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International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2002 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 2001
Report
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 Laos

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2000
Actual

FY 2001
Estimated

FY 2002
Request

4,000

4,200

4,200

Objectives

    • Increase drug enforcement efforts to combat production and trafficking of heroin, opium and methamphetamine; and
    • Build Lao capacity to reduce opium production and narcotics refining.

    Justification

    Laos is the world’s third largest producer of illicit opium, generally grown in remote, mountainous areas largely populated by ethnic minority groups that have traditionally resisted the imposition of central authority. It is also one of the world’s poorest countries, with a lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail that continues to isolate rural villages from the market economy and most government services and influence. INL projects are aimed at building Lao capacity over the long term so those subsistence farmers who grow poppy have viable alternatives. According to U.S. estimates, cultivation increased six percent and production 50 percent to 210 metric tons in the 2000 growing season. Most of the increased production was attributed to better growing conditions. The crop substitution areas funded by the U.S. Government continued to show low levels of cultivation although areas developed compromise only a small percentage of the opium-growing region.

    Laos is also a transit route for Burmese drugs going to China, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia and beyond, and is increasingly coming under siege by drug traffickers. The first INL-supported counternarcotics police units, now in eight provinces, are slowly maturing and expanding their cooperation with other counternarcotics forces in the region. Seizures of methamphetamines rose 86 percent in 2000, an indication of the extent of the problem in Laos, and heroin seizures rose 38 percent. Opium and cannabis seizures declined by 65 and 15 percent respectively.

    The INL-funded alternative development project in Houaphanh Province has succeeded in meeting its goal of bringing opium production in the project area to below commercial levels. The project has included construction of rural access roads, irrigation and hydroelectric dams, clean water systems, local hospitals, and primary schools. New rice strains and commercial crops have been introduced; commercial weaving and silk production have been promoted. The project’s success has led to the USG-supported crop control project in Phongsali.

    The Government of Laos (GOL) convened its first national drug conference in March to discuss a new drug control master plan developed with UNDCP assistance, and in July signed project agreements with the UNDCP to implement that plan. The plan reinforces USG efforts, focusing on alternative development, law enforcement and demand reduction. The GOL secured a $20 million loan from the Asia Development Bank to cover part of the estimated $80 million cost and urged donors to support the plan. The GOL attended the UNDCP/ASEAN Congress on a Drug Free ASEAN and formally committed to the forum’s plan of action including the elimination of opium by 2008 and all drugs in the region by 2015.

    FY 2002 Programs. The Narcotics Crop Control Projects were concentrated in Houaphanh and Oudomxai provinces, the later in collaboration with UNDCP. Funding for both the Houaphanh and Oudomxai projects ended in 1999, although some residual activities extended into FY 2001.

    FY 2002 program funds will be used to expand the new crop control project begun in FY 1999 in Phongsali Province, and to support eradication efforts in areas that have received crop control assistance. Phongsali Province is the most important opium-producing province in Laos, according to the most recent UNDCP surveys, and has seen little development assistance because of its extremely remote location and lack of roads. The Phongsali project has begun with a heavy initial investment in road construction to provide access to markets and government services, which will be followed by support for improved food production and alternative income activities such as weaving and raising livestock. The first phase of a 72 kilometer road that will be the key to development projects has been completed and the second phase will begin soon.

    The goal of the Narcotics Law Enforcement Project is to improve Lao counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities and promote effective interaction with law enforcement agencies in the international community. Lao officials are regularly participating in ILEA Bangkok training programs to boost their own abilities and establish relationships with regional counterparts. In FY 2002, the project will continue to support the special Counter Narcotics Units (CNU) in eight provinces and house, equip, and train additional CNUs requested by the Lao, with the goal of having one in each of country’s seventeen province. Assistance will also continue to the Lao Customs Department and National Commission for Drug Control and Supervision, which oversees all GOL counternarcotics activities. Approximately half of the project request is for commodity support (e.g., vehicles, communication and investigative equipment and other supplies), with the balance for operational support, training and additional program support costs.

    The Program Development and Support funds provide salary and benefits for the direct-hire NAS position, an American PSC position, as well as for foreign national personnel, TDY assistance and other general administrative support costs.

    Effectiveness Measurements

      • Reduction, leading to elimination of opium cultivation in expanded project areas of Houaphanh, Oudomxai and Phongsali provinces; and
      • Improved enforcement effectiveness resulting in more heroin, opium and methamphetamine seizures and more arrests for drug trafficking.

