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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Memorandum of Justification Concerning the Secretary of State's 2004 Certification of Conditions Related to the Aerial Eradication of Illicit Coca and Opium Poppy in Colombia


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Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Washington, DC
2004
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The Andean Counterdrug Initiative section of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2004 (Public Law 108-199) lays out conditions under which assistance using funds appropriated under the Andean Counterdrug Initiative may be made available for the procurement of chemicals for use in aerial eradication of illicit crops. In particular, Public Law 108-199 provides:

"That not more than 20 percent of the funds appropriated by this Act that are used for the procurement of chemicals for aerial coca and poppy fumigation programs may be made available for such programs unless the Secretary of State, after consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), certifies to the Committees on Appropriations that: (1) the herbicide mixture is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States and any additional controls recommended by the EPA for this program, and with the Colombian Environmental Management Plan for aerial fumigation; and (2) the herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment: Provided further, That such funds may not be made available unless the Secretary of State certifies to the Committees on Appropriations that complaints of harm to health or licit crops caused by such fumigation are evaluated and fair compensation is being paid for meritorious claims: Provided further, That such funds may not be made available for such purposes unless programs are being implemented by the United States Agency for International Development, the Government of Colombia, or other organizations, in consultation with local communities, to provide alternative sources of income in areas where security permits for small-acreage growers whose illicit crops are targeted for fumigation:...."

This memorandum provides justification for the Secretary of State's determination and certification to Congress that the above conditions have been met as required. In 2002 and 2003, the Secretary of State determined and certified to Congress on similar conditions concerning human health and environmental safety issues related to the Colombia spray program. These certifications were based on, among other information: all available scientific data on glyphosate, the herbicide used by the program; toxicological tests of the spray mixture (water, glyphosate, and a surfactant); active field verifications and complaint investigations; comprehensive human health monitoring; and thorough verbal and written consultations on the spray program with USDA and EPA. Because the Colombia aerial eradication program has not made any changes in the chemical formulation or application methods used for eradication of coca and opium poppy since the Department of State last submitted documents to EPA for the 2003 consultation (April 9, 2003), these prior certifications serve as the foundation for the 2004 certification. These certifications and attachments can be found on the Internet at the following address: http://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/rpt/aeicc/.

On September 27, 2004, the Secretary of State wrote U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Leavitt to request written consultation concerning the U.S.-supported Colombia eradication program. This letter is included as Attachment 1. Specifically, EPA was asked to advise the Department of State about whether the herbicide mixture employed by the U.S.-supported program of aerial eradication of coca and opium poppy in Colombia is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States and any additional controls recommended by the EPA for this program; whether the herbicide mixture is being used in accordance with the Colombian Environmental Management Plan for aerial fumigation; and whether this herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, poses unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment.

The Department met with EPA on September 6, 2004 to brief EPA on the expanded monitoring of possible environmental and human health issues related to the program since the 2003 EPA Analysis. The Secretary of State's September 27, 2004 letter provided EPA a written document -- "2004 Department of State Report to EPA on Human Health and Environmental Monitoring Related to the Colombian Illicit Crop Eradication Program" -- with further information on the issues discussed in the briefing. This document is included as Attachment 2.

On November 17, 2004, EPA Administrator Michael O. Leavitt responded to the Secretary of State with the results of EPA's consultation review. That letter and the attached document from the Office of Pesticide Programs, "Details of the 2004 Consultation for the Department of State Use of Pesticide for Coca and Poppy Eradication Program in Colombia" are included as Attachment 3. The next six sections directly address the requirements and concerns of Public Law 108-199.

1. The herbicide mixture is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States.

EPA told the Department of State in its recent 2004 report that "Application rates for both coca and poppy eradication in Colombia are within the parameters listed on labels of glyphosate products registered by EPA for use in the United States." (Attachment 3, Section B). This is the same finding they reached in the 2003 report, when the EPA stated, "EPA has determined that application rates for both coca and poppy eradication in Colombia are within the parameters listed on U.S. labels." This determination meets the criteria for the Secretary to certify that the herbicide mixture is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States.

