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Diplomacy in Action

2013 INCSR: Policy and Program Developments


Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Report
March 5, 2013

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Overview

The 2013 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report provides an overview of steps taken during the previous year by the governments of over 90 countries to reduce illicit narcotics production, trafficking and use. Efforts towards these common goals are required by treaties endorsed by virtually all member states of the United Nations, and the United States strongly supports these legal instruments both through its own domestic efforts and by providing assistance to help reinforce the work of foreign partners to enhance their capacities to achieve sustainable results.  

U.S. assistance can play an important role in bolstering the efforts of committed governments to reduce illicit drug supplies, strengthen criminal justice systems and correctional institutions, and promote advances in prevention and treatment. By supporting international efforts to reduce the flow of illicit drugs to the United States, U.S. assistance directly supports the public health and safety of U.S. citizens. U.S. assistance also helps support key U.S. foreign policy objectives by strengthening the ability of international partners to provide security for their citizens and safeguard the rule of law. However, as this report underscores, U.S. assistance can only supplement domestic efforts by partner governments; there is no substitute for a host-nation’s commitment to overcome the difficult, long-term challenges of confronting drug-related crime and corruption.  

Fortunately, more countries than ever before are demonstrating the will to take the difficult but necessary steps to reform and strengthen their domestic institutions, as well as cooperate with international partners against transnational criminal networks. This is because the use and trafficking of narcotics has become more globalized than at any time in history. Illicit drug consumption has risen dramatically in countries traditionally regarded as “source” and “transit” zones so that they themselves are increasingly consumer nations. In addition, drug consumption patterns have shifted in traditional markets such as the United States and Europe. In the United States, for example, cocaine use has dropped by approximately 40 percent over the past decade. In response, drug traffickers have pioneered new markets in Europe and developing nations in South America, Africa and Asia, overwhelming public health services that are unequipped to handle the influx of new addicts. The United States leads the world in evidence-based treatment and prevention programs, and by sharing U.S. expertise and encouraging partner nations to make such programs their own, we can help to initiate similar drug prevention programs in countries where drug use is increasing. 

One of the first countries to recognize and respond to the threat of drug-fueled criminality and violence was Colombia. In 2012, Colombia continued its remarkable progress against cocaine production and associated violence. Production of pure cocaine in Colombia decreased to fewer than 200 metric tons from 700 metric tons in 2001, reaching the lowest level in nearly 20 years. This was achieved by constant law enforcement pressure on coca producers and the criminal syndicates responsible for coordinating the drug trade, as well as continuing success in expanding state institutions and alternative livelihoods in former cultivation zones. These steps have strengthened democracy, human rights, and the rule of law in Colombia. 

These historic achievements were the result of many years of close partnership between Colombia and the United States, spanning successive administrations in both countries. These successful efforts should serve as a model for other countries facing similar threats, including Colombia’s coca-growing neighbors Peru and Bolivia, which are both now producing more cocaine than Colombia for the first time since 1995.  

Mexico continued its own ambitious campaign to strengthen and reform its law enforcement and criminal justice institutions in 2012, working in close cooperation with the United States. Improvements in public security institutions allowed Mexico to achieve notable success in dismantling and disrupting some of North America’s largest and most dangerous drug cartels in 2012, and contributed to a significant overall decrease in drug-related violence. Increasingly, U.S. assistance has shifted away from providing large-scale equipment toward training and justice-sector capacity building essential for sustainable progress. The United States will continue to work with Mexico to expand on the progress that has been achieved and consolidate gains, to better safeguard the security of Mexico and the United States.  

To prevent Mexican drug trafficking networks from exploiting weak institutions in Central America and the Caribbean, the United States will continue providing assistance to both regions through two regional capacity-building initiatives: the Central America Regional Security Initiative and the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative, respectively. Both initiatives provide frameworks for greater law enforcement cooperation and technical assistance between the United States and participating countries that are threatened by the violence and corruption engendered by the drug trade.  

The diversification of global drug trafficking and abuse extends beyond the Western Hemisphere. Over the past decade, West African countries have been increasingly exploited as a transit zone for cocaine from South America destined for Europe. Drug usage has increased similarly in West Africa, as traffickers have substituted drugs in lieu of cash as a form of payment to local middlemen. Concerned West African governments and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) have sought greater cooperation with the United States and other international partners to counter this threat. In response, the United States in 2011 initiated the West Africa Cooperative Security Initiative (WACSI).