       Laos

      INL Budget

      ($000)

       

       

      FY 2000

      FY 2001

      FY 2002

      Narcotics Crop Control

      Agricultural assistance, alternative economic activities, infrastructure improvements, roads, water sources, dams, demand reduction, public health and education

      3,310

      3,250

      3,245

      Narcotics Law Enforcement

      Commodities and training

      300

      500

      500

      Program Development and Support

           

      U.S. Personnel

      215

      260

      260

      Non-U.S. Personnel

      20

      16

      16

      Other Costs

           

      International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS)

      50

      60

      60

      Program Support

      105

      114

      119

      Subtotal

      390

      450

      455

      Total

      4,000

      4,200

      4,200

      Pakistan

      Budget Summary ($000)

      FY 2000
      Actual

      FY 2001
      Estimated

      FY 2002
      Request

      3,250

      3,500

      3,500

      Objectives

        • Build national capacities to target major trafficking organizations, strengthen the criminal justice system, and combat financial crime;
        • Promote interagency and regional cooperation, especially along the Afghan border and along the coast;
        • Continue to obtain extraditions through cooperative investigations;
        • Complete the elimination and prevent the return of poppy cultivation through eradication and development of viable economic alternatives for farmers; and
        • Increase political and public awareness of the negative impact of illegal drug use and trafficking.

        Justification

        During 2000 Pakistan dramatically decreased domestic cultivation of opium poppy from 1,570 to 515 hectares. Overall, poppy cultivation has declined from 8,530 hectares in 1992 when Pakistan was the world’s third largest illicit opium supplier. Small pockets of opium poppy cultivation still exist in the remote, politically autonomous tribal areas of the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), along the Afghanistan border. For the last three years, Afghanistan has been the world’s number one supplier of illicit opium gum for the heroin trade, now accounting for approximately 72 percent of illicit global production. Drugs from Afghanistan continue to pour into Pakistan, both for a rising local drug-using population and for transit to expanding markets in Europe and the region. Nevertheless, Pakistan continues to be an effective partner of the U.S. and the international community in fighting the Afghan drug trade, increasing opiate seizures in two successive years and forcing traffickers to develop new routes through Central Asia. Traffickers utilize numerous land routes through the Pakistani provinces of Baluchistan and the NWFP to ship drugs to onward destinations in the Persian Gulf, Iran, Turkey, Central Asia, Russia and Europe. The availability of inexpensive, high quality Afghan heroin in Pakistan seems to be promoting new trafficking from Pakistan to Southeast Asia and there are disturbing signs it is reinvigorating the Southwest Asian heroin trade to the U.S.

        The Government of Pakistan (GOP) continued to improve upon impressive efforts in poppy eradication and law enforcement over the past year. With drug control laws effective throughout the autonomous tribal areas along the Afghan border, long infamous as sanctuaries for traffickers and heroin labs, opium poppy cultivation plummeted 67 percent thanks to high level political support for aggressive eradication efforts and the success of U.S. alternative crop projects. The DEA and the Anti Narcotics Force (ANF) continued to strengthen cooperative investigations, bolstered by the establishment of a vetted ANF unit, or "Special Investigative Cell." This unit, USG funded and trained, has already identified and broken up two major international trafficking organizations and there are plans to expand operations in 2001.

        FY 2002 Programs. The Law Enforcement Project is strengthening Pakistani counternarcotics institutions by supplementing the resources of law enforcement agencies for more vigorous interdiction, investigation, and prosecution efforts, and improving bilateral and regional coordination on law enforcement issues. Assistance to the ANF will enhance its capabilities to prosecute traffickers and disrupt trafficking organizations. This project also funds training for government prosecutors, the special narcotics courts, attorneys and judges, and secures the services of competent prosecuting attorneys for counternarcotics agencies. A continued common goal is the investigation, arrest and extradition of fugitives wanted in either country for drug and related financial crimes. A significant new initiative is a project with a regional dimension to upgrade maritime interdiction in cooperation with countries to which drugs are trafficked from Pakistan, such as Oman. This GOP interagency undertaking utilizes the assistance of several U.S. agencies. Commodity assistance will include communication equipment, vehicles, computers, and technical equipment for expanded operations and offices. Another objective is to improve access and expand counternarcotics cooperation into the Khyber area in the NWFP, where the largest remaining pockets of poppy cultivation are located. Seminars on international financial crime and money laundering will assist the Pakistani Government in prosecuting violators and reforming national legislation.

