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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

2011 INCSR: U.S. Government Assistance


Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Report
March 3, 2011

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Department of State (INL) Budget
($000)

2/16/11
FY 2010 - 2012 INCLE Allocations
($000)

    

FY 2010
Actual

FY 2010
Supp

FY 2011
Request

FY 2012
Estimate

Africa

    

   

   

      

Africa Regional (TSCTP)

2,500

0

4,500

3,500

Africa Regional (West)

0

0

0

14,650

Africa Regional (EARSI)

2,000

0

0

1,000

Benin

0

0

850

0

Cape Verde

603

0

1,000

0

Democratic Republic of Congo

1,700

0

6,000

6,000

Djibouti

0

0

750

750

Ethiopia

0

0

500

500

Gambia

0

0

500

0

Ghana

500

0

1,700

0

Guinea

0

0

500

0

Guinea-Bissau

1,500

0

3,000

0

Kenya

0

0

2,000

2,000

Liberia

9,000

0

17,000

17,000

Mauritania

0

0

330

330

Mozambique

300

0

600

600

Nigeria

500

0

2,500

0

Senegal

0

0

1,500

0

Sierra Leone

250

0

1,200

0

Somalia

0

0

2,000

2,000

South Africa

0

0

3,000

3,000

Sudan

16,000

0

53,950

37,000

Tanzania

450

0

950

950

Togo

0

0

400

0

Uganda

235

0

1,535

1,535

Zambia

0

0

900

900

Subtotal, Africa

35,538

0

107,165

91,715

     

  

  

  

   

East Asia and the Pacific

   

    

   

    

Cambodia

0

0

670

670

China

800

0

850

850

East Asia and Pacific Regional

1,300

0

1,300

1,100

Indonesia

11,570

0

11,570

11,570

Laos

1,000

0

1,500

1,500

Philippines

1,365

0

2,450

2,450

Thailand

1,740

0

1,740

1,740

Timor-Leste

800

0

860

660

Vietnam

0

0

550

550

Subtotal, East Asia and the Pacific

18,575

0

21,490

21,090

    

   

   

   

  

Europe

   

   

   

   

Turkey

0

0

500

500

Subtotal, Europe

0

0

500

500

     

  

   

   

    

Near East

    

    

   

     

Algeria

0

0

870

870

Egypt

1,000

0

1,000

250

Iraq

52,000

650,000

314,560

1,000,000

Jordan

1,500

0

1,500

500

Lebanon

20,000

0

30,000

25,000

Morocco

750

0

3,000

3,000

NEA Regional (TSCTP)

2,000

0

1,030

1,000

West Bank/Gaza

100,000

0

150,000

113,000

Yemen

1,000

0

11,000

11,000

Subtotal, Near East

178,250

650,000

512,960

1,154,620

    

   

    

    

    

South and Central Asia

    

     

     

     

Afghanistan

420,000

169,000

450,000

324,000

Bangladesh

350

0

850

850

Nepal

3,700

0

3,700

3,700

Pakistan

130,000

40,000

140,000

125,000

Sri Lanka

0

0

1,600

1,600

Subtotal - South and Central Asia

554,050

209,000

596,150

455,150

     

    

    

    

    

Western Hemisphere

      

    

    

     

Argentina

300

0

400

400

Bolivia

20,000

0

20,000

10,000

Brazil

1,000

0

1,000

4,000

Caribbean Basin Regional

0

0

37,463

30,000

Chile

0

0

0

100

Colombia

243,900

0

204,000

160,600

Dominican Republic

4,450

0

0

0

Ecuador

4,500

0

7,638

7,700

Guatemala

7,500

0

0

0

Haiti

21,107

147,660

19,420

19,420

Mexico

190,000

175,000

292,000

248,500

Paraguay

500

0

1,000

800

Peru

40,000

0

37,000

28,950

Uruguay

0

0

0

100

Western Hemisphere Regional

74,107

0

70,000

55,000

Subtotal, Western Hemisphere

607,364

322,660

689,921

565,570

    

    

    

   

    

Centrally-Managed

    

    

   

    

Criminal Youth Gangs

8,000

0

7,000

7,000

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

14,000

0

12,500

12,750

International Organizations

4,500

0

4,500

5,000

CICAD

1,000

0

1,000

1,000

UNODC

3,500

0

3,500

3,500

G-8 Roma Lyon Group

   

   

     

500

Interregional Aviation Support

60,088

0

60,355

60,652

Critical Flight Safety Program

20,750

0

17,250

17,250

Trafficking in Persons

9,262

0

20,400

20,808

INL Anticrime Programs

15,900

0

14,650

14,933

Alien Smuggling/Border Security

1,000

0

1,000

1,000

Cyber Crime and IPR

5,000

0

3,750

3,750

Fighting Corruption

4,750

0

4,750

5,033

International Organized Crime

1,000

0

1,000

1,000

Financial Crimes/Money Laundering/CT

4,150

0

4,150

4,150

Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative

5,000

0

0

0

International Police Peacekeeping Operations Support

            

15,000

Civilian Police Program

4,000

0

6,000

4,000

ILEA Operations

37,200

0

36,700

31,300

PD&S

24,523

0

28,500

34,500

Subtotal, Global

203,223

0

207,855

223,193

   

    

   

   

    

TOTAL INCLE

1,597,000

1,181,660

2,136,041

2,511,838

International Training

International counternarcotics training is managed/funded by State-INL and carried out by the DEA, FBI, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, U.S. Customs and Border Patrol, and U.S. Coast Guard. Major objectives are:

  • Contributing to enhanced professionalism of the basic rule of law infrastructure for carrying out counternarcotics law enforcement activities in countries which cooperate with and are considered significant to U.S. narcotics control efforts;
     
  • Improving technical skills of drug law enforcement personnel in these countries; and
     
  • Increasing cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement officials.

INL training focuses on encouraging foreign law enforcement agency self-sufficiency through development of law enforcement skills. The overarching goal of our counternarcotics efforts overseas is to support effective host country enforcement institutions, which can remove drugs from circulation before they can reach the United States. U.S. law enforcement personnel stationed overseas, working closely with TDY trainers dispatched from the U.S., help promote creation of more effective law enforcement while improving cooperation and joint efforts with the United States. U.S training can take two forms: as part of a planned bilateral assistance program in target assistance countries and as training with a regional approach. The regional training provided at the ILEAs consists of both general law enforcement training as well as specialized training for mid-level managers in police and other law enforcement agencies.

INL-funded training supports the major U.S. and international strategies for combating narcotics trafficking worldwide. The U.S. bilateral training assistance program works closely with the training and assistance activities of international organizations, such as the UNODC and the OAS. During coordination meetings with major donors of training assistance like: the Dublin Group, UNODC and other international assistance agencies, the U.S. assures its training plans are well- understood by other training providers, and urges them to shoulder greater responsibility in providing training which serves their particular strategic interests.

INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of U.S. law enforcement agencies in response to requests for assistance from U.S. Embassies. This will avoid duplication of effort and ensure that the expertise of U,S, embassies around the world and the Department of State’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs can contribute to success of rule of law training in foreign countries around the world.