Although in its infancy, WACSI led to some positive engagement and training opportunities in 2012, including the creation of a specialized counternarcotics police unit in Ghana trained and vetted by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. WACSI will continue to focus on establishing cooperative partnerships and use them to expand effective programming. One of the most important of these partnerships is that between the international community and ECOWAS. In 2008, ECOWAS and its member states developed the continent’s leading regional action plan on drug trafficking and organized crime. The United States will continue to work with ECOWAS and our European partners on how best to support implementation of this plan.

In Afghanistan, opium production declined in spite of an increase in the total area under poppy cultivation. The drop stemmed from crop disease and poor growing conditions as illicit farmers moved to less hospitable areas. Countering the opium trade remains very much an uphill struggle and a long-term challenge. Working with Afghan partners, international allies, and multilateral organizations, the United States continues to share a commitment for the establishment of effective, sustainable, Afghan-led programs, which are critical to Afghan security and regional stability. Burma remained second to Afghanistan as the world’s leading source of opium and heroin, though at levels considerably below the 1980s and 1990s when production was at its peak. The Burmese government has shown signs of a growing willingness to cooperate with the United States on international drug control objectives. The United States is open to collaborating on specific projects, and plans are underway to conduct the first joint-opium yield survey in nearly a decade in 2013. 

One of the more significant and troubling trends in international drug control is the ongoing spread of synthetic drug production and consumption. While most markets for plant-based organic drugs such as cocaine and heroin are stable or declining, synthetic drug use is continuing to rise. In the Middle East and many countries across Asia, synthetic drugs are now the primary drug threat.  

Synthetic drugs originate from a wider range of production zones than cocaine or heroin, and are less vulnerable to law enforcement intervention than plant-based crops, which require open and more easily detectable cultivation sites. Moreover, unlike opium or coca, the active ingredients of synthetic drugs are found in otherwise legal precursor chemicals needed for legitimate industry. Preventing the illicit diversion of these chemicals is a complex challenge requiring greater cooperation between governments, international organizations such as the United Nations and International Narcotics Control Board, and industry.  

Many countries share the concern of the United States over the global spread of new psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids (“K2” or “spice”) and synthetic cathinones (“bath salts”). These substances pose serious health threats, and their manufacturers have shown an ability to alter their chemical composition in numerous ways to skirt existing drug laws, putting them on the market faster than they can be banned. In 2012, the United States passed domestic legislation to enhance law enforcement’s ability to respond to designer drugs and, moving forward, the United States will work with our international partners to consider new avenues for cooperation in identifying and responding to this emerging threat. 

International drug control is a complex and challenging set of responsibilities for governments and publics. There are no simple answers or uniform solutions. Each government must decide its own course for how best to uphold its obligations under international law to protect its citizens against the harms caused by illegal drugs. And no country can succeed on its own. International cooperation and common strategies are essential for success. Working together, governments can pool resources, leverage their skills, and close off safe havens for drug traffickers. Criminal enterprises cannot succeed against the consensus, will, and desire of a community of societies determined to thwart their efforts.  

Demand Reduction

Drug demand reduction is a key foreign policy tool for addressing the interconnected threats of drugs, crime, and terrorism. It is also a critical component in efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS in countries with high numbers of intravenous drug users. Consequently, the goal of demand reduction strategies call for a comprehensive, balanced approach to the drug-problem that targets prevention, intervention, treatment and recovery, research, and international cooperation.

Recognizing that drug addiction is a major public health threat, and that drug addiction is a preventable and treatable disease, many foreign countries are requesting INL-sponsored technical assistance to improve development of effective policy and programs. INL works closely with international partners to place into practice, capacity building and training activities for service providers in drug prevention, intervention, treatment, and recovery. The program has two major objectives: : (1) significantly reduce drug use, related crime, and violence in targeted country populations and (2) significantly delay onset of first use in targeted country populations. In achieving these objectives, INL supports the following:

  • Capacity building and training aimed to educate governments and public organizations on science-based and best practices in drug prevention, intervention, treatment and recovery;
  • Development of drug-free community coalitions in selected countries,
  • Research, development, and evaluation efforts to determine the effectiveness of drug prevention and treatment programs; and
  • Knowledge dissemination of science-based information and knowledge transfer through multilateral and regional organizations.