        The Crop Control Project has succeeded in eliminating poppy cultivation in most areas of the NWFP, particularly in the traditional poppy growing areas of Mohmand and Bajaur. Road building has been the key by opening up physically and politically inaccessible areas. Rural electrification, irrigation and drinking water projects also contribute to the creation of infrastructures that sustain development and prevent a return to poppy cultivation. Roads integrate these areas into the national economy, facilitate farmers’ access to markets to sell food crops, aid in the eradication of opium poppy, and permit Pakistani law enforcement to reach clandestine heroin processing laboratories in remote areas. Poppy cultivation has declined steadily due to these projects, from a level of 8,000 hectares in 1993 to less than 55 hectares this past year. This budget request will consolidate these gains and start implementation of the crop control strategy in the remaining, more isolated, zones of poppy cultivation in Mohmand and Bajaur.

        Pakistan estimates that it has two to four million drug addicts, with a heroin user population twice that of the United States. The Demand Reduction Project will continue to promote drug awareness among social workers, the media, teachers, parents, and students with special events and through the media. Seminars and workshops for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are planned. A special effort will be to address the growing addict population by developing links between U.S and Pakistani health officials and NGO personnel in demand reduction, drug treatment and rehabilitation methodologies.

        Program Development and Support funds provide for salaries, benefits and allowances of permanently-assigned U.S. direct-hires, U.S. contractors and foreign national personnel, short-term TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

        Effectiveness Measurements

          • Disruption and dismantling of major trafficking organizations;
          • Elimination and prevention of the return of opium poppy cultivation in Pakistan;
          • Increased cooperation on drug seizures, arrests , convictions and extraditions;
          • Enhanced regional cooperation; and
          • Improved public awareness of the personal and societal costs of Pakistan’s serious drug problems and benefits derived through the reduction of drug abuse.

          Pakistan

          INL Budget

          ($000)

           

          FY 2000

          FY 2001

          FY 2002

          Narcotics Law Enforcement

          790

          1,180

          2,185

          Vehicles, radios and other equipment, training, operational support

               

          Crop Control1

          1,700

          1,450

          400

          Roads; irrigation, drinking water, and electrification projects; farm implements, seeds, fertilizer and operational costs

               

          Demand Reduction

          80

          100

          140

          Seminars, workshops, training, materials and supplies, travel and per diem of instructors and advisors, and other costs

               

          Program Development and Support

               

          U.S. Personnel

          362

          410

          436

          Non-U.S. Personnel

          75

          76

          77

          Other Costs

               

          International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS)

          162

          165

          170

          Program Support

          81

          119

          92

          Subtotal

          680

          770

          775

          Total

          3,250

          3,500

          3,500

          __________________

          1 An additional $1 million for Crop Control in Pakistan is included in the Southwest Asia Initiatives budget.

          Thailand

          Budget Summary ($000)

          FY 2000
          Actual

          FY 2001
          Estimated

          FY 2002
          Request

          3,000

          3,000

          4,000

          Objectives

            • Target traffickers and their organizations, and obtain extraditions through cooperative investigations;
            • Implement new money laundering legislation and develop other legal enforcement rules, such as conspiracy, plea bargain, and broader evidentiary laws;
            • Continue to eliminate poppy cultivation through eradication and development of viable economic alternatives for farmers;
            • Expand and improve drug abuse awareness and demand reduction activities, and improve drug control institutions through interagency coordination and institutional development; and
            • Expand Thailand’s role as a regional leader in drug control programs.

            Justification

            The amount of opium produced in Thailand is dwarfed by the amount produced elsewhere in Southeast Asia, especially in Burma. Thailand has one of the most successful narcotic crop control programs in the world, and opium must now be imported to meet the requirements of domestic consumption. Thailand is also a drug transit country, although its importance there has declined somewhat as smugglers have developed new routes. Nevertheless, good roads in northern part of the country connect refineries in Burma with the rest of Thailand’s excellent transportation system, including its position as a regional airline hub. Methamphetamines are a serious concern, both because of the trafficking issue and domestic consumption.

