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International Organizations


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2002 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 2001
Report
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Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2000
Actual

FY 2001
Estimated

FY 2002
Request

12,000

12,000

18,000

Objectives

    • Maintain strategic leadership in guiding the international drug control effort and create a political atmosphere motivating other countries to view drug control as a major foreign policy concern and to strengthen domestic measures;
    • Assist countries in developing the institutional infrastructures required to reduce the production and trafficking of drugs by strengthening law enforcement agencies, modernizing judicial systems, and developing drug laws to investigate, prosecute, and punish major drug kingpins, and to reduce the demand for drugs;
    • Use international organizations to plan and execute programs which expand multilateral cooperation, advance U.S. international drug control goals, or take the place of U.S.-funded programs in countries where there is limited U.S. presence, or where multilateral organizations are more palatable to countries with sovereignty sensitivities; and
    • Support efforts to make drug control an integral part of UN programs and ensure that a wide range of UN assistance furthers counternarcotics goals.

    Justification

    As a result of the June 1998 United Nations General Assembly Special Session, international organizations (IOs) are becoming increasingly important to international drug control efforts. This supports the U.S. objective of renewing the global commitment to reduce demand for drugs, eliminate illicit drug crops, and combat illicit drug production, and emphasizes attention to multilateral issues such as chemical control, money laundering and maritime cooperation. The Summit of the Americas process has, likewise, strengthened commitment among countries of the Western Hemisphere to close antidrug cooperation. It is essential that INL take advantage of greater international engagement on drug-related issues by supporting IO programs that help to establish high standards for antidrug strategies and promote multinational cooperation.

    U.S. support for the counternarcotics programs of multilateral organizations complements our bilateral and unilateral programs by stimulating cooperation among countries and regions. Multilateral approaches offer distinct advantages over unilateral action. They counter the misperception that drugs are exclusively a U.S. problem, generate increased "buy in" by more countries, broaden the base of support, and stimulate contributions from other donors. Multilateral programs can also reach regions where the U.S. is unable to operate bilaterally, for political or logistical reasons. In addition, activities or initiatives sponsored by the UN, OAS and other multilateral organizations are often more palatable to countries with sovereignty sensitivities and bring the weight of the international community to bear on a problem or an issue of general concern.

    INL provides direct funding to international organizations such as UNDCP, OAS/CICAD and the Colombo Plan’s Drug Advisory Program, and through them, to smaller sub-regional programs or organizations. Additionally, UN agencies, the international financial institutions, and multilateral banks engaged in development programs in drug source countries can have a major positive impact by factoring counternarcotics goals into their activities. INL encourages program collaboration among these organizations.

    UNDCP. The significant increase in the U.S. contribution to the UN drug effort in 1999 helped to foster greater international focus on implementing the commitments of the UN conventions, particularly in developing and promoting programs to eliminate illicit crops. U.S. contributions to UNDCP have had significant impact on the operations and targets these and other UN counternarcotics programs. In addition, for most donor countries, the UN is their primary—or only—vehicle for contributing to international drug control efforts. Active U.S. engagement is key to keeping them involved in and committed to what must be a truly international effort. The U.S. and other major contributing states have been concerned about recognized management problems at UNDCP. At the insistence of the U.S. and others, UNDCP is putting in place significant management reforms to provide greater transparency and accountability in program design and evaluation and in financial management. The U.S. is carefully monitoring the implementation of these reforms.

    U.S. contributions to UNDCP have fostered an expansion of the Southeast Asia program that targets the second largest opium producer, Burma, where opium production is beginning to decline. This UN-led program encompasses China, Thailand and Laos, and includes projects in the Wa-controlled area of Burma and major alternative development projects in Laos. In South and Central Asia, we are supporting the provision of training and advice to bolster law enforcement and customs institutions in areas surrounding Afghanistan, and alternative development projects in Pakistan. In addition, U.S. contributions to UNDCP support enhanced coordination of bilateral and multilateral aid to Central Europe and the New Independent states (NIS); chemical control investigative training in Southeast Asia and Latin America; a maritime training program; anti-money laundering assistance; a regional training project in the Caribbean to train prosecutors and judges on narcotics-related cases; a Caribbean regional program to assess and coordinate all aid to the region; a regional forensic laboratory in Central America; a program in the region of Southern Africa to assist nations in the development and implementation of counternarcotics legislation; a demand reduction training center for Central European nations; and legislation on counternarcotics laws in Central Europe and the NIS to implement the 1988 UN Convention.

