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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Information Package on the Certification of the Aerial Eradication of Illicit Coca and Opium Poppy in Colombia


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Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Washington, DC
August 22, 2006

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Memorandum of Justification Concerning the Secretary of State's 2006 Certification of Conditions Related to the Aerial Eradication of Illicit Coca and Opium Poppy in Colombia

The Andean Counterdrug Initiative sectionof the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2006 (P.L. 109-102) lays out conditions under which assistance using funds appropriated under the heading Andean Counterdrug Initiative may be made available for the procurement of chemicals for use in aerial eradication of illicit crops. In particular, the legislation provides:

"That not more than 20 percent of the funds appropriated by this Act that are used for the procurement of chemicals for aerial coca and poppy fumigation programs may be made available for such programs unless the Secretary of State certifies to the Committees on Appropriations that: (1) the herbicide is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States and with Colombian laws; and (2) the herbicide, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment including endemic species: Provided further, That such funds may not be made available unless the Secretary of State certifies to the Committees on Appropriations that complaints of harm to health or licit crops caused by such fumigation are evaluated and fair compensation is being paid for meritorious claims: Provided further, That such funds may not be made available for such purposes unless programs are being implemented by the United States Agency for International Development, the Government of Colombia, or other organizations, in consultation with local communities, to provide alternative sources of income in areas where security permits for small-acreage growers whose illicit crops are targeted for fumigation...."

This memorandum provides justification for the Secretary of State's determination and certification to Congress that the above conditions have been met as required. In 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 the Secretary of State determined and certified to Congress on similar conditions concerning human health and environmental safety issues related to the Colombia spray program. These certifications were based on, among other information: all available scientific data on glyphosate, the herbicide used by the program; toxicological tests of the spray mixture (water, glyphosate, and a surfactant); active field verifications and complaint investigations; comprehensive human health monitoring; and thorough verbal and written consultations on the spray program with USDA and EPA.

Because the Colombia aerial eradication program has not made any changes in the chemical formulation or application methods used for eradication of coca and opium poppy since the Secretary of State last certified to Congress on the Colombia spray program (July 30, 2005), these prior certifications serve as the foundation for the 2006 certification. These certifications and attachments can be found on the Internet at the following address: http://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/rpt/aeicc/c15752.htm

1. The herbicide is being used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States and with Colombian laws.

EPA told the Department of State in previous consultations that application rates for both coca and poppy eradication in Colombia are within the parameters listed on labels of glyphosate products registered by EPA for use in the United States. Since neither the application rates used by the Colombia eradication program nor the EPA-registered label recommendations have changed since 2004, the Secretary can certify to Congress that the herbicide mixture continues to be used in accordance with EPA label requirements for comparable use in the United States.

With respect to accordance with Colombian laws, the Colombian Minister of the Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development determined in July 2004 that the illicit crop eradication program is being conducted in compliance with the Environmental Management Plan for aerial eradication (EMP). Since that determination, there have been no substantive changes in the execution of the illicit crop eradication or the EMP.

The spray program's compliance with other Colombian laws governing aerial eradication was reconfirmed by the October 19, 2004 final resolution of a class action suit filed in 2002 against the aerial eradication program on environmental and human health grounds. The Colombian Administrative Tribunal, Colombia's highest administrative court, upheld the Government of Colombia's appeal of a 2003 lower court's ruling to halt aerial eradication.

The Colombian Administrative Tribunal ruling (an English-language translation of which is included as Attachment 1) concluded that:

It cannot be accurately inferred from the evidence outlined that glyphosate causes irreversible damage to the environment when it is used for eradicating illicit crops; on the other hand, a number of facts lead to the conclusion that sprayed areas regenerate in a relatively short period of time and that many hectares of forest are destroyed when trees are felled by growers of illicit crops. (p. 10)

Accordingly, the Administrative Tribunal reversed a lower court's finding and ordered that the Ministry of the Environment, Housing and Regional Development, Ministry of Social Protection, and National Directorate of Dangerous Drugs continue their oversight of the spray program. This finding represents a decisive legal endorsement of the methods used for spraying illicit crops in Colombia and of the integrity of existing environmental oversight mechanisms.

