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Other Latin America


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2002 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 2001
Report
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The Bahamas

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2000
Actual

FY 2001
Estimated

FY 2002
Request

1,000

1,200

1,200

Objectives

    • Preclude the use of Bahamian territory for the movement of illicit drugs to the U.S.;
    • Enhance Bahamian ability to conduct increasingly sophisticated law enforcement investigations, effective maritime interdiction operations, and financial investigations in order to stem the flow of illegal drugs, aliens and weapons through Bahamian territory, and to trace, seize and forfeit the proceeds of crime;
    • Strengthen judicial institutions so that drug traffickers, money launderers and perpetrators of other types of international crime will be prosecuted expeditiously, and the proceeds of their crimes forfeited;
    • Assist the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas (GCOB) to develop means to control drug-related corruption of public officials; and
    • Assist the GCOB to prevent drug abuse among its citizens.

    Justification

    The Bahamas is a country of approximately 300,000 people and 700 islands scattered over an area the size of California, and is strategically located on the air and sea routes between Colombia and the United States. These geographic characteristics make The Bahamas a continuing target for drug transshipments as well as international crime. The fact that The Bahamas is a major offshore banking center with bank secrecy laws makes it an attractive target for money laundering and other financial crimes. In June 2000, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) named The Bahamas as a non-cooperative jurisdiction due to shortcomings in its financial regulatory regime and international cooperation mechanisms. The U.S. Treasury Department also issued an advisory on The Bahamas.

    The USG and the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas (GCOB) enjoy a productive working relationship on counternarcotics. Because of the country’s small population and budget and its expansive geography, the GCOB requires assistance to fight international narcotics trafficking and crime. GCOB law enforcement and judicial institutions lack expertise to effectively investigate, prosecute, and convict major drug traffickers and financial criminals. Dating from the 1996 passage of money laundering legislation, the GCOB has been working closely with USG agencies on money laundering and drug asset forfeiture cases. Since its listing by FATF as a non-cooperative jurisdiction in June 2000, the Bahamian parliament has passed several bills to improve its anti-money laundering regime and its ability to share information internationally. One bill created a Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU), through which the GCOB hopes to improve information exchange internationally via membership in the Egmont Group of FIUs. Now that the bills have become law, and once implementing regulation s are written, the GCOB will need assistance to train public and private sector officials in their use.

    The Bahamas has increasingly become a major stepping stone for illegal immigrant trafficking. There is strong evidence that sophisticated, illegal trafficker organizations are running their operations from and through The Bahamas. There has also been a dramatic increase in illegal firearms trafficking linked to drug trafficking. Major Bahamian drug traffickers are apparently transshipping cocaine and marijuana to Florida and using part of their profits to purchase illegal U.S. firearms for criminal activities in The Bahamas. Since 1996, INL has funded law enforcement exchanges and training between the Royal Bahamas Police Force (RBPF) and South Florida law enforcement on firearms trafficking and gang activity, and in FY 1999 INL funded an antifraud training program for Bahamian immigration officers. INL funded firearms control training for The Bahamas in 1998 and 1999, and additional training is planned for 2001. Ongoing joint law enforcement operations are showing the benefits of the training and law enforcement exchanges. Money laundering, firearms and alien smuggling control training is funded in part under the INL Anticrime Programs.

    The success of increasingly sophisticated local law enforcement and combined U.S.-Bahamas interdiction efforts had dramatically reduced the amount of cocaine seized in The Bahamas during the early to mid 1990’s. Seizures rose substantially in 1997 and 1998, fell somewhat in 1999, and rose again in 2000, indicating that increased enforcement pressure on other transit routes can push cocaine trafficking back into The Bahamas.

    FY 2002 Programs. Through the Law Enforcement Project, operational support will continue for Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) bases that are operated by both Bahamian and U.S. personnel. OPBAT is a combined effort by The Bahamas, the Turks and Caicos Islands police, and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to intercept loads of cocaine and conduct investigations. It employs U.S. Coast Guard and Army helicopters assigned to joint interdiction bases in Nassau, George Town, Great Inagua, and elsewhere. The upsurge in the last few years of cocaine trafficking through The Bahamas underscores the necessity of maintaining a strong OPBAT structure and improving the maritime interdiction capabilities. This assistance will include base operating costs such as electricity, equipment repair and maintenance, air conditioning, runway resurfacing, base security upgrades, and other support costs. We will continue to encourage the GCOB to assume increased responsibility in OPBAT, and INL will provide training and materiel assistance to the RBPF in order to improve its maritime interdiction capability.

    The Drug Enforcement Unit (DEU), composed of some 80 officers of the RBPF, is, for the first time in its history, focusing on major drug trafficking organizations. In addition, the DEU established a money laundering/asset forfeiture unit in 1999. The INL program will support these new DEU initiatives with specialized law enforcement and investigation training and equipment. Continued support to the Joint Information Coordination Center (JICC) will focus on improving its capability and usefulness to GCOB counternarcotics efforts. Other RBPF elements will also receive assistance, including the Canine Squad, the Internal Security Division, and the Corruption and Investigation Unit, which is responsible for asset-forfeiture investigations. The program will also assist the GCOB in implementing its new anti-money laundering regime by building Bahamian money laundering regulatory, investigative and prosecutorial capabilities. A continuing anticorruption initiative assists the GCOB to develop effective internal controls and to investigate and prosecute corrupt security and justice officials. Assistance to the GCOB in controlling money laundering, alien and firearms smuggling, and corruption will be provided in part under the INL Regional Training and Anticrime Programs.