Recognizing that there are gender differences in the development and pattern of substance use disorders, INL is also supporting technical assistance addressing gender-related drug abuse and related violence.

Significant completed and on-going INL-funded demand reduction projects for Fiscal Year 2012 included:

Crack Cocaine Symposium: In March 2012, INL sponsored a Trans-regional Crack Cocaine Symposium in Tampa, Florida, that included representatives from the regions affected by crack cocaine addiction (Brazil, Southern Cone and West Africa). Currently, a team of U.S. and Brazilian scientists are working to develop the first “field test kits” to detect toxic adulterants in street samples of crack cocaine, in addition to urine screens for these adulterants in the systems of crack addicts in an effort to improve treatment and health care delivery services in affected communities.

Child Addition Initiative: INL is supporting the development of the world’s first protocols to treat drug-addicted children. Brazil and neighboring Southern Cone countries report that inexpensive crack cocaine is readily available resulting in a significant increase in child addicts and lowering the age range of crack use to 5-8 years of age. Protocols are also being developed to treat opium and heroin-addicted children (ages infancy – 12) in Afghnaistan.

Africa Rapid Assessment: INL is supporting the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to conduct a rapid assessment survey in 16 countries to assess, among other indicators, if smoked cocaine (e.g., crack and coca paste) is now being consumed by children in West Africa. If confirmed, INL will plan appropriate interventions to avert a public health crisis in countries of the region.

Women Drug Treatment Initiatives: INL is supporting research-based prevention, treatment, and recovery programs in key drug producing/using countries that improve services for addicted women and their children, a chronically under-served and stigmatized population. INL also supports the development of a training curriculum that addresses the unique needs of female addicts worldwide.

UNODC: INL continues to support of UNODC global programs that provide comprehensive treatment provider training and technical assistance to improve treatment delivery systems in Asia, Africa and Latin America. The primary emphasis of these initiatives is to share drug treatment best practices with the aim to improve the quality of services and to guide policy makers in programming.

Mexico: INL is supporting the work of the Organization of American States to establish a national-level counselor certification system for drug addiction counselors, aimed at improving the delivery of drug treatment services in Mexico.

Drug-Free Communities: INL is supporting the drug-free communities program which assists community groups in forming and sustaining effective community and anti-drug coalitions that fight illegal drugs. The goal of the coalitions is to bring citizens together to prevent and reduce drug use among youth. INL support has resulted in the establishment of approximately 81 active coalitions in several communities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Kenya and South Africa. For 2013, coalition training will continue in South Africa, several West African and Central Asian states and in Southeast Asia (the Philippines), and expand to Iraq. An INL-funded two-year outcome evaluation of community anti-drug coalition efforts in Lima, Peru, reported significant reductions in drug use, marketing of drugs, gang-related problems and overall neighborhood crime.

Colombo Plan: INL continues to support the Colombo Plan’s Asian Centre for Certification and Education of Addiction Professionals (ACCE), a training unit of treatment experts to assist governments in the process of developing a professional certification process for addiction professionals in Asia and Africa.

Afghanistan: INL currently supports 64 residential and outpatient treatment centers in Afghanistan. The centers provide treatment for specific populations: adult males, adult females, adolescent males, adolescent females, and children. INL also supports prevention programs throughout Afghanistan, including the delivery of preventive drug education in the school curricula, mobile exhibit and street theater programs, and engagement of religious leaders in supporting drug prevention activities.  

Methodology for U.S. Government Estimates of Illegal Drug Production

Introduction

Illegal narcotics are grown, refined, trafficked, and sold on the street by criminal enterprises that attempt to conceal every step of the process. Accurate estimates of such criminal activity are difficult to produce. The estimates on illicit drug production presented in the INCSR represent the United States government’s best effort to sketch the current dimensions of the international drug problem. They are based on agricultural surveys conducted with satellite imagery and scientific studies of crop yields and the likely efficiency of typical illicit refining labs. As we do every year, we publish these estimates with an important caveat: they are estimates. While we must express our estimates as numbers, these numbers should not be seen as precise figures. Rather, they represent the midpoint of a band of statistical probability that gets wider as additional variables are introduced and as we move from cultivation to harvest to final refined drug. Although these estimates can be useful for determining trends, even the best U.S. government estimates are ultimately only approximations. 

