), and the strengthening of each country’s criminal justice institutions to increase its abilities to cooperate in the suppression of transnational crime.

Instruction is provided to participants from Brunei, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Macau, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor Leste and Vietnam. Subject matter experts from the United States, Thailand, Japan, Philippines, Australia and Hong Kong provide instruction. ILEA Bangkok has offered specialized courses on money laundering/terrorist financing-related topics such as Computer Crime Investigations (presented by FBI) and Complex Financial Investigations (presented by IRS). ILEA Bangkok trains approximately 800 students annually.

 

Europe

 

ILEA Budapest (Hungary) opened in 1995. Its mission has been to support the region’s emerging democracies by combating an increase in criminal activity that emerged against the backdrop of economic and political restructuring following the collapse of the Soviet Union. ILEA Budapest offers three different types of programs: an eight-week Core course, Regional Seminars and Specialized courses in a variety of criminal justice topics. Instruction is provided to participants from Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Trainers from 17 federal agencies and local jurisdictions from the United States, Hungary, Germany, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Russia, Interpol and the Council of Europe provide instruction. ILEA Budapest has offered specialized courses on money laundering/terrorist financing-related topics such as Investigating/Prosecuting Organized Crime and Transnational Money Laundering (both presented by DOJ/OPDAT). ILEA Budapest trains approximately 1000 students annually.

 

Global

 

ILEA Roswell (New Mexico) opened in September 2001. It offers a curriculum comprised of courses similar to those provided at a typical Criminal Justice university/college. These three-week courses have been designed and are taught by academicians for foreign law enforcement officials. This Academy is unique in its format and composition with a strictly academic focus and a worldwide student body. The participants are middle to senior level-law enforcement and criminal justice officials from Eastern Europe; Russia, the states of the former Soviet Union; Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries; and the People’s Republic of China (including the Special Autonomous Regions of Hong Kong and Macau); and member countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) plus other East and West African countries; and the Caribbean and Central and South American countries. The students are drawn from pools of ILEA graduates from the Academies in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador and the ILEA Regional Training Center (RTC) in Lima. ILEA Roswell trains approximately 350 students annually.

 

Latin America

 

ILEA San Salvador (El Salvador) opened in 2005. Its training program is similar to the ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest and Gaborone. It offers a six-week Law Enforcement Management Development Program (LEMDP) for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. ILEA San Salvador normally delivers four LEMDP sessions and approximately 20 Specialized courses annually, concentrating on attacking international terrorism, illegal trafficking in drugs, alien smuggling, terrorist financing and financial crimes investigations. Segments of the LEMDP focus on terrorist financing (presented by the FBI) and financial evidence/money laundering application (presented by DHS/FLETC and IRS). Instruction is provided to participants from: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. ILEA San Salvador trains approximately 500 students per year.

The ILEA Regional Training Center in Lima (Peru) opened in 2007 to complement the mission of ILEA San Salvador. The RTC, expected to be upgraded to a fully-operational ILEA in the future, augments the delivery of region-specific training for Latin America and concentrates on specialized courses on critical topics for countries in the Southern Cone and Andean Regions. The RTC trains approximately 300 students per year

 

Drug Enforcement Administration

 

The primary responsibility of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is to reduce the threat posed to our nation by illicit narcotics through vigorous law enforcement. The majority of illegal drugs impacting American society are produced outside of the United States and smuggled into our country. These illegal drugs are smuggled from their country of origin and often transit other nations before arriving in the United States. Thus, a strong international commitment to counternarcotics law enforcement is required to address this menace. In cooperation with other U.S. agencies and foreign law enforcement counterparts, DEA strives to disrupt the illicit narcotics distribution chain, arrest and prosecute those involved in all aspects of the illegal drug trade and seize their profits and assets.

DEA’s contribution to our nation’s international counternarcotics strategy is significantly enhanced through the 83 offices located in 62 countries that DEA maintains worldwide. These overseas offices work in close cooperation with DEA’s U.S.-based offices to seamlessly pursue narcotics criminals domestic and foreign. DEA’s overseas offices have the following key missions:

 

  • Conduct bilateral investigations with foreign law enforcement;
     
  • Coordinate counternarcotics intelligence gathering with host governments; 
     
  • Conduct training programs for host country police agencies in countries receiving U.S. counternarcotics assistance;
     
  • Assist in the development of host country drug law enforcement institutions and develop mutually beneficial law enforcement relationships with foreign law enforcement agencies.

 

The emphasis placed on each component is determined by conditions and circumstances within the host nation. In nations where the law enforcement infrastructure is advanced and well developed, DEA can focus on joint enforcement and joint intelligence gathering activities with host law enforcement. In countries lacking a robust law enforcement capability, DEA personnel may provide training assistance to help host enforcement increase their capacity for effective law enforcement. The following sections highlight the assistance and joint enforcement work in which DEA played a crucial role during 2009.

Bilateral Investigative Activities

Drug Flow Attack Strategy

The primary objective of DEA’s Drug Flow Attack Strategy is to cause major disruption to the flow of drugs, money, and chemicals between the source zones and the United States.

Drug Flow Attack Strategy Highlights:

 

  • As part of DEA’s continued strategy to put sustained pressure on the Mexican cartels, Special Operations Division (SOD), with investigative support from DEA New York and DEA Houston, worked with the Department of State and the Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) to designate leaders of the Gulf Cartel / Los Zetas Cartel as Narcotics Kingpins, with Department of State rewards offered for their capture. After Los Zetas was designated, the Departments of Justice, State and Treasury announced coordinated actions against Los Zetas Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTO), now known as the “Company” and other narcotics trafficking DTOs: Antonio Ezequiel Cardenas-Guillen, Jorge Eduardo Costilla-Sanchez, Heriberto Lazcano-Lazcano and Miguel Trevino-Morales, high-level Mexican leaders of the Company and 15 of their top lieutenants, were charged in U.S. federal courts with drug trafficking-related crimes. The Department of State announced rewards of up to $50 million, collectively, for information leading to the capture of these drug traffickers, and other specially designated Narcotics Kingpins from the Company.
     
  • On April 14, 2009, Ignacio Leal Garcia was arrested by the Colombian police. Ignacio Leal Garcia, a.k.a. “Camilo” & “El Tuerto” is the reputed political and financial leader of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) “Eastern Bloc.” The Eastern Bloc allegedly controls 2,200 hectares (5,430 acres) of coca leaf plantations that yield an estimated 17 tons, or $901 million worth of cocaine a year.
     
  • On October 7, 2008, Jose Maria Corredor-Ibague aka “Boyaco” and his wife Carolina Yanave aka “La Negra” were extradited to the U.S. from Colombia. Two years earlier, Boyaco had been located and arrested by Colombian authorities in a remote location in Colombia. To secure the extradition to the U.S., DEA and DOJ/NDDS presented evidence to a federal grand jury in Washington, D.C. that resulted in a true bill for a superseding indictment of Boyaco for Narco-terrorism, and Drug Importation.