2. The herbicide mixture is being used in accordance with any additional controls recommended by the EPA for this program.

The Government of Colombia and the Department of State have implemented several changes in the program to address EPA's recommendations made in the 2003 EPA analysis as evidenced by the EPA's statement in its 2004 report, "The DoS and the Government of Colombia made modifications and enhancements to the spray program as EPA recommended in its prior assessments." In 2003, the EPA recommended in its Executive Summary, "that the Department of State continue programs for investigating health complaints. The Agency also requested that the Department of State improve its definition of glyphosate poisoning, provide further documentation of its investigations and how they are conducted, and standardize data collection."

The Department of State has expanded its efforts to track reported health complaints and to investigate any possible connection between verified spraying of illicit crops and damages purported in any such complaints. The U.S. Embassy continues to conduct immediate investigations in the field upon notice to the U.S. Embassy of a problem. To date, no relation of reported human health problems to spraying has been substantiated by the rigorous evaluations of toxicologists hired by the Embassy's Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS).

The U.S. Embassy is aware of just one alleged human health related complaint since submission to Congress of the FY 2003 Spray Certification. This complaint alleged human health (and legal crop) damage from spraying of coca in Orito (Putumayo Department) and was reported in Colombia's leading daily newspaper, "El Tiempo" on May 10, 2004. The Colombian National Police (CNP) and the U.S. Embassy immediately responded by sending a verification team to Orito on May 11 to speak with the individuals interviewed in the newspaper article.

This team, composed of representatives from the CNP and NAS, an Embassy-hired toxicologist, the Government of Colombia's Alternative Development Agency (PDA), and local government representatives, found that the allegations were unfounded and that interviewees misled the reporter to discredit the spray program and discourage further law enforcement activity against illicit crops in the area. A May 12 letter from the PDA Alternative Development Director to NAS thanking the Embassy for its rapid attention to this complaint is included as Attachment 4.

NAS is collaborating with the Colombian National Institute of Health (INS) on a program to identify health effects of herbicides and pesticides, including glyphosate, in populations located in coca growing regions across Colombia. A NAS-contracted toxicologist helped INS prepare and conduct training for physicians and environmental health personnel who serve the populations of these areas.

The training consists of a weeklong workshop that covers toxicology, classification of pesticides, prevention, diagnosis and recognition of pesticide poisoning, clinical management, epidemiological considerations and procedures for the study of an outbreak, glyphosate toxicological facts, and a risk assessment of aerial application of glyphosate for people and the environment. In 2004, the following workshops took place, training a total of 571 rural health care providers:

DEPARTMENT
DATE
PROFESSIONALS
TECHNICIANS

Tolima

13-16 January

26

40

Guajira, Magdalena, Santa Marta

23-28 July

88

69

Santander

23-27 August

30

100

Boyac�

8-12 November

100

120

TOTALS

  

242

329

The Department of State and the Government of Colombia are currently implementing the 2003 EPA recommendations. The Department of State, in conjunction with the Government of Colombia's (GOC's) National Institute of Health, has improved its definition of glyphosate poisoning and standardized the process of data collection. NAS Bogot� and the Government of Colombia's (GOC's) National Institute of Health have developed and distributed standardized data collection worksheets and a definition of glyphosate poisoning in the workshops referenced above.

The Government of Colombia and the U.S. Embassy Bogot� have also taken a proactive approach to investigating human health concerns manifested in areas where spraying takes place. Both governments have collaborated to create a robust Medical Civic Action Program (Medcap) to search out cases of harm to health allegedly caused by the spraying. These public health interventions are timed to take place in areas where coca eradication has recently taken place and thus serve as a verification of the status of public health in areas where the CNP sprays. U.S. Embassy-contracted Colombian toxicologists talk to patients as well as to local medical personnel, looking for spray-related cases.