    The Judicial Reform Project has helped the GCOB modernize the Bahamian judicial system. It includes technical assistance to the Attorney General’s office, the courts—including magistrate courts—and the prosecutor’s office. Activities include training for members of the judiciary, prosecutors and staff, police and other officers of the court, and complete computer automation of court documents, including an automated court reporter training program. This project’s most visible achievement is having reduced the Supreme Court backlog to almost nothing. Future funding will solidify gains made by court automation and court backlog reduction by continuing to provide training in sound court management practices and court automation support. A key project element has been introducing Bahamian judges, prosecutors and court administrators to U.S. prosecution and court administration techniques. The success of the project to date has been due in large part to the willingness of the GCOB to change laws, regulations and practices in support of court modernization.

    Limited support will be provided for Drug Abuse Prevention to strengthen the capabilities of the National Drug Council and selected NGOs engaged in prevention and treatment.

    Program Development and Support funds will provide for salaries, benefits and allowances of U.S. and foreign national personnel, short-term temporary duty (TDY) personnel, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

    Effectiveness Measurements

      • Increased effectiveness of the combined counternarcotics operations of the U.S., The Bahamas, and Turks and Caicos Islands through OPBAT in interdicting and deterring drug trafficking through the area;
      • Improved Bahamian capability to interdict drugs at sea and to conduct investigations leading to prosecution of major drug offenders and money launderers and forfeiture of their assets;
      • Increased efficiency and effectiveness of criminal justice institutions in bringing drug violators, including money launderers, swiftly to justice;
      • Increased Bahamian capability to prevent drug-related public corruption and to investigate and prosecute corrupt security and justice officials; and
      • Reduction in drug abuse by Bahamian citizens and improved treatment capability in The Bahamas.  
         

        FY 2000

        FY 2001

        FY 2002

        Narcotics Law Enforcement

             

        Commodities

        (Vehicles, technical equipment, and spare parts)

        305

        300

        300

        Training

        50

        95

        150

        Other Costs

        (Repair and maintenance, fuel, boat support, operating costs)

        155

        300

        250

        Subtotal

        510

        695

        700

        Judicial Reform

        200

        100

        150

        Demand Reduction

        100

        50

        Program Development and Support

             

        U.S. Personnel

        170

        170

        170

        Other Costs

             

        International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS)

        75

        85

        80

        Program Support

        45

        50

        50

        Subtotal

        290

        305

        300

        Total

        1,000

        1,200

        1,200

         

        Guatemala

        Budget Summary ($000)

        FY 2000
        Actual

        FY 2001
        Estimated

        FY 2002
        Request

        3,000

        3,000

        4,000

        Objectives

          Justification

          Guatemala is a significant transit country for cocaine from South America to Mexico and onward to the United States. U.S. intelligence experts estimate that between 250-350 metric tons of cocaine are transshipped annually through Guatemala. Small amounts of opium poppy and marijuana are cultivated for domestic consumption. Diversion of precursor chemicals is a growing concern.

          The Government of Guatemala (GOG) is actively working to strengthen its drug enforcement capability. Increases in pay, extensive training, and the provision of equipment and infrastructure for the Department of Anti-Narcotics Operations (DOAN), a division of the newly reconstituted National Civilian Police, continue at a good pace. The Ministry of Government (MOG), the Public Ministry (MP), and judicial organizations have initiated the integration of computerized systems to track cases and enhance information sharing within the GOG and with counterpart Central American institutions. The GOG fully supports interdiction and eradication operations, including the use of aerial spraying against marijuana and opium poppy crops. At the same time, the Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addictions and Illicit Drug Trafficking (SECCATID) is aggressively pursing a demand reduction program in Guatemala.

          Seizure and eradication numbers declined sharply during 2000 due to a downturn in operations as a result of tremendous turnover in personnel in all sectors of the GOG, an acute lack of resources, and widespread corruption. Guatemalan law enforcement agencies interdicted only 1.5 metric tons of cocaine in 2000 compared to more than 10 metric tons in 1999. However, crack seizures were up 300 percent, highlighting the marked increase in domestic consumption apparently brought about by the narcotics traffickers paying for transit services with drugs rather than money. The vast majority of containerized cargo still goes uninspected due to inadequate capabilities at all ports of entry to Guatemala. INL support for interdiction efforts will include increased training, operational support and maintenance of equipment for the Guatemalan counternarcotics police.

          While significant poppy cultivation in Guatemala has been eliminated, it remains necessary to periodically assess the magnitude of the crop using the INL Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) capability. The Peten region of the country continues to be the main source of marijuana cultivation although recent evidence suggests that production has been reduced. GOG narcotics control police units carry out manual eradication, air-mobile interdiction (with INL assistance), port control, narcotics investigations, riverine operations, and road interdiction and inspection.

          INL provided additional one-time-only Hurricane Mitch funding to Guatemala to implement anticorruption, tracking of drug smuggling in commercial freight, and counternarcotics police anticorruption projects, as well as a series of regional projects being implemented by other USG agencies and international organizations. These funds are being used to target organized crime, improve law enforcement internal affairs capabilities, and help counternarcotics police establish border inspection capabilities. Regional projects are assisting customs agencies’ anticorruption efforts and assessing progress in the region toward implementing the Interamerican Convention Against Corruption, as well as implementing a series of anti-alien smuggling projects. The country specific projects will provide seed money to anticorruption institutions with the objective of making them fully self-sustaining in a very short period of time.