On August 20, 2009, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced in a press conference that 43 defendants in the U.S. and Mexico, including ten alleged Mexican drug cartel leaders, were charged in 12 indictments in U.S. federal courts in Brooklyn and Chicago. This enforcement effort was coordinated by DEA under Operation Buzz Kill. The alleged leaders, Joaquin “el Chapo” Guzman-Loera, Ismael “el Mayo” Zambada-Garcia and Arturo Beltran-Leyva and other high-ranking members of several of Mexico’s most powerful drug cartels were charged with operating continuing criminal enterprises or participating in international drug trafficking conspiracies. Each of the three cartel leaders is designated as a Consolidated Priority Organization Target (CPOT) by the Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF). Seven other cartel leaders were also charged in the indictments. Together, the four Brooklyn and eight Chicago indictments charge that between 1990 and December 2008, Guzman-Loera, Ismael Zambada-Garcia, Arturo Beltran-Leyva and others were responsible for importing into the U.S. and distributing nearly 200 metric tons of cocaine, additional large quantities of heroin, and the bulk smuggling from the U.S. to Mexico of more than $5.8 billion in cash proceeds from narcotics sales throughout the U.S. and Canada. The indictments collectively seek forfeiture of more than $5.8 billion in drug proceeds. Also, more than 32,500 kilograms of cocaine have already been seized, including approximately 3,000 kilograms seized during the Chicago investigation, approximately 7,500 kilograms seized during the New York investigation and 22,500 kilograms seized previously that were later linked to the activities of the Federation. The indictments also detail seizures of 64 kilograms of heroin and more than $22.6 million in cash during the course of the investigation.

  • On September 26, 2009, CPOT Juan Carlos RIVERA-RUIZ was arrested in Colombia based on a DEA Miami indictment and is currently awaiting extradition. RIVERA-RUIZ was a former top lieutenant of Wilber VARELA in the North Valley Cartel and is responsible for smuggling multi-ton quantities of cocaine to the United States. RIVERA-Ruiz is believed to have been one of the principal manufacturers of semi-submersibles in Colombia.
     
  • In February 2009, DEA concluded Operation Xcellerator, a 21-month multi-agency investigation targeting the Sinaloa Cartel. The Sinaloa Cartel dominates much of the drug smuggling on the Southwest Border with Mexico and is responsible for bringing multi-ton quantities of cocaine and marijuana from Mexico into the United States. Furthermore, the Sinaloa Cartel is responsible for laundering hundreds of millions of dollars in criminal proceeds from illegal drug trafficking activities. Operation Xcellerator led to the arrest of 781 individuals and the seizure of approximately $61 million in U.S. currency and $10.5 million in drug related assets. Weapons seized totaled 191, drug seizures include more than 12.5 metric tons of cocaine, more than eight metric tons of marijuana, more than 1,200 pounds of methamphetamine, more than eight kilograms of heroin, 2350 pounds of pseudoephedrine and approximately 1.5 million pills of Ecstasy. Other notable seizures included four aircraft, and three vessels. As DEA’s most focused attack against the Sinaloa Cartel to date, Operation Xcellerator demonstrates DEA’s relentless efforts to disrupt and dismantle major drug cartels.
     
  • The La Familia cartel is a violent drug trafficking cartel based in the state of Michoacan, in southwestern Mexico. According to court documents, La Familia controls drug manufacturing and distribution in and around Michoacan, including the importation of vast quantities of cocaine and methamphetamine from Mexico into the U.S. La Familia claims to be philosophically opposed to the sale of methamphetamine to Mexicans, and instead supports its export to the U.S. for consumption by Americans. La Familia cartel has utilized violence to include murders, kidnappings and assaults to support its narcotics trafficking business. According to one indictment unsealed in New York, associates of La Familia based in the United States have allegedly acquired military-grade weapons, including assault weapons and ammunition, and have arranged for them to be smuggled back into Mexico for use by La Familia.
     
  • On October 21-22, 2009, DEA’s SOD led the coordinated takedown efforts of Project Coronado, a multi-agency law enforcement investigation which targeted the La Familia Michoacana drug cartel. Three hundred and three individuals in 19 states were arrested in a series of takedowns through coordination between federal, state and local law enforcement. More than 3,000 agents and officers operated across the U.S. to make the arrests during the two-day takedown. Sixty-two kilograms of cocaine, 729 pounds of methamphetamine, 967 pounds of marijuana, 144 weapons, 109 vehicles, and two clandestine drug labs were seized.

“This unprecedented, coordinated U.S. law enforcement action—the largest ever undertaken against a Mexican drug cartel—has dealt a significant blow to La Familia’s supply chain of illegal drugs, weapons, and cash flowing between Mexico and the United States,” said Attorney General Holder.

  • On September 3, 2009, Jesus Eduardo Valencia-Arbelaez, was extradited from Romania to face cocaine trafficking and money laundering charges. Valencia-Arbelaez was a leader of a sophisticated international cocaine trafficking organization (the Organization) based in Colombia and Venezuela that operated worldwide, including in Bolivia, Spain, Holland, Sierra Leone, Guinea Conakry, Mauritania, Mali, Cyprus, and the United States.
     
  • On April 23, 2009, CPOT Herberto YESQUEN-Estupinan was extradited to the Middle District of Florida to face multiple drug trafficking changes related to the seizure of 22,500 kilograms of cocaine in September 2004. He was arrested in November 2007 by Colombian authorities in Cali, Colombia based on information provided by the Miami Field Division Operation Panama Express South.
     
  • In October 2008, Medellin-based drug trafficker CPOT Francisco Antonio Florez-UPEGUI, a high-ranking member of La Oficina de Envigado and several other trafficking organizations was arrested by Colombian authorities as part of the Miami Field Division’s Operation Titan. Florez-UPEGUI began his drug trafficking activities approximately 30 years ago as a member of the Medellin Cartel. In recent years, the Florez-UPEGUI organization trafficked narcotics not only to the U.S., Mexico, Guatemala and Panama, but also to nations in Africa, Europe, and the Middle East.
     
  • On June 6, 2008, the Government of Spain approved the extradition of DEA fugitive and international weapons trafficker Monzer al Kassar from Spain to the U.S. on terrorism charges pursuant to a provisional arrest warrant. On November 20, 2008 Kassar and his associate were found guilty of all charges. On February 25, 2009, Kassar was sentenced to 30 years in prison.

DEA and host nation counterparts have also continued to keep pressure on DTOs operating in Afghanistan. This means successfully identifying, disrupting, and dismantling major drug trafficking organizations that fuel the insurgency and profit from the narco-economy:

  • Haji Bashir Noorzai, the leader of the largest Southwest Asian-based heroin-trafficking organization, was convicted in September 2008. Noorzai’s organization was responsible for smuggling hundreds of kilograms of heroin from Afghanistan and Pakistan into the U.S. In addition, Noorzai provided weapons and manpower to the Taliban in exchange for protection of his opium crops, heroin labs, and transportation routes. On April 30, 2009, Haji Bashir Noorzai was sentenced in U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York to two terms of life imprisonment, to run concurrently.
     
  • On December 17, 2008, the Afghan Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU) and Technical Investigative Unit (TIU), under the direction of DEA-Kabul began using judicially sanctioned technical means to gather evidence against traffickers. DEA hopes this new program will allow the SIU to target the most significant drug traffickers in Afghanistan.
     