As needed, we revise our estimate process-and occasionally the estimates themselves-in the light of field research. The clandestine, violent nature of the illegal drug trade makes such field research difficult. Geography is also an impediment, as the harsh terrain on which many drugs are cultivated is not always easily accessible. This is particularly relevant given the tremendous geographic areas that must be covered, and the difficulty of collecting reliable information over diverse and treacherous terrain. Weather also impacts our ability to gather data, particularly in the Andes, where cloud-cover can be a major problem.  

Improved technologies and analysis techniques may also produce revisions to United States government estimates of potential drug production. This is typical of annualized figures for most other areas of statistical tracking that must be revised year to year, whether the subject of analysis is the size of the U.S. wheat crop, population figures, or the reports of the unemployment rate. When possible, we apply these new techniques to previous years’ data and adjust appropriately, but often, especially in the case of new technologies, we can only apply them prospectively. For the present, these illicit drug statistics represent the state of the art. As new information becomes available and as the art and science improve, so will the accuracy of the estimates. 

Cultivation Estimates

With limited personnel and technical resources, we cannot look at an entire country for any hint of illicit cultivation. Analysts must, therefore concentrate their efforts on those areas that are most likely to have cultivation. Each year they review eradication data, seizure data, law enforcement investigations information, the previous year’s imagery, and other information to determine the areas likely to have cultivation, and revise and update the search area if possible. They then estimate cultivation in the new survey area using proven statistical techniques.

The resultant estimates meet the U.S. government’s need for an annual estimate of cultivation for each country. They also help with eradication, interdiction and other law enforcement operations. As part of the effort to provide a better and more comprehensive assessment, the areas surveyed are often expanded and changed, so direct comparison with previous year estimates may not be possible.  

Production Estimates

Illicit crop productivity depends upon a number of factors. Changes in weather, farming techniques, soil fertility, and disease prevalence can produce widely varying results from year to year and place to place. Although most illicit drug crop areas are not easily accessible to the United States government, making scientific information difficult to obtain, we continually strive to improve our production estimates. The relative productivity of poppy crops can be estimated using imagery, and our confidence in coca leaf yield estimates continues to improve in the past few years as a result of field studies conducted in Latin America. Such studies led to a reduction in our estimates of average productivity for fields that had been sprayed with herbicide, but not completely destroyed. In such fields, some, but not all of the coca bushes survive. The farmers of the illicit crop either plant new bushes among the surviving plants or let what is left grow until harvest. In either case, the average yield of such plots is considerably less than if it had not been sprayed. Multiple studies in the same growing area over several years have helped us understand and measure the effects of eradication and other factors average yield. 

Coca fields which are less than a year old (“new fields”) produce much less leaf than mature fields. In Colombia, for example, fields might get their first small harvest at six months of age; in Bolivia fields are usually not harvested in their first year. The U.S. government estimates include the proportion of new fields detected each year and adjust leaf production accordingly. 

Processing Estimates

The wide variation in processing efficiency achieved by traffickers complicates the task of estimating the quantity of cocaine or heroin that could be refined from a crop. Differences in the origin and quality of the raw material used, the technical processing method employed, the size and sophistication of laboratories, the skill and experience of local workers and chemists, and decisions made in response to enforcement pressures all affect production.  

The U.S. government estimates for coca leaf, cocaine, marijuana, opium, and heroin production are potential estimates; that is, it is assumed that all of the coca, marijuana, and poppy grown is harvested and processed into illicit drugs. This is a reasonable assumption for coca leaf in Colombia. In Bolivia and Peru, however, the U.S. government potential cocaine production estimates are overestimated to some unknown extent since significant amounts of coca leaf are locally chewed and used in products such as coca tea. In Southwest and Southeast Asia, it is not unrealistic to assume that virtually all poppy is harvested for opium gum, but substantial amounts of the opium are consumed as opium rather than being processed into heroin. (The proportion of opium ultimately processed into heroin is unknown.) 

Other International Estimates

The United States helps fund estimates done by the United Nations in some countries. These estimates use slightly different methodologies, but also use a mix of imagery and ground-based observations. The UN estimates are often used to help determine the response of the international donor community to specific countries or regions.