          FY 2002 Programs. The INL program for FY 2002 continues to reflect the shift to a regional focus in interdiction and program support activities that began in 1999. The requested increase in funding will be used in part to hire a full-time regional advisor and the expansion of regional training. This will help Guatemala and its neighbors to combat common problems and stimulate the regional cooperation necessary to counter the considerable resources and ingenuity of narcotics traffickers. The largest component of the FY 2002 budget increase will support the planned doubling of the size of the GOG’s antinarcotics police.

          The Narcotics and Law Enforcement Project focuses on developing the investigative and operational capacity of the Department of Anti-Drug Operations (DOAN) of the National Civil Police. It will strengthen Guatemala’s enforcement capability by providing training, equipment, and infrastructure for the DOAN, which is expected to double in size by 2002. New DOAN units will be used to expand its presence in the interior and to deploy mobile inspection teams to prevent drugs, illegal aliens and other contraband from entering and transiting Guatemala. INL will purchase vehicles and other equipment for these units, and utilize the recently opened canine training facility to provide courses for detector dog handlers, instructors, supervisors and narcotics investigators. The project will also develop an integrated computerized system to track vehicles, identify personnel, monitor active cases, and provide and enhance information sharing with the GOG and counterpart Central American institutions. The GOG co-located its newly formed Combined Command Center with the DOAN’s Joint Information Coordination Center (JICC) with the aim of making the project a model for the region. The undertaking will also focus on improving the analytic skills of the existing JICC personnel through in-house and regional analysis courses.

          The Eradication and Interdiction Project supports the objective of deterring transshipment of cocaine and continuing eradication of opium poppy and marijuana. To accomplish this goal, the project will continue to strengthen interdiction and eradication capabilities through training and logistical support for police units involved in antinarcotics operations. Operational training will continue in connection with Central Skies program regional deployments and INL RARE deployments. The project supports the DOAN port security program by funding a U.S. Customs port advisor and training for DOAN agents.

          The Narcotics Prosecutor Assistance Project provides funding for the special narcotics prosecutors unit of the Attorney General’s office (Public Ministry). The objective is to expand the number of prosecutors in the program, increase professional training, integrate the current narcotics case tracking system with the case management system the GOG is developing for the National Civil Police, and increase drug convictions. This project supplies equipment and training in coordination with USAID judicial reform efforts and funds a local-hire legal advisor. A well-received element of the project, developed in 1998, has been to provide assistance to the GOG in the streamlining of operations, case preparation and drafting counternarcotics legislation. The legal advisor assisted in the development of money-laundering-related in El Salvador in 1999 and will continue to support the drafting of counternarcotics legislation in Guatemala and other Central American countries. The legal advisor will help the GOG to organize a financial crimes unit to investigate and prosecute money laundering crimes as soon as the legislation is in force. The project will also support a Guatemalan Supreme Court initiative establishing "high impact" courts designed to handle sensitive cases to the regular courts cannot. In addition to staff training, the Court will be integrated with the National Civilian Police case management system.

          The Public Awareness Project is designed to advance the GOG public awareness and demand reduction efforts and to assist the GOG in formulating counternarcotics legislation. The GOG recognizes that domestic drug addiction is a growing threat and has made demand reduction a national priority. The main recipient of aid from this program is the Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addiction and Drug Trafficking (SECCATID). SECCATID develops education programs and actively promotes public awareness of drug issues. In 1999, SECCATID completed the first phase of a nationwide study to gather baseline data on drug addiction and sponsored, with INL assistance, a countrywide drug awareness contest and a regional demand reduction seminar in conjunction with ONDCP. During FYs 2001-2002, the project will build on ideas generated by this seminar and expand the GOG outreach program to reach all school children. The project will help SECCATID develop specific advertising and public information programs including videos addressing the dangers of drug use by youth.

          Program Development and Support funds will provide for salaries, benefits and allowances of U.S. and foreign national personnel, short-term temporary duty (TDY) personnel, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

          Effectiveness Measurements

            Guatemala

            INL Budget

            ($000)

             

            FY 2000

            FY 2001

            FY 2002

            Narcotics Law Enforcement

                 

            Ground Operations Support

            (Field gear, computers, vehicles, commo and investigative equipment, training and operational support)

            1,500

            1,500

            2,050

            Aviation Support

            (Aircraft parts, fuel, commo equipment, vehicles, training and operational support)

            300

            300

            300

            Maritime Support

            vehicles, training and operational support)

            (Boat parts, fuel, field equipment, safety gear,

            135

            135

            200

            Subtotal

            1,935

            1,935

            2,550

            Narcotics Prosecutors

            350

            350

            400

            Local personnel, commodities, training, operational support

                 

            Narcotics Courts

            150

            Public Awareness

            250

            250

            300

            Training, grants, operational support

                 

            Program Development and Support

                 

            U.S. Personnel

            150

            150

            165

            Non-U.S. Personnel

            85

            85

            100

            Other Costs

                 

            International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS)

            100

            100

            175

            Program Support

            130

            130

            160

            Subtotal

            465

            465

            600

            Total

            3,000

            3,000

            4,000

            Jamaica

            Budget Summary ($000)

            FY 2000
            Actual

            FY 2001
            Estimated

            FY 2002
            Request

            800

            1,200

            1,550

            Objectives

              Justification

              Jamaica is a major transit point for South American cocaine en route to the U.S. and the largest Caribbean producer and exporter of marijuana for U.S. markets. Data for the first half of 2000 indicate an increase in cocaine flow through Jamaica, making it the leading transshipment point in the Caribbean. Traffickers use Jamaica’s ports, offshore waters and airstrips to move drugs to the U.S. Jamaican ports are also vulnerable to the illegal diversion of precursor and essential chemicals. Corruption continues to undermine law enforcement and judicial efforts against drug-related crime in Jamaica. While Jamaica is not considered an important regional financial center, tax haven, or offshore banking center, the U.S. is concerned about the increase in money laundering in the Caribbean, including in Jamaica.