2. The herbicide, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment including endemic species.

The Secretary of State determined and certified in 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 that the herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment. After previous consultations with EPA, the Department and the Government of Colombia have incorporated all EPA recommendations to strengthen spray program controls and ensure increased protection against adverse effects to humans and the environment. The Department of State is not aware of any new evidence of risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment that have surfaced since the 2005 certification. Included below is a brief review of the conditions that allow the Secretary to recertify to Congress in 2006 that the herbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment, including endemic species.

In the 2004 EPA report, EPA offered the following assessment of human health concerns related to the spraying of coca and opium poppy in Colombia: "Despite an aggressive search for cases, there does not appear to be any evidence that glyphosate aerial spraying has resulted in any adverse health effects among the population where this spraying takes place." EPA also concluded, "that an aggressive program to identify glyphosate poisoning has been implemented in the areas of Colombia where illicit crop eradication spraying programs are prevalent." A significant number of health care providers have received training and additional training is under way or planned.

As recognized in the 2003 report, the eradication program lowered its potential risks to wildlife and has responded appropriately to minimize off target drift. However, in the 2004 report the EPA stated, "Spray drift and potential side effect down wind of the target sites are common, universal factors in most if not all pesticide applications from aerial or ground applications for all uses." In 2003, EPA recognized that the Department of State was employing "Best Management Practices to minimize drift." The Department of State continues to follow these Best Management Practices and is ever vigilant regarding the manner in which the herbicide is applied.

The Government of Colombia regularly conducts studies to assess the spray program's environmental impact through ground truth verifications to estimate spray drift and the accuracy of the spray mixture application and during verification of all legitimate complaints about alleged spraying of crops or vegetation that are not coca or opium poppy. After one recent verification, the Government of Colombia's Ministry of Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development characterized spray drift in the following fashion:

The drift effects that were observed in areas visited on a random basis were temporary in nature and small in extent, and basically consisted of partial defoliation of the canopy of very high trees. No complementary collateral damage from spraying activities was observed at the sites selected and verified. In sprayed areas that were subsequently abandoned, it was noted that vegetation was starting to grow again, the predominant types being grasses and a number of herbaceous species (Attachment 2, p. 4)

The Department of State believes that the program's rigid controls and operational guidelines have decreased the likelihood of adverse impacts of the eradication program on humans and the environment and that theherbicide mixture, in the manner it is being used, does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse effects to humans or the environment.

This conclusion was confirmed by an objective, independent scientific study that evaluated the Colombia illicit crop eradication program and its potential human health and environmental considerations. The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) section of the Organization of American States (OAS commissioned a two-year risk assessment of human health and environmental effects related to aerial eradication of illicit crops in Colombia. The final report to CICAD is enclosed as Attachment 3 and can also be found at the following Internet Address: http://www.cicad.oas.org/en/glifosateFinalReport.pdf

This study examined not just the possible human health and environmental effects of glyphosate, but the specific manner in which glyphosate is applied in Colombia to eradicate illicit crops, and reached the following conclusion: "(b)ased on all evidence and information presented above, the Panel concluded that the risk to humans and human health from the use of glyphosate and Cosmo-flux in the eradication of coca and poppy were minimal." (Conclusions, 6.1, p. 90). Similarly, with respect to potential risks to the Colombian environment, the panel concluded that "the risks to the environment from the use of glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux in the eradication of coca and poppy in Colombia were small in most circumstances." (Conclusions, 6.2, p. 90).

This study also concluded that the "Risks of direct effects in terrestrial wildlife such as mammals and birds were judged to be negligible as were those to beneficial insects such as bees." (Conclusions, 6.2, p. 90). This is a far-reaching and important judgment which addresses the risk from the spray program faced by all terrestrial fauna potentially exposed to the spray: not only those species endemic to Colombia, but any introduced species present as well.