            The enormous success of Thai-U.S. bilateral cooperation is evident from 2000 USG crop estimates that show a second straight year in which fewer than 1,000 hectares of opium cultivation were available for harvest after the eradication program, less than one percent of overall cultivation in South East Asia. The International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) is a joint Thai-U.S. endeavor to improve regional law enforcement skills and foster coordination in countering narcotics and transnational crime. ILEA has trained over 1,281 law enforcement and judicial officers since it opened in March 1999 and it cements Thailand’s role as a leader in regional drug control programs. Thailand also cooperates extensively with the United States on extradition requests.

            In addition, the Thai have begun to address deficiencies in their legal system. Implementing regulations for the 1999 Money Laundering legislation came into effect in September, 2000 and reporting requirements for all financial transactions of more than 2 million baht ($48,000) began in October.

            FY 2002 Programs. The additional resources requested for FY 2002 will be directed principally toward law enforcement and legal reform. The main focus of the Narcotics Law Enforcement Project is law enforcement institution building to obtain results in targeting significant traffickers. FY 2002 resources will provide training, equipment and improved coordination throughout the country. Newer areas of concern are the Cambodia, Laos, and Malaysia border areas and Thailand’s long coastlines. Additional resources will be needed to bring law enforcement in these areas up to the level of the North, where, due to previous production and trafficking patterns, the majority of assistance had been targeted. The project supports upgrading the skills of new law enforcement officers, provides computers and supplies, and supports a variety of other endeavors, such as training of prosecutors and judges and promoting respect for the rule of law.

            The Crop Control Project focuses on eradication and low-cost, small-scale development projects. Poppy cultivation has been reduced from 9,600 hectares in 1986 to less than 1,000 hectares in 1999 and 2000. Besides providing ongoing development assistance in 42 opium-growing villages working primarily through the Royal Thai Army and other Thai Government agencies, the FY 2002 funding request will continue to support the annual destruction of approximately half the poppy fields. Since under Thai law army funds cannot be used for crop eradication purposes, continuing U.S. funding is critical to achieving this goal.

            The Legal Reform Project, to be launched in FY 2001 with regional account funds, addresses the Thai government’s recent willingness to confront narcotics-related crime. The Thais’ deep concern over the influx of methamphetamines have led them to begin changes to their legal system to make it more efficient and to put to use modern prosecutorial tools, such as wiretap evidence. This will benefit the USG in that the same organizations that traffic methamphetamines to Thailand are trafficking heroin to the U.S. FY 2002 support will be provided in the form of technical assistance, to include legal advisors.

            The Demand Reduction Programs have been well received by Thai society. A consensus has emerged that use of illegal drugs is a national crisis. The Royal Thai Government (RTG) realizes that the long-term solution to drug abuse lies in demand as well as supply reduction. INL provides modest funding support for RTG and NGO demand reduction training, counternarcotics community outreach through a nationwide network of community colleges, the police, the Office of Narcotics Control Board (ONCB), and the border patrol. INL also supports epidemiological and drug prevention studies. INL also supported RTG efforts to develop programs to reduce methamphetamine abuse.

            The Regional Narcotics Control Assistance Project funds regional meetings, workshops, and training. Activities are based on U.S.-Thai enforcement goals with Thai agencies assisting and/or consulting with third country counterparts to include ASEAN members and other countries.

            Program Development and Support funds provide for salaries, benefits and allowances for a permanently-assigned U.S. direct-hire position, four local foreign nationals and contractor personnel, as well as short term TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

            Effectiveness Measures

              • Continued high levels of heroin seizures, arrests and convictions of major drug traffickers;
              • Disruption and dismantling of major trafficking organizations;
              • Prosecutions based on the Anti-Money Laundering Act and continued reform of the judicial and legal process through statutory change;
              • Suppression of opium cultivation, aiming at cultivation sustained below 1,000 hectares ; and
              • Increased regional cooperation on seizures, arrests and convictions.