As outlined in the chart below, 22,263 patients made themselves available for Medcap medical personnel, had their medical conditions assessed, and received complimentary health care. Although Medcap personnel have encountered several cases that were allegedly spray-related, their reviews of these cases have determined that, in each case, the conditions were caused by events unrelated to aerial eradication. Through Medcap and other medical investigations, the U.S. Embassy has still not yet found a single instance of spray-related harm to human health. This is an ongoing program and several Medcaps are planned for upcoming months.

Place and Date

Patients Assessed

27-28 Feb 2004
Arauca City

2,000 civilian patients

26-27 March
Arauca City

2,100 civilian patients

17-18 April
Saravena

1,453 civilian patients

20-22 April
Arauca City

1,572 farm animals
treated on 49 farms

15 May
Arauquita

1,105 civilian patients

15-16 May
Monta�ita

2,800 civilian patients

22-23 May
Saravena

1,915 civilian patients

5 June
La Antioquena

687 civilian patients

12-13 June
Florencia

3,493 civilian patients

9-10 July

1,668 civilian patients

14-15 Aug

2,354 civilian patients

21-22 Aug

1,089 civilian patients

18-19 Sept

1,599 civilian patients

Totals

22,263 civilian patients
1,572 farm animals


The only changes suggested by the EPA in its 2004 report are minor and relate to improving the data collection form used to collect information on reports of damage to human health. They are as follows:

  • General Data: Record date and contact information about the health care provider (who fills out the form) in case follow-up consultation is needed 

  • Characterization of the Exposure: Record more information about the location of exposure and any description about the proximity to the spraying (how far away) or amount of exposure (e.g. amount of skin exposed, eyes exposed, etc.).

The NAS in the U.S. Embassy in Bogota will be following up with the appropriate GOC officials to ensure that these suggestions are incorporated into the overall Aerial Eradication Program.

3. The herbicide mixture is being used in accordance with the Colombian Environmental Management Plan for aerial fumigation

On July 26, 2004 the Minister of the Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development, the Government of Colombia entity charged with supervision of the Environmental Management Plan for aerial eradication (EMP), ruled that the illicit crop eradication program is being conducted in compliance with the EMP. That Ruling No. 707, an English version of which is enclosed as Attachment 5, reads:

"The entities responsible for executing the Illicit Crop Eradication Program Using Aerial Spraying with the Herbicide Glyphosate - PECIG - are currently complying with the measures established in the Environmental Management Plan imposed by this Ministry, the purpose of which is preventing, mitigating, controlling, offsetting, and correcting any possible negative environmental effects or impacts which might result from eradicating illicit crops (p. 26)."

The Department of State provided EPA the English language version of the EMP in late 2003. EPA responded to the Department of State in a February 23, 2004 letter: "We believe the Plan contains appropriate types of activities for a pesticide spray program. The information in the EMP is generally in agreement with information provided to EPA for the previous consultations and discussed in EPA's 2002 and 2003 written assessments." This letter is found in Attachment 6.

The Government of Colombia's Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development's ruling meets the criteria for the Secretary to certify that the herbicide mixture is being used in accordance with the Colombian Environmental Management Plan for aerial fumigation.

4. The herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment

The Secretary of State determined and certified in 2002 and 2003 that the herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment. Since the 2003 certification, the Department has responded to EPA recommendations (per section 2) with adjustments that have strengthened spray program controls to ensure increased protection against adverse effects to humans and the environment.

In the 2004 EPA report, EPA offers the following assessment of human health concerns related to the spraying of coca and opium poppy in Colombia: "Despite an aggressive search for cases, there does not appear to be any evidence that glyphosate aerial spraying has resulted in any adverse health effects among the population where this spraying takes place." EPA also concluded, "that an aggressive program to identify glyphosate poisoning has been implemented in the areas of Colombia where illicit crop eradication spraying programs are prevalent." A significant number of health care providers have received training and additional training is under way or planned.

As recognized in the 2003 report, the eradication program lowered its potential risks to wildlife and has responded appropriately to minimize off target drift. However, in the 2004 report the Agency stated, "Spray drift and potential side effect down wind of the target sites are common, universal factors in most if not all pesticide applications from aerial or ground applications for all uses." In 2003, EPA recognized that the Department of State was employing "Best Management Practices to minimize drift." The Department of State continues to follow these Best Management Practices and is ever vigilant regarding the manner in which the herbicide is applied.