              The Government of Jamaica (GOJ) publicly states its commitment to combating illegal drugs, but operates under severe resource constraints, with over half of its national budget going for debt servicing alone. Nevertheless, in 1998, the GOJ acquired seven helicopters and assumed operational expenses for the Caribbean Regional Drug Law Enforcement Training Center, which it continues to support. In 1999, the GOJ purchased a former U.S. Navy tugboat to augment its maritime resources, established with U.S. assistance, a Fugitive Apprehension Team and took steps to establish a Financial Investigative Unit. In 2000, the GOJ purchased four x-ray machines for use at its two international airports. In addition, the GOJ agreed to pay half of the salaries related to marijuana eradication efforts (which the USG had been funding) beginning in June 2000, and the entire salary expense beginning in June 2001.

              On the legislative front, in 1999, the Jamaican Parliament approved a Precursor Chemicals Act, which entered into force in April 2000, and legislation enabling the GOJ to enter into asset sharing agreements with other countries and to establish drug courts. The GOJ strengthened its Money Laundering Act by amending it in 1999 to require suspicious transaction reporting and to raise the threshold for mandatory transaction reporting; in 2000, the Act was further amended to expand the predicate offenses beyond drug-related money laundering to include offenses related to fraud, firearms, and corruption. An anticorruption bill was reintroduced in Parliament in November 2000, and in March 2001, Jamaica ratified the Inter-American convention Against Corruption. In December 2000, the GOJ tabled in Parliament a bill that places authority for wiretaps with the courts rather than the Prime Minister. Jamaica has a mutual legal assistance treaty and an extradition treaty with the U.S. In 2000, Jamaica extradited ten people to the U.S., compared to four in 1999. There are still some 31 cases pending, which includes several individuals in custody pending extradition proceedings. Delays in extradition cases result from an overburdened court system and the due process protections afforded to Jamaican criminal defendants.

              In support of the U.S.-Jamaica maritime counternarcotics cooperation agreement, which came into force in 1998, the U.S. and Jamaica have undertaken combined maritime operations that have been successful in interdicting vessels transporting drugs. Increased Jamaican Defense Force Coast Guard (JDFCG) patrolling, supported by additional equipment and training, is necessary to enhance Jamaica’s capabilities to implement the maritime agreement. In FY 2000, the USG provided two 82-foot cutters to the JDFCG. The USG is also funding the refurbishing of four boats to augment Jamaica’s maritime resources, two of which were turned over to the JDFCG in FY 2000.

              INL assistance for the GOJ helps the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF), the Jamaica Defense Force (JDF), the Jamaican court system, and other GOJ agencies carry out effective counter-drug and crime law enforcement investigations and operations, prosecutions of arrested drug violators, and drug awareness programs. The counternarcotics assistance program also seeks to improve Jamaica’s criminal justice capabilities and strengthen the GOJ’s ability to detect and deter public corruption. The U.S. has provided and will continue to provide extensive training and equipment to the JCF Narcotics Unit, the JDF Coast Guard, the Contraband Enforcement Team, the Port Security Corps, the National Firearms and Drugs Intelligence Center, the Fugitive Apprehension Team, and the Joint Intelligence Coordination Center (JICC). In November 2000, a resident Narcotics Affairs Officer was assigned full-time to the Embassy in Kingston.

              FY 2002 Programs. All aspects of the counternarcotics program are focused on Jamaican implementation of the 1988 UN Convention. The program also provides resources to enable the GOJ to counter public corruption in compliance with the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, which Jamaica ratified in 2001. The requested funding level for FY 2002 will permit the GOJ to undertake the intensity of drug and money laundering law enforcement and judicial activities and anticorruption efforts that will foster an environment conducive to the development of legitimate agriculture and commerce in this struggling economy.

              The Narcotics Law Enforcement Project supports drug interdiction and marijuana eradication activities. The project provides training, technical assistance, and equipment for Jamaican agencies involved in counternarcotics/crime activities to: strengthen their capabilities to intercept drugs, firearms, and illegal aliens; target, investigate and prosecute major Jamaican drug traffickers; detect diversion of essential and precursor chemicals; eradicate marijuana cultivation; and counter public corruption. The project also provides support for helicopters and boats currently owned or to be acquired by Jamaica.

              The Port Security Project will provide training and equipment to strengthen the GOJ’s ability to disrupt drug movement via commercial cargo and conveyances at air and seaports and free trade zones. The USG will sponsor an observation visit to a successful public-private partnership port security program and assist with the adoption of a similar port security program in Jamaica.

              The Money Laundering Project supports the development of GOJ financial investigative and prosecutorial capability to enforce its amended money laundering law by providing computer software for the GOJ’s Financial Investigative Unit, and technical assistance and training for GOJ entities involved in detecting and countering money laundering.

              The Judicial Reform Project is designed to assist the GOJ in preparing modern drug control legislation to bring it into compliance with the 1988 UN Drug Convention and strengthen Jamaican legal institutions by providing training and technical assistance to judges and prosecutors in the areas of extradition, asset forfeiture, money laundering and drug prosecutions. The project also seeks to improve the security of judges, juries, and witnesses by providing technical assistance and equipment to speed up court proceedings. Law enforcement agencies will receive further training in investigations and forensics.