              Thailand

              INL Budget

              ($000)

               

              FY 2000

              FY 2001

              FY 2002

              Narcotics Law Enforcement

                   

              Commodities

              Investigative and communications equipment, vehicles

              817

              709

              950

              Training

              342

              350

              400

              Other Costs

               

              100

              200

              Task force support, personnel and project support, travel

                   

              Subtotal

              1,159

              1,159

              1,550

              Crop Control

                   

              Commodities

              Agricultural supplies, construction materials, training and survey equipment, vehicles, eradication and communications equipment

              73

              73

              100

              Other Costs

              624

              624

              700

              Technical assistance, training, survey support, agricultural extension and marketing assistance and other project costs

                   

              Subtotal

              697

              697

              800

              Legal Reform Program

              500

              Demand Reduction

              344

              344

              350

              Regional Assistance

              150

              150

              150

              Program Development and Support

                   

              U.S. Personnel

              143

              155

              162

              Non-U.S. Personnel

              65

              77

              85

              Other Costs

                   

              International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS)

              188

              190

              200

              Program Support

              254

              228

              203

              Subtotal

              650

              650

              650

              Total

              3,000

              3,000

              4,000

              Asia Regional Cooperation

              Budget Summary ($000)

              FY 2000
              Actual

              FY 2001
              Estimated

              FY 2002
              Request

              4,798

              3,328

              7,050

              Objectives

                • Encourage countries to adopt and implement strong narcotics control legislation, improve the efficiency and effectiveness of judicial institutions to bring drug offenders to justice, and develop bilateral and multilateral mutual legal assistance cooperation;
                • Strengthen host nation counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities to deal with drug trafficking and production, including the rising threat of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS), money laundering, and other crimes;
                • Develop governmental and NGO institutional capabilities to address drug abuse and prevention; and
                • Reduce the cultivation and production of illegal drugs through sustainable development and eradication programs.

                Justification

                Available intelligence indicates that the flow of heroin and other contraband to the U.S. is increasing while U.S. addiction rates are rising. The flow of illicit substances to U.S. shores cannot be stemmed without adequate support for counternarcotics efforts by cooperating governments in a region that covers over half the globe. The Asia regional account complements U.S. drug control funding provided through international organizations, such as the UNDCP. While illicit drug production in Southeast Asia has declined due to poor weather and stronger enforcement, opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan has taken the world lead by far. Drug trafficking continues to proliferate through South and East Asia and into the Middle East and Africa, as local criminal organizations prosper and develop into regional, interregional and global networks. Weak governments with poorly developed and financed law enforcement infrastructures provide fertile environments in which trafficking organizations have flourished. Traffickers seek to exploit weak law enforcement environments to create networks reaching from Southwest Asia to Africa and the United States. A relatively new phenomenon is the rapid increase in illicit amphetamine-type-stimulant (ATS) production and trafficking by Southeast Asian organizations that also traffic in heroin. This explosion in ATS trafficking and abuse threatens the stability of our traditional Asian allies and trading partners, and is beginning to penetrate the U.S. market for ATS. The transnational character of illicit narcotics trafficking requires a regional approach for multilateral and bilateral programs.

                FY 2002 Programs. The regional cooperation program is designed to help governments begin establishing counternarcotics law enforcement units, obtain training or equipment, and conduct demand reduction/public awareness campaigns. The intent is not to establish permanent programs, but to provide seed money for countries to help themselves and to complement UNDCP and other donor programs. The increase proposed in FY 2002 to strengthen law enforcement and judicial institutions in East Asia, counter the new threat in East Asia posed by ATS trafficking, and boost commodity support to counternarcotics agencies coping with a proliferation of trafficking routes throughout all of Asia.

                East Asia: The program in East Asia is designed to strengthen countries’ law enforcement and judicial institutions and to help them develop the capability to deal with drug abuse by providing training and equipment. Indonesia, with its weak institutions, has become a transit point as well as destination for illicit narcotics and is a new focus of our counternarcotics and law enforcement enhancement efforts. Institutional development and material assistance is also needed in China, Vietnam and Cambodia, where drug trafficking and abuse are rapidly growing problems, but whose governments have limited experience and capabilities in confronting these challenges. The program will also assist countries in developing legislative and judicial structures to deal more effectively with drug trafficking and money laundering. Small programs to enhance law enforcement and demand reduction capabilities are planned for a variety of countries in the region. The U.S. will also encourage and enhance existing regional cooperation in addressing narcotics control, including the East Asian regional campaign against ATS trafficking.