The Government of Colombia regularly conducts studies to assess the spray program's environmental impact through ground truth verifications to estimate spray drift and the accuracy of the spray mixture application, and during verification of all legitimate complaints about alleged spraying of crops or vegetation that are not coca or opium poppy. After the most recent verification, the Government of Colombia's Ministry of Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development characterized spray drift in the following fashion:

The drift effects that were observed in areas visited on a random basis were temporary in nature and small in extent, and basically consisted of partial defoliation of the canopy of very high trees. No complementary collateral damage from spraying activities was observed at the sites selected and verified. In sprayed areas that were subsequently abandoned, it was noted that vegetation was starting to grow again, the predominant types being grasses and a number of herbaceous species (Attachment 5, p. 4)

As part of the spray program's compliance with the Government of Colombia's Environmental Management Plan for the Aerial Eradication of Illicit Crops (EMP), NAS and the Government of Colombia conduct analyses of soils and water in areas where coca is sprayed. The purpose of these studies is twofold. Initial tests determine the levels of glyphosate and AMPA (amino-methyl phosphonic acid - the principal metabolite of glyphosate and an indicator of the natural degradation of that herbicide in soils) to understand the persistence of glyphosate in the Colombian soil and water in sprayed areas. In addition, further studies assess the physio-chemical properties of the samples (percentages of sand, clay, and mud, pH level, percentage of interchangeable acid saturation, total phosphate and useable phosphate content, percentage of organic material, total nitrogen level, catatonic interchange capacity, mineralization index, and nitrate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium content).

These studies increase the public's understanding of glyphosate's transformation and rate of decay in Colombian soil and help answer questions about any significant modification of the properties of the soil associated with the spray program. The soil analyses determined that soils contained acceptable levels of glyphosate and AMPA even shortly after spraying, that glyphosate degrades over time in Colombian soils, and that there are no appreciable significant changes in the properties of the soil due to the glyphosate used by the spray program.

Soil and water samples were collected in the field by an inter-agency committee of Government of Colombia agencies, including the Ministry of Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development (MMA), the Institute of Agriculture and Husbandry (ICA), the National Directorate of Dangerous Drugs (DNE), and the Colombian National Police (CNP). The laboratory studies were conducted by three different labs: the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) laboratory at the University of Mississippi conducted glyphosate and AMPA analysis in soils; the Government of Colombia's August�n Codazzi Geographic Institute (IGAC) National Soils Laboratory Division conducted physio-chemical analysis of soil samples, and the Government of Colombia's National Institute of Health (INS) conducted glyphosate and AMPA analysis of water samples.

After review of the test results and protocols for soil and water sampling, EPA responded in 2004 by saying, "similar to the results of previous Agency assessments, no risks are predicted for aquatic animals and plants, based on exposure to residual glyphosate or AMPA in water bodies contiguous to or near coca crops."

For the 2003 Spray Certification, the Department had laboratory toxicity tests performed on the entire spray mixture, which tested at an acceptable Category III for eye irritation and Category IV for all other categories (on EPA's scale of I-IV with IV being the least toxic). Since that time, the spray program has increased its environmental and human health monitoring program and the Government of Colombia's Environmental Ministry has determined that the spraying complies with the Ministry's Environmental Management Plan for aerial eradication.

The Department of State believes that improvements over the last year have significantly decreased the likelihood of adverse impacts of eradication program on humans and the environment and that theherbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment.

5. Complaints of harm to health or licit crops caused by such fumigation are investigated, and fair compensation is being paid for meritorious claims

The methodology for investigations into human health problems allegedly tied to spraying is covered in section 3 above. Therefore, this section focuses exclusively on complaints of spray damage to legal crops. The Government of Colombia is investigating and resolving these complaints more swiftly than in past years and continues to compensate all meritorious claims fairly.

