Memorandum of Justification Concerning the Secretary of State's 2005 Certification of Conditions Related to the Aerial Eradication of Illicit Coca and Opium Poppy in Colombia
The Andean Counterdrug Initiative sectionof the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2005 (Division D, P.L. 108-447) lays out conditions under which assistance using funds appropriated under the heading Andean Counterdrug Initiative may be made available for the procurement of chemicals for use in aerial eradication of illicit crops. In particular, the legislation provides:
"That not more than 20 percent of the funds appropriated by this Act that are used for the procurement of chemicals for aerial coca and poppy fumigation programs may be made available for such programs unless the Secretary of State certifies to the Committees on Appropriations that: (1) the herbicide mixture is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States and with Colombian laws; and (2) the herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment: Provided further, That such funds may not be made available unless the Secretary of State certifies to the Committees on Appropriations that complaints of harm to health or licit crops caused by such fumigation are evaluated and fair compensation is being paid for meritorious claims: Provided further, That such funds may not be made available for such purposes unless programs are being implemented by the United States Agency for International Development, the Government of Colombia, or other organizations, in consultation with local communities, to provide alternative sources of income in areas where security permits for small-acreage growers whose illicit crops are targeted for fumigation...."
This memorandum provides justification for the Secretary of State's determination and certification to Congress that the above conditions have been met as required. In 2002, 2003, and 2004, the Secretary of State determined and certified to Congress on similar conditions concerning human health and environmental safety issues related to the Colombia spray program. These certifications were based on, among other information: all available scientific data on glyphosate, the herbicide used by the program; toxicological tests of the spray mixture (water, glyphosate, and a surfactant); active field verifications and complaint investigations; comprehensive human health monitoring; and thorough verbal and written consultations on the spray program with USDA and EPA. Because the Colombia aerial eradication program has not made any changes in the chemical formulation or application methods used for eradication of coca and opium poppy since the Secretary of State last certified to Congress on the Colombia spray program (November 29, 2004), these prior certifications serve as the foundation for the 2005 certification. These certifications and attachments can be found on the Internet at the following address: http://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/rpt/aeicc/.
1. The herbicide mixture is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States and with Colombian laws.
EPA told the Department of State in previous consultations that application rates for both coca and poppy eradication in Colombia are within the parameters listed on labels of glyphosate products registered by EPA for use in the United States. Since neither the application rates used by the Colombia eradication program nor the EPA-registered label recommendations have changed since 2004, the Secretary can certify to Congress that the herbicide mixture continues to be used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States.
With respect to accordance with Colombian laws, the Colombian Minister of the Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development determined in July 2004 that the illicit crop eradication program is being conducted in compliance with the Environmental Management Plan for aerial eradication (EMP). Since that determination, there have been no substantive changes in the execution of the illicit crop eradication or the EMP.
The spray program's compliance with other Colombian laws governing aerial eradication was reconfirmed by the October 19, 2004 final resolution of a class action suit filed in 2002 against the aerial eradication program on environmental and human health grounds. The Colombian Administrative Tribunal, Colombia's highest administrative court, upheld the Government of Colombia's appeal of a 2003 lower court's ruling to halt aerial eradication.
The Colombian Administrative Tribunal ruling (an English language translation of which is included as Attachment 1) concluded that:
It cannot be accurately inferred from the evidence outlined that glyphosate causes irreversible damage to the environment when it is used for eradicating illicit crops; on the other hand, a number of facts lead to the conclusion that sprayed areas regenerate in a relatively short period of time and that many hectares of forest are destroyed when trees are felled by growers of illicit crops. (p. 10)
Accordingly, the Administrative Tribunal reversed a lower court's finding, and ordered that the Ministry of the Environment, Housing and Regional Development, Ministry of Social Protection, and National Directorate of Dangerous Drugs continue their oversight of the spray program. This finding represents a decisive legal endorsement of the methods used for spraying illicit crops in Colombia and of the integrity of existing environmental oversight mechanisms.
2. The herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment
The Secretary of State determined and certified in 2002, 2003, and 2004 that the herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment. After previous consultations with EPA, the Department and the Government of Colombia have incorporated all EPA recommendations to strengthen spray program controls and ensure increased protection against adverse effects to humans and the environment. The Department of State is not aware of any new evidence of risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment that have surfaced since the 2004 certification. Included below is a brief review of the conditions that allow the Secretary to recertify to Congress in 2005 that the herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment.