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs)

The mission of the regional International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) is to support emerging democracies, help protect U.S. interests through international cooperation, and promote social, political and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEA program provides high-quality training and technical assistance, supports institution building and enforcement capability development, and fosters relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts around the world. ILEAs also encourage strong partnerships among regional countries to address common problems associated with criminal activity.

The ILEA concept and philosophy is the result of a united effort by all participants—government agencies and ministries, trainers, managers, and students—to achieve the common foreign policy goal of coordinated international law enforcement around the globe. This goal is to train professionals who will shape the future of the rule of law, human dignity, personal safety and global security.

The ILEAs address regional law enforcement priorities. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs. The Core program is a series of specialized training courses and seminars tailored to region-specific needs and emerging global threats. It is usually several weeks long, and has a set curriculum, carefully developed to respond to the law enforcement needs of the region where the ILEA is located. The core program typically includes 50 participants, normally from three or more countries. The specialized courses, comprised of about 30 participants, are normally one or two weeks long. Lastly, regional seminars present various emerging law enforcement topics such as transnational crimes, financial crimes, and counterterrorism.

The ILEAs help to develop an extensive network of alumni who exchange information with their regional and U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations. Many ILEA graduates become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective law enforcement organizations. The Department of State works with the Departments of Justice (DOJ), Homeland Security (DHS) and the Treasury, and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA programs. To date, the combined ILEAs have trained close to 35,000 officials from over 85 countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America.

Africa.

ILEA Gaborone (Botswana) opened in 2001. Its main feature is a six-week intensive professional development program – the Law Enforcement Executive Development Program (LEEDP) – designed for law enforcement mid-level managers. The LEEDP brings together approximately 40 participants from several nations for instruction in areas such as combating transnational criminal activity, supporting democracy by stressing the rule of law in international and domestic police operations, and overall professional development through enhanced leadership and management techniques. ILEA Gaborone also offers specialized courses for police and other criminal justice officials to boost their capacity to work with U.S. and regional counterparts. These courses concentrate on specific methods and techniques in a variety of subjects, such as counterterrorism, anti-corruption, financial crimes, border security, drug enforcement, firearms, wildlife investigation and many others.

Instruction is provided to participants from Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Comoros, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Trainers from the United States and Botswana provide instruction. ILEA Gaborone trains approximately 550 students annually.

Asia.

ILEA Bangkok (Thailand) opened in March 1999. ILEA Bangkok focuses on enhancing regional cooperation against transnational crime threats in Southeast Asia, primarily illicit drug trafficking, financial crimes, and human trafficking. ILEA Bangkok provides a Core course - the Supervisory Criminal Investigator Course (SCIC) – designed to strengthen management and technical skills for supervisory criminal investigators and other criminal justice managers. In addition, it also presents about 20 specialized courses—each lasting one to two weeks—on a variety of criminal justice topics. The principal objectives of the ILEA are the development of effective law enforcement cooperation within the member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Timor Leste and China (including the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau), and the strengthening of each jurisdiction’s criminal justice institutions to increase its abilities to cooperate in the suppression of transnational crime.

Instruction is provided to participants from Brunei, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Macau, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor Leste and Vietnam. Subject matter experts from the United States, Thailand, Japan, Philippines, Australia and Hong Kong provide instruction. ILEA Bangkok has offered specialized courses on money laundering/terrorist financing-related topics such as Computer Crime Investigations (presented by FBI) and Complex Financial Investigations (presented by IRS). ILEA Bangkok trains approximately 1,400 students annually.

Europe.

ILEA Budapest (Hungary) opened in 1995. Its mission has been to support the region’s emerging democracies by combating an increase in criminal activity that emerged against the backdrop of economic and political restructuring following the collapse of the Soviet Union. ILEA Budapest offers three different types of programs: an eight-week Core course, Regional Seminars and Specialized courses in a variety of criminal justice topics. Instruction is provided to participants from Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyz Republic, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Trainers from 17 federal agencies and local jurisdictions from the United States, Hungary, United Kingdom, Russia, Interpol and the Council of Europe provide instruction. ILEA Budapest has offered specialized courses on money laundering/terrorist financing-related topics. ILEA Budapest trains approximately 1000 students annually.

Global.

ILEA Roswell (New Mexico) opened in September 2001. It offers a curriculum comprised of courses similar to those provided at a typical Criminal Justice university/college. These three-week courses have been designed and are taught by academicians for foreign law enforcement officials. This Academy is unique in its format and composition with a strictly academic focus and a worldwide student body. The participants are middle to senior level-law enforcement and criminal justice officials from Eastern Europe; Russia, the states of the former Soviet Union; Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries; and the People’s Republic of China (including the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau); and member countries of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) plus other East and West African countries; and the Caribbean and Central and South American countries. The students are drawn from pools of ILEA graduates from the Academies in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador and the ILEA Regional Training Center (RTC) in Lima. ILEA Roswell trains approximately 350 students annually.

Latin America.

ILEA San Salvador (El Salvador) opened in 2005. Its training program is similar to the ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest and Gaborone. It offers a six-week Law Enforcement Management Development Program (LEMDP) for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. ILEA San Salvador normally delivers four LEMDP sessions and approximately 20 specialized courses annually, concentrating on attacking international terrorism, illegal trafficking in drugs, alien smuggling, terrorist financing and financial crimes investigations. Segments of the LEMDP focus on terrorist financing (presented by the FBI) and financial evidence/money laundering application (presented by DHS/FLETC and IRS). Instruction is provided to participants from: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. ILEA San Salvador trains approximately 600 students per year.

The ILEA Regional Training Center in Lima (Peru) opened in 2007 to complement the mission of ILEA San Salvador. The RTC, expected to be upgraded to a fully-operational ILEA in the future, augments the delivery of region-specific training for Latin America and concentrates on specialized courses on critical topics for countries in the Southern Cone and Andean Regions. The RTC trains approximately 300 students per year.

Drug Enforcement Administration

The primary responsibility of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is to reduce the threat posed to our nation by illicit narcotics through vigorous law enforcement. The majority of illegal drugs impacting American society is produced outside of the United States and smuggled into our country. These illegal drugs are smuggled from their country of origin and often transit other nations before arriving in the United States. Thus, a strong international commitment to counternarcotics law enforcement is required to address this menace. In cooperation with other U.S. agencies and foreign law enforcement counterparts, DEA strives to disrupt the illicit narcotics distribution chain, arrest and prosecute those involved in all aspects of the illegal drug trade and seize their profits and assets.

DEA’s contribution to our nation’s international counternarcotics strategy is significantly enhanced through the 82 offices located in 62 countries that DEA maintains worldwide. These overseas offices work in close cooperation with DEA’s U.S.-based offices to seamlessly pursue narcotics criminals domestic and foreign. DEA’s overseas offices have the following key missions:

  • Conduct bilateral investigations with foreign law enforcement;
     
  • Coordinate counternarcotics intelligence gathering with host governments;
     
  • Conduct training programs for host country police agencies in countries receiving U.S. counternarcotics assistance;
     
  • Assist in the development of host country drug law enforcement institutions and develop mutually beneficial law enforcement relationships with foreign law enforcement agencies.  