On October 4, 2001, the GOC formally instituted a new process to compensate growers for legal crops sprayed in error. Since that date, the Colombian National Police, Anti-Narcotics Directorate (DIRAN), the Government of Colombia agency responsible for complaint investigations, has received 5,065 such complaints.

In 2004, the DIRAN's complaint investigations unit and other GOC entities that play a role in complaint investigations made substantial progress in eliminating the existing backlog of cases to be investigated and resolved. In calendar year 2004, although only 632 new complaints were received (through October), 2,725 complaint investigations were completed. Of these investigations in 2004, only four complaints were found to be valid and compensation payments were made, for a total of $3,846. Four more cases of compensation are due to be paid in November. To date, the spray program has compensated growers in 12 cases for a total of $30,000 of compensation.

Although most of the investigations of filed complaints have been completed, 1063 are currently being processed and verified. Complaint resolution is a rolling process; on-site investigations continue, and compensation is being paid to cases with merit. Typically, compensation hinges on the issues of whether planes sprayed in the vicinity of a farm within a five-day window of the alleged date of spraying; whether the complainant owns the farm he/she claimed was sprayed; whether the legal crop allegedly sprayed was intermixed with illegal crops; and whether the affected crop suffered damage from the glyphosate, as opposed to fungus, insects, or other causes.

Police and agronomists from the Colombian Institute of Agriculture and Husbandry (ICA), Ministry of Environment, and Office of Alternative Development conduct a site visit and the aviation computers are checked for spray operations in the area. If the spray pilots have erred and accidentally sprayed licit crops, compensation is paid to the farmer for the loss of the crop, based on current market value of the crop

Field verification is extremely dangerous and resource intensive; and it is a slow-moving process. Because of the high risks involved for the Embassy personnel, agronomists, lawyers, DNE representatives, CNP officials, and ombudsman's representatives who accompany on site visits, the primacy of security will dictate the pace of investigations in the future. Although logistical considerations (security concerns, personnel availability, and helicopter resources) are part of the reason why complaints cannot be resolved in the field more quickly, the greatest logjam in this system is the number of false complaints which handicap the ability of field investigators to close cases more quickly. During 2004 site investigations, some farmers related stories of armed narco-terrorist groups forcing them to damage their own crops and falsifying complaints in order to publicly denounce the aerial eradication program.

False complaints -- cases in which growers complained that their legitimate crops were sprayed, but investigators who reached the fields in question found them to be coca or legitimate crops interspersed with coca -- waste resources that otherwise might be used in the service of the farmers who really deserve compensation. To date, less than half of one percent of the cases that have been visited by complaint verification teams has merited compensation. Nevertheless, Embassy Bogot� has taken steps to make sure that the overall complaint resolution is swifter and continues to pursue rapid field verifications when security, weather, and logistical considerations in individual cases permit.

The Colombian Ministry of Justice has refined the claims procedures, seeking to streamline the process and to deter fraudulent claims. These procedures will include a warning that a complainant found to have coca growing in fields that he claims were legal crops would be subject to prosecution for violations of Colombian law. The Colombian national Directorate of Dangerous Drugs (DNE) has been ordered to begin confiscating farms of coca growers. Presumably, this will reduce the huge number of false claims that have flooded the complaint system, making investigation of and restitution for genuine claims very difficult.

6. Such funds may not be made available for such purposes unless programs are being implemented by the USAID, the GOC, or other organizations in consultation with local communities, to provide alternative sources of income in areas where security permits for small-acreage growers whose illicit crops are targeted for spraying

Thus far, in calendar year 2004, the Colombian aerial eradication program has sprayed (or anticipates spraying) coca in the departments of Putumayo, Nari�o, Guaviare, Meta, Bolivar, Cauca, Norte de Santander, Vichada, Antioquia, Vaupes, Cordoba, Caldas, and Arauca and opium poppy in the departments of Cauca, Huila, Tolima, Nari�o, Cesar, and La Guajira. In each of these areas, USAID, the GOC, and/or other organizations are implementing alternative development programs to provide legal income generating opportunities to illicit crop growers who agree to accept benefits after eradicating their crops of coca or opium poppy.