In the 2004 EPA report, EPA offered the following assessment of human health concerns related to the spraying of coca and opium poppy in Colombia: "Despite an aggressive search for cases, there does not appear to be any evidence that glyphosate aerial spraying has resulted in any adverse health effects among the population where this spraying takes place." EPA also concluded, "that an aggressive program to identify glyphosate poisoning has been implemented in the areas of Colombia where illicit crop eradication spraying programs are prevalent." A significant number of health care providers have received training and additional training is under way or planned.
As recognized in the 2003 report, the eradication program lowered its potential risks to wildlife and has responded appropriately to minimize off target drift. However, in the 2004 report the Agency stated, "Spray drift and potential side effect down wind of the target sites are common, universal factors in most if not all pesticide applications from aerial or ground applications for all uses." In 2003, EPA recognized that the Department of State was employing "Best Management Practices to minimize drift." The Department of State continues to follow these Best Management Practices and is ever vigilant regarding the manner in which the herbicide is applied.
The Government of Colombia regularly conducts studies to assess the spray program's environmental impact through ground truth verifications to estimate spray drift and the accuracy of the spray mixture application, and during verification of all legitimate complaints about alleged spraying of crops or vegetation that are not coca or opium poppy. After one recent verification, the Government of Colombia's Ministry of Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development characterized spray drift in the following fashion:
The drift effects that were observed in areas visited on a random basis were temporary in nature and small in extent, and basically consisted of partial defoliation of the canopy of very high trees. No complementary collateral damage from spraying activities was observed at the sites selected and verified. In sprayed areas that were subsequently abandoned, it was noted that vegetation was starting to grow again, the predominant types being grasses and a number of herbaceous species (Attachment 2)
The Department of State believes that the program's rigid controls and operational guidelines have decreased the likelihood of adverse impacts of the eradication program on humans and the environment and that theherbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment.
This conclusion was recently confirmed by an objective, independent scientific study that evaluated the Colombia illicit crop eradication program and its potential human health and environmental considerations. The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) section of the Organization of American States (OAS) commissioned a two-year risk assessment of human health and environmental effects related to aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia. The final report to CICAD is enclosed as Attachment 3 and can also be found at the following Internet Address: http://www.cicad.oas.org/en/glifosateFinalReport.pdf. This study examined not just the possible human health and environmental effects of glyphosate, but the specific manner in which glyphosate is applied in Colombia to eradicate illicit crops, and reached the following conclusion: "(b)ased on all evidence and information presented above, the Panel concluded that the risk to humans and human health from the use of glyphosate and Cosmo-flux in the eradication of coca and poppy were minimal." (Conclusions, 6.1, p. 90). Similarly, with respect to potential risks to the Colombian environment, the panel concluded that "the risks to the environment from the use of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux in the eradication of coca and poppy in Colombia were small in most circumstances." (Conclusions, 6.2, p. 90).
3. Complaints of harm to health or licit crops caused by such fumigation are investigated, and fair compensation is being paid for meritorious claims
The Government of Colombia continues to compensate all meritorious claims fairly. On October 4, 2001, the GOC formally instituted a new process to compensate growers for legal crops sprayed in error. From that date through the end of March 2005, the Colombian National Police's Antinarcotics Directorate (DIRAN), the Government of Colombia agency responsible for complaint investigations, has received 5,270 such complaints.
Since the Secretary's 2004 spray certification to Congress, the DIRAN complaint investigations unit and other GOC entities that participate in complaint investigations have made substantial progress in eliminating the existing backlog of cases to be investigated and resolved. In October 2004, 1,063 cases were still under investigation. By the end of March 2005, 208 new cases had been received, 925 cases were under investigation, and 346 investigations had been completed. To date, of the 5,270 cases received, 4,345 investigations have been completed. During 2004, only four complaints were found to be valid and compensation payments were made, for a total of $3,846. The spray program has compensated a total of 12 cases, amounting to almost $30,000 in compensation.