  • Haji Bagcho is a major Afghan drug trafficker with a base of operations in Nangrahar Province, Afghanistan and the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Intelligence/evidence was developed linking the Bagcho DTO to anticoalition militia that operate in Afghanistan. Haji Bagcho is awaiting trial on U.S. narcotics charges. Bagcho was charged in a two-count indictment unsealed June 24, 2009, with one count of conspiracy to distribute one kilogram or more of heroin and another heroin distribution charge. Conviction on either of these charges carries a mandatory minimum sentence of ten years in prison and a maximum of life in prison.
     
  • On December 16, 2009, Oumar Issa, Harouna Toure, and Idriss Abelrahman were arrested by DEA’s Ghanaian counterparts based upon a U.S. arrest warrant out of the Southern District of New York after they allegedly agreed to transport cocaine through West and North Africa to Europe for Al Qaeda, Al Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb and the FARC.
     
  • Mohammad Essa, a known terrorist and Afghan drug trafficker, was returned to the U.S. in April 2007 from Afghanistan on drug trafficking charges. After his U.S. trial, Mohammed Essa was sentenced to 103 months in May 2009.

On-Going Operations

Operation Broken Bridge—The objective of Operation Broken Bridge is to disrupt suspect aircraft flown from Venezuela and Colombia to the Dominican Republic, and to further dismantle DTOs which employ air drops over water and land and landings in the Dominican Republic to move narcotics to markets in the U.S. Participating elements include the DEA, Caribbean Field Division, Joint Interagency Task Force-South, Customs Border Patrol, host nation law enforcement and military support, and the intelligence community. Seizure statistics for Operation Broken Bridge through the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 include 853 kilograms of cocaine, five vehicles, one aircraft, and multiple weapons, as well as 13 arrests.

Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT)—OPBAT is the largest and oldest cooperative effort overseas by any government involved in drug enforcement. This DEA led initiative also includes the participation of the U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security, and Department of State. On the Bahamian and Turks and Caicos side, counterparts include the Royal Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Police Forces. Cumulative OPBAT statistics through the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 include seizures of approximately 2,700 kilograms of cocaine, 23,688 pounds of marijuana, and $4,091,102 in U.S. currency, as well as 60 arrests.

Operation Panama Express—Operation Panama Express is a joint operation designed to disrupt and dismantle major maritime drug smuggling organizations operating from the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The operation is conducted by DEA and several other federal, state, and local law enforcement authorities, including the Joint Inter-Agency Task Force. Between 2000 through December 2008, as the result of Operation Panama Express, 576 metric tons of cocaine have been seized, 208 metric tons of cocaine have been destroyed when vessels carrying these illicit drugs were scuttled by their crews to avoid capture or when the boats were sunk by law enforcement. 1,676 individuals have been arrested during Operation Express.

Operation Windjammer—Operation Windjammer was tailored to assist DEA and host nation counterparts, in pursuing priority targets and/or significant narcotics traffickers impacting the U.S. via Jamaica. Cumulative statistics through the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, resulting from the success of Operation Windjammer, include the seizure of 202.5 pounds of hashish oil, 12,793 pounds of marijuana, 148.7 kilograms of cocaine, and $12,977 in currency (including $1,100 Canadian currency) as well as seven arrests.

Operation Esperanza—Operation Esperanza is the single most productive bilateral drug law enforcement project within DEA’s international operations in the Western Hemisphere. It has become the technological cornerstone of DEA’s technical Program in Colombia and has proven to be an extremely important tool for the U.S. Government and the Government of Colombia in protecting national security and combating drug trafficking, terrorism, and other illegal activities.

Coordinate Counternarcotics Intelligence Gathering

Centers for Drug Information Program

This DEA-managed initiative prepares summaries of narcotics law enforcement developments for use by law enforcement professionals in the countries it serves. The information is made available through the internet. It became operational during June 2003, with 41 participating countries and protectorates located throughout the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America and South America. A fifth Regional Center (Kabul, Afghanistan) was established in 2005. The program presently supports 58 countries and protectorates and includes over 250 users. Most recently, a Southeast Asia Regional Center, located in Bangkok, Thailand and an African Regional Center, located in Accra, Ghana came online. Discussions continue in regards to expansion to Europe and additional countries in Africa and Southeast Asia.

Conduct Training Programs for Host Nation Police Agencies

International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) Training Programs:

The ILEA program was established by the U.S. Department of State in 1995. Currently, there are four ILEAs operating in Budapest, Hungary; Bangkok, Thailand; Gaborone, Botswana; and San Salvador, El Salvador. ILEAs offer a program of mid-career leadership training for regional police and other enforcement officers, as well as specific training programs arranged in accordance with regional interests. DEA’s role is to provide counternarcotics course instruction and best practices for the core supervisory sessions, as well as specialized training courses at the ILEAs.

DEA’s International Training Section (TRI) also provides one-week of counternarcotics training at each of the five annual eight-week sessions of law enforcement training at the ILEA in Budapest, Hungary. Twenty-six countries from Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union participate in ILEA Budapest training. The ILEA Bangkok core program of instruction is the six-week Supervisory Criminal Investigator Course (SCIC). TRI provides seven days of instruction during the SCIC for 14 countries from Southeast Asia. DEA also offers several specialized courses at ILEA Bangkok.

ILEA Gaborone training includes a six-week supervisor’s course, the Law Enforcement Executive Development and a number of specialized courses. ILEA Gaborone conducts training for 23 eligible southern African countries. TRI provides four days of counternarcotics training at each of the four annual sessions, and a one-week Regional Chemical Control Training Seminar.

DEA serves as the Director for ILEA San Salvador, which also conducts specialized training courses at an alternate training venue, a Regional Training Center in Lima, Peru. ILEA San Salvador provides training of law enforcement officials from 30 participating Latin American countries. TRI provides five days of instruction at each of the four annual Law Enforcement Management Development Program sessions, as well as several specialized courses.

Bilateral Training Programs:

DEA offers both in-country and regional training programs conducted by mobile training teams. In-country programs are seminars conducted in a host country and only include participants from that country. Regional training is designed to bring together a combination of participants from a number of countries sharing common drug trafficking issues or routes. An advance pre-school planning and assessment trip is conducted by a training team member to design each school to the specific requirements of the students registered for the courses. In FY 2009, DEA conducted bilateral training seminars funded by INL for 208 participants from six countries.

Asset Forfeiture/Money Laundering Training Programs:

Three Department of Justice (DOJ)/Asset Forfeiture Money Laundering Seminar courses are offered: an International Asset Forfeiture Seminar, Advanced International Asset Forfeiture Seminar, and an International Asset Airport Interdiction Seminar. DOJ funds approximately nine of these seminars per year. During FY 2009, a total of 242 participants from 14 countries were trained. The training emphasizes techniques for conducting financial investigations and includes case studies. Additionally the topics of tracing hidden assets; Intelligence Analysts’ sources of information and collection of information; DEA asset forfeiture procedures and U.S. forfeiture law; international asset forfeiture sharing and cooperation; and debriefing of financial sources of information are also covered.