For the purposes of this report, the Department of State interprets the term "area" as a Colombian department. This is consistent with the way that the Colombian spray program records and reports spray activity. It is also the most appropriate definition because Department of State and USAID experience has shown that while alternative development programs should be (and are) coordinated with spraying, these two components cannot always be co-implemented in every location.

Alternative development is not appropriate in many locations where illicit crops are grown. Coca and opium poppy are often cultivated in remote, difficult to reach areas with limited infrastructure to support legal crops that have less value and higher transport costs than those for illegal merchandise. Dispersing development activities to remote areas often raises costs and security risks, while reducing impact. Furthermore, many drug-producing regions have nutrient-poor and fragile tropical soils, inappropriate for large-scale farming activity and unsuitable for increased human habitation. As reflected in the language of the 2004 Consolidated Appropriations Act, narcoterrorist and paramilitary groups operate in many illicit crop-growing zones and make the presence of alternative development projects inadvisable in such locations. These narcoterrorist groups reap immense profit from the illegal trade, pose grave security risks for development personnel, and slow down project implementation.

Despite these obstacles to alternative development in Colombia, USAID and the GOC are moving forward with a robust alternative development program in coca and opium producing areas. Now in the fourth year of Plan Colombia alternative development coordination with the GOC and the third year of project implementation, USAID's alternative development program has supported a total of 55,071 hectares of licit crops, 25,820 hectares of forest land, and completed 874 infrastructure projects in coca and poppy growing areas through September 30, 2004. These efforts have benefited 44,015 families. These achievements in each category have surpassed program goals. Equally important, USAID has strengthened a total of 227 NGOs, cooperatives, and national institutions so that alternative development and community building activities will be more sustainable.

The alternative development projects being carried out by USAID and GOC organizations in each area where the spray program eradicates illicit crops are described below.

Antioquia

An $18.5 million USAID project directed at alternative development, implemented by the Pan-American Development Foundation (PADF), supports short-term production activities for immediate income and employment needs. It also seeks to establish longer-term crops such as natural rubber (caucho) and cacao to provide sustainability, as well as complementary productive infrastructure. Projects of cacao, caucho, and agro forestry would cover an area of 2,017 hectares and would benefit 594 families in El Bajo Cauca.

An $8.5 million USAID Dairy project is carried out by Land O'Lakes (LOL) to promote sustainable dairy production, processing and marketing involving small farmers. This program is also operating in Nari�o.

USAID also funds an activity titled Aid to Artisans (ATA), whichis carrying out a $4.3 million project to strengthen local capacity for production and marketing of crafts. ATA is also operating in Atl�ntico, Boyac�, Caldas, Cauca, C�sar, C�rdoba, Huila, Magdalena, Nari�o, Quind�o, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, and Valle del Cauca.

USAID's successful $38 million Colombia Agribusiness Partnership Program (CAPP), implemented by Associates in Rural Development (ARD), is promoting private sector agricultural production. In Antioquia, the program supports small farmers in producing fruit for processing into pulp, jute and African palm. It also promotes forest policy reforms and improved production, processing and marketing of forest and wood products to increase incomes. The program also operates in Atl�ntico, Bol�var, Caldas, Casanare, Cauca, C�sar, C�rdoba, Guajira, Huila, Magdalena, Nari�o, Quind�o, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, and Valle del Cauca.

The $23 million Colombia Forestry Development Program (CFDP), funded directly by USAID and implemented by Chemonics, has a nucleus in Northeastern Antioquia where it is focusing on promoting pine plantations and efficient industrial processing models. It has another nucleus along the Atrato River and Uraba region that provides assistance to natural forests, agro forestry schemes, plantations and the Familias Guardabosques nucleus in Turbo and Necocli. The estimated CFDP investment in Antioquia over the life of the project totals $6,050,000. A portion of this assistance directly benefits indigenous communities in Mutata and Chigorodo.