The 925 outstanding complaints are currently being processed and verified by an interagency group including the DIRAN, agronomists from the Colombian Institute of Agriculture and Husbandry (ICA), the Ministry of Environment, and the Office of Dangerous Drugs (DNE). Flight database and on-site investigations continue, and compensation is being paid for all cases with merit after analysis of all considerations. Typically, compensation hinges on very basic issues, such as whether planes sprayed in the vicinity of the complainant's property within a five-day window of the alleged date of spraying; whether the complainant owns the allegedly sprayed property; whether the legal crop sprayed was intermixed with illegal crops; and whether the affected crop suffered damage from the spray mixture, as opposed to fungus, insects, or other causes. If the spray pilots have erred and accidentally sprayed licit crops, compensation is paid to the farmer for the loss of the crop, based on current market value of the crop.
Field verification is extremely dangerous and resource intensive; and it is an unavoidably methodical process. Because of the high risks involved for all personnel who conduct site visits, the primacy of security will dictate the pace of investigations in the future. Although logistical considerations (security concerns, personnel availability, and helicopter resources) are part of the reason why complaints cannot be resolved in the field more quickly, the greatest logjam in this system is the number of false complaints which handicap the ability of field investigators to close cases more quickly. This was reconfirmed during several 2004 site investigations when complainants related stories of narco-terrorist groups forcing them to damage their own crops and falsify complaints in order to discredit the aerial spraying.
The Department of State is investigating possibilities for improving the complaints resolution process through the use of aircraft mounted imagery platforms that would make in situ verification safer, cheaper, and faster in the future. The Colombian Ministry of Justice has also refined the claims procedures, seeking to streamline the process and to deter fraudulent claims. These procedures will include a warning that a complainant found to have coca growing on his/her property would be subject to prosecution for violations of Colombian law. The Government of Colombia has also begun processes for seizure and forfeiture of property used for growing illicit crops. Presumably, these steps will reduce the many false claims that have flooded the complaint system, and facilitate investigation of and restitution for legitimate claims.
4. Programs are being implemented by the USAID, the GOC, or other organizations in consultation with local communities, to provide alternative sources of income in areas where security permits for small-acreage growers whose illicit crops are targeted for spraying
Thus far in calendar year 2005, the Colombian aerial eradication program has sprayed (or anticipates spraying) coca in the departments of Putumayo, Nari�o, Guaviare, Meta, Bolivar, Cauca, Norte de Santander, Vichada, Antioquia, Vaupes, Cordoba, Caldas, Arauca, Cesar, Valle del Cauca and La Guajira and opium poppy in the departments of Cauca, Huila, Tolima, and Nari�o. In each of these areas, USAID, the GOC, and/or other organizations are implementing alternative development programs to provide legal income generating opportunities to illicit crop growers who agree to accept benefits after eradicating their crops of coca or opium poppy.
For the purposes of this report, the Department of State interprets the term "area" as a Colombian department. This is consistent with the way that the Colombian spray program records and reports spray activity. It is also the most appropriate definition because Department of State and USAID experience has shown that while alternative development programs should be (and are) coordinated with spraying, these two components cannot always be co-implemented in every location.
Alternative development is not appropriate in many locations where illicit crops are grown. Coca and opium poppy are often cultivated in remote, difficult to reach areas with limited infrastructure to support legal crops that have less value and higher transport costs than those for illegal merchandise. Dispersing development activities to remote areas often raises costs and security risks, while reducing impact. Furthermore, many drug-producing regions have nutrient-poor and fragile tropical soils, inappropriate for large-scale farming activity and unsuitable for increased human habitation. As reflected in the language of the 2005 Consolidated Appropriations Act, narco-terrorist and paramilitary groups operate in many illicit crop-growing zones and make the presence of alternative development projects inadvisable in such locations. These narco-terrorist groups reap immense profit from the illegal trade, pose grave security risks for development personnel, and slow down project implementation.
Despite these obstacles to alternative development in Colombia, USAID and the GOC are moving forward with a robust alternative development program in coca and opium producing areas. Now in the fourth year of Plan Colombia alternative development coordination with the GOC and the fourth year of project implementation, USAID's alternative development program has supported a total of 62,964 hectares of licit crops, 31,461 hectares of forest land, and completed 918 infrastructure projects in coca and poppy growing areas through March 31, 2005. These efforts have benefited 54,780 families. These achievements in each category have surpassed program goals. Equally important, USAID has strengthened a total of 281 NGOs, cooperatives, and national institutions so that alternative development and community building activities will be more sustainable.
The alternative development projects being carried out by USAID and GOC organizations in each area where the spray program eradicates illicit crops are described below.