International Narcotics Enforcement Management Seminar (INEMS) Program:

The INEMS is a two-week program. The TRI section of DEA in the U.S. conducts the INEMS principally for upper-level law enforcement managers. In addition to management concepts, the supervisors are exposed to the current and innovative enforcement techniques used by DEA and other U.S. enforcement agencies. Each country trainee group is required to present an overview of the narcotics situation in their home country. In FY 2009 two INEMS courses trained 30 participants from 21 countries.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-Russia Council Counter Narcotics Training Project:

DEA provides mobile training teams to support the NATO-Russia Council (NRC) Training Project on Counter Narcotics training of Afghan and Central Asian personnel. This project is implemented by the UNODC and supported by Central Command funds. The mobile training seminars are being conducted in each of the Central Asia countries of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan.

International Training—Mexican Federal Police: Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) Training:

During FY 2009, TRI initiated a Mexican Federal Police SSP Training Program which provided training for 2,056 Mexican officers. Beginning July 2009, DEA’s Special Agents, Intelligence Research Specialists, and Diversion Investigators traveled to the Mexican Federal Police Academy located in San Luis Potosi, Mexico, to provide instruction on Police Intelligence. The Police Intelligence Course demonstrates how the collected evidence has been gathered and analyzed and can be presented and defended in court. The inclusion of DEA, other federal, state and local agencies, as well as foreign national police agencies from countries such as Spain, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Holland, and Canada, in the training of the Mexican federal police, known as the Mexican Secretariat of Public Security (SSP), sets a precedent for the Mexican government, and came about as part of the Merida Initiative. Thus far in FY 2010, 906 Mexican officers have received training.

Afghanistan Regional Training Team (RTT) Program

The U.S. Government supports the RTT’s primary mission to provide specialty law enforcement training to the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNP-A), as well as the neighboring regional countries. In FY 2009, TRI was instrumental in developing a Regional Training Team (RTT) concept of operations that enabled DEA to provide specialty law enforcement training to 3,149 law enforcement counterparts assigned to the CNP-A and neighboring regional countries.

The RTT training mission focuses on providing the necessary skills in: basic counternarcotics investigations, maintenance of basic skills, advanced counternarcotics investigations, establishment of self-initiated investigations, and the creation of specialized units. Instruction is provided in a “building block” style which begins with a Basic Course and progresses to Specialty Courses, such as: Undercover, Operation Planning, Surveillance, Technical Training, Investigative Techniques, Intelligence Analysis, and Leadership. The use of practical exercises is a key element. The RTT Program is committed to sustaining the training of 650 members of the National Interdiction Unit, Special Investigative Unit, and the Technical Investigative Unit in Afghanistan and will continue through 2010.

Development of Host Country Drug Law Enforcement Institutions

DEA’s fourth Key Mission Objective is to assist in the development of host country drug law enforcement institutions and form effective cooperative relationships with foreign law enforcement organizations.

Colombia

DEA helps foreign countries fight drug criminals by identifying and working with those foreign law enforcement organizations which have the integrity and the courage to develop and pass strong counternarcotics laws and build strong law enforcement institutions into existence to suppress crime. For example, DEA’s successful operations in cooperation with the Colombian National Police (CNP) are an outgrowth of its long-term, strategy to develop strong working relationships with reliable, honest governmental institutions. The fact that the CNP has been able to remain steadfast in the face of continuing threats of violence and the temptations of corruption by DTOs is a testimony to the honesty and valor of its leadership, and individual member officers. DEA has excellent working relationships with law enforcement in other countries as well, and these partnerships have resulted in tremendous successes across the globe.

Afghanistan

DEA, in close coordination with the interagency community, developed a comprehensive Afghanistan expansion plan. This plan called for a significant increase in DEA personnel throughout Afghanistan. As a result, DEA will assign additional direct hire personnel to the Kabul Country Office area of responsibility. The expansion plan includes five Enforcement Groups forward deployed to Kabul, and Regional Commands in Herat, Kandahar, Konduz, and Jalalabad.

Afghan Threat Finance Cell (ATFC)

As a result of a decision by the National Security Council (NSC), DEA works closely with the Afghan Threat Finance Cell (ATCC). The ATFC identifies financiers operating throughout Afghanistan with connections to insurgent activities, drug trafficking and public corruption. The ATFC then produces target packages for many of these financiers which are passed to the military and law enforcement officials for action.

 

 

United States Coast Guard

 

Overview

There are three primary elements to the Coast Guard Drug Interdiction Mission:

Detection & Monitoring

Detection of narcotics trafficking vessels occurs principally through the collection, analysis, and dissemination of tactical information and strategic intelligence combined with effective sensors operating from land, air and surface assets. Intelligence comes from a variety of sources including Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Forces (OCDETF), the Intelligence Community (IC), National Task Forces, and DEA. The six million square mile transit zone between source nations in South America and the United States is far too expansive to randomly patrol; it requires targeting information to focus efforts. Intelligence that helps operational commanders place limited resources in the right location at the right time maximizes the probability of success. Timely, actionable intelligence is the best force-multiplier available to the operational commander. Effective operations against traffickers require all air and surface units to communicate rapidly and securely among themselves and with their operational commanders at headquarters. Coast Guard assets with the necessary speed and endurance, equipped with sensors tailored to the environment and threat, must be operated by fully trained crewmembers. They must be able to locate suspected drug trafficking vessels that are designed to evade detection. Upon detection, the Coast Guard, and other similar U.S. and partner nation law enforcement agencies will provide monitoring, relaying data, imagery and position information until an appropriate interdiction asset arrives on scene.

Interdiction

Successful targeting and interdiction of drug smuggling threats create a deterrent effect. Interdiction success causes Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) to incur greater costs and decreased efficiency in moving their illicit product to market. In recent years the Coast Guard has been successful in interdicting foreign flagged vessels-frequently flags of convenience-carrying multi-ton loads of contraband. This has caused DTOs to sharply reduce the use of flags of convenience in favor of stateless go-fast and self- propelled semi-submersible (SPSS) conveyances. The result has been increased costs to the DTOs to outfit their trafficking vessels and greater risk of prosecution to smugglers interdicted on stateless vessels, which are subject to U.S. jurisdiction. These forced changes also provide better protection for the sovereignty of partner-nation vessels.

Interdiction success requires a sufficient number of air and surface assets to respond to intelligence and operational cueing. Assets equipped with the necessary sensor systems, endurance, range, and speed enable open ocean transit zone operations across a spectrum of weather conditions. Surface and air assets must also have available a range of use of force options to stop non-compliant vessels. Key components of an effective interdiction presence in the transit zone include not only new air and surface assets, but also effective use of existing older assets until they can be replaced. Effective interdiction also requires research and development to introduce new technologies, but also deployment and effective use of off-the-shelf technologies. The Coast Guard leverages U.S. Navy and partner nation assets to enhance presence and expand interdiction opportunities. To do so, the Coast Guard embarks deployable Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) or “shipriders” aboard Coast Guard vessels, consistent with Memorandums of Understanding, bilateral agreements and other legal arrangements in force.