This does not mean that the spraying of glyphosate poses zero risk. The study goes on to state that "Moderate risks to some aquatic wildlife may exist in some locations where shallow and static water bodies are located in close proximity to coca fields and are accidentally over-sprayed. However, when taken in the context of the environmental risks from other activities associated with the production of coca and poppy, in particular, the uncontrolled and unplanned clearing of pristine lands in ecologically important areas for the purposes of planting the crop, the added risks associated with the spray program are small." (Conclusions, 6.2, p. 91).

Despite the limited risk represented by the spray program, the Department of State, in consultation with Congress, is supporting further CICAD research to better understand the level of risk that could be posed to Colombia's aquatic amphibians as a result of potential overspray of amphibian habitat. Preliminary results of this continued study confirm that the glyphosate mixture as used in Colombia has low toxicity for aquatic amphibians. The Department will submit to Congress a separate report on this work when the study has been completed.

These studies, as well as third-party research on glyphosate, warrant a certification by the Secretary of State that the spray program does not pose unreasonable risks or adverse affects to Colombia's endemic species.

3. Claims of harm to health or licit crops caused by such fumigation are investigated, and fair compensation is being paid for meritorious claims

The Government of Colombia continues to compensate all meritorious claims fairly. On October 4, 2001, the Government of Colombia formally instituted a new process to compensate growers for legal crops sprayed in error. From that date through the end of March 2006, the Colombian National Police's Antinarcotics Directorate (DIRAN), the Government of Colombia agency responsible for complaint investigations, has received 5,974 such claims. Of these, 5,511 investigations were completed as of March 31, 2006.

Claims are processed and verified by an interagency group including the DIRAN, agronomists from the Colombian Institute of Agriculture and Husbandry (ICA), the Ministry of Environment, and the Office of Dangerous Drugs (DNE). In 2005, 12 claims were found to be valid and $123,000 was paid as compensation. To date, the spray program has paid $160,000 compensation in 28 cases.

The 462 outstanding claims are being processed and verified by the interagency claims investigations group. Flight database and on-site investigations continue, and compensation is being paid for all cases with merit after analysis of all considerations. Typically, compensation hinges on basic issues, such as whether planes sprayed in the vicinity of the claimant's property within a five-day window of the alleged date of spraying; whether the claimant owns the allegedly sprayed property; whether the legal crop sprayed was intermixed with illegal crops; and whether the affected crop suffered damage from the spray mixture, as opposed to fungus, insects, or other causes. If the spray pilots have erred and accidentally sprayed licit crops, compensation is paid for the loss of the crop, based on current market value of the crop.

Field verification is extremely dangerous and resource intensive; and it is an unavoidably methodical process. Because of the high security risks involved for all personnel who conduct site visits, the primacy of security will dictate the pace of investigations in the future. Although logistical considerations (security concerns, personnel availability, and helicopter resources) are part of the reason why claims cannot be resolved in the field more quickly, the greatest logjam is the number of claims which turn out to be false. For example, in May 2006, the claims investigations group spent three days investigating some 75 claims that program pilots had sprayed African palm near Tumaco, Nari�o. The eradication program spent over $100,000 in helicopter flight hours investigating these claims and found that in every case coca was interspersed with the palm.

The Department of State plans to improve the claims resolution process through aircraft mounted imagery platforms to make in situ verification safer, cheaper, and faster in the future. The Government of Colombia has also begun processes for seizure and forfeiture of property used for growing illicit crops, although security-related and bureaucratic hurdles are significant. We expect improvements in asset forfeiture in Colombia will reduce the many false claims that have flooded the complaint system and facilitate even more prompt investigation of and restitution for legitimate claims.

4. Programs are being implemented by the USAID, the Government of Colombia, or other organizations in consultation with local communities, to provide alternative sources of income in areas where security permits for small-acreage growers whose illicit crops are targeted for spraying.