The emphasis placed on each component is determined by conditions and circumstances within the host nation. In nations where the law enforcement infrastructure is advanced and well developed, DEA can focus on joint enforcement and joint intelligence gathering activities with host law enforcement. In countries lacking a robust law enforcement capability, DEA personnel may provide training assistance to help host enforcement increase their capacity for effective law enforcement. The following sections highlight the assistance and joint enforcement work in which DEA played a crucial role during 2010.

Bilateral Investigative Activities

Drug Flow Attack Strategy

The primary objective of DEA’s Drug Flow Attack Strategy is to cause major disruption to the flow of drugs, money, and chemicals between the source zones and the United States.

Drug Flow Attack Strategy Highlights:

  • As part of DEA’s continued strategy to put sustained pressure on the Mexican cartels, Special Operations Division (SOD), with investigative support from DEA New York and DEA Houston, worked with the Department of State and the Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) to designate leaders of the Gulf Cartel / Los Zetas Cartel as Narcotics Kingpins, with Department of State rewards offered for their capture. After Los Zetas was designated, the Departments of Justice, State and Treasury announced coordinated actions against Los Zetas Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTO), now known as the “Company” and other narcotics trafficking DTOs: Antonio Ezequiel Cardenas-Guillen, deceased, Jorge Eduardo Costilla-Sanchez, Heriberto Lazcano-Lazcano and Miguel Trevino-Morales, high-level Mexican leaders of the Company and 15 of their top lieutenants, were charged in U.S. federal courts with drug trafficking-related crimes. The Department of State announced rewards of up to $5 million, collectively, for information leading to the capture of these drug traffickers, and other specially designated Narcotics Kingpins from the Company.
     
  • The La Familia cartel is a violent drug trafficking cartel based in the state of Michoacan, in southwestern Mexico. According to court documents, La Familia controls drug manufacturing and distribution in and around Michoacan, including the importation of vast quantities of cocaine and methamphetamine from Mexico into the U.S. La Familia cartel has utilized violence to include murders, kidnappings and assaults to support its narcotics trafficking business. According to one indictment unsealed in New York, associates of La Familia based in the United States have allegedly acquired military-grade weapons, including assault weapons and ammunition, and have arranged for them to be smuggled back into Mexico for use by La Familia.
     
  • On June 9, 2010, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s OFAC named two individuals and two entities linked to the international drug trafficking organization La Familia Michoacana as Specially Designated Narcotics Traffickers.
     
  • On February 19, 2010, Jesus Vicente Zambada-Niebla, an allegedly high-ranking leader of one of Mexico’s largest drug cartels, whose father allegedly heads a faction of the Sinaloa Cartel and is among Mexico’s most powerful drug kingpins, was extradited from Mexico to face federal narcotics trafficking conspiracy charges in the United States. Jesus Vicente Zambada-Niebla is believed to be one of the most significant Mexican drug defendants extradited from Mexico to the United States since Osiel Cardenas Guillen, the accused leader of the notorious Gulf Cartel, was extradited in 2007. This development is a result of the continuing close cooperation between the United States and Mexico to investigate and prosecute the leaders of international drug-trafficking cartels.
     
  • On June 1, 2010, the Department of Justice announced the culmination of an unprecedented undercover operation involving DEA and the Liberian Government, in which seven defendants were arrested on U.S. charges in Monrovia, and flown to New York to face charges in the Southern District. The Liberian Government’s commitment to the rule of law and to combating international drug traffickers is exemplified by the fact that one of the undercover operatives is the Director of the Liberian National Security Agency and the son of the President of Liberia. The Liberian President was also aware of, and cooperated with, the DEA Operation.
     
  • On June 9, 2010, the multi-agency, DEA-led SOD coordinated the takedown of Project Deliverance, an initiative encompassing multiple operations which targeted the transportation infrastructure of Mexican drug trafficking organizations in the United States, especially along the Southwest border. Project Deliverance continued a deliberate and strategic effort to cut off and shut down the supply of drugs entering the U.S., and the flow of drug profits and guns to Mexico. Through the coordinated efforts of over 3,000 federal, state and local law enforcement officers, cumulative results of this initiative include over 2,000 arrests (including one Consolidated Priority Organization Target (CPOT), the seizure of $154 million, over 500 weapons, and over 74 tons of illegal drugs.
     
  • DEA Operation Guillotine targeted CPOT Christopher Michael Coke, and his DTO. On June 22, 2010, Coke was arrested by Jamaican authorities near Kingston, Jamaica, after a five-week pursuit by local authorities. Coke waived his right to judicial extradition proceedings in Jamaica and subsequently was transferred to the custody of the DEA and U.S. Marshals Service for transport to the United States.

    Coke is charged with conspiracy to distribute cocaine and marijuana and conspiracy to illegally traffic in firearms. If convicted on the narcotics charge, he faces a maximum sentence of life in prison and a mandatory minimum sentence of 10 years in prison, as well as a fine of up to $4 million or twice the pecuniary gain from the offense. He also faces a maximum sentence of five years in prison on the firearms trafficking charge, and a fine of up to $250,000 or twice the pecuniary gain.
     
  • On July 13, 2010, Carlos Alberto RENTERIA-Mantilla, the last leader of Colombia's Norte del Valle cartel, not in jail or deceased, was expelled from Venezuela to the United States. RENTERIA was arrested without incident on July 4, 2010 by the Unidad Especial Comando Anti-Drogas of the National Guard in Caracas, Venezuela. RENTERIA had been indicted by a Grand Jury in Washington, DC on April 28, 2004 for violation of RICO charges. The indictments had been unsealed on May 6, 2004, and RENTERIA had been declared a fugitive on September 26, 2004.
     
  • On July 31, 2010, the Bangkok Country Office dismantled “Advanced Stealth”, one of the largest steroid trafficking organizations in the world. This organization sold steroids and pharmaceutical drugs via the internet to customers worldwide, including in the United States. During the search of a clandestine laboratory seized in connection with this operation, Thai investigators discovered millions of dollars worth of steroids and pharmaceuticals; three tableting machines; raw chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients; packaging machines; and evidence of numerous packing materials designed to thwart law enforcement interdiction efforts around the world. Thai authorities estimate the value of this seizure to be worth $3.25 million. This investigation delivered a damaging blow to the illicit steroid and pharmaceutical market by dismantling one of the industry’s largest operators and by showing that the internet is not a safe place to conduct this illegal business.
     
  • On July 30, 2010, CPOT Edgar Guillermo VELLEJO-GUARIN was extradited to the United States from Spain to face drug charges for his role as a cocaine source of supply to the United States. He had been indicted in the United States District Court of Southern District of Florida on June 12, 2001 based on a long term investigation conducted by the Miami Field Division, Bogota Country Office, and Madrid Country Office. VELLEJO-GUARIN was closely tied to the Autodefensas Unidades de Columbia and the Columbian North Valle Cartel. He was arrested by Spanish authorities on September 4, 2008 and remained in custody until his extradition.
     