    OAS/CICAD. With intensification of regional antidrug engagement in the Western Hemisphere over the past five years, the demands for OAS involvement in the counternarcotics arena have also increased significantly. The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (OAS/CICAD), which has played a key role in building this hemispheric consensus on drugs and channeling our collective efforts, has become even more critical to U.S. international objectives in the wake of the 1998 Santiago Summit of the Americas. At the Summit, the Heads of State endorsed a hemispheric antidrug alliance and committed to implement the Antidrug Strategy in the Hemisphere. The Summit Action Plan also endorsed a proposal by the U.S. for a peer review system to evaluate national and regional counternarcotics performances in implementing the goals of the hemispheric drug strategy and the 1988 UN Convention. The resulting Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) was approved by CICAD in late 1999 and the results of the first review were presented to heads of state tat the Quebec Summit in April 2001 where countries committed to implementation of the MEM findings. INL provided funding to the CICAD Secretariat to support both the evaluation process and follow-on training and technical assistance required by Member States to comply with the MEM recommendations. The success of the MEM will be measured by how effectively they are implemented by individual countries. It will be critical for the Secretariat to have sufficient funding to respond to requests from Member States for technical assistance or training to address the most critical shortcomings. As CICAD’s principal funding source, INL financial support will be essential, both to support the MEM and to respond programmatically to its findings and recommendations. The MEM is being watched closely by the EU, the UN and other bodies as a possible model for monitoring national compliance with other multilateral agreements or conventions.

    OAS/CICAD is active in all areas of drug control; the principal project areas are legal development, control measures/law enforcement, demand reduction/prevention/treatment, and alternative development. It also manages a hemispheric information system—the Inter-American Observatory on Drugs—encompassing demand and supply/seizure data as well as a data bank of documents and reference materials. CICAD works with governments to assist them in developing national data collection and analysis systems to provide the information necessary to perform threat assessments, develop sound policies and programs, and to be able to respond quickly to emerging problems. This capability is also critical to governments in participating effectively in the MEM. The Inter-American Telecommunications Network for Drug Control (RETCOD) is designed to improve the ability of national drug commissions to communicate with each other and with other international partners.

    INL contributions have supported projects in all of these areas. Some direct results include: model regulations on money laundering and asset forfeiture, chemical diversion, and trafficking in firearms, (along with training and technical assistance to implement them); national drug strategies; a regional Central American legal development and training center which assists governments in developing counternarcotics laws and sentencing guidelines; a regional demand reduction strategy for the hemisphere; coordination of demand reduction programming for street children and women; drug abuse prevention programs for under-served indigenous communities in Central America; drug abuse prevention and treatment training for nursing school personnel, counselors and others who work with street children; projects to promote communication and cooperation among regional customs services, among port authorities, and drug law enforcement agencies; establishment of a telecommunications network for control of precursor chemicals in the Andean producer countries and neighbor states.

    CICAD supports a number of projects that support alternative development and supply reduction: the Generalized Land-Use Evaluation and Management Tool (GLEAM) maps land use, both legal and illegal, which support law enforcement and alternative development and integrated pest management projects assist growers of viable legitimate crops (e.g., coffee, cacao, bananas) working in drug crop-producing areas. CICAD supports money laundering prevention programs for financial institutions throughout the hemisphere, including training for bank regulators and supervisory agencies, judges, prosecutors, and financial intelligence/analysis units. CICAD has conducted youth gang prevention seminars to assist regional governments confront this growing regional threat to our youth, and to public safety.

    Colombo Plan. As a result of the Colombo Plan’s technical support in Southwest and Southeast Asia, nations have developed national-level drug secretariats similar to the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy (e.g., the Office of the Narcotics Control Board in Thailand), self-sufficient prevention, education, treatment, and after-care programs, and national- and regional-level networks of public and private sector demand reduction programs that are designed to build strong public support and strengthen the political will. One area of interest to the international community is the model after-care and programs for juveniles and adults developed in Southeast Asia that can be replicated throughout the world.

    U.S. contributions to the Colombo Plan’s Drug Advisory Program (DAP) are having a significant impact on the development and administration of demand reduction programs, not only in Southeast and Southwest Asia, but also in the international arena. The DAP assisted with the creation of the first-ever international network of drug prevention NGOs through their co-sponsorship of international drug prevention summits in Peru (1998), Bangkok (1999), and Italy (2000), and will host the fourth summit in Malaysia in 2002. The level of U.S. contributions has led to increased commitment from other donors, particularly Japan, Korea, Australia, and the European Community. Recent INL contributions to the DAP have fostered: development of host government-funded treatment programs in Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia, China and the Philippines; development of a coalition of drug prevention programs in Southwest Asia; development of the life skills drug prevention curriculum for Southwest and Southeast Asian school systems; a major regional coalition of drug prevention programs in Southeast Asia (IFNGO); and a number of host government-funded community and school-based prevention initiatives in ASEAN countries with IFNGO support.

    FY 2002 Programs. UNDCP. FY 2002 presents a prime opportunity for the U.S. to capitalize and build on the international consensus for a "balanced approach," recognizing that both supply and demand aspects require concerted action. The emergence of synthetic drug abuse has also energized a number of countries most affected by that phenomenon. In this promising atmosphere, the U.S. needs to keep up the momentum toward the UNGASS goal of eliminating or significantly reducing the illicit production of narcotics by 2008, as well as the other UNGASS targets. UNDCP has established itself as a respected, effective channel to pursue these unified goals. With its sharpened "thematic" focus, UNDCP is attacking all aspects of the drug issue, from prevention/reduction of abuse, to elimination of illicit crops, to the nexus with international crimes such as money laundering.