There have been some efforts, for Colombia in particular, for the United States and the UN to understand each other’s methodologies in the hope of improving both sets of estimates. These efforts are ongoing. 

This report also includes data on drug production, trafficking, seizures, and consumption that come from host governments or NGOs. Such data is attributed to the source organization, especially when we cannot independently verify it.

Worldwide Illicit Drug Crop Cultivation 2005-2011

(all figures in hectares)

 
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Poppy

Afghanistan
107,400
172,600
202,000
157,000
131,000
119,000
115,000
180,000
Burma
40,000
21,000
21,700
22,500
19,000
45,500
36,500
in process
Colombia
 
2,300
1,000
 
1,100
 
 
 
Guatemala
100
 
 
 
 
 
220
in process
Laos
5,600
1,700
1,100
1,900
940
1,800
4,400
in process
Mexico
3,300
5,100
6,900
15,000
19,500
14,000
12,000
in process
Pakistan
770
980
 
700
705
 
 
in process
Total Poppy
157,170
203,680
232,700
197,100
172,245
180,300
168,120
 

Coca

Bolivia
26,500
25,800
29,500
32,000
35,000
34,500
30,000
in process
Colombia
144,000
157,000
167,000
119,000
116,000
100,000
83,000
in process
Peru
34,000
42,000
36,000
41,000
40,000
53,000
49,500
in process
Total Coca
204,500
224,800
232,500
192,000
191,000
187,500
162,500
0

Cannabis

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mexico
5,600
8,600
8,800
12,000
17,500
16,500
12,000
in process
Total Cannabis
5,600
8,600
8,800
12,000
17,500
16,500
12,000
0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Note on Colombia poppy cultivation: No estimates in 2005, 2008, 2010, or 2011 due to cloud cover. No survey in 2012.
Note on Guatemala poppy cultivation: 2011 survey limited to fall season in San Marcos and Huehuetenango only.
Note on Laos poppy cultivation: Estimates for 2009-2010 are for Phongsali only. Survey area for 2011 was significantly expanded to include parts of Louang Namtha.
Note on Mexico poppy cultivation: Due to a major methodological change in the 2011 survey, 2005-2010 estimates are indicative of trends only and overstate actual cultivation.
Note on Pakistan poppy cultivation: 2006, and 2008 estimates are for Bara River Valley in Khyber Agency only, 2009 estimate is for Khyber, Mohmand, and Bajaur Agencies only.

 

Worldwide Potential Illicit Drug Production 2005-2011

(all figures in metric tons)

 
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012

Opium

Afghanistan
4,475
5,644
8,000
5,500
5,300
3,200
4,400
4,300
Burma
380
230
270
340
305
530
450
in process
Colombia
 
37
15
 
17
 
 
 
Guatemala
4
 
 
 
 
 
4
in process
Laos
28
8.5
6
17
12
23
57
in process
Mexico
71
108
150
325
425
300
250
in process
Pakistan
32
36
 
26
26
 
 
in process
Total Opium
4,990
6,064
8,441
6,208
6,085
4,053
5,161
 

Coca Leaf

Bolivia
36,000
37,000
38,500
43,500
43,000
43,000
55,000
in process
Colombia
146,000
148,000
135,000
83,500
78,500
71,000
52,500
in process
Peru
53,500
54,500
43,500
43,500
46,000
66,500
62,500
in process
Total Coca Leaf*
235,500
239,500
217,000
170,500
167,500
180,500
170,000
 

Potential Pure Cocaine

Bolivia
115
115
130
165
165
170
190
in process
Colombia
500
510
470
280
280
255
190
in process
Peru
260
265
210
215
225
325
305
in process
Total Potential Pure Cocaine
875
890
810
660
670
750
685
 

Potential Export Quality Cocaine

Bolivia
155
130
140
215
225
230
295
in process
Colombia
590
600
570
360
380
355
265
in process
Peru
290
295
235
240
260
375
360
in process
Total Potential Pure Cocaine
1,035
1,025
945
815
865
960
920
 

Cannabis

Mexico (marijuana)
10,100
15,500
15,800
21,500
 
 
 
 
Total Cannabis
10,100
15,500
15,800
21,500
 
 
 
 
                 
Note on Mexico marijuana production: No production estimates for 2009-2011 due to lack of reliable yield data

 