The Coast Guard is also fielding both new and proven technologies and employing proven methodologies that help boarding teams to locate contraband regardless of the method of concealment or location aboard a vessel. Law enforcement personnel and program management staff are specifically trained in drug interdiction to ensure professional mission execution.

Close Working Partnerships with both Domestic U.S. and International Agencies

The Coast Guard would not be as effective in removing drugs from the transit zone without the tremendous interagency and international cooperation that comes together at Joint Interagency Task Force South and West (JIATF-S and JIATF-W). The Coast Guard provides staff and command cadre to both Task Forces, which have primary responsibilities for counternarcotics detection and monitoring operations in the U.S. Southern Command and U.S. Pacific Command areas of responsibility. As DTOs in the Western Hemisphere expand their operations, the Coast Guard is also increasingly engaged with U.S. European Command and U.S. Africa Command to meet the threat in those areas. Growing domestic partnerships, and expanding bilateral agreements and international training programs are essential to countering the transnational drug threat.

The Coast Guard contributes to international counternarcotics engagement through development and active, effective use of agreements, professional exchanges, and sharing best practices, and deployment of mobile training teams to support Theater Security Cooperation initiatives. Engagement in joint operations and training strengthens ties with partner nations. Training and joint operations increase maritime law enforcement competency and capability, while reducing the destabilizing effects of illicit drug smuggling. Effective operations against criminals enhance legitimate commerce in the region. Joint planning results in operations, which help deny drug trafficking organizations the use of territorial waters and airspace throughout the transit zone.

The Coast Guard’s Drug Interdiction Mission Performance Plan (MPP) establishes goals, objectives and performance metrics that the Coast Guard Drug Interdiction program intends to achieve in the next five years. To reach its targets, the Coast Guard will continually assess mission performance and make periodic adjustments to its operational focus and out-year plans. Any adjustments will consider and address constant changes in drug trafficking trends. The Drug Interdiction MPP is fully aligned with the National Drug Control Strategy (NDCS), the National Interdiction Command and Control Plan (NICCP), and other directives complementing the contributions of our law enforcement (DOJ/DEA, DHS/ICE, CBP, DOS/INL and WHA, and local LEAs) DOD partners and cooperating foreign enforcement in this effort.

Combined and Cooperative Operations

The Coast Guard conducted numerous maritime counternarcotics operations in 2009 in conjunction with partner nations. These included combined operations with Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, St. Lucia, The Bahamas, the United Kingdom and its Overseas Territories, Netherlands and Netherlands Antilles, and France and its Overseas Territories. These combined operations and associated cooperation with the above partner nations under several maritime counternarcotics agreements led to the removal of over 218,000 lbs of cocaine and 50,000 lbs of marijuana. In addition, Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) onboard British and Dutch Naval vessels removed 13,170 pounds of cocaine.

International Agreements

There are now 35 maritime bilateral counternarcotics agreements or operational procedures in place between the United States and partner nations. These agreements and arrangements help the Coast Guard move toward its goal of disrupting illicit trafficking along the transit zone and eliminating safe havens for drug smugglers. In FY-2009, the Coast Guard, Mexican Navy (SEMAR) and NORTHCOM developed Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for OPCEN-to-OPCEN, i.e., Headquarters-to-Headquarters communications, Right of Visit (ROV) boardings, and SPSS Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP), which entered into effect in December 2008. The OPCEN-to-OPCEN procedures have been successfully used on several occasions, even before they officially came into effect. Hence, authority between Mexico and the United States to board and search suspect vessels is now arranged at the operational level, greatly streamlining the process. These substantially streamlined procedures with Mexico improve the efficacy of mission patrol and boarding operations of suspect trafficker vessels. A similar arrangement exists with Ecuador, and discussions for an agreement with Peru are nearing conclusion. Goodwill on both sides between Sierra Leone and the U.S. and recognition of the threat led to the successful negotiation of a law enforcement bilateral agreement, which is being used now to seize dangerous drugs. This agreement was significant in that it marks the first formal bilateral maritime law enforcement agreement in the West African region between the U.S. and a partner nation.

International Cooperative Efforts

Overall during FY 2009, the Coast Guard disrupted 123 drug smuggling attempts, which resulted in the seizure of 58 vessels, the detention of 322 suspected smugglers, and the removal of 352,862 pounds of cocaine and 71,234 pounds of marijuana. Nearly all of the 123 interdiction events involved some type of foreign partner support or cooperation, through direct unit participation, exercise of bilateral agreements, granting permission to board, or logistics support.

In an effort to thwart law enforcement efforts, DTOs are increasingly using Self-Propelled Semi-Submersible (SPSS) vessels to smuggle cocaine. In 2009 after a period of rapid growth, the use of SPSS appeared to level off. From a total of 23 operations involving the use of semi-submersibles between 2001 and 2007, semi-submersible use increased to at least 75 in FY 2008. In FY 2009, there were 60 documented SPSS events, carrying an estimated 332 metric tons of cocaine, of which 64 metric tons (almost 20 percent) were removed by the Coast Guard. Because the SPSS are a stealthy means of smuggling, they have displaced other modes of drug trafficker maritime transportation with the exception of go-fast boats. The low-profile design of the SPSS vessels makes them difficult to detect, and so the USCG continues to work closely with interagency and international partners to explore better ways to detect and interdict these vessels. In one case, the Coast Guard worked closely with the Department of Justice and congressional staffs to draft legislation to make operation of these vessels on an international voyage illegal. Congress subsequently passed the “Drug Trafficking Vessel Interdiction Act of 2008, 18 U.S.C. 2285”, which was signed into law by the President in October 2008. This law allows prosecution even when contraband cannot be seized, thus taking away an important DTO countermeasure of scuttling their vessel upon detection to destroy the evidence.

The USCG continued to actively pursue combined operations with European and West African partner nations, working closely with EUCOM and AFRICOM to stem the flow of narcotics from South America to Europe and Africa. In 2009, the Coast Guard Cutter LEGARE deployed to the waters off West Africa to work with partner nations in conducting surveillance, law enforcement operations and training. These operations included CGC LEGARE embarking a law enforcement team from different West African nations to conduct maritime law enforcement training and assist in West Africa’s own efforts to suppress illicit transnational maritime activity. U.S. and Royal Navy warships with embarked USCG Law Enforcement Detachments performed similar missions in West African waters.

International Training and Technical Assistance

In FY 2009, the USCG provided International Training and Technical Assistance in support of drug interdiction programs through a variety of support efforts:

 

The USCG Technical Assistance Field Team (TAFT) provided engineering expertise, vessel assessments, and major repair contracting services to the maritime services of the countries in the Eastern Caribbean’s Regional Security System.

 

USCG ships used the service’s legislative authority “to conduct training and technical assistance in conjunction with normal operations” in several countries to encourage cooperation with the USCG in its interdiction mission. For example, several USCG engineering training missions provided crucial technical assistance to the Haitian Coast Guard and aided the Haitian efforts to improve the operational readiness of its small boat fleet. This detachment conducted training courses in port security, outboard motor maintenance, and small boat seamanship. The USCG has also partnered with U.S. Navy forces off the Gulf of Guinea to plan for and execute operations under the Africa Partnership Station in 2009. These efforts will continue in 2010.