    FY 2002 contributions will allow UNDCP to assist countries to capitalize on the decline in opium production in Pakistan and Burma. INL funds will be used to conduct projects in the largest opium producing areas of South East Asia, where the U.S. has limited access (e.g., Burma, China, Vietnam, Cambodia) and to leverage additional European support for programs in Southwest Asia, especially in Afghanistan and Pakistan, including an enhanced interdiction strategy in the surrounding region. They will also be dedicated to programs to: strengthen drug control institutions and regional cooperation in the NIS; coordinate and provide law enforcement training, judicial assistance, and demand reduction assistance to Russia and Africa; strengthen Western Hemisphere institutions in the investigation, prosecution, and confinement of major drug traffickers; and continue legal advice on legislation to implement the 1988 UN Convention. Through UNDCP "global" programs, FY 2002 contributions will bolster new international initiatives to control the precursor chemicals used in illicit drug production. With UNDCP support, "Operation Purple" (cocaine precursor) and "Operation Topaz" (heroin precursor) have scored significant successes and opened the way to similar efforts on precursors for synthetic drugs. Similarly, UNDCP’s engagement in anti-money laundering merits substantial U.S. support because of its strong comparative advantage over any single country in providing technical assistance in this crucial area.

    OAS/CICAD. CICAD’s solid track record in designing and implementing effect programs and graining has attracted a widening source of international donors. INL continues to be the largest funding source. The FY 2002 budget request will support the effective operation of the MEM and enable CICAD to provide the follow-up training and technical support that Member States will need to remedy the shortcomings identified by the MEM. INL will fund program activities to strengthen national drug commissions; develop and implement comprehensive national drug strategies; promote regional cooperation on the control of drug smuggling, money laundering, chemical diversion, and arms trafficking; provide specialized law enforcement training, such as customs inspection and maritime interdiction; promote administration of justice reform; reduce or prevent drug abuse; develop or refine sub-regional models and curricula for drug awareness and crime prevention/anti-gang education; promote best practices or establish regional standards for drug treatment; mobilize communities against drug abuse and trafficking; and promote sustainable alternative development in narcotics-producing regions. It will also be used to reinforce practical, effective sub-regional cooperation, such as in Central America, the Andes, and the Caribbean, to address cross-border or spillover effects of the drug problem.

    Colombo Plan. INL funds will expand the Colombo Plan’s regional networks of public/private sector demand reduction organizations, in addition to linking the Asian networks to their counterparts in Latin America and other regions. These regional and international networks will allow us to mobilize Asian and international opinion and cooperation against the drug trade, encourage governments to develop and implement strong antidrug policies and programs, and strengthen support for USG counternarcotics policies and objectives in the Asian region.

    Increased FY 2002 funding will enable the Colombo Plan to assist Southeast and Southwest Asian countries to more adequately address the rapidly expanding Amphetamine Type Stimulant (ATS) epidemic that is sweeping across the region and becoming a threat to the United States. Programs will also include the development of research-based treatment programs to address methamphetamine and other ATS abuse; expansion of the life-skills drug prevention curriculum throughout school systems in South Asia; expanded technical assistance on the development of after-care facilities, with initial research findings benefiting U.S.-based programs; expansion of Asian regional prevention and treatment networks; and increased participation of Asian organizations in the Global Drug Prevention Network.

    Effectiveness Measurements

      • Increase in scope of UNDCP programs to target all aspects of the drug problem and achievement of clearer demonstrations of recipient commitment and buy-in;
      • Increase the number of INDC programs targeting sub-regions rather than individual countries, better responding to the transnational reality of the drug trade;
      • Establishment of stronger evaluation components in al UN and OAS programs to ensure the achievement of genuine counternarcotics goals;
      • Increase in the number of countries developing comprehensive national drug strategies;
      • Increase in number of countries becoming party to the 1988 Convention and in the development of national institutions and laws needed to achieve the Convention’s goals;
      • Reduction/elimination of illicit drug crops; promotion of sustainable development as measured by drug cultivation areas converted to legitimate crops or other licit activities;
      • Increase in the capabilities of counternarcotics personnel as indicated through increased arrest and prosecution rates, and reduction in drug use rates; and
      • Increase in the number of national programs devoted to controlling transnational drug trafficking threats, notably maritime interdiction and chemical diversion control.

      International Organizations

      INL Budget

      ($000)

       

      FY 2000

      FY 2001

      FY 2002

      UN International Drug Control Program

      9,000

      9,400

      13,500

      OAS/CICAD

      2,800

      2,300

      4,200

      Colombo Plan

      200

      300

      300

      Total

      12,000

      12,000

      18,000



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