              The INL program also provides limited assistance through its Demand Reduction account for demand reduction activities, the majority of which are supported by the GOJ, NGOs, and other donors. We will work with the GOJ to increase public awareness of the consequences of drug abuse through provision of expert speakers and advice, provided directly and via regional programs.

              Program Development and Support funds provide for salaries, benefits and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and locally hired support personnel, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

              Effectiveness Measurements

                Jamaica

                INL Budget

                ($000)

                 
                 

                FY 2000

                FY 2001

                FY 2002

                Narcotics Law Enforcement

                     

                Commodities

                (Vehicles, communication and investigative equipment, computers, eradication gear, aviation parts, etc.)

                250

                350

                500

                Other Costs

                     

                Fuel, training, operational support

                150

                295

                380

                Subtotal

                400

                645

                880

                Port Security

                200

                150

                Money Laundering

                Training and equipment

                150

                100

                Demand Reduction

                44

                Judicial Reform

                150

                150

                Program Development and Support

                     

                U.S. Personnel

                90

                160

                160

                Non-U.S. Personnel

                10

                10

                10

                Other Costs

                     

                International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS)

                21

                35

                50

                Program Support

                35

                50

                50

                Subtotal

                156

                255

                270

                Total

                800

                1,200

                1,550

                 

                Mexico

                Budget Summary ($000)

                FY 2000
                Actual

                FY 2001
                Estimated

                FY 2002
                Request

                4,071

                10,000

                12,000

                Objectives

                  Justification

                  The historic 2000 presidential election in Mexico in which Vicente Fox Quesada was elected on a platform that emphasized improved public security and elimination of official corruption offers us an unprecedented opportunity to further binational cooperation in the area of narcotics and law enforcement. The Fox administration, which took office in December 2000, has outlined an ambitious plan for strengthening and restructuring federal law enforcement agencies—in particular, strengthening the prosecutorial role of the federal Attorney General’s Office, transforming the Federal Judicial Police into a more professional investigative body, and transferring key police functions from the Secretariat of Government to a new Secretariat for Public Security & Justice. A cabinet-rank Comptroller General will focus on white-collar crime by public officials and chair an inter-agency panel on anticorruption issues.

                  The success of Mexico’s counternarcotics effort is critical to U.S. drug control policy and to the success of the U.S. National Drug Control Strategy. Mexico-based trafficking groups control the flow of large quantities of cocaine and operate their own distribution networks within the U.S. They also dominate the production and distribution of methamphetamines, one of the fastest-growing and most dangerous drugs in the U.S. These criminal organizations are a principal cause of violence, corruption and other crimes in both countries, particularly along the border.

                  Chronic institutional weaknesses within Mexican law enforcement organizations remain a serious obstacle to the efficiency and reliability of law enforcement personnel. Budget constraints, widespread corruption, and inefficiencies within police and criminal justice institutions hamper the government’s ability to combat drug trafficking and other serious crimes and have permitted criminal organizations to grow in strength and sophistication. The Fox Administration’s focus on the professionalization of Mexico’s law enforcement agencies has been accompanied by increased collaboration with the U.S. on training and technical and material assistance. The development of specialized law enforcement units capable of tackling the sophisticated criminal organizations engaged in producing, transshipping or distributing illicit drugs is a priority for the short term, but long-term success will depend on sustained reform efforts and enhanced training and professionalization of justice sector personnel.

                  As the cartels’ proceeds have increased, their need for money laundering services has also grown. Measures enacted in 1996-97 have provided the basis for more effective control of money laundering, and the GOM has strengthened the capabilities of its money laundering investigators and prosecutors. While critical legal and regulatory reforms have been enacted in the past five years, Mexico still lacks the institutional capability to fully implement them, particularly in the area of prosecution.

                  Illicit drug use in Mexico is increasing along the border with the U.S., in large metropolitan cities, and in tourist areas. Abuse of inhalants among street children and other vulnerable population groups is also prevalent in large cities. Public and private sector programs, many with U.S. support, are trying to raise public awareness of this growing problem and to mobilize public support against it.

                  FY 2002 Programs. Both countries have sought, through bilateral consultations and through the Binational Drug Strategy, to construct complementary programs and policies. U.S. drug control programs in Mexico are aimed at supporting the GOM’s efforts to strengthen law enforcement institutions, to improve training for its personnel, to modernize its infrastructure, and to promote anticorruption reforms. The increase in the request from FY 2001 levels will be used to support and accelerate the GOM’s efforts to restructure and professionalize its law enforcement institutions.

                  The Anticorruption/Judicial Sector Training Project will assist the GOM in implementing its reform efforts. The project will promote the professional development of police agents, prosecutors, and criminal experts from Mexican federal, state, and municipal investigative, prosecutorial, and judicial institutions. The purpose is to improve the institutional capability of these public safety and national security agencies to act effectively against drug trafficking and other organized criminal activities. The program will provide professional training, seminars, expert visits, internships and professional exchanges with U.S. or other international counterparts. In some cases, the programs are complemented with equipment, such as computers, software, and laboratory equipment.

                  The project will also support anticorruption policies and government innovation programs at the federal level to the GOM’s National Anticorruption Plan and the Secretariat of the Comptroller and Administrative Development. It targets improved judicial education and training for state and federal judges, including a model court administration project focusing on increased efficiency and transparency in court proceedings.