The USCG’s Security Assistance Program delivers a progression of one-to-two-week courses to partner nation maritime services around the world, typically utilizing the International Training Division’s Mobile Training Teams (MTTs). Courses include Maritime Law Enforcement (MLE), Boarding and Advanced Boarding Officer, Joint MLE Boarding, Maritime Operations Planning and Management, MLE Instructor, Basic and Advanced Port Security/ Port Vulnerability, Waterside Port Security, and Small Boat Operations Maintenance Courses. Courses consist of formal classroom instruction with either on-board or on-locale hands-on skill training. In FY 2009, over 2,000 students from 58 countries from around the world received instruction.

Individual students also receive instruction in USCG resident training programs in the United States. These students develop a broad range of skills from boat handling and boat and engine repair to senior officer leadership training. In FY 2009, 250 students from 65 partner nations enrolled in resident courses at USCG training installations.

The USCG also participates in a robust Military to Military program, principally in the SOUTHCOM and AFRICOM AORs-Areas of Operations, which is designed to introduce and familiarize partner nations with Coast Guard capabilities, processes and procedures. This type of engagement usually leads to a partner nation’s increased interest in formal training.

The fifth and sixth Multilateral Maritime Counter Drug Summits involving the U.S., Ecuador, Panama, Mexico and Colombia were held in Veracruz and Miami respectively during 2009. Results of these meetings include significant improvements in information exchange and operational coordination that have enhanced our collective ability to combat narcotics smuggling. There have also been extensive discussions to enhance current agreements in place, and to conduct joint planning for counternarcotics operations targeting the littoral regions of the transit zone.

 

U.S. Customs and Border Protection

 

The Department of Homeland Security’s U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) processes all goods, vehicles, and people entering and exiting the United States. CBP officers intercept narcotics and other contraband, improperly classified merchandise, unlicensed technology and material, weapons, ammunition, fugitives, undocumented immigrants, and unreported currency at America’s 327 international ports of entry.

Since its creation in its current organizational structure in 2003, CBP is also charged with the border regulatory functions of passport control and agriculture inspections in order to provide comprehensive, seamless border control services. This division of responsibilities is intended to simplify border security operations and is termed: “One face at the border.” Of current importance is CBP’s role in protecting the borders of the United States from the introduction of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorists. CBP also maintains its position as the nation’s first line of defense against the introduction of narcotics and dangerous drugs from foreign sources.

On the average day, CBP processes 989,689 passengers and pedestrians, 57,761 containers by land and sea, 240,407 incoming international air passengers and crew, 45,735 passengers/crew arriving by ship, 544,270 incoming privately owned vehicles; seizes $296,238 in undeclared or illicit currency, 12,280 pounds of narcotics; and arrests 2240 apprehensions at or between ports of entry for illegal activity; all while facilitating commercial trade and collecting $ 80.8 million in fees, duties and tariffs ( 2009 statistics). Given this scale of CBP operations, targeting of suspect shipments and persons, selectivity of inspection is crucially important to success.

The State Department Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) and CBP promote international cooperation through their interagency cooperation. CBP designs and implements training and assistance programs for its foreign counterparts worldwide funded by assistance funds administered by INL.

CBP Advisors and Attachés

CBP deploys a growing network of long-term advisors and attachés who serve abroad in U.S. Embassies and consulates, coordinating closely with our foreign counterparts. These individuals play a key role in engaging other governments as our allies in the on-going war against drug-smuggling. Attachés have a broad mandate, ranging from enforcement and investigative activities on behalf of CBP to serving as delegates in such groups as the Shared Border Accords Coordinating Committee (SBACC) in Canada. They also exchange expert information, improving the effectiveness of law enforcement activity, policies, and resources relating to border enforcement. Their efforts help to ensure that enforcement cooperation is seamless across borders and that the battle against smuggling is effective.

The attaché assigned to Mexico, for example, is heavily involved in the Merida Initiative, a significant effort coordinated by the State Department to strengthen and improve the capabilities of counternarcotics efforts in Mexico and throughout Central America, including the Dominican Republic and Haiti. In the customs arena, the Merida Initiative will help Mexico and other important transit states for drugs acquire and deploy Non-Intrusive Inspection Equipment, offer their customs services canine enforcement training, secure upgrades to automated systems, and improvements in immigration control programs. Merida aims to enable the governments of Mexico to defeat the drug cartels which have so savagely attacked the government’s enforcement personnel and the people of Mexico in order to continue their criminal drug smuggling to the United States.

Attachés in Mexico assisted in the revision of the Bilateral Strategic Plan (BSP) with Mexico, which provides for increased training and cooperative law enforcement activities between the U.S. and Mexico. Closer cooperation will improve the effectiveness of counternarcotics activities along the southern border. The strengthening of this agreement will also improve information and intelligence sharing for the purpose of interdicting narcotics and other contraband,

Along the northern border, the CBP attaché in Canada continues to work with various federal, provincial, and tribal Canadian law enforcement agencies in order to combat cross border crime. One example of this cross border law enforcement cooperation is the Integrated Border Enforcement Team (IBET). IBET is a longstanding, bi-national partnership that has enabled the participating law enforcement partners to share information and work together daily with other federal, state, provincial, local, and tribal enforcement agencies on issues related to smuggling, organized crime, the vulnerabilities associated with unguarded roads, in an effort to suppress criminal activities along the U.S.-Canada border.

In Panama, the CBP Attaché works with Panamanian Immigration and Customs and other counterparts to identify and interdict travelers using fraudulent documents, and those engaged in narcotics and bulk cash smuggling. The CBP Attaché working with the CBP Office of the Border Patrol (OBP) has greatly assisted the Panamanian border security officials in their enforcement efforts by conducting mobile team checkpoint training in the southern area of Panama. This training targets the skills that the Panamanians need to combat smuggling through the Darien region along their border with Colombia. The CBP Attaché and the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) are working with the Panamanian government to establish a Container Targeting Program in Panama, at the Ports of Manzanillo and Balboa. The U.S. Department of State provided assistance funding to UNODC to support training and mentoring for Panamanian customs officials as they create Container Targeting Teams at both ports. These teams will be the first Panamanian Multi-Agency Targeting Teams in Panama.

The CBP Attaché in Brazil arranged for Brazilian customs officials and Federal Police officers to receive International Air Cargo Interdiction Training under the CBP-World Customs Organizations “Capacity Building” program. This course provided the students with the skills necessary to work in the Air Cargo environment and conduct enforcement actions in an effective and efficient manner. The CBP Attaché also arranged for Brazilian Federal Police K-9 officers to observe canine training at the CBP Canine Enforcement Training Center in Front Royal, Virginia and the Border Patrol K-9 training facility in El Paso, Texas. Brazilian officers were exposed to CBP’s K-9 “best practices” and observed CBP K-9 teams in action as a means of strengthening their drug-detection skills.

The CBP Attaché in the Dominican Republic assists the DR Government with capacity building through joint maritime operations, like Operation Broken Bridge. Since August 2007, this operation has led to the seizure of 1,660 kilograms of narcotics, 16 arrests and five vehicle seizures in the DR.