USAID's $12 million Colombia Enterprise Development (CED) project supports small and medium enterprise development in secondary cities. CED is also operating in Atl�ntico, Caldas, Quind�o, Risaralda, Santander, Valle del Cauca, and Tolima.

The Colombian Government's Investment Fund for Peace (FIP), a $19.4 million investment, is generating employment through infrastructures, licit crop production (coffee rehabilitation, agro forestry), skills training, and education/nutrition aid to poor families.

Bolivar

The aforementioned CFDP, financed by USAID, has a nucleus along Magdalena River focusing mainly on plantations such as Eucalyptus. CFDP investment in the nucleus totals approximately $2 million, of which an estimated $1 million will go to Bolivar.

USAID's alternative development program carried out by PADF is supporting short cycle production activities to address immediate income and employment requirements; longer-term crops such as natural rubber and cacao to provide sustainability; and complementary productive infrastructure. The project supports 2450 hectares of licit crops benefiting 661 families.

ARD/CAPP is also promoting private sector involvement with farmers to produce cacao, African palm, and yucca (cassava).

The GOCis active in Bolivar supporting licit production activities such as palm oil and cassava production.

Caquet�

USAID's centerpiece Colombia Alternative Development (CAD), implemented by Chemonics, is a $97.3 million project fostering short-term crop production for food security and long-term income generation activities such as rubber production. Similar activities are in operation in Cauca, Norte de Santander, Tolima and Putumayo.

USAID funds a $1.8 million Sustainable Development for Indigenous Colombian Communities project, implemented by the Amazon Conservation Team (ACT) to assist Colombian indigenous communities in food security, health, local governance, and land management. Activities under this program are also being carried out in the departments of Putumayo and Vaup�s. The GOC is also supporting institutional strengthening for small-scale brown sugar producers and life plans (planes de vida) for indigenous communities.

Cauca

USAID's CAD activities support small-scale irrigation for the production and marketing of short-season, high-value crops and value-added processing of wood products from tree plantations in indigenous areas.

The CFDP invested approximately $100,000 in natural forest management in the municipality of Guapi -Cauca to benefit Afro-Colombian communities.

USAID Alternative Development activities also include a $9.8 million project, implemented by ACDI/VOCA, which promotes specialty coffee production, processing and marketing in Cauca's illicit crop growing areas.

The CAPP project is supporting private sector investments in hot peppers, jute, and cacao.

The Aid to Artisans project is enhancing local capacity for production and marketing of crafts as licit income generating alternatives.

The GOC is supporting fruit production and complementary activities for the coffee renewal program.

Caldas

USAID's Specialty Coffee program is also promoting specialty coffee production, processing, and marketing in Caldas's illicit crop growing areas.

The CAPP activity is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers to produce and process tropical fruits, jute, and peppers.

C�sar

The Aid to Artisans project is carrying out activities to strengthen the production and marketing of crafts.

The CAPP program is supporting private sector investments for small farmers producing crops such as cacao, fruits and African palm. The GOC is also supporting cacao and oil palm production in this region.

C�rdoba

The Aid to Artisans project is supporting the strengthening of local capacity to produce and market crafts by artisans in the department.

The CAPP program is supporting private sector activities in cacao and passion fruit production.

Guajira

The CAPP is supporting private sector activities in crops such as passion fruit and cacao.

Guaviare

The GOC is supporting rubber (caucho) production and agro forestry.

Guainia

The GOCis providing institutional strengthening to indigenous community associations.

Huila

USAID's Specialty Coffee project is promoting specialty coffee production, processing, and marketing in poppy growing areas.

The CAPP program is supporting cacao and fruit production, while the Aid to Artisans project is promoting the production and marketing of crafts.

The GOCis supporting the strengthening of cultural values in indigenous communities, fruit production, fishponds, and complementary activities for the coffee renewal program.

Magdalena

The CFDP has a forestry nucleus along the lower Magdalena River focusing mainly on plantations such as Eucalyptus. CFDP investment in the nucleus totals approximately $2 million, of which an estimated $500,000 will go to Magdalena.