                  Much of INL’s training and technical support goes to the drug enforcement elements of the Office of the Mexican Attorney General (PGR), the Office of Special Prosecutor for Crimes Against Health (FEADS), the Federal Judicial Police, and the Federal Preventive Police. FEADS is responsible for investigating and prosecuting federal drug crimes, while the Federal Judicial Police has primary jurisdiction over investigation of other federal crimes, including arms trafficking, kidnapping, money laundering and intellectual property theft. The Preventive Police are uniformed officers carrying out critical security-related duties, such as airport security.

                  The Counternarcotics Enforcement Support Project targets Mexican counternarcotics programs and operations, particularly for those conducted in coordination with U.S. law enforcement. Many of these programs are designed to support the goals of the Binational Drug Strategy and to respond to changing trafficking patterns and threats. In FYs 2001-2002, the project will support the GOM’s efforts to restructure the Federal Judicial Police, including improved training and essential equipment and infrastructure, and specialized equipment, such as protective gear for dismantling of clandestine chemical labs.

                  Cocaine is transported from South America to Mexico by air, land, and increasingly, maritime conveyances. Maritime smuggling, which is very difficult to interdict, is the dominant method currently used by traffickers. INL project funding includes support for maritime and land interdiction, including bilateral work in post seizure analysis, which is critical to supporting investigations against the trafficking organizations. INL will also support a pilot project to improve maritime port security to detect and deter drug trafficking, with an emphasis on public and private sector cooperation.

                  The Anti-Money Laundering Project supports the Secretariat of the Treasury’s Financial Investigative Unit (FIU) and the Attorney General’s Office (PGR) Money Laundering Control Unit. The FIU is the GOM institution responsible for analyzing suspicious transaction reports and conducting audits for money laundering investigations, while the PGR unit carries out the criminal investigation and prosecution. The FY 2002 funding will enhance the capabilities of FIU and PGR operations by providing additional information management equipment, consultant services for software design upgrades, office equipment, and training.

                  The Counternarcotics Aviation Project was developed in the 1970’s to assist the PGR’s Air Services Division in eradicating illicit drug crops. It later expanded to support interdiction of drug shipments and other drug law enforcement operations. The success of Mexico’s longstanding eradication campaign is based largely on the PGR’s ability to spray drug crops or to transport eradication personnel anywhere in the country. While the GOM now funds all of the maintenance and operational costs of its large air fleet, INL funding will be used to assist with planning for fleet modernization and enhancing the unit’s operational capabilities and efficiencies.

                  In FY 2002, the program will assist the PGR with long-term support planning, costs for engine modifications or unanticipated repairs of the U.S.-leased aircraft, and for special purchases of test equipment. It will also cover specialized training, such as the use of night vision goggles, engine repair, pilot instructor training, and other activities aimed at promoting optimum safety and efficiency of this USG-provided aviation system.

                  The Demand Reduction Project responds to Mexican concern about increasing domestic drug consumption through a public information effort and drug prevention education for high-risk populations, principally in urban areas and in communities along the border. The project will support printed material and outreach programs, as well as curriculum for drug abuse and crime prevention. It will also facilitate implementation of the "Culture of Lawfulness" program in Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, and Sinaloa. This program embraces a long-term approach to reducing crime by raising student awareness of the harm that organized crime, corruption, and gangs have on their communities and their nation.

                  The Sustainable Development Project is a pilot activity designed to assist indigenous communities in narcotics producing or trafficking regions to avoid involvement in drug production and/or abuse. Many of these vulnerable communities are drawn to drug crop cultivation by economic desperation or by trafficker intimidation. Activities include prevention education, community mobilization, and the promotion of economic alternatives to poppy or marijuana cultivation.

                  Program Development and Support funds will provide for salaries, benefits and allowances of U.S. and foreign national personnel, short-term temporary duty (TDY) personnel, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

                  Effectiveness Measurements

                    Mexico

                    INL Budget

                    ($000)

                     
                     

                    FY 2000

                    FY 2001

                    FY 2002

                    Anticorruption/Judicial Sector Training

                    1,000

                    2,000

                    2,500

                    Special Prosecutor’s Office and Federal Judicial Police

                         

                    Counternarcotics Enforcement Support

                    Equipment, tech assistance and commo/computer equipment

                    1,250

                    4,500

                    5,500

                    Anti-Money Laundering Support

                    100

                    100

                    250

                    ADP equipment, training and miscellaneous support

                         

                    Counternarcotics Aviation Support

                    200

                    1,153

                    1,315

                    Repairs, training and advisors

                         

                    Demand Reduction

                    400

                    500

                    550

                    Use surveys, educ. materials

                         

                    Interdiction Support

                    350

                    350

                    Sustainable Development

                    50

                    55

                    50

                    Program Development and Support

                         

                    U.S. Personnel

                    659

                    957

                    1,010

                    FSN Personnel

                    152

                    114

                    125

                    Other Costs

                         

                    International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS)

                    137

                    151

                    195

                    Program Support

                    123

                    120

                    155

                    Subtotal

                    1,071

                    1,342

                    1,485

                    Total

                    4,071

                    10,000

                    12,000

                     

                    Latin America Regional Cooperation

                    Budget Summary ($000)

                    FY 2000
                    Actual

                    FY 2001
                    Estimated

                    FY 2002
                    Request

                    7,8061

                    7,957

                    12,500

                    _____________________

                    1Does not include $7.0 million in FY 2000 Emergency Supplemental funding.