  • On April 12, 2010, the Buenos Aires Country Office reported the arrest of CPOT Luis Agustin CAICEDO-Velandia in the downtown area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. CAICEDO-Velandia was arrested by the Argentine Secretaria Inteligencia Del Estado Argentina pursuant to a Provisional Arrest Warrant issued from the Middle District of Florida based on a long-term DEA Tampa PANAMA EXPRESS investigation. On June 23, 2010, after an appearance before Argentine Judge Ercolini, CAICEDO-Velandia agreed to be extradited to the United States. CAICEDO-Velandia had been involved in narcotics trafficking since 1996 and had been a designated CPOT since 2008. CAICEDO-Velandia’s early associates were Juan Carlos ORTIZ, Juan Carlos RAMIREZ-Abadia (CPOT 2008) and Pedro Paublo RAYO-MONTANO (CPOT 2007). Since April 2004, CAICEDO-Velandia had been the command and control element of a major drug trafficking organization based in Bogotá, Colombia, responsible for controlling maritime cocaine transportation shipments of multi-ton quantities from Colombia to various Central America countries.
     
  • On August 19, 2010, the Bogota Country Office reported the arrest of CPOT Walid MAKLED-Garcia in Cucuta, Colombia. CPOT MAKLED-Garcia was arrested by the Colombian National Police pursuant to a Provisional Arrest Warrant issued from the Southern District of New York. On June 18, 2009, MAKLED-Garcia was indicted in the Southern District of New York. In April 2009, MAKLED-Garcia was approved as a CPOT based on a proposal submitted by the Caracas Country Office, and on May 29, 2009, the President of the United States named MAKLED-Garcia as a Specially Designated Narcotics Trafficker pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. The DTO controlled by MAKLED-Garcia was based in Valencia, Venezuela and smuggled multi-ton quantity loads of cocaine out of Venezuela by private aircraft, commercial aircraft, containerized cargo, and fishing vessels.
     
  • On December 16, 2009, Oumar Issa, Harouna Toure, and Idriss Abelrahman were arrested by DEA’s Ghanaian counterparts at the request of the United States, for drug and terrorism charges and flown to the Southern District of New York. The charges stem from the defendants' alleged agreement to transport cocaine through West and North Africa with the intent to support three terrorist organizations �'�' Al Qaeda, Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, and the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). All three organizations have been designated by the United States Department of State as Foreign Terrorist Organizations. This case marks the first time that associates of Al Qaeda have been charged with narco�'terrorism offenses.
     
  • The Islamabad Country Office, with assistance from the Pakistan Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) and Chinese authorities, dismantled the Shamal KHAN priority target organization (PTO). This organization controlled a complex and well organized heroin, hashish, and Acetic Anhydride (AA) network in the Afghanistan-Pakistan border region. Shamal KHAN’s brother, Janas KHAN, was arrested in China on September 1, 2010 for smuggling AA from China to Pakistan. Subsequently, on September 22, 2010, the ANF arrested Shamal KHAN and his son Younis KHAN in Islamabad, Pakistan. Both subjects were arrested for violations of Pakistan’s Controlled Substances Act. Family ties enabled the members of this PTO to conduct their operations through various countries and smuggle the AA into Afghanistan for the conversion of opium into heroin.
     
  • On March 9, 2010, a Criminal Justice Task Force Judge convicted and sentenced Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan Commander Sayed Hassan KARIMI to a 15 year prison term in Afghanistan for violation of the Afghan Law Article 15-Drug Trafficking and Sale of Precursor Chemicals, namely AA. On October 3, 2009, KARIMI had been arrested on drug trafficking charges subsequent to the seizure of 10,000 liters of AA. Commander KARIMI had been operating as a corrupt government official in Masir-e-Sharif.
     
  • On May 20, 2010, Muhammad HAQ and Muhammad WALI, were sentenced to 16 years in prison each for violation of Afghan law. On March 16, 2010 the DEA Kabul Country Office and the Afghan SIU/NIU participated in a joint operation with the U.S. Marines. During this operation a large laboratory complex that processed opium into morphine base was detected, seized, and destroyed. During the operation HAQ and WALI were seen fleeing from the scene and subsequently arrested.
     
  • On October 29, 2010, a multi-national DEA operation led to the seizure of $55.9 million in heroin at four clandestine laboratories located in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. The nearly one metric ton of narcotics was seized as a result of a large-scale joint narcotics enforcement operation by DEA, Afghan, and Russian anti-drug agents in Afghanistan. In addition to 932 kilograms of heroin and 156 kilograms of opium seized, the following precursor chemicals and materials were also confiscated: 10 liters of acetic anhydride, 15 kilograms of ammonium chloride, 10 kilograms of soda ash, 40 kilograms of charcoal, two mechanical heroin presses, three metal industrial cooking vats, and 500 feet of plastic irrigation equipment.‪ An investigation into the drug trafficking organization responsible for operating the clandestine heroin labs is ongoing.  

DEA has also targeted major shadow facilitators that support narco-terrorists around the globe:

  • In September 2007, SOD initiated Operation Relentless, targeting notorious Russian arms trafficker Viktor BOUT and his large-scale transportation network which operated extensively in Africa. On March 6, 2008, the Thai Police, in cooperation with DEA, arrested Viktor BOUT in Thailand. After working with Thai authorities to arrest BOUT, however, the U.S. extradition effort was unexpectedly denied by a Thai judge in mid-August 2009. The judge in Bangkok stated that the FARC is not deemed a terrorist organization in Thailand, as it is in the U.S., and political offences are not covered by a U.S.-Thai extradition treaty.
     
  • On February 17, 2010, Preet Bharara, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, and Michele M. Leonhart, the Acting Administrator of the DEA, announced the unsealing of another indictment against international arms dealer Viktor BOUT and his associate Richard Ammar CHICHAKLI, for allegedly conspiring to violate the International Emergency Economic Powers Act stemming from their efforts to purchase two aircraft from companies located in the United States, in violation of economic sanctions which prohibited such financial transactions. The unsealed indictment also charged BOUT and CHICHAKLI with money laundering conspiracy, wire fraud conspiracy and six separate counts of wire fraud, in connection with these financial transactions.
     
  • On August 20, 2010, a Thai court ruled in favor of extraditing Viktor BOUT to the United States to face trial on the original four terrorism charges.
     
  • On November 16, 2010, after more than two years of legal proceedings, alleged international arms dealer Viktor BOUT was extradited to the Southern District of New York from Thailand to stand trial on terrorism charges,  

On-Going Operations

Operation Broken Bridge—The objective of Operation Broken Bridge is to disrupt suspect aircraft flown from Venezuela and Colombia to the Dominican Republic, and to further dismantle DTOs which employ air drops over water and land and landings in the Dominican Republic to move narcotics to markets in the U.S. Participating elements include the DEA, Caribbean Field Division, Joint Interagency Task Force-South, Customs Border Patrol, host nation law enforcement and military support, and the intelligence community. Seizure statistics for Operation Broken Bridge through Fiscal Year 2010 include 3,114 kilograms of cocaine, two vehicles, 15 arrests, several weapons and $1,799,092 in U.S. currency.

Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT)—OPBAT is the largest and oldest cooperative effort overseas by any government involved in drug enforcement. This DEA led initiative also includes the participation of the U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Homeland Security, and Department of State. On the Bahamian and Turks and Caicos side, counterparts include the Royal Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Police Forces. Cumulative OPBAT statistics through the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 include seizures of approximately 262 kilograms of cocaine, 91,471 pounds of marijuana, and $614,992 in U.S. currency, as well as 53 arrests.

Operation Panama Express—Operation Panama Express is a joint operation designed to disrupt and dismantle major maritime drug smuggling organizations operating from the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The operation is conducted by DEA and several other federal, state, and local law enforcement authorities, including the Joint Inter-Agency Task Force. From 2000 through October 2010, as a result of Operation Panama Express, 637 metric tons of cocaine have been seized, 236 metric tons of cocaine have been destroyed when vessels carrying these illicit drugs were scuttled by their crews to avoid capture or when the boats were sunk by law enforcement. 1,923 individuals have been arrested during Operation Panama Express.

Operation Windjammer—Operation Windjammer was structured to assist DEA and host nation counterparts, in pursuing priority targets and/or significant narcotics traffickers impacting the U.S. via Jamaica. Cumulative statistics through the 4th quarter of Fiscal Year 2010, resulting from the success of Operation Windjammer, include the seizure of 926.9 kilograms of marijuana, $53,744.97 in currency as well as 19 arrests.

Operation Esperanza—Operation Esperanza is the single most productive bilateral drug law enforcement project within DEA’s international operations in the Western Hemisphere. It has become the technological cornerstone of DEA’s technical Program in Colombia and has proven to be an extremely important tool for the U.S. Government and the Government of Colombia in protecting national security and combating drug trafficking, terrorism, and other illegal activities.

Operation Southern Fury – Operation Southern Fury is a DEA campaign plan for counter narcotics investigations and operations in southern Afghanistan. This operation assists DEA personnel in identifying and prioritizing DEA objectives for investigations, operations, programs, and initiatives phased over the next twelve months. This campaign is meant to be fully coordinated and synchronized with the U.S. whole-of-government effort, as well as the U.S. military and International Security Assistance Forces campaign plans.

Coordinate Counternarcotics Intelligence Gathering

Centers for Drug Information Program

This DEA-managed initiative facilitates information sharing among foreign law enforcement counterparts in the countries it serves. The information is made available to the participants via the internet. It became operational during June 2003 with 41 participating countries and protectorates located throughout the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and South America. The user base has since expanded to over 400 users in 58 countries that include a South Central Asia regional center in Kabul, Afghanistan, a Southeast Asia regional center in Bangkok, Thailand and a West Africa regional center in Accra, Ghana. An automated on-line language translation feature (English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese) serves to minimize language barriers for a majority of the participants. Discussions continue in regards to expansion to Europe and additional countries in Southeast Asia and the continent of Africa.

Conduct Training Programs for Host Nation Police Agencies

International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) Training Programs:

The ILEA program was established by the U.S. Department of State in 1995. Currently, there are four ILEAs operating in Budapest, Hungary; Bangkok, Thailand; Gaborone, Botswana; and San Salvador, El Salvador. A new facility has also begun operations in Lima Peru. ILEAs offer a program of mid-career leadership training for regional police and other enforcement officers, as well as specific training programs arranged in accordance with regional interests. DEA's role is to provide counter narcotics course instruction and best practices for the core supervisory sessions, as well as specialized training courses at the ILEAs.

DEA's International Training Section (TRI) also provides one-week of counter narcotics training at each of the five annual eight-week sessions of law enforcement training at the ILEA in Budapest, Hungary. Twenty-six countries from Central Asia, Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union participate in ILEA Budapest training.

DEA holds the directorship at the ILEA in Bangkok, Thailand. The ILEA Bangkok core program of instruction is the six-week Supervisory Criminal Investigator Course (SCIC). TRI provides seven days of instruction during the SCIC for 14 countries from Southeast Asia. DEA also offers several specialized courses at ILEA Bangkok.

ILEA Gaborone training includes a six-week supervisor's course, the Law Enforcement Executive Development and a number of specialized courses. ILEA Gaborone conducts training for 23 eligible southern African countries. TRI provides four days of counter narcotics training at each of the four annual sessions.

TRI provides five days of instruction at each of the four annual Law Enforcement Management Development Program sessions, as well as several specialized courses. ILEA San Salvador also conducts specialized training courses at an alternate training venue, a Regional Training Center in Lima, Peru. ILEA San Salvador provides training of law enforcement officials from 30 participating Latin American countries.

Bilateral Training Programs:

DEA offers both in-country and regional training programs conducted by mobile training teams. In-country programs are seminars conducted in a host country and only include participants from that country. Regional training is designed to bring together a combination of participants from a number of countries sharing common drug trafficking issues or routes. An advance pre-school planning and assessment trip is conducted by a training team member to design each school to the specific requirements of the students registered for the courses. In FY 2010, DEA conducted bilateral training seminars funded by INL for approximately 130 participants from four countries.

Asset Forfeiture/Money Laundering Training Programs:

Each Asset Forfeiture Money Laundering Training Program is customized depending upon the country’s needs and the level of law enforcement development. In FY 2010, TRI provided training to foreign officers on asset forfeiture and money laundering in order to enhance financial investigations of international drug trafficking and narco-terrorist organizations. During FY 2010, an approximate total of 146 participants from 11 countries were trained. Approximately 41 Chilean law enforcement officials received training to date in November 2010. The training emphasized techniques for conducting financial investigations such as the use of the internet and computer forensics; international banking; shell corporations, financial intelligence analysis, development and utilization of financial informants; terrorist financing; practical applications. Each session included case studies. Additionally Attorney General Exempted Operations (AGEO), U.S. forfeiture law and international asset forfeiture sharing and cooperation were covered. The training has resulted in improved investigative skills and an increase in joint DEA investigations that target significant international drug trafficking and narco-terrorist organizations.

International Asset Airport Interdiction Training:

In FY 2010, TRI continued to conduct Airport Interdiction Training as part of the Asset Forfeiture Program. The goal of this training is to educate members of foreign law enforcement about techniques for interdiction in transportation environments, especially as they relate to money launderers and the bulk shipment of currency. During FY 2010, an approximate total of 129 participants from six countries were trained.

International Narcotics Enforcement Management Seminar (INEMS) Program:

The INEMS is a two-week program. The TRI section of DEA in the U.S. conducts the INEMS principally for upper-level law enforcement managers of foreign operational drug units. In addition to management concepts, the supervisors are exposed to the current and innovative enforcement techniques used by DEA and other U.S. enforcement agencies. Each country trainee group is required to present an overview of the narcotics situation in their home country. Currently TRI is planning to conduct an INEMS in FY 2011. An INEMS was not conducted in FY 2010; however two iterations were conducted during FY 2009, which trained 30 participants from 21 countries.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-Russia Council Counter Narcotics Training Project:

DEA provides mobile training teams to support the NATO-Russia Council (NRC) Training Project on Counter Narcotics training of Afghan and Central Asian personnel. This project is implemented by the UNODC and supported by Central Command funds. In FY 2010, TRI led efforts to provide basic drug enforcement training, tactical training, and practical training to approximately 23 law enforcement counterparts in Tajikistan. This program has enabled DEA to develop strong law enforcement partnerships and promote an understanding of the regional and global effects drug trafficking has on neighboring countries. DEA serves as the only U.S. representation by providing instructors in support of the NRC Program. The NRC Program provides training for Central Asia and the surrounding region of Afghanistan. The other members of the NRC are: Russia, Italy, Finland, and Turkey. There are four iterations pending for NRC participating countries throughout FY 2011, two for Russia and two for Kazakhstan.