CBP Advisors are more narrowly focused in their missions than attachés. CBP Advisors are almost always funded with assistance funding and are normally sent abroad to work on specific projects such as improving port operations or working with host governments to develop a complete K-9 narcotics detection program. The advisors in Ecuador and Peru, for example, are assigned to Port Security programs, both airport and seaport, that have produced significant drug seizures, particularly when the contraband was concealed in containers destined for the United States or Europe. The Peruvian and Ecuadorian Advisors also help their foreign colleagues establish intelligence units capable of collecting and analyzing documents to target high-risk shipments. Working under the auspices of Operation Firewall, they have also provided training and guidance to foreign customs and border control agents in detecting and intercepting bulk currency shipments as well as detecting fraudulent travel documents. Advisors have also been influential in recommending appropriate high-tech non-intrusive inspection equipment, then arranging training and maintenance instruction for host country operators of that equipment. The result: record-breaking numbers of drug and currency seizures and arrests.

International Training and Assistance

In 2009, CBP Office of International Affairs (INA) provided technical training and assistance in support of the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) programs currently operating in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, and San Salvador. CBP supported ILEA programs by developing and conducting core and specialized training on a variety of topics, including: Land Border Interdiction; Contraband Concealment Techniques; International Controlled Deliveries and Drug Investigations (conducted jointly with the Drug Enforcement Administration); Complex Financial Investigations (conducted jointly with Immigration and Customs Enforcement); and Customs Forensics Lab capabilities and techniques. Twenty such training programs were conducted in 2009.

The CBP Field Operations Academy (FOA) supports International Training on two fronts: conducting Academy tours for foreign dignitaries and aiding various training missions abroad. Internationally, the FOA has assisted training in Egypt, Iraq, Afghanistan, Georgia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Estonia, Dominican Republic, and Honduras in support of drug interdiction efforts. Additionally, the FOA has conducted numerous briefings/tours of its facilities in the U.S. for the benefit of visiting foreign Customs and Border groups. Dignitaries from Kazakhstan, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia were shown a variety of venues and scenarios, which included drug interdiction instruction.

Port Security Initiatives

CBP implements a multi-layered, risk-based enforcement strategy designed to maximize security without causing economic disruption. This strategy encompasses the following security programs in the maritime environment:

 

  • The “24-Hour” Manifest Rule
  • Container Security Initiative (CSI)
  • Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)
  • Use of Non Intrusive Inspection (NII) Technology
  • Automated Targeting System (ATS)
  • National Targeting Center for Cargo (NTC-C)
  • Importer Security Filing “10+2”:

 

CBP is an active participant in the Container Security Initiative (CSI). CSI addresses the threat to border security and global trade posed by the potential use of maritime shipping containers by terrorists. CSI consists of security protocols and procedures that, when fully implemented, will ensure that all maritime shipping containers posing a potential risk for terrorism, are identified, inspected and secured at foreign ports before they are placed on vessels destined for the United States. CBP is now stationing multidisciplinary teams, consisting of representatives from both CBP and ICE that work together with their host government counterparts. Their mission is to jointly target and pre-screen containers and to develop investigative leads related to the terrorist threat to cargo destined for the United States. A total of over 50 foreign ports are participants in either the CSI or the Secure Freight Initiative (SFI).

Secure Freight Initiative (SFI). SFI is focused on applying advanced technologies in radiation scanning and x-ray imaging equipment to enhance the physical security of the international supply chain. The SFI program is focused on strategic trade corridors, which are defined as shipping lanes, which have service to the United States. The Secure Freight Initiative includes foreign seaports, which handle maritime containerized cargo that either transits or originates from areas of strategic importance and ports where potentially high-risk cargo as defined by CBP’s Automated Targeting System (ATS) originates. SFI involves partnerships with foreign governments, ocean carriers, and terminal operators to design and implement security structures tailored to the specific location’s operational requirements and risk factors. The resulting designs are implemented to ensure port efficiency, trade facilitation, and enhanced cargo security.

SFI represents another component of the CBP’s layered enforcement strategy for protecting the nation. The data from the SFI suite of systems (Radiation Portal Monitors, Non-Intrusive Inspection equipment, and Optical Character Readers) are integrated into CBP’s Automated Targeting System and reviewed alongside the targeting system’s risk assessment rule sets. This data is provided in real-time to CBP officers at ports of entry, who determine if the container should be referred to the host nation for secondary examination prior to lading. For the CBP officer’s stationed at U.S. ports of entry, the National Targeting Center for Cargo, or a CSI or SFI port, SFI/ICS provides additional information which is used in conjunction with advanced manifest data to allow CBP Officers to make a more informed decision when assessing the risk of each container coming to the United States.

CBP will be responsive to the legislative requirements of the 9/11 Act, which require 100 percent scanning of all U.S.-bound containers by July 12, 2012. CBP has developed a strategic direction for the SFI program which focuses on identifying and deploying operations to strategic trade corridors worldwide where the implementation of SFI would mitigate risks associated with the potential introduction of weapons of mass destruction into the United States by way of maritime containerized cargo. An approach that prioritizes deployments to strategic trade corridors and focuses on placing scanning systems in the most sensible and efficient manner makes sense. It will allow CBP to address key challenges, such as transshipment and high volume port operations, while obtaining additional information on cargo traveling through trade corridors which might warrant additional scrutiny.

Plan Colombia. As part of U.S. support to Plan Colombia, CBP provided Colombia with training and assistance on personnel management systems to assure coordinated operations on border interdiction, and industry partnership programs. CBP also provided basic tools, vehicles, high-tech equipment, training and technical assistance to Colombian National Police, Colombian Customs, and other Colombian law enforcement agencies, financed by Plan Colombia assistance funds. This CBP initiative ended in 2008. Goals and objectives were met and the funding fully utilized. CBP stands ready to support the U.S. Embassy in Bogota as needed on new border security issues as they arise.

Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements. CBP is the lead negotiator of Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements (CMAAs). CMAAs are negotiated with foreign governments and provide for mutual assistance in the enforcement of customs-related laws. Under the provisions of U.S. CMAAs, CBP provides assistance to its foreign counterparts in the collection of information that facilitates the enforcement of each country’s laws. The Agreements have a high level of flexibility that allow parties to quickly communicate concerns and requests to each other. In 2009, CMAA negotiations were held with Switzerland, Jamaica, and Algeria. The Algerian CMAA will be signed in early 2010.

Training in the United States. CBP currently lists 43 training courses available to foreign specialists. This catalog of offerings is constantly being updated to reflect current techniques and methodologies as well as the stated needs of our foreign partners. In 2009, several new courses were added to the catalog, including International X-Ray Interdiction Training (IXIT), International Passenger Interdiction Training (IPIT), Human Trafficking Course, and a Controlled Delivery course, used in narcotics enforcement cases.

International Visitors Program. The State Department’s International Visitors Program (IVP) provides an opportunity for foreign officials to consult with their U.S. counterparts and appropriate high level managers in CBP Headquarters. International visitors can also participate in on-site tours of selected U.S. ports and field sites to observe actual CBP operations. The objectives of this program are:

 

  • To demonstrate CBP’s efforts to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States.
     