 

Parties to UN Conventions

(with dates ratified/acceded)
As of 24 December, 2012

Country

Convention Against Transnational
Organized Crime

1988 UN Drug Convention

Convention
Against Corruption

1. Afghanistan

24 September 2003

14 February 1992

25 August 2008

2. Albania

21 August 2002

27 June 2001

25 May 2006

3. Algeria

7 October 2002

9 May 1995

25 August 2004

4. Andorra

22 September 2011

23 July 1999

 

5. Angola

 

26 October 2005

29 August 2006

6. Antigua and Barbuda

24 July 2002

5 April 1993

21 June 2006

7. Argentina

19 November 2002

28 June 1993

28 August 2006

8. Armenia

1 July 2003

13 September 1993

8 March 2007

9. Australia

27 May 2004

16 November 1992

7 December 2005

10. Austria

23 September 2004

11 July 1997

11 January 2006

11. Azerbaijan

30 October 2003

22 September 1993

1 November 2005

12. Bahamas

26 September 2008

30 January 1989

10 January 2008

13. Bahrain

7 June 2004

7 February 1990

5 October 2010

14. Bangladesh

13 July 2011

11 October 1990

27 February 2007

15. Barbados

 

15 October 1992

 

16. Belarus

25 June 2003

15 October 1990

17 February 2005

17. Belgium

11 August 2004

25 October 1995

25 September 2008

18. Belize

26 September 2003

24 July 1996

 

19. Benin

30 August 2004

23 May 1997

14 October 2004

20. Bhutan

 

27 August 1990

 

21. Bolivia

10 October 2005

20 August 1990

5 December 2005

22. Bosnia and Herzegovina

24 April 2002

1 September 1993

26 October 2006

23. Botswana

29 August 2002

13 August 1996

27 June 2011

24. Brazil

29 January 2004

17 July 1991

15 June 2005

25. Brunei Darussalam

25 March 2008

12 November 1993

2 December 2008

26. Bulgaria

5 December 2001

24 September 1992

20 September 2006

27. Burkina Faso

15 May 2002

2 June 1992

10 October 2006

28. Burundi

24 May 2012

18 February 1993

10 March 2006

29. Cambodia

12 December 2005

7 July 2005

5 September 2007

30. Cameroon

6 February 2006

28 October 1991

6 February 2006

31. Canada

13 May 2002

05 July 1990

2 October 2007

32. Cape Verde

15 July 2004

8 May 1995

23 April 2008

33. Central African Republic

14 September 2004

15 October 2001

6 October 2006

34. Chad

18 August 2009

9 June 1995

 

35. Chile

29 November 2004

13 March 1990

13 September 2006

36. China

23 September 2003

25 October 1989

13 January 2006

37. Colombia

4 August 2004

10 June 1994

27 October 2006

38. Comoros

25 September 2003

1 March 2000

11 October 2012

39. Congo

 

3 March 2004

13 July 2006

40. Cook Islands

4 March 2004

22 February 2005

17 October 2011

41. Costa Rica

24 July 2003

8 February 1991

21 March 2007

42. Cote d’Ivoire

25 October 2012

25 November 1991

25 October 2012

43. Croatia

24 January 2003

26 July 1993

24 April 2005

44. Cuba

9 February 2007

12 June 1996

9 February 2007

45. Cyprus

22 April 2003

25 May 1990

23 February 2009

46. Czech Republic

 

30 December 1993

 

47. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

 

19 March 2007

 

48. Democratic Republic of the Congo

28 October 2005

28 October 2005

23 September 2010

49. Denmark

30 September 2003

19 December 1991

26 December 2006

50. Djibouti

20 April 2005

22 February 2001

20 April 2005

51. Dominica

 

30 June 1993

28 May 2010

52. Dominican Republic

26 October 2006

21 September 1993

26 October 2006

53. Ecuador

17 September 2002

23 March 1990

15 September 2005

54. Egypt

5 March 2004

15 March 1991

25 February 2005

55. El Salvador

18 March 2004

21 May 1993

1 July 2004

56. Equatorial Guinea

7 February 2003

 

 

57. Eritrea

 

30 January 2002

 

58. Estonia

10 February 2003

12 July 2000

12 April 2010

59. Ethiopia

23 July 2007

11 October 1994

26 November 2007

60. European Union

21 May 2004

31 December 1990

12 November 2008

61. Fiji

 