International Training—Mexican Federal Police: Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) Training:

During FY 2009, TRI initiated a Mexican Federal Police SSP Training Program. Beginning July 2009, DEA's Special Agents, Intelligence Research Specialists, and Diversion Investigators traveled to the Mexican Federal Police Academy located in San Luis Potosi, Mexico, to provide instruction on Police Intelligence. The Police Intelligence Course demonstrates how evidence collected during investigations can be analyzed and presented and defended in court. The inclusion of DEA, other federal, state and local agencies, as well as foreign national police agencies from countries such as Spain, Colombia, Czechoslovakia, Holland, and Canada, in the training of the Mexican federal police, known as the Mexican Secretariat of Public Security (SSP), sets a precedent for the Mexican government, and came about as part of the Merida Initiative. During FY 2010, TRI continued to conduct the Mexican Federal Police: SSP Training Program which provided training for approximately 2,735 Mexican officers. A new program will be introduced in FY 2011 providing instruction on Evidence Collection.

Afghanistan Regional Training Team (RTT) Program

The U.S. Government supports the RTT’s primary mission to provide specialty law enforcement training to the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNP-A), as well as the neighboring regional countries. In FY 2010, TRI was instrumental in developing a Regional Training Team (RTT) concept of operations that enabled DEA to provide specialty law enforcement training to approximately 2,825 law enforcement counterparts assigned to the CNP-A and neighboring regional countries. Approximately 191 Afghan law enforcement officials received training thus far during the first quarter of FY 2011.

The RTT training mission focuses on providing the necessary skills in: basic counter narcotics investigations, maintenance of basic skills, advanced counter narcotics investigations, establishment of self-initiated investigations, and the creation of specialized units. Instruction is provided in a “building block” style which begins with a Basic Course and progresses to Specialty Courses, such as, Undercover, Operation Planning, Surveillance, Technical Training, Investigative Techniques, Intelligence Analysis, and Leadership. The use of practical exercises is a key element.

The RTT coordinates with other established counter narcotics training programs, the Afghanistan government, and the international community on content of courses and delivery schedules for them. The RTT’s goal is to develop a core of professional counter narcotics investigators throughout the region. This concept was so well received that it is being used as the model for training in Africa. As a result of the success of the program an RTT Program for Central Asia will also be initiated in FY 2011 to include former Soviet Block Countries in Central Asia.

Development of Host Country Drug Law Enforcement Institutions

DEA’s fourth Key Mission Objective is to assist in the development of host country drug law enforcement institutions and form effective cooperative relationships with foreign law enforcement organizations.

Afghanistan

DEA, in close coordination with the interagency community, continued to implement a comprehensive Afghanistan expansion plan. This plan called for a significant increase in DEA personnel throughout Afghanistan. As a result, DEA will assign additional direct hire personnel to the Kabul Country Office area of responsibility. The expansion plan includes five Enforcement Groups forward deployed to Kabul, and Regional Commands in Herat, Kandahar, Konduz, and Jalalabad.

DEA capacity-building efforts in Afghanistan are primarily focused on the CNP-A. An excellent relationship between DEA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the Department of State has focused capacity building efforts on specialized units within the CNP-A, combining training, equipment and infrastructure with mentoring and operational interaction with DEA enforcement teams, DEA training teams, and experienced mentor/advisors. These specialized units have developed to the point where they can operate with limited coalition support and are engaged with DEA on a daily basis on joint operations and investigations.

Afghan Threat Finance Cell (ATFC)

As a result of a decision by the National Security Council, DEA works closely with the Afghan Threat Finance Cell (ATCC). The ATFC identifies financiers operating throughout Afghanistan with connections to insurgent activities, drug trafficking and public corruption. The ATFC then produces target packages for many of these financiers which are passed to the military and law enforcement officials for action.

Ghana Vetted Unit

In FY 2010, DEA established the Ghana Vetted Unit (GVU). The mission of the GVU is to develop, train, advise and mentor a professional counterdrug unit in Ghana that will have primary responsibility for counterdrug initiatives nationwide. The GVU will also serve as the cornerstone in the development of a counterdrug infrastructure needed to identify, disrupt, and dismantle criminal drug trafficking and money laundering organizations operating throughout West Africa. In August 2010, the GVU was fully operational and graduated its first class. The GVU is the first DEA vetted police unit in Africa.

Mexico City Chemical Group

This group has provided training to the Government of Mexico (GOM) counterparts regarding methamphetamine trends and skills for targeting and combating the clandestine Laboratory/Precursor Chemical operations of DTOs. The Chemical Group is also working with GOM entities to help develop a Chemical Work Task Force between various GOM entities, to include regulatory, law enforcement, judicial/ prosecutorial, and military entities.

Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU)

Shortly after Congress approved the SIU program in 1996, the Mexico City SIU was established, and DEA now works closely with a number of trusted counterparts throughout the country. In FY 2010, DEA and the GOM reorganized the SIU, and integrated vetted prosecutors from the PGR (Attorney Generals’ Office) / SIEDO (Deputy Attorney General’s Office of Special Investigations on Organized Crime) into the SIU. This investigative initiative creates a multi-faceted investigative approach in order to target and investigate all aspects of the Transnational Criminal Organizations’ criminal enterprises, to include narcotics, arms trafficking, and financial crimes.

Financial Investigative Team (FIT)

The SSP created a FIT in 2007. The SSP FIT is located in Mexico City and they conduct investigations throughout Mexico. The unit works side-by-side with the SIU to conduct parallel financial investigations. The SSP FIT has received training from DOJ, DEA Financial Operations, and some of the investigators were once members of the Mexico SIU. The FIT is supported by the Mexico City Country Office.

United States Coast Guard

Overview:

The U.S. Coast Guard plays a crucial role in efforts to keep dangerous narcotic drugs moving by sea from reaching market countries. The Coast Guard’s Drug Interdiction Mission Performance Plan (MPP) establishes goals, objectives and performance metrics that the Coast Guard Drug Interdiction program intends to achieve in the next five years. To reach its targets, the Coast Guard will continually assess mission performance and make periodic adjustments to its operational focus and out-year plans. There are three primary elements to the Coast Guard Drug Interdiction Mission:

  • Detection & Monitoring
    Detection of narcotics trafficking vessels occurs principally through the collection, analysis, and dissemination of tactical information and strategic intelligence combined with effective sensors operating from land, air and surface assets. The six million square mile transit zone between source nations in South America and the United States is far too expansive to randomly patrol; targeting information is necessary to focus efforts. Timely, actionable intelligence is the best force-multiplier available to the operational commander. Upon detection, the Coast Guard, and other similar U.S. and partner nation law enforcement agencies will provide monitoring, relaying data, imagery and position information until an appropriate interdiction asset arrives on scene.
     