An $18.5 million USAID project directed at alternative development, implemented by the Pan-American Development Foundation (PADF), supports short-term production activities for immediate income and employment needs. It also seeks to establish longer-term crops such as natural rubber (caucho) and cacao to provide sustainability, as well as complementary productive infrastructure. Projects of cacao, caucho, and agro forestry would cover an area of 2,017 hectares and would benefit 594 families in El Bajo Cauca.
An $8.5 million USAID Dairy project is carried out by Land O'Lakes (LOL) to promote sustainable dairy production, processing and marketing involving small farmers. This program is also operating in Nari�o.
USAID also funds an activity titled Aid to Artisans (ATA), which is carrying out a $4.3 million project to strengthen local capacity for production and marketing of crafts. ATA is also operating in Atl�ntico, Boyac�, Caldas, Cauca, C�sar, C�rdoba, Huila, Magdalena, Nari�o, Quind�o, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, and Valle del Cauca.
USAID's successful $38 million Colombia Agribusiness Partnership Program (CAPP), implemented by Associates in Rural Development (ARD), is to promote private sector involvement to help agricultural producers and others involved in illicit products to shift into legal activities or remain uninvolved in illicit coca and poppy production. The project targets rural families in coca/opium poppy regions and threatened zones and assists them by supporting strategic alliances between agribusiness firms and these families. In Antioquia, the program supports small farmers in producing fruit for processing into pulp, jute and African palm. The program also operates in Atl�ntico, Bol�var, Caldas, Casanare, Cauca, C�sar, C�rdoba, Guajira, Huila, Magdalena, Nari�o, Norte de Santander, Quind�o, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, and Valle del Cauca.
The USAID-funded Democratic Local Governance Program, also implemented by ARD, uses USAID funds to support institutional strengthening activities in municipal-level development planning, municipal management, public services, finance and revenue, public information, and project management. In Antioquia, the program focuses on the Bajo Cauca region and has implemented projects to strengthen municipal administrations in these areas. In addition, some funding has been invested in seven social infrastructure projects in the same area. The program also operates in selected municipalities in Putumayo, Nari�o, Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Huila, Tolima, and Bol�var.
The $23 million Colombia Forestry Development Program (CFDP), funded directly by USAID and implemented by Chemonics, has a nucleus in Northeastern Antioquia where it is focusing on promoting pine plantations and efficient industrial processing models. The estimated CFDP investment in Antioquia over the life of the project totals $6,050,000. A portion of this assistance directly benefits indigenous communities in Mutata and Chigorodo. It has another nucleus along the Atrato River and Uraba region that provides assistance to natural forests, agro forestry schemes, plantations and the Familias Guardabosques nucleus in Turbo and Necocli. In Nari�o this program is directed at community-based natural forest management. In Cauca, CFDP has invested in natural forest management in the municipality of Guapi to benefit Afro-Colombian communities.
USAID's $12 million Colombia Enterprise Development (CED) project supports small and medium enterprise development in secondary cities. CED is also operating in Atl�ntico, Caldas, Quind�o, Risaralda, Santander, Valle del Cauca, and Tolima.
The Colombian Government's Investment Fund for Peace (FIP), a $19.4 million investment, is generating employment through infrastructure, licit crop production (coffee rehabilitation, agro forestry), skills training, and education/nutrition aid to poor families.
The aforementioned CFDP, financed by USAID, has a nucleus along Magdalena River focusing mainly on plantations such as Eucalyptus. CFDP investment in the nucleus totals approximately $2 million, of which an estimated $1 million will go to Bolivar.
USAID's alternative development program carried out by PADF is supporting short cycle production activities to address immediate income and employment requirements; longer-term crops such as natural rubber and cacao to provide sustainability; and complementary productive infrastructure. The project supports 2450 hectares of licit crops benefiting 661 families.
USAID's CAPP is also promoting private sector involvement with farmers to produce cacao, African palm, and yucca (cassava).
In Bolivar, the Democratic Local Governance Program works in southern Bolivar strengthening municipal administrations in municipal management. In addition to this work, the program has invested USAID funds in 10 social infrastructure projects in Bolivar.
The GOC is active in Bolivar supporting licit production activities such as palm oil and cassava production.
USAID's centerpiece Colombia Alternative Development (CAD), implemented by Chemonics, is a $97.3 million project; in Caquet� it is fostering a short-term crop production for food security and long-term income generation activities such as rubber production.