                    Objectives

                      Justification

                      Goal Four of the National Drug Control Strategy is to shield America’s air, land, and sea frontiers from the drug threat. The countries covered by the Latin America Regional Account, which are primarily drug transit countries that lie between the U.S. and the major drug-producing countries, are facing increased challenges in dealing with changes in traditional drug production and trafficking patterns resulting from the recent increased pressure on the Andean countries. In addition, these countries are subject to increased pressure on their often-fragile social and justice institutions by trafficker violence, corruption, and increased drug abuse. While the U.S. needs the assistance of these countries in interdicting U.S.-bound drug shipments, they also need U.S. assistance to strengthen their law enforcement institutions, interdiction capacities and drug abuse prevention/treatment programs to protect their societies from the corrupting influences of narcotics trafficking.

                      Cooperative arrangements, bilateral and multilateral, are being established to increase the ability of governments to detect and interdict illicit drugs and other contraband. During 2000, the U.S. and the UK brought into force a maritime law enforcement cooperation agreement relevant to the Caribbean. The U.S. and the Dominican Republic extended the overflight agreement for an additional four years. In early 2001, a U.S.-Honduras Maritime Agreement entered into force, and Guyana signed a similar agreement. Law enforcement efforts in the Caribbean and in Central America appeared to force traffickers to shift routes from the western Caribbean to other areas, notably, the eastern Pacific where many multi-ton seizures have been made. Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, and Guatemala have signed Stolen Vehicle Treaties with the United States.

                      Financial crime is a major problem in numerous jurisdictions in Latin America and the Caribbean. In June 2000, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) listed six of them (Panama, The Bahamas, Cayman Islands, St. Kitts, St. Vincent and Dominica) as non-cooperative in relation to anti-money laundering; they were also placed under U.S. Treasury Department advisories. Five more jurisdictions in the Americas will be reviewed by FATF in its second round. There is an increased need for the U.S. to assist these countries to develop anti-money laundering regimes that meet international standards and the capabilities to implement them.

                      FY 2002 Programs. Latin America Regional funds will help nations such as Chile, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay to increase investigative, judicial and prosecutorial capabilities through training and modernization of local laws from money laundering to anticorruption. Regional funds will help improve interdiction capabilities of transit countries by providing training and equipment supported by a regional effort to negotiate bilateral maritime and multilateral law enforcement agreements as a means of increasing interdiction capabilities throughout the region. Regional narcotics affairs offices in Miami, Barbados and Guatemala help ensure that Latin America Regional funding is most effectively used to advance priority U.S. objectives and that programs in different countries complement and reinforce one another.

                      Caribbean: The U.S. will increase its assistance to upgrade Caribbean capabilities in interdiction, law enforcement and administration of justice. Regional funds will support increased efforts to detect and prosecute growing financial crime and governmental corruption in certain Caribbean states. Assistance in asset forfeiture and the development of Financial Intelligence Unites (FIUs) will be funded in part under the INL Regional Training and Anticrime programs. Latin America Regional funds will provide the U.S. Coast Guard’s Caribbean support tender with spare parts and needed local training to help upgrade the capabilities of the Caribbean states, including the Regional Security System of small states in the Eastern Caribbean, to interdict drug shipments. Starting in FY 2002, Latin America Regional funds will support salaries of RSS C-26 aircraft crews. Funds will support the creation, where appropriate, or upgrades for existing Joint Information Communications Centers (JICCs) with new equipment, software and training, and promote more real-time interchange of cueing information from maritime and air detection platforms to law enforcement entities. Funds will provide limited support for drug demand reduction activities.

                      Central America: Regional funds will continue to support efforts to modernize justice sector institutions and legal frameworks to allow successful prosecution of drug and arms traffickers, money launderers, alien smugglers, as well as corrupt public officials. Assistance will include such things as computer equipment to upgrade law enforcement, court, immigration, and anti-money laundering systems, maintenance and repair of vehicles and vessels, and upgraded communications equipment and training. Regional anticorruption, anti-alien smuggling and commercial freight tracking initiatives being developed throughout Central America will become operational during FY 2002 and will require continuing U.S. assistance to be effective. The U.S. will also support sub-regional initiatives aimed at cross-border cooperation, harmonization of legislation, and improved information sharing.

                      South America: Paraguay, Chile, Uruguay and Argentina are used by traffickers as transit routes for cocaine originating in Andean source countries as well as areas to launder money and obtain precursor chemicals. The FY 2002 plan includes support to Argentina to strengthen its capacity to disrupt trafficking at its land borders and commercial ports. Significant seizures of cocaine transiting Chile highlight the need to support GOC interagency counternarcotics coordination and efforts to tighten container shipping inspection protocols and overland transit. In Paraguay we will assist police to investigate and prosecute major traffickers and institutionalize training for those in charge of enforcing counternarcotics and anti-money laundering laws. In Uruguay equipment and training will be provided to sustain the drug enforcement efforts of several agencies charged with implementing GOU counternarcotics legislation.

                      Effectiveness Measurements

                         Latin America Regional Cooperation

                        INL Budget

                        ($000)

                         

                        FY 2000

                        FY 2001

                        FY 2002

                        Caribbean1

                        1,740

                        2,748

                        5,100

                        Country assistance, e.g., computers and support for JICCs and FIUs, investigative and other equipment, aviation support and salaries, demand reduction

                             

                        Central America2

                        2,600

                        2,996

                        4,800

                        Country assistance, e.g., operational support, herbicide, telecommunications, and other equipment; program development and support

                             

                        South America

                        347

                        711

                        900

                        Non-Andean country assistance, vehicles, radios and other equipment, operational support

                             

                        Regional

                        3,119

                        1,502

                        1,700

                        NAS Miami, Telecom advisor, CST spare parts

                             

                        Total

                        7,806

                        7,957

                        12,500

                        Emergency Supplemental Funding

                        7,000

                        Grand Total

                        14,806

                        7,957

                        12,500

                        _____________________

                        1Includes funding in support of a Narcotics Affairs Section in Barbados.
                        2Includes funding in support of a Narcotics Affairs Section in Panama.