USAID's CAPP is also providing technical and financial support in Magdalena to private sector initiatives to produce African palm, banana, cacao, and exotic fruits.

Meta

The GOC is supporting activities in cacao, cassava, buffer zones in natural parks, and technical assistance for local governments.

The USAID CAPP program is promoting private sector investments with small farmers to produce African palm.

Nari�o

The Specialty Coffee project is promoting specialty coffee production, processing and marketing in illicit crop growing areas of Nari�o.

CFDP has a forestry nucleus along three river systems in Nari�o focusing mainly on community-based natural forest management. CFDP investment in the nucleus totals approximately $1.8 million and directly benefits the Afro-Colombian community.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is implementing activities ranging from annual crops to agro forestry totaling $1.8 million. The project is financed by USAID and is scheduled to begin in December 2004, pending environmental assessment of activities.

The USAID Dairy Promotion program is promoting sustainable small farm dairy production, processing and marketing, while the CAPPprogram is supporting small farmer, private sector projects in cacao and African palm production.

Aid to Artisans project is carrying out activities to promote the production and marketing of crafts in Nari�o.

The CFDP will be supporting forest policy changes and carrying out activities for the improved production, processing and marketing of forest and wood products in Nari�o, as well as in Antioquia, Choc�, and Magdalena.

The GOCis supporting activities in coffee renewal and oil palm production.

Norte de Santander

The CAPP program is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers in the production and processing of African palm and Cacao.
The CAD project is promoting cacao and African palm production, processing, and marketing.

The USAID alternative development activities implemented through PAFD are working in association with ASOHESAN (the Santander rubber producer's association) to support the cultivation of 1,652 hectares of rubber that would benefit 411 families. The project includes as well the establishment of 826 hectares of short-term crops and 137 food security systems (vegetable gardens, small animal husbandry).

The GOCis supporting palm oil crop production in the department.

Putumayo

The CAD project is supporting activities in Putumayo for short and medium-term crop production with farmers and indigenous groups, hearts of palm production, processing and marketing; rubber production, processing and marketing; forest management and value added processing and utilization of forest and wood products; infrastructure projects, including bridge construction and road improvements, schools, and health facilities. As part of the development of production and marketing chains, support is being provided for the private sector involvement in processing plants and marketing for cassava chips, black pepper and plantain; tropical flowers and foliage, vanilla production, as well as for medicinal plants and essential oils.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' $6.7 million rural infrastructure project, funded by USAID, is carrying out road, sewage and water treatment activities that are generating new employment in the region.

The Sustainable Development for Indigenous Colombian Communities project, implemented by the Amazon Conservation Team, is supporting indigenous communities with improved food security, health, local governance, and land management.

Santander

The GOCis supporting cocoa and oil palm production in this department.
The CAPP is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers in the production of cacao and African palm.

Tolima

The CAD project is supporting an activity to increase annual crop production for food security and to increase income and employment generation in the longer term through forestry, livestock and cold climate fruit production.

The Specialty Coffee activity is promoting specialty coffee production, processing and marketing in illicit crop growing areas of Tolima.

The Colombia Enterprise Development (CED) project, funded by USAID and implemented by CARANA Corporation,is supporting small and medium enterprise development in Colombia's secondary cities including those in Tolima.

The Aid to Artisans project is carrying out activities to promote the production and marketing of crafts in the department, while the ARD/CAPP is supporting private sector projects in fruits, natural rubber and cacao production.

The GOCis supporting cacao and coffee activities.

Vaupes

The Sustainable Development for Indigenous Colombian Communities project is supporting traditional healers and helping to strengthen indigenous community organizations that are also involved in managing indigenous lands.

Vichada

The GOCis providing institutional strengthening to indigenous community associations.

The preceding six sections combined with the detailed attachments form the basis of the Justification for the Secretary of State's 2004 Certification of Conditions Related to the Aerial Eradication of Illicit Coca and Opium Poppy in Colombia.

Attachments



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