In 2006, the Colombian aerial eradication program has sprayed (or anticipates spraying) coca in the departments of Putumayo, Nari�o, Guaviare, Meta, Bolivar, Cauca, Norte de Santander, Vichada, Antioquia, Vaupes, Cordoba, Caldas, Arauca, Cesar, Valle del Cauca and La Guajira and opium poppy in the departments of Cauca, Huila, Tolima, and Nari�o. In each of these areas, USAID, the Government of Colombia, and/or other organizations are implementing alternative development programs to provide legal income generating opportunities to illicit crop growers who agree to accept benefits after eradicating their crops of coca or opium poppy.

For the purposes of this report, the Department of State interprets the term "area" as a Colombian department. This designation is consistent with the way that the Colombian spray program records and reports spray activity. It is also the most appropriate definition because Department of State and USAID experience has shown that while alternative development programs should be (and are) coordinated with spraying, these two components cannot always be co-implemented in every location.

Alternative development is not appropriate in many locations where illicit crops are grown. Coca and opium poppy are often cultivated in remote, difficult to reach areas with limited infrastructure to support legal crops that have less value and higher transport costs than those for illegal merchandise. Dispersing development activities to remote areas often raises costs and security risks, while reducing impact. Furthermore, many drug-producing regions have nutrient-poor and fragile tropical soils, inappropriate for large-scale farming activity and unsuitable for increased human habitation. As reflected in the language of the 2005 Consolidated Appropriations Act, narco-terrorist and paramilitary groups operate in many illicit crop-growing zones and make the presence of alternative development projects inadvisable in such locations. These narco-terrorist groups reap immense profit from the illegal trade, pose grave security risks for development personnel, and slow down project implementation.

Despite these obstacles to alternative development in Colombia, USAID and the Government of Colombia are moving forward with a robust alternative development program in coca and opium producing areas. USAID's alternative development program has supported 97,391 hectares of licit crops, 63,493 hectares of forest land, and completed 1,117 infrastructure projects in coca and poppy growing areas through March 31, 2006. These efforts have benefited 75,638 families. These achievements in each category have surpassed program goals. Equally important, USAID has strengthened a total of 1,265 small, medium or large private sector enterprises so that alternative development and community building activities will be more sustainable.

The alternative development projects being carried out by USAID and Government of Colombia organizations in each area where the spray program eradicates illicit crops are described below.

Antioquia

An $18.5 million USAID project directed at alternative development, implemented by the Pan-American Development Foundation (PADF), supports short-term production activities for immediate income and employment needs. It also seeks to establish longer-term crops such as natural rubber (caucho) and cacao to provide sustainability, as well as complementary productive infrastructure. Projects of cacao, caucho, and agro-forestry willcover an area of 2,017 hectares and benefit 594 families in El Bajo Cauca.

An $8.5 million USAID Dairy project is carried out by Land O'Lakes (LOL) to promote sustainable dairy production, processing and marketing involving small farmers. This program is also operating in Nari�o.

USAID also funds an activity titled Aid to Artisans (ATA), which is carrying out a $4.3 million project to strengthen local capacity for production and marketing of crafts. ATA is also operating in Atl�ntico, Boyac�, Caldas, Cauca, C�sar, C�rdoba, Huila, Magdalena, Nari�o, Quind�o, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, and Valle del Cauca.

USAID's successful $41.5 million Colombia Agribusiness Partnership Program (CAPP), implemented by Associates in Rural Development (ARD), is to promote private sector involvement to help agricultural producers and others involved in illicit products to shift into legal activities or remain uninvolved in illicit coca and poppy production. The project targets rural families in coca/opium poppy regions and threatened zones and assists them by supporting strategic alliances between agribusiness firms and these families. In Antioquia, the program supports small farmers in producing fruit for processing into pulp, jute and African palm. The program also operates in Atl�ntico, Bol�var, Caldas, Casanare, Cauca, C�sar, C�rdoba, Guajira, Huila, Magdalena, Nari�o, Norte de Santander, Quind�o, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, and Valle del Cauca.