                         
                      • Adoption and implementation of effective statutes against narcotics, money laundering and corruption;
                      • Increased numbers of signed six-part maritime agreements, especially with Central American countries, and the development of a Caribbean regional maritime agreement;
                      • Decrease in illegal drug production;
                      • Increased capabilities of regional counternarcotics law enforcement agencies, as demonstrated by larger quantities of drugs interdicted and seized or smuggling attempts deterred and increase in the number of traffickers arrested;
                      • Increased prosecutions of major drug traffickers and money launderers, including forfeiture of the proceeds of crime, and disruption of trafficker networks;
                      • Increased host nation capacity to prevent narcotics-related official corruption, and to investigate and prosecute corrupt security and justice officials;
                      • A decrease in drug abuse; and
                      • Increased regional public awareness of, and resistance to, drug trafficking and organized crime.
                      • Strengthen criminal justice institutions to respond more effectively to threats of drug trafficking and narcotics-related crime, including legislative and anticorruption efforts;
                      • Enhance capability of law enforcement to investigate, prosecute, seize and forfeit assets, interdict drug and chemical shipments and control money laundering;
                      • Develop bilateral and multilateral mutual legal assistance and extradition cooperation;
                      • Promote effective maritime enforcement throughout the region by entering into cooperation agreements supported by training, materiel and combined operations;
                      • Eradicate illegal drug cultivation by providing commodities and technical support;
                      • Reinforce hemispheric and sub-regional institutions that promote intergovernmental initiatives against drug abuse and drug-related crime.
                      • Increase in number, and importance, of traffickers arrested (e.g., the leaders, financial experts, transportation experts, security chiefs, etc.) as a result of Mexican investigations or cooperative GOM/USG law enforcement cooperation;
                      • Increase in detection and interception of trafficker vessels, vehicles, and aircraft, particularly maritime and increase in seizures of drugs;
                      • Increase in efficiency and effectiveness of criminal justice institutions in bringing drug violators, including money launderers, to justice;
                      • Increase in seizures of trafficker assets, including companies used to conceal operations or to launder drug profits;
                      • Increase in detection and prevention of diversion of precursor and essential chemicals, and seizures, particularly those related to methamphetamine production;
                      • Sustain drop in net production of heroin and marijuana; and
                      • Increase in public awareness of the dangers of drug abuse and trafficking and community-level involvement in drug abuse and crime prevention efforts.
                      • Prevent use of Mexican territory and territorial waters by drug trafficking organizations to move illicit drugs to the U.S.;
                      • Dismantle drug cartels and disrupt drug trafficking;
                      • Combat corruption and promote justice sector reform;
                      • Reduce and ultimately eliminate drug crop cultivation, production of methamphetamines, and other illicit pharmaceuticals;
                      • Control money laundering, including the seizure and forfeiture of trafficker assets; and
                      • Reduce demand for illicit drugs; mobilize communities against illicit drugs.
                      • Enhanced capability of the GOJ to enact and implement the full range of strong drug control measures;
                      • Increased cocaine seizures and reduction of harvestable marijuana cultivation;
                      • Improved capabilities of Jamaican law enforcement and criminal justice institutions, as evidenced by increased number of major drug traffickers and money launderers arrested, prosecuted and given adequately severe sentences upon conviction;
                      • Decreased time from delivery of U.S. extradition requests to conclusion of Jamaican extradition proceedings;
                      • Strengthened GOJ capability to prevent narcotics-related corruption and to investigate and prosecute corrupt security and justice officials; and
                      • Reduction in drug abuse by Jamaican citizens.
                      • Assist the Government of Jamaica (GOJ) to develop laws and regulations to control international organized crime, especially drug trafficking;
                      • Improve the ability of the GOJ to conduct sophisticated law enforcement operations, including drug interdiction, marijuana eradication, detection of the illegal diversion of precursor and essential chemicals, money laundering and asset forfeiture investigations, leading to the successful prosecution of drug traffickers, money launderers, and other criminals;
                      • Improve the GOJ’s ability to fulfill the terms of our bilateral mutual legal assistance and extradition treaties;
                      • Enhance Jamaican ability to identify and prevent narcotics-related corruption of public officials; and
                      • Assist the GOJ to prevent drug consumption among its citizens.
                      •  
                      • Increased institutional capability within the DOAN for illicit drug interdiction, opium poppy eradication and prosecution of traffickers;
                      • Adoption of measures, legislative or regulatory, to strengthen the judicial system, leading to an increase in effective prosecution of criminal cases under the new penal code; and
                      • Enhanced degree of drug awareness, demand reduction, and counternarcotics expertise developed among prosecutors, public health, media and educational institutions.
                      • Support interdiction of illicit drugs and essential drug producing chemicals transiting the country en route to the United States;
                      • Ensure opium poppy and marijuana cultivation remains at low levels through support of eradication operations;
                      • Improve counternarcotics and law enforcement capabilities, assist in the modernization of the judiciary, and support updated counternarcotics and money laundering legislation; and
                      • Increase public awareness of the dangers of illicit drug production, narcotics trafficking and drug abuse.

                      The Bahamas

                      INL Budget

                      ($000)



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