25 March 1993

14 May 2008

62. Finland

10 February 2004

15 February 1994

20 June 2006

63. France

29 October 2002

31 December 1990

11 July 2005

64. Gabon

15 December 2004

10 July 2006

1 October 2007

65. Gambia

5 May 2003

23 April 1996

 

66. Georgia

5 September 2006

8 January 1998

4 November 2008

67. Germany

14 June 2006

30 November 1993

 

68. Ghana

21 August 2012

10 April 1990

27 June 2007

69. Greece

11 January 2011

28 January 1992

17 September 2008

70. Grenada

21 May 2004

10 December 1990

 

71. Guatemala

25 September 2003

28 February 1991

3 November 2006

72. Guinea

9 November 2004

27 December 1990

 

73. Guinea-Bissau

10 September 2007

27 October 1995

10 September 2007

74. Guyana

14 September 2004

19 March 1993

16 April 2008

75. Haiti

19 April 2011

18 September 1995

14 September 2009

76. Holy See

25 January 2012

25 January 2012

 

77. Honduras

2 December 2003

11 December 1991

23 May 2005

78. Hungary

22 December 2006

15 November 1996

19 April 2005

79. Iceland

13 May 2010

2 September 1997

1 March 2011

80. India

5 May 2011

27 March 1990

9 May 2011

81. Indonesia

20 April 2009

23 February 1999

19 September 2006

82. Iran

 

7 December 1992

20 April 2009

83. Iraq

17 March 2008

22 July 1998

17 March 2008

84. Ireland

17 June 2010

3 September 1996

9 November 2011

85. Israel

27 December 2006

20 May 2002

4 February 2009

86. Italy

2 August 2006

31 December 1990

5 October 2009

87. Jamaica

29 September 2003

29 December 1995

5 March 2008

88. Japan

 

12 June 1992

 

89. Jordan

22 May 2009

16 April 1990

24 February 2005

90. Kazakhstan

31 July 2008

29 April 1997

18 June 2008

91. Kenya

16 June 2004

19 October 1992

9 December 2003

92. Korea, Republic of

 

28 December 1998

27 March 2008

93. Kiribati

15 September 2005

 

 

94. Kuwait

12 May 2006

3 November 2000

16 February 2007

95. Kyrgyz Republic

2 October 2003

7 October 1994

16 September 2005

96. Lao Peoples Democratic Republic

26 September 2003

1 October 2004

25 September 2009

97. Latvia

7 December 2001

24 February 1994

4 January 2006

98. Lebanon

5 October 2005

11 March 1996

22 April 2009

99. Lesotho

24 September 2003

28 March 1995

16 September 2005

100.Liberia

22 September 2004

16 September 2005

16 September 2005

101.Libya

18 June 2004

22 July 1996

7 June 2005

102.Liechtenstein

20 February 2008

9 March 2007

8 July 2010

103.Lithuania

9 May 2002

8 June 1998

21 December 2006

104.Luxembourg

12 May 2008

29 April 1992

6 November 2007

105.Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Rep.

12 January 2005

13 October 1993

13 April 2007

106.Madagascar

15 September 2005

12 March 1991

22 September 2004

107.Malawi

17 March 2005

12 October 1995

4 December 2007

108.Malaysia

24 September 2004

11 May 1993

24 September 2008

109.Maldives

 

7 September 2000

22 March 2007

110.Mali

12 April 2002

31 October 1995

18 April 2008

111.Malta

24 September 2003

28 February 1996

11 April 2008

112. Marshall Islands

15 June 2011

5 November 2010

17 November 2011

113.Mauritania

22 July 2005

1 July 1993

25 October 2006

114.Mauritius

21 April 2003

6 March 2001

15 December 2004

115. Mexico

4 March 2003

11 April 1990

20 July 2004

116.Micronesia, Federal States of

24 May 2004

6 July 2004

21 March 2012

117. Moldova

16 September 2005

15 February 1995

1 October 2007

118. Monaco

5 June 2001

23 April 1991

 