  • To show how such U.S. programs as the Container Security Initiative can extend U.S. borders by encouraging layered security, which clearly benefits cooperating countries as well as the U.S.
     
  • To offer foreign decision makers the opportunity to discuss and explore with CBP experts finding a balance between legitimate trade and travel and the need for reinforced security.
     
  • To build international relationships and cooperation in support of global security through the use of consistent security standards worldwide.
     
  • To support international capacity building programs.

 

In FY09, IVP made arrangements for 486 visits for 2,656 visitors from 85 countries. These visits were sponsored by the Department of State, Department of Defense, U.S. Coast Guard, various State National Guard Units, Foreign Embassies and other components of the Department of Homeland Security.

Canine Training. CBP’s Canine Center Front Royal (CCFR) continues to provide State Department assistance-funded training courses, designed to instruct foreign countries in the proper use of drug/bomb detector dogs. Canine El Paso Training Center (CETC) provides each country with a clear and logical framework for the initial training and employment of detector dog teams for the successful interdiction of smuggled narcotics, explosives, and currency. CCFR can also provide on site mentoring and support to countries in the initial development and evaluation of canine training programs back home, CBP canine experts can also travel abroad to review existing canine interdiction and breeding programs. Training is provided to foreign national police and customs officers, trainers, and supervisors on all facets of canine training and utilization. During the past 28 years, over 520 officers, representing over 50 countries, have been trained at the CCFR in Front Royal, Virginia. In 2009, canine training was provided to Colombia, and Brazil.

Port of Entry Interdiction Training. The correct approach to border interdiction varies with border environments, i.e., land (IBIT), seaport (ISIT), rail (IRIT) and airport (IACIT). Training has been designed for the problems encountered and interdiction techniques useful for each type of operation. Each training class is normally five days in duration and is comprised of interactive classroom discussion and practical exercises using actual CBP border facilities. In FY 2009, 32 of these courses were conducted. In addition to port of entry operations, CBP provides training in techniques used by smugglers who do not use official ports of entry to cross borders but who attempt to smuggle contraband in lightly patrolled border crossing zones.

HAZMAT Training. This training is designed to enhance the participant’s knowledge and effectiveness in responding to emergencies involving hazardous materials. It is conducted at CBP’s Advanced Training Center in Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia. It is designed to be very interactive. Approximately 60 percent of the training involves practical exercises.

International Bulk Currency Smuggling. With an increased enforcement focus on money laundering, organized criminals and terrorists have turned to bulk cash smuggling to move valuables across borders. Bulk Currency Smuggling training assists foreign government enforcement personnel in identifying techniques used by bulk currency smugglers. Further, it helps them to design and implement programs to counter that threat, resulting in seizures of millions of dollars in the proceeds of crime.

Incident Command System. CBP’s Incident Command System (ICS) training is designed to teach foreign participants how to prepare for and respond to a major emergency or incident. The course reviews the U.S. CBP approach to emergency management operations, including coordination, communication, and chief executive decision-making. The course tries to enhance knowledge and skills needed for clarifying roles, responsibilities, and relationships prior to an emergency or disaster through small-group and large-group exercises. ICS training stresses that the planning process must be used to clarify who does what. It is the intent of the course to stimulate thinking and ultimately, action in planning for an incident. In 2009, ICS training was provided to Taiwan, Armenia and Thailand. In addition, CBP Instructors served as subject matter experts with teams of International Affairs Instructors in Armenia, Bangladesh, Croatia, and Kosovo.

Training in Host Countries

Overseas Enforcement Training. The curriculum includes Border Enforcement Training, Supply Chain Security, Detection, Interdiction and Investigation; Concealment Methods, Bulk Currency Smuggling, False and Fraudulent Documents, Train-the-trainer, Anti-Corruption, Targeting and Risk Management, Hazardous Materials, and X-ray Systems. These courses can also be conducted at foreign ports of entry. They include both basic training and refresher training/mentoring abroad for graduates of training at U.S port facilities. Training combines formal classroom and field exercises. Although many courses focus on counter proliferation and terrorism, courses cover the gamut of issues faced by CBP and our foreign border control counterparts, including narcotics interdiction. CBP hopes that that participation in this training will assist in establishing regional and global associations of border control officials who share concerns about transnational criminal networks and who will cooperate in their dismantling.

International X-Ray Interdiction Training (IXIT). The course discusses cargo targeting and examination techniques (including inspection techniques for vehicles and ocean containers), interviewing techniques for travelers, secondary inspections, land cargo documents, analysis of travel documents, and vehicle searches. Participants are trained to use x-ray vans in the detection, identification, and interdiction of suspicious cargo. Cargo profiling techniques are thoroughly reviewed during the course..

International Passenger Interdiction Training (IPIT). The course provides border security officers with the most effective tools available to process passengers while enhancing the officers’ ability to identify and interdict suspicious travelers. It also seeks to encourage cooperation between all domestic border security agencies from neighboring nations within the region.

Human Trafficking Course. This course provides an overview of the different tactics used by human traffickers and smugglers, while pointing out the global impact of human trafficking. It teaches participants to understand how traffickers use fraud, force, and coercion to manipulate their victims. The course helps enforcement recognize certain key indicators that trafficking is occurring. Participants are introduced to the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center, which offers a wealth of resources to assist victims.

WMD Interdiction and Controlled Deliveries. Training modules include: Interdiction, Investigative Methodology, Stages of a Controlled Delivery, Operational Planning, Mail and Parcel Controlled Deliveries, International Controlled Deliveries, Inspection and Interdiction Techniques, Interviewing/Behavioral Analysis, Legal Aspects of Controlled Deliveries, Use and Development of Informants, Surveillance, and Evidence. CBP and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) personnel conduct this training. The course begins with an interdiction and follows with a discussion of controlled deliveries and how this investigative technique can be useful in identifying and obtaining evidence against those engaged in the contraband smuggling attempt. The discussion considers how and when to use this technique as well as a discussion of its benefits and pitfalls. This training uses both classroom and interactive practical exercises that explore how to plan and conduct controlled deliveries.

 

Looking Ahead. In 2010, CBP will continue its border security mission. CBP will work with partner nations to expand and improve information and intelligence sharing in a concerted effort to dismantle drug smuggling organizations and other criminal enterprises engaged in cross border illicit activities. CBP advisors will be deployed to assist countries to improve their border security operations and to meet recognized international security standards. CBP’s international missions will also focus on evaluating and prioritizing the needs of those countries seeking assistance in capacity building. CBP will place continued emphasis on evaluating the effectiveness of all its programs and designing new ones as needs and techniques are updated.




[1] In FY 2010, the ACP account was merged with the INCLE account.

[2] FY 2008 transfer of $2.48 million of ACP to Foreign Military Financing account (Colombia Armed Forces for manual eradication). FY 2008 transfer of $2.48 million of ACP to INCLE (Colombia National Police for manual eradication)



Back to Top
Sign-in

Do you already have an account on one of these sites? Click the logo to sign in and create your own customized State Department page. Want to learn more? Check out our FAQ!

OpenID is a service that allows you to sign in to many different websites using a single identity. Find out more about OpenID and how to get an OpenID-enabled account.