  • Interdiction
    Successful targeting and interdiction of illicit activities create a deterrent effect. Interdiction success causes Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) to incur greater costs and decreased efficiency in moving their illicit product to market. In recent years the Coast Guard has been successful in interdicting foreign flagged vessels, frequently flags of convenience, carrying multi-ton loads of contraband. A crucial element in that success was the system of agreements with many countries around the world which permit enforcement officers to stop, board, and search vessels suspected of transporting narcotics. This has caused DTOs to sharply reduce the use of flags of convenience in favor of stateless go-fast and similar style vessels, as well as investing in more technologically advanced self-propelled semi (SPSS) and fully submersible (SPFS) vessels. The result has been increased costs to the DTOs to outfit their trafficking vessels and greater risk of prosecution to smugglers interdicted on stateless vessels, since stateless vessels are subject to U.S. jurisdiction. Interdiction success requires a sufficient number of air and surface assets to respond to intelligence and operational cueing. Surface and air assets equipped with robust sensor systems, endurance, range, and speed, coupled with a range of use of force options to stop non-compliant vessels, enable transit zone operations across a spectrum of weather conditions. To increase its operational law enforcement reach, the Coast Guard embarks deployable Law Enforcement Detachments (LEDETs) on U.S. Navy and Allied warships, and embarks partner nation “shipriders” aboard Coast Guard vessels, consistent with Memorandums of Understanding, bilateral agreements and other arrangements in force.
     
  • Close Working Partnerships with both Domestic and International Agencies
    The Coast Guard would not be as effective in removing drugs from the transit zone without the significant interagency and international cooperation that comes together at Joint Interagency Task Force South and West (JIATF-S and JIATF-W). The Coast Guard provides staff and command cadre to both Task Forces, which have primary responsibilities for counterdrug detection and monitoring operations in the U.S. Southern Command and U.S. Pacific Command areas of responsibility. As Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCO) and DTOs in the Western Hemisphere expand their operations, the Coast Guard is also increasingly engaged with U.S. European Command and U.S. Africa Command to meet the threat in those areas. The Coast Guard contributes to international counterdrug efforts through development and active use of agreements, operational procedures, professional exchanges, sharing best practices, and deployment of mobile training teams to support Theater Security Cooperation initiatives. Engagement in joint operations and training strengthens ties with partner nations and increases maritime law enforcement competency and capability.  

International Agreements:

There are 37 maritime bilateral counterdrug agreements or operational procedures in place between the United States and partner nations. These agreements and arrangements help the USG move toward its goal of disrupting illicit trafficking within the transit zone and eliminating safe havens for smugglers. In the summer of 2010, the United States entered into temporary international agreements with Morocco, Cape Verde and Senegal as part of the Africa Maritime Law Enforcement Partnership (AMLEP). AMLEP is a combined law enforcement program designed to build partner nation maritime law enforcement capacity and help detect illicit activities through joint law enforcement operations. In the wake of AMLEP’s success, the U.S. and Senegal are negotiating a permanent bilateral agreement. The U.S. and Canada furthered their joint efforts to combat illicit drugs by signing an agreement to allow Coast Guard law enforcement personnel to embark on Canadian forces aircraft and ships. This agreement will serve as a force multiplier in joint task force operating areas.

International Cooperative Efforts:

Overall during FY 2010, the Coast Guard disrupted 122 drug smuggling attempts, which resulted in the seizure of 56 vessels, the detention of 229 suspected smugglers, and the removal of 91.8 MT of cocaine and 16.7 MT of marijuana. Nearly all of these interdictions involved some type of foreign partner support or cooperation, through direct unit participation, exercise of bilateral agreements, granting permission to board, or logistics support.

The Ecuadorian police assisted by their Navy and with intelligence from the DEA seized the first documented SPFS vessel in July 2010. The vessel proved to be a significant leap forward in capability and technology. This vessel’s ability to smuggle large loads (6-10 MT of cocaine), travel submerged, and only needing to surface for a few hours each day to recharge batteries necessitate modification of existing law enforcement tactics, techniques and procedures to combat this new threat. DTOs use of SPSS vessels dropped off considerably in FY10, with 18 events carrying an estimated 94 MT, of which 14.5 MT were removed by the Coast Guard in three cases, compared with 60 documented cases carrying 332 MT of cocaine in FY09. The Drug Trafficking Vessel Interdiction Act (DTVIA) of 2008 continued to provide an effective prosecution tool by outlawing the operation of stateless SPSS and SPFS in international waters with the intent to evade detection. Despite the use of technologically advanced smuggling conveyances in recent years, the go-fast and similar style vessels (including pangas, lanchas and pirogues) remain the smuggling vessels of choice within the Central American and Caribbean littorals.

To counter the cocaine flow across the Atlantic Ocean into Africa and Europe, the Coast Guard continues to work with U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM) to expand maritime training and operations for West African countries. In FY 2010, both the USCGC MOHAWK and the USS JOHN L. HALL with an embarked USCG LEDET conducted joint training, surveillance and law enforcement operations off West Africa. During these operations MOHAWK embarked law enforcement teams from Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Senegal to conduct training and assist in their efforts to suppress illicit transnational maritime activity. These efforts continue to help African nations to gain control of their jurisdictional waters by maritime domain awareness as they attempt to thwart the growing threat from DTOs and other transnational criminals.

A previously established trilateral maritime counterdrug initiative between the United States, Colombia and Ecuador has matured into a semi-annual multilateral maritime counterdrug enforcement coordination summit, which now includes Panama, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Mexico. The seventh and eighth Multilateral Summit (held in Panama City, Panama and San Diego, California respectively in 2010) gave participants the opportunity to share, exchange, and improve “best practices,” and to think creatively about employing new tactics, techniques, and procedures to counter drug trafficking organizations.

International Training and Technical Assistance:

In FY 2010, the USCG provided International Training and Technical Assistance in support of drug interdiction programs through a variety of support efforts:

The USCG Technical Assistance Field Team (TAFT) provided engineering expertise, vessel assessments, and major repair contracting services to the maritime services of the countries in the Eastern Caribbean’s Regional Security System (RSS). USCG ships conducted training and technical assistance in conjunction with normal operations in several countries to encourage operational cooperation

The USCG’s Security Assistance Program offers a progression of one-to-two-week mobile training teams (MTTs) to partner nation maritime services around the world to help advance the capability of their naval and coast guard forces to patrol their territorial waters. Courses include Maritime Law Enforcement (MLE), Boarding and Advanced Boarding Officer, Joint MLE Boarding, MLE Instructor, Basic and Advanced Port Security/ Port Vulnerability, Waterside Port Security, and Small Boat Operations/Maintenance Courses. In FY 2010, the USCG deployed 108 MTTs to 48 countries.