119.Mongolia

27 June 2008

25 June 2003

11 January 2006

120.Montenegro

23 October 2006

23 October 2006

23 October 2006

121. Morocco

19 September 2002

28 October 1992

9 May 2007

122. Mozambique

20 September 2006

8 June 1998

9 April 2008

123. Myanmar (Burma)

30 March 2004

11 June 1991

20 December 2012

124. Namibia

16 August 2002

6 March 2009

3 August 2004

125. Nauru

12 July 2012

12 July 2012

12 July 2012

126. Nepal

23 December 2011

24 July 1991

31 March 2011

127. Netherlands

26 May 2004

8 September 1993

31 October 2006

128. New Zealand

19 July 2002

16 December 1998

 

129. Nicaragua

9 September 2002

4 May 1990

15 February 2006

130. Niger

30 September 2004

10 November 1992

11 August 2008

131. Nigeria

28 June 2001

1 November 1989

14 December 2004

132. Niue

16 July 2012

16 July 2012

 

133. Norway

23 September 2003

14 November 1994

29 June 2006

134. Oman

13 May 2005

15 March 1991

 

135. Pakistan

13 January 2010

25 October 1991

31 August 2007

136. Palau

 

 

24 March 2009

137. Panama

18 August 2004

13 January 1994

23 September 2005

138. Papa New Guinea

 

 

16 July 2007

139. Paraguay

22 September 2004

23 August 1990

1 June 2005

140. Peru

23 January 2002

16 January 1992

16 November 2004

141. Philippines

28 May 2002

7 June 1996

8 November 2006

142. Poland

12 November 2001

26 May 1994

15 September 2006

143. Portugal

10 May 2004

3 December 1991

28 September 2007

144. Qatar

10 March 2008

4 May 1990

30 January 2007

145. Romania

4 December 2002

21 January 1993

2 November 2004

146. Russia

26 May 2004

17 December 1990

9 May 2006

147. Rwanda

26 September 2003

13 May 2002

4 October 2006

148. St. Kitts and Nevis

21 May 2004

19 April 1995

 

149. St. Lucia

 

21 August 1995

25 November 2011

150. St. Vincent and the Grenadines

29 October 2010

17 May 1994

 

151.Samoa

 

19 August 2005

 

152. San Marino

20 July 2010

10 October 2000

 

153. Sao Tome and Principe

12 April 2006

20 June 1996

12 April 2006

154. Saudi Arabia

18 January 2005

9 January 1992

 

155. Senegal

27 September 2003

27 November 1989

16 November 2005

156. Serbia

6 September 2001

12 March 2001

20 December 2005

157. Seychelles

22 April 2003

27 February 1992

16 March 2006

158. Sierra Leone

 

6 June 1994

30 September 2004

159. Singapore

28 August 2007

23 October 1997

6 November 2009

160. Slovakia

3 December 2003

28 May 1993

1 June 2006

161. Slovenia

21 May 2004

6 July 1992

1 April 2008

162. Solomon Islands

 

 

6 January 2012

163. South Africa

20 February 2004

14 December 1998

22 November 2004

164. Spain

1 March 2002

13 August 1990

19 June 2006

165. Sri Lanka

22 September 2006

6 June 1991

31 March 2004

166. Sudan

10 December 2004

19 November 1993

 

167. Suriname

25 May 2007

28 October 1992

 

168. Swaziland

24 September 2012

3 October 1995

24 September 2012

169. Sweden

30 April 2004

22 July 1991

25 September 2007

170.Switzerland

27 October 2006

14 September 2005

24 September 2009

171. Syria

8 April 2009

3 September 1991

 

172. Tajikistan

8 July 2002

6 May 1996

25 September 2006

173. Thailand

 

3 May 2002

1 March 2011

174. Tanzania

24 May 2006

17 April 1996

25 May 2005

175. Timor-Leste

9 November 2009

 

27 March 2009

176. Togo

2 July 2004

1 August 1990

6 July 2005

177. Tonga

 

29 April 1996

 

178. Trinidad and Tobago

6 November 2007

17 February 1995

31 May 2006

179. Tunisia

19 July 2003

20 September 1990

23 September 2008

180. Turkey

25 March 2003

2 April 1996

9 November 2006

181. Turkmenistan

28 March 2005

21 February 1996

28 March 2005

182. UAE

7 May 2007

12 April 1990

22 February 2006

183. Uganda

9 March 2005

20 August 1990

9 September 2004

184. Ukraine

21 May 2004

28 August 1991

2 December 2009



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