                South Asia: Indian and Sri Lankan official have seized large amounts of heroin in transit from central India to Sri Lank, documenting a major new heroin trafficking route. Indian officials also report interdictions of precursor chemicals such as acetic anhydride to the Persian Gulf and ephedrine to Burma. The drug trade in Northeast India is a growing international concern. In India, the program will provide equipment to an array of geographically dispersed state and federal law enforcement agencies to improve their investigative and interdiction capacities against increasingly sophisticated and high-tech transnational and local drug trafficking organizations. Funding will be used to continue to furnish commodities to India’s licit opium program to help it detect and prevent the diversion of opium by licensed farms. Support for an important opium yield survey will also continue. In Bangladesh, surrounded by major drug-producing countries, this program will respond to a growing drug transit trade in South Asian heroin by providing equipment and technical expertise to law enforcement agencies inexperienced in counternarcotics operations. Small programs to enhance law enforcement and demand reduction are planned for other countries in the region.

                Effectiveness Measurements

                  • Increased national political and financial commitment to combat crime and illegal narcotics production and trafficking;
                  • Increased institutional capacities of law enforcement agencies measured by quantities of drugs interdicted, arrests of major criminals and disruption of trafficking networks;
                  • Adoption of effective counternarcotics and money laundering legislation and counter-corruption measures;
                  • Effective use of counternarcotics legislation, including conspiracy and asset forfeiture statutes;
                  • Reduction in diversions of India’s licit opium crop; and
                  • Increased public awareness of the dangers of drug abuse, decreased levels of drug abuse, and increased resources committed to the problem by host governments.

                  Asia Regional

                  INL Budget

                  ($000)

                   

                   

                  FY 2000

                  FY 2001

                  FY 2002

                  Commodities

                  2,250

                  1,400

                  3,050

                  Vehicles, communications equipment, information systems, investigative and other equipment

                       

                  Other Costs

                  2,448

                  1,828

                  3,700

                  Training and operations support, surveys

                       

                  U.S. Personal

                  100

                  100

                  300

                  TDY experts, technicians

                       

                  Total

                  4,798

                  3,328

                  7,050

                   

                  Southwest Asia Initiative

                  Budget Summary ($000)

                  FY 2000
                  Actual

                  FY 2001
                  Estimated

                  FY 2002
                  Request

                  3,000

                  Objectives

                    • Eliminate opium poppy cultivation in Southwest Asia;
                    • In Pakistan, support and extend successful crop control programs; and,
                    • In Afghanistan, support similar crop control programs that will be delivered directly to Afghan farmers.

                    Justification

                    Southwest Asia produces more opium than any other region in the world. Three consecutive years of record opium production levels in Afghanistan have made inexpensive, high quality Afghan heroin available throughout the world. Large quantities of Southwest Asian heroin are destined for Europe and some for North America. The Afghan drug trade also adversely affects U.S. interests through its links to international terrorism and by fostering instability in the region. The drug trade is behind rising crime, corruption, drug addiction, and HIV infection in Central, Southwest, and South Asia, and is a source of income for organized crime groups stretching across Russia into Europe and the U.S. To help stem the flow of heroin to the U.S. the Administration proposes the provision of $15 million over a five year period for crop control/alternative development programs in Southwest Asia.

                    In Afghanistan, the U.S. will participate in multilateral programs through the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) aimed at ending poppy cultivation permanently. U.S. criteria for participation include requirements for local authorities to take active counternarcotics measures against the drug trade and to have a verification mechanism to measure compliance with performance benchmarks. INL will consider funding for small-scale alternative development projects with NGOs.

                    Traditionally a major source of illicit opium, Pakistan has fought to eliminate poppy cultivation from its territory. INL is building on this largely successful program with a consolidation project to prevent the return of poppy cultivation to project areas. In addition, INL expects to launch a joint U.S.-Pakistan initiative to curb remaining pockets of cultivation and drug trafficking in the Khyber Agency of the Northwest Frontier Province.

                    Effectiveness Measurements

                      • Progressive elimination of opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan and in remaining pockets of Pakistan;
                      • Reduced drug flows from the region;
                      • Elimination of opium markets, stockpiles, and heroin manufacturing facilities in Afghanistan, due to a reduced supply of opium; and,
                      • Revival of licit crop cultivation in Afghanistan.

                      Southwest Asia Initiatives

                      INL Budget

                      ($000)

                       

                       

                      FY 2000

                      FY 2001

                      FY 2002

                      Opium Crop Reduction

                           

                      Commodities

                      Farm implements, seed, fertilizer and other agricultural supplies, construction materials, training and survey equipment, vehicles, eradication and communications equipment

                      1,800

                      Other Costs

                      1,200

                      Technical assistance, training, survey support, rental of construction equipment, agricultural extension and marketing assistance and other project costs

                           

                      Total

                      3,000



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