The USAID-funded Democratic Local Governance Program and implemented by Associates in Rural Development (ARD), supports institutional strengthening activities relevant to municipal-level development planning, municipal management, public services, finance and revenue, public information, and project management. In Antioquia, the program focuses on the Bajo Cauca region and supports projects to strengthen municipal administrations in the region. In addition, a total of $527,000 of USAID funds were invested in seventeen social infrastructure projects in the same area, leveraging funds contributed from the Department, local governments, and communities of up to 54 percent of the total cost. This region will be included under the new Areas for Municipal Level Alternative Development (ADAM) program.

The $18.6 million Colombia Forestry Development Program (CFDP), funded directly by USAID and implemented by Chemonics, has a nucleus in Northeastern Antioquia where it is focusing on promoting pine plantations and efficient industrial processing models. CFDP activities in Antioquia include plantations, Familias Guardabosques and natural forests. CFDP works closely with the Organizaci�n Ind�gena de Antioquia in Chigorod� and Mutat� and Cocomacia and Corpourab� en Vig�a del Fuerte to implement natural forestry projects totaling approximately $1,100,000. Familias Guardabosques activities are concentrated in Necocl� and Turbo and total approximately $650,000. Plantation work is located in Necocl� and totals approximately $10,000.

USAID's $12 million Colombia Enterprise Development (CED) project supports small and medium enterprise development in secondary cities. CED is also operating in Atl�ntico, Caldas, Quind�o, Risaralda, Santander, Valle del Cauca, and Tolima.

The Colombian Government's Investment Fund for Peace (FIP), a $19.4 million investment, is generating employment through infrastructure, licit crop production (coffee rehabilitation, agro-forestry), skills training, and education/nutrition aid to poor families.

Bolivar

The previously mentioned ADAM program will support cacao, rubber and other alternative development activities in selected municipalities along with municipal strengthening activities in these same municipalities.

CFDP supports plantation efforts in Bolivar in the following municipalities: Zambrano, Fundaci�n, Sabanas de San Angel, Becerril and Agustin Codazzi totaling an estimated $400,000.

USAID's alternative development program carried out by PADF is supporting short cycle production activities to address immediate income and employment requirements; longer-term crops such as natural rubber and cacao to provide sustainability; and complementary productive infrastructure. The project supports 2450 hectares of licit crops benefiting 661 families.

USAID's CAPP is also promoting private sector involvement with farmers to produce cacao, African palm, and yucca (cassava).

In Bolivar, the Democratic Local Governance Program worked in 7 municipalities in southern Bolivar strengthening municipal administrations in the areas of transparency and accountability. The municipalities of Santa Rosa and Simit� are the main beneficiaries of the provided technical assistance package. Seven other municipalities received punctual and specific techinical assistance and training. In total, the program invested $624,589 in USAID funds for social infrastructure projects and leveraged a counterpart contribution of up to 53 percent of the total cost. This region will be included under the new ADAM program.

The Government of Colombia supports licit production activities such as palm oil and cassava production in Bolivar.

Caquet�

USAID's centerpiece Colombia Alternative Development (CAD), implemented by Chemonics, is a $97.3 million project; in Caquet� it is fostering short-term crop production for food security and long-term income generation activities such as rubber production.

USAID funds a $1.8 million Sustainable Development for Indigenous Colombian Communities project, implemented by the Amazon Conservation Team (ACT) to assist Colombian indigenous communities in food security, health, local governance, and land management. Activities under this program are also being carried out in the departments of Putumayo and Vaup�s. The Government of Colombia is also supporting institutional strengthening for small-scale brown sugar producers and life plans (planes de vida) for indigenous communities.

In Caquet�, the Democratic Local Governance Program implemented 16 social infrastructure projects, investing USAID funds for a total of $587,400 and leveraging 23 percent of total cost. In addition, the program provided technical assistance and training to community leaders and public officials in citizen participation and municipal management. The program completed its activities in Caquet� on March 2004. However, field presence through governance strengthening activities, particularly in public services, continued until December 2005, by supporting the creation and operation of a legacy institution (Empresa de Administracion Publica Cooperativa)-EMCOOPCAQUETA. This enterprise will provide on-going training and technical assistance in water and basic sanitation to municipalities and will fund infrastructure investments. This region is not included under the new ADAM program.