USAID funds a $1.8 million Sustainable Development for Indigenous Colombian Communities project, implemented by the Amazon Conservation Team (ACT) to assist Colombian indigenous communities in food security, health, local governance, and land management. Activities under this program are also being carried out in the departments of Putumayo and Vaup�s. The GOC is also supporting institutional strengthening for small-scale brown sugar producers and life plans (planes de vida) for indigenous communities.
In Caquet�, the Democratic Local Governance Program has implemented 16 social infrastructure projects. In addition to this work, the program provided technical assistance and training to community leaders and public officials in citizen participation and municipal management. The program completed its fieldwork in Caquet� on March 2004. However, field presence through governance strengthening activities, particularly in public services, is expected to continue until December 2005.
USAID's CAD activities support small-scale irrigation for the production and marketing of short-season, high-value crops, including the growing, processing, and marketing of gourds for artisan and craft products and the value-added processing of wood products from tree plantations in indigenous areas.
The CFDP invested approximately $100,000 in natural forest management in the municipality of Guapi -Cauca to benefit Afro-Colombian communities.
USAID Alternative Development activities also include a $9.8 million project, implemented by ACDI/VOCA, which promotes specialty coffee production, processing and marketing in Cauca's illicit crop growing areas.
The CAPP project is supporting private sector investments in hot peppers, jute, and cacao.
USAID Democratic Local Governance Program efforts in Cauca have focused on working with community leaders and public officials to improve municipal management practices. As for social infrastructure projects, the program funded the implementation of 52 projects that total approximately $1,880,000.
The Aid to Artisans project is enhancing local capacity for production and marketing of crafts as licit income generating alternatives.
The Colombians Supporting Colombians program works in municipal development with emphasis on participatory planning. This is put into practice with the construction of small-scale infrastructure projects with community partnership and mayors involvement. The program also administers a credit fund, directly and via local microfinance institutions, to offer microenterprises credit to invest in working capital and fixed assets to enhance or expand their businesses.
The GOC is supporting fruit production and complementary activities for the coffee renewal program.
USAID's Specialty Coffee program is also promoting specialty coffee production, processing, and marketing in Caldas's illicit crop growing areas.
The CAPP activity is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers to produce and process tropical fruits, jute, and peppers.
The Aid to Artisans project is carrying out activities to strengthen the production and marketing of crafts.
The Colombia Agribusiness Partnership Program (CAPP) is supporting private sector investments for small farmers producing crops such as cacao, fruits and African palm. The GOC is also supporting cacao and oil palm production in this region.
The Aid to Artisans project is supporting the strengthening of local capacity to produce and market crafts by artisans in the department.
USAID's CAPP is supporting private sector activities in cacao and passion fruit production.
USAID's CAPP is supporting private sector activities in crops such as passion fruit and cacao.
The GOC is supporting rubber (caucho) production and agro forestry.
The GOC is providing institutional strengthening to indigenous community associations.
USAID's Specialty Coffee project is promoting specialty coffee production, processing, and marketing in poppy growing areas.
USAID's CAD program is supporting the production and marketing of passion fruit.
The CAPP program is supporting cacao and fruit production, while the Aid to Artisans project is promoting the production and marketing of crafts.
Democratic Local Governance Program work in Huila is focused on citizen participation, municipal management, and public information. The program has also implemented 57 social infrastructure projects that total approximately $1,997,000.
The GOC is supporting the strengthening of cultural values in indigenous communities, fruit production, fishponds, and complementary activities for the coffee renewal program.
The CFDP has a forestry nucleus along the lower Magdalena River focusing mainly on plantations such as Eucalyptus. CFDP investment in the nucleus totals approximately $2 million, of which an estimated $500,000 will go to Magdalena.
USAID's CAPP is also providing technical and financial support in Magdalena to private sector initiatives to produce African palm, banana, cacao, and exotic fruits.
The GOC is supporting activities in cacao, cassava, buffer zones in natural parks, and technical assistance for local governments.
The USAID CAPP program is promoting private sector investments with small farmers to produce African palm.
The Specialty Coffee project is promoting specialty coffee production, processing and marketing in illicit crop growing areas of Nari�o.
CFDP has a forestry nucleus along three river systems in Nari�o focusing mainly on community-based natural forest management. CFDP investment in the nucleus totals approximately $1.8 million and directly benefits the Afro-Colombian community.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) plans to implement a USAID-funded $1.8 million program that provides a range of agricultural and forestry projects.