Individual students also receive instruction in USCG resident training programs in the United States. These students develop a broad range of skills from boat handling and boat and engine repair to senior officer leadership training. In FY 2010, 66 partner nations enrolled students in 308 resident courses at USCG training installations.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection

The Department of Homeland Security’s U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) processes all goods, vehicles, and people entering and exiting the United States. CBP officers intercept narcotics and other contraband, improperly classified merchandise, unlicensed technology and material, weapons, ammunition, fugitives, undocumented immigrants, and unreported currency at America’s 331 international ports of entry.

Since its creation in its current organizational structure in 2003, CBP is also charged with the border regulatory functions of passport control and agriculture inspections in order to provide comprehensive, seamless border control services. This division of responsibilities is intended to simplify border security operations and is termed: "One face at the border." Of current importance is CBP’s role in protecting the borders of the United States from the introduction of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorists. CBP also maintains its position as the nation’s first line of defense against the introduction of narcotics and dangerous drugs from foreign sources.

CBP Representatives and Attachés

CBP deploys a growing network of Attachés and Representatives who serve abroad in U.S. Embassies and consulates. These personnel work closely with CBP’s foreign counterparts in the on-going effort to counter drug-smuggling. Attachés have a broad mandate, ranging from enforcement and investigative activities on behalf of CBP to serving as delegates in such groups as the Shared Border Accords Coordinating Committee (SBACC) in Canada. They also exchange expert information, improving the effectiveness of law enforcement activity, policies, and resources relating to border enforcement. Their efforts help to ensure that enforcement cooperation is seamless across borders and that the battle against smuggling is effective.

International Training and Assistance

In 2010, CBP Office of International Affairs (INA) provided technical training and assistance in support of the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) programs currently operating in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador, and Lima. CBP supported ILEA programs by developing and conducting core and specialized training on a variety of topics, including: Land Border Interdiction; Contraband Concealment Techniques; International Controlled Deliveries and Drug Investigations (conducted jointly with the Drug Enforcement Administration); Complex Financial Investigations (conducted jointly with Immigration and Customs Enforcement); and Customs Forensics Lab capabilities and techniques.

The CBP Field Operations Academy (FOA) supports International Training on two fronts: conducting Academy tours for foreign dignitaries and aiding various training missions abroad. Internationally, the FOA has assisted training in Egypt, Iraq, Afghanistan, Georgia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Estonia, Dominican Republic, and Honduras in support of drug interdiction efforts. Additionally, the FOA has conducted numerous briefings/tours of its facilities in the U.S. for the benefit of visiting foreign Customs and Border groups. Dignitaries from Kazakhstan, Bahrain, and Saudi Arabia were recently shown a variety of venues and scenarios, which included drug interdiction instruction.

Port Security Initiatives

CBP implements a multi-layered, risk-based enforcement strategy designed to maximize security without causing economic disruption to U.S. trade. This strategy encompasses the following security programs in the maritime environment:

  • The “24-Hour” Manifest Rule
     
  • Container Security Initiative (CSI)
     
  • Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)
     
  • Use of Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) Technology
     
  • Automated Targeting System (ATS)
     
  • National Targeting Center for Cargo (NTC-C)
     
  • Importer Security Filing “10+2”:  

CSI, announced in January 2002, addresses the threat to border security and global trade posed by the potential for terrorist use of a maritime container. This Initiative institutes a security regime to ensure that all containers posing a potential risk for terrorism are identified and inspected at foreign ports before they are placed on vessels destined for the United States. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) stations teams of U.S. officers in foreign ports to work together with host foreign government counterparts to develop additional investigative leads related to the terrorist threat to cargo destined for the United States and to identify potentially high-risk shipments. Over 80% of maritime containerized cargo destined for the United States originates in or transits through a CSI port and is screened prior to being laden aboard a U.S. bound vessel. CSI is currently operational in fifty-eight (58) ports.

Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements:

CBP is the lead negotiator of Customs Mutual Assistance Agreements (CMAAs). CMAAs are negotiated with foreign governments and provide for mutual assistance in the enforcement of customs-related laws. Under the provisions of U.S. CMAAs, CBP provides assistance to its foreign counterparts, and receives assistance from them in the exchange of information that facilitates the enforcement of each country’s laws. The Agreements have a high level of flexibility that allow parties to quickly communicate concerns and requests to each other. Recent CMAA negotiations were held with Switzerland, Jamaica, and Algeria. The Algerian CMAA was signed in early 2010.

International Visitors Program:

The State Department’s International Visitors Program (IVP) can provide an opportunity for foreign customs officials and other foreign officials working on contraband enforcement issues to consult with their U.S. counterparts and appropriate high level managers in CBP Headquarters. International visitors can also participate in on-site tours of selected U.S. ports and field sites to observe actual CBP operations. The objectives of this program are:

  • To demonstrate CBP’s efforts to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States.
     
  • To show how such U.S. programs as the Container Security Initiative can extend U.S. borders by encouraging layered security that clearly benefits the U.S. and the cooperating countries.
     
  • To offer foreign decision makers the opportunity to discuss and explore with CBP experts finding a balance between legitimate trade and travel and the need for reinforced security.
     
  • To build international relationships and cooperation in support of global security through the use of consistent security standards worldwide.
     
  • To support international capacity building programs, and encourage the introduction of new, more effective methods and techniques.  

In FY11 through January, IVP made arrangements for 518 visits for 3117 visitors. These visits were sponsored by the Department of State, Department of Defense, and U.S. Coast Guard, various State National Guard Units, U.S. Embassies and other components of the Department of Homeland Security.

Port of Entry Interdiction Training:

The correct approach to border interdiction varies with border environments, i.e., land (IBIT), seaport (ISIT), rail (IRIT) and airport (IACIT). Training has been designed for the problems encountered and interdiction techniques useful for each type of operation. Each training class is normally five days in duration and is comprised of interactive classroom discussion and practical exercises using actual CBP border facilities. In addition to port of entry operations, CBP provides training in techniques used by smugglers who do not use official ports of entry to cross borders, but who attempt to smuggle contraband in lightly patrolled border crossing zones.

International Bulk Currency Smuggling:

With an increased enforcement focus on money laundering, organized criminals and terrorists have turned to bulk cash smuggling to move valuables across borders. Bulk Currency Smuggling training assists foreign government enforcement personnel in identifying techniques used by bulk currency smugglers. Further, it helps them to design and implement programs to counter that threat, resulting in seizures of millions of dollars in the proceeds of crime.

Training in Host Countries

Overseas Enforcement Training: The curriculum includes Border Enforcement Training, Supply Chain Security, Detection, Interdiction and Investigation; Concealment Methods, Bulk Currency Smuggling, False and Fraudulent Documents, Train-the-Trainer, Anti-Corruption, Targeting and Risk Management, Hazardous Materials, and X-ray Systems. These courses can also be conducted at foreign ports of entry. They include both basic training and refresher training/mentoring abroad for graduates of training at U.S port facilities. Training combines formal classroom and field exercises. Although many courses focus on counter proliferation and terrorism, courses cover the gamut of issues faced by CBP and our foreign border control counterparts, including narcotics interdiction. CBP hopes that participation in this training will assist in establishing regional and global associations of border control officials who share concerns about transnational criminal networks and who will cooperate in their dismantling.



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