Cauca

USAID's CAD activities support small-scale irrigation for the production and marketing of short-season, high-value crops, including the growing, processing, and marketing of gourds for artisan and craft products and the value-added processing of wood products from tree plantations in indigenous areas.

CFDP is supporting Afro-Colombian communities in Guapi to manage their natural forestry resources. Technical assistance is also provided to communities in Timbiqu�. CFDP's investment in natural forestry in the department totals approximately $420,000.

USAID Alternative Development activities also include a $9.8 million project, implemented by the Agricultural Cooperative Development International and Volunteer in Overseas Cooperative Assistance (ACDI/VOCA), which promotes specialty coffee production, processing and marketing in Cauca's illicit crop growing areas.

The CAPP project is supporting private sector investments in hot peppers, jute, and cacao.

USAID Democratic Local Governance Program efforts in Cauca have focused mainly on working with community leaders and public officials to improve municipal management practices. As for social infrastructure projects, the program funded the implementation of 64 projects that total approximately $2,288,630 and leveraged 41 percent of the total costs. This region will be included under the new ADAM program.

The Aid to Artisans project is enhancing local capacity for production and marketing of crafts as licit income generating alternatives.

The Colombians Supporting Colombians program works in municipal development with emphasis on participatory planning. This objective is put into practice with the construction of small-scale infrastructure projects with community partnerships and mayoral involvement. The program also administers a credit fund, directly and via local microfinance institutions, to offer microenterprises credit to invest in working capital and fixed assets to enhance or expand their businesses.

The Government of Colombia is supporting fruit production and complementary activities for the coffee renewal program.

Caldas

USAID's Specialty Coffee program is also promoting specialty coffee production, processing, and marketing in Caldas's illicit crop growing areas.

The CAPP activity is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers to produce and process tropical fruits, jute, and peppers.

C�sar

The ADAM program will be carrying out alternative development and municipal strengthening activities in selected municipalities. The assessment of these activities is just beginning to be discussed with Departmental and local government authorities, the private sector and potential beneficiaries.

The Aid to Artisans project is carrying out activities to strengthen the production and marketing of crafts.

The Colombia Agribusiness Partnership Program (CAPP) is supporting private sector investments for small farmers producing crops such as cacao, fruits and African palm. The GOC is also supporting cacao and oil palm production in this region.

C�rdoba

The ADAM project will be assessing the possibility of alternative development activities such as rubber and cacao as well as local government strengthening activities in the Department.

The Aid to Artisans project is supporting the strengthening of local capacity to produce and market crafts by artisans in the department.

USAID's CAPP is supporting private sector activities in cacao and passion fruit production.

Guajira

USAID's CAPP is supporting private sector activities in crops such as passion fruit and cacao.

Guaviare

The Government of Colombia is supporting rubber (caucho) production and agro forestry.

Guainia

The Government of Colombia is providing institutional strengthening to indigenous community associations.

Huila

The ADAM program, which will begin this year, is assessing alternative development and local government strengthening activities with staff from the Department, municipalities, the private sector and beneficiaries.

USAID's Specialty Coffee project is promoting specialty coffee production, processing, and marketing in poppy-growing areas.

USAID's CAD program is supporting the production and marketing of passion fruit.

The CAPP program is supporting cacao and fruit production, while the Aid to Artisans project is promoting the production and marketing of crafts.

Democratic Local Governance Program work in Huila is focused on citizen participation, municipal management, and public information. The program has also implemented 57 social infrastructure projects that total approximately $1,997,000.

The Government of Colombia is supporting the strengthening of cultural values in indigenous communities, fruit production, fishponds, and complementary activities for the coffee renewal program.