In Nari�o, the Democratic Local Governance Program is focused on development planning and finance and revenue, particularly in assistance to municipal administrations in the formulation of tax codes. Forty-two (42) social infrastructure projects, totaling approximately $1,322,000, have been implemented in this department.
The USAID Dairy Promotion program is promoting sustainable small farm dairy production, processing and marketing, while the CAPP program is supporting small farmer, private sector projects in cacao and African palm production.
Aid to Artisans project is carrying out activities to promote the production and marketing of crafts in Nari�o.
The CFDP will be supporting forest policy changes and carrying out activities for the improved production, processing and marketing of forest and wood products in Nari�o, as well as in Antioquia, Choc�, and Magdalena.
The GOC is supporting activities in coffee renewal and oil palm production.
Norte de Santander
The USAID Colombia Agribusiness Partnership Program (CAPP) program is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers in the production and processing of African palm and cacao.
The USAID alternative development activities implemented through PAFD are working in association with ASOHESAN (the Santander rubber producer's association) to support the cultivation of 1,652 hectares of rubber that would benefit 411 families. The project includes as well the establishment of 826 hectares of short-term crops and 137 food security systems (vegetable gardens, small animal husbandry).
The GOC is supporting palm oil crop production in the department.
The CAD project is supporting activities in Putumayo for short and medium-term crop production with farmers and indigenous groups, hearts of palm production, processing and marketing; rubber production, processing and marketing; forest management and value added processing and utilization of forest and wood products; infrastructure projects, including bridge construction and road improvements, schools, and health facilities. As part of the development of production and marketing chains, support is being provided for the private sector involvement in processing plants and marketing for cassava chips, black pepper and plantain; tropical flowers and foliage, vanilla production, as well as for medicinal plants and essential oils.
Democratic Local Governance Program work in Putumayo is focused on strengthening public service providers and on enhancing municipal finance and revenue capabilities. A total of 20 Social Infrastructure (SIF) projects have been implemented in this department. The program completed its fieldwork in Putumayo on March 2004. However, field presence through governance strengthening activities, particularly in public services, is expected to continue until December 2005.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' $6.7 million rural infrastructure project, funded by USAID, carried out road, sewage, and water treatment activities that generated employment in the region. Current complementary work is being carried out to improve the water treatment plant in Villa Garzon.
The Sustainable Development for Indigenous Colombian Communities project, implemented by the Amazon Conservation Team, is supporting indigenous communities with improved food security, health, local governance, and land management.
The GOC is supporting cocoa and oil palm production in this department.
The CAPP is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers in the production of cacao and African palm.
The CAD project is supporting an activity to increase annual crop production for food security and to increase income and employment generation in the longer term through forestry, livestock, pasture improvement, and vegetable production.
The Specialty Coffee activity is promoting specialty coffee production, processing and marketing in illicit crop growing areas of Tolima.
The Colombia Enterprise Development (CED) project, funded by USAID and implemented by CARANA Corporation, is supporting small and medium enterprise development in Colombia's secondary cities including those in Tolima.
The Aid to Artisans project is carrying out activities to promote the production and marketing of crafts in the department, while the ARD/CAPP is supporting private sector projects in fruits, natural rubber and cacao production.
Democratic Local Governance Program activities in Tolima focus on technical assistance in development planning to community leaders and public officials. In addition, the program has provided funds totaling approximately $747,000 for 18 social infrastructure projects.
The Colombians Supporting Colombians program works in municipal development with emphasis on participatory planning. This is put into practice with the construction of small-scale infrastructure projects with community partnership and mayor's involvement. The program also administers a credit fund, directly and via local microfinance institutions, to offer microenterprises credit to invest in working capital and fixed assets to enhance or expand their businesses.
The GOC is supporting cacao and coffee activities.
Valle del Cauca
In Valle del Cauca, the Democratic Local Governance Program has focused on technical assistance in development planning to public officials. Social infrastructure projects began April 2005.
The CAPP activity is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers to produce and process tropical fruits, jute, and peppers.
The Sustainable Development for Indigenous Colombian Communities project is supporting traditional healers and helping to strengthen indigenous community organizations that are also involved in managing indigenous lands.
The GOC is providing institutional strengthening to indigenous community associations.
The preceding four sections and attachments form the basis of the Justification for the Secretary of State's 2005 Certification of Conditions Related to the Aerial Eradication of Illicit Coca and Opium Poppy in Colombia.