Magdalena

CFDP supports Familias Guardabosques activities in the municipality of Santa Marta totaling an estimated $650,000. Plantation work is supported in San Angel, Algarrobo, San Sebastian, Guamal and Santa B�rbara de Pinto, totaling an estimated $250,000.

USAID's CAPP is also providing technical and financial support in Magdalena to private sector initiatives to produce African palm, banana, cacao, and exotic fruits.

Choco

CFDP supports Afro-Colombian communities in Docampad� to manage their natural forestry resources. CFDP's investment totals approximately $180,000.

Meta

The Government of Colombia is supporting activities in cacao, cassava, buffer zones in natural parks, and technical assistance for local governments.

The USAID CAPP program is promoting private sector investments with small farmers to produce African palm.

Nari�o

The ADAM program, which will begin this year, is engaged in assessing alternative development and local government strengthening activities with staff from the Department, municipalities, the private sector and beneficiaries. The program will provide support for the expansion of dairy production, processing and marketing activities that were initiated by the Land O' Lakes program that recently ended.

The Specialty Coffee project is promoting specialty coffee production, processing and marketing in illicit crop growing areas of Nari�o.

CFDP supports the community council of Bajo Mira y Frontera, located in the municipality of Tumaco, in managing its natural forestry resources. CFDP has invested approximately $400,000.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is implementing a USAID-funded $1.8 million program that provides a range of agricultural and forestry projects.

In Nari�o, the Democratic Local Governance Program is focused on development planning and finance and revenue, particularly in assistance to municipal administrations in the formulation of tax codes. Forty-two (42) social infrastructure projects, totaling approximately $1,322,000, have been implemented in this department.

The USAID Dairy Promotion program is promoting sustainable small farm dairy production, processing and marketing, while the CAPP program is supporting small farmer, private sector projects in cacao and African palm production.

Aid to Artisans project is carrying out activities to promote the production and marketing of crafts in Nari�o.

The Government of Colombia is supporting various productive activities in coffee renewal and oil palm production.

Norte de Santander

The USAID Colombia Agribusiness Partnership Program (CAPP) program is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers in the production and processing of African palm and cacao.

The USAID alternative development activities implemented through PAFD are working in association with ASOHESAN (the Santander rubber producer's association) to support the cultivation of 1,652 hectares of rubber that would benefit 411 families. The project also includes the establishment of 826 hectares of short-term crops and 137 food security systems (vegetable gardens, small animal husbandry).

The Government of Colombia is supporting palm oil crop production in the department.

Putumayo

The ADAM program will be supporting some activities that were developed under the Chemonics CAD project, such as hearts of palm production, processing and marketing; forest management and value added processing and utilization of forest and wood products; black pepper and plantain; tropical flowers and foliage, vanilla production, and medicinal plants and essential oils. Local government strengthening activities will also be developed with selected municipalities in Putumayo.

Democratic Local Governance Program work in Putumayo is focused on strengthening public service providers and on enhancing municipal finance and revenue capabilities. A total of 20 Social Infrastructure (SIF) projects have been implemented in this Department.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' $6.7 million rural infrastructure project, funded by USAID, carried out road, sewage, and water treatment activities that generated employment in the region. Current complementary work is being carried out to improve the water treatment plant in Villa Garzon.

The Sustainable Development for Indigenous Colombian Communities project, implemented by the Amazon Conservation Team, is supporting indigenous communities with improved food security, health, local governance, and land management.

Santander

The ADAM program, which will begin this year, is engaged in assessing alternative development and local government strengthening activities with staff from the Department, municipalities, the private sector and beneficiaries.

Tolima

The ADAM program, which will begin this year, is assessing alternative development and local government strengthening activities with staff from the Department, municipalities, the private sector and beneficiaries.

The CAD project is supporting an activity to increase annual crop production for food security and to increase income and employment generation in the longer term through forestry, livestock, pasture improvement, and vegetable production.

The Specialty Coffee activity is promoting specialty coffee production, processing and marketing in illicit crop growing areas of Tolima.

The Colombia Enterprise Development (CED) project, funded by USAID and implemented by CARANA Corporation, is supporting small and medium enterprise development in Colombia's secondary cities including those in Tolima.

The Aid to Artisans project is carrying out activities to promote the production and marketing of crafts in the department, while the ARD/CAPP is supporting private sector projects in fruits, natural rubber and cacao production.

Democratic Local Governance Program activities in Tolima focus on technical assistance in development planning to community leaders and public officials. In addition, the program has provided funds totaling approximately $747,000 for 18 social infrastructure projects.

The Colombians Supporting Colombians program works in municipal development with emphasis on participatory planning. This objective is put into practice with the construction of small-scale infrastructure projects with community partnerships and mayoral involvement. The program also administers a credit fund, directly and via local microfinance institutions, to offer microenterprises credit to invest in working capital and fixed assets to enhance or expand their businesses.

The Government of Colombia is supporting cacao and coffee activities.

Valle del Cauca

The ADAM project, which is expected to begin early next year, will begin assessing potential alternative development and local government strengthening activities with the Departmental and local government authorities as well as beneficiaries.

In Valle del Cauca, the Democratic Local Governance Program has focused on technical assistance in development planning to public officials. Social infrastructure projects began April 2005.

The CAPP activity is supporting private sector initiatives with small farmers to produce and process tropical fruits, jute, and peppers.

Vaupes

The Sustainable Development for Indigenous Colombian Communities project is supporting traditional healers and helping to strengthen indigenous community organizations that are also involved in managing indigenous lands.

Vichada

The Government of Colombia is providing institutional strengthening to indigenous community associations.

USAID New Programs:

MIDAS

The new USAID initiative Mas Inversion para el Desarrollo Alternativo Sostenible (MIDAS) is a five-year, $160 million program that has been recently awarded for implementation. MIDAS objective is to generate economic and social alternatives to illicit crop production by promoting market-driven, private sector-led business initiatives in selected "economic corridors" of Colombia, and enhance the competitiveness of the Colombian economy to meet national and international market demands, by promoting economic policy and institutional reforms. The first year work plan is being developed and implementation of activities is expected to begin around June 2006. MIDAS will provide technical and financial support to design and implement private sector alternative development initiatives in the areas of agribusinesses, commercial forestry and a wide array of rural and peri-urban activities through small and medium sized enterprises (SME). As a complement, MIDAS will support the Government of Colombia with policy reforms and institutional strengthening in the fiscal, financial, investment climate, trade and land market access areas, so as to maximize employment generation and income growth in Colombia. The "economic corridors" where MIDAS resources will be invested include the departments (states) of Antioquia, Atl�ntico, Bol�var, Caldas, Casanare, Cauca, C�sar, C�rdoba, Guajira, Huila, Magdalena, Nari�o, Norte de Santander, Quind�o, Risaralda, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, and Valle del Cauca.

ADAM

The new Areas for Municipal Level Alternative Development (ADAM) program, which is beginning implementation, will be supporting alternative development and local government strengthening activities in selected municipalities by helping farmers and others involved in illicit products to shift into licit activities or remain uninvolved in illicit crop production. ADAM will support institutional strengthening activities in these municipalities on development planning, municipal management, public services, finance and revenues, citizen participation and transparency, and for social and productive infrastructure projects. Linking these local government-strengthening activities with income generating alternative development activities in a municipality is expected to increase the impact and sustainability of alternative development efforts. In Antioquia, the program will support cacao, rubber, and other alternative development activities particularly in the Bajo Cauca and northwest areas of the Department. The program also will operate in Bolivar, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Huila, Narino, Putumayo, Santander, Valle del Cauca and Tolima. ADAM's first year results will be reported in next year's spray and certification report.

Attachments:

1. Colombian Administrative Tribunal ruling of October 19, 2004, English language version

2. Government of Colombia's Ministry of Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development Ruling No. 707, July 26, 2004, English language version

3. Environmental and Human Health Assessment of the Aerial Spray Program for Coca and Poppy Control in Colombia, a report prepared for the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) section of the OAS, March 31, 2005



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