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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Anticrime Programs


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2002 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 2001
Report
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Budget Summary1 ($000)

FY 2000
Actual

FY 2001
Estimated

FY 2002
Request

30,000

45,000

55,000

_________________________

1In FY 2000, INL was transferred or allocated $15.6 million in FREEDOM Support Act (FSA), $81.16 million in Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act funds, and $25.9 million in PKO funds. INL anticipates receiving FSA, SEED Act, ESF and PKO funds in FY 2001 and FY 2002.

The international crime threat to U.S. interests is manifest across three broad, interrelated fronts: threats to Americans and their communities, threats to American businesses and financial institutions, and threats to global security and stability. The impact of international crime is felt directly on the streets and in the communities of the United States; hundreds of thousands of individuals enter illegally each year, and there is wide-scale smuggling of drugs, firearms, stolen cars, child pornography, and other contraband across our borders. Criminals seek to protect their anonymity and their wealth by laundering their profits through the vast, complex, and unevenly regulated international banking and financial systems. We need to confront these activities and those who carry them out decisively with comprehensive, coordinated, and effective law enforcement, intelligence and diplomatic efforts that include forging crime control alliances with our international partners.

The U.S. is making strides globally towards enhancing international cooperation in the fight against international organized crime. In FY 2000, over 4,000 law enforcement officers worldwide received training under INL’s Anticrime Training and Technical Assistance Program. In addition to training, INL provides technical assistance, equipment and other assistance to countries to combat transnational crimes such as alien smuggling, trafficking in stolen vehicles, illegal trafficking in small arms and firearms, trafficking in persons, and money laundering and other financial crimes. INL also has programs in anticorruption, border controls, rule of law, critical infrastructure protection, and intellectual property rights. INL will continue these training and technical assistance programs in FY 2002.

INL uses federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP), the Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development and Training (OPDAT), and other organizations to provide law enforcement training programs and technical assistance to Russia and other countries in the NIS, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia. Multilateral organizations are another implementation mechanism, and INL provides contributions to several, including the UN Center for International Crime Prevention, the Financial Action Task Force, the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force, and the Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), a group created under the auspices of the Council of Europe.

FY 2002 Programs. The FY 2002 budget request is based on the requirements set forth in PDD-42, "International Organized Crime," and the Administration’s International Crime Control Strategy and reflects the consolidated management of law enforcement and police training programs. INL will use federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP), the Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development (OPDAT), and other organizations to provide law enforcement training programs and technical assistance to the NIS, Russia, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia. The program will place significant emphasis on combating organized crime, financial crimes, money laundering, migrant smuggling, and weapons trafficking. Funding for these programs will continue to come, as they have in the past, through a combination of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) funds, FREEDOM Support Act funds, and Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act funds. FY 2001 and FY 2002 programs in Africa will be funded from the Africa Regional Anticrime budget, while they were funded out of the Anticrime program in FY 2000.

Alien Smuggling

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2000
Actual

FY 2001
Estimated

FY 2002
Request

1,092

1,250

3,400

Objectives

    • Interdict and halt alien smuggling as far from our borders as possible;
    • Attack criminal smuggling organizations at all points of their organizational structure;
    • Work closely with international partners to combat alien smuggling;
    • Provide technical assistance and training to foreign immigration and police officials; and
    • Coordinate the activities of the interagency alien smuggling community in its efforts to disrupt major alien smuggling rings operating both domestically and overseas.

    Justification

    Smuggling in illegal migrants is a widespread, expanding, and increasingly sophisticated criminal industry. The United Nations estimates that nearly four million human beings are smuggled and trafficked across national boundaries every year, and roughly $7 billion are paid to criminal organizations involved in alien smuggling. Viewed from a global perspective, smuggling in illegal migrants is a widespread criminal industry. This trade has a serious and direct impact on the United States. According to the U.S. Government’s recent International Crime Threat Assessment, some 500,000 illegal aliens are brought into the United States annually by organized crime smuggling networks. They arrive from around the world; Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands are the major sources in the Western Hemisphere; China, India, and Pakistan are the major sources in Asia. They often take indirect routes to get here; Chinese organizations, for instance, will frequently direct their operations through South and Central America. Eventually, most of the illegal aliens enter the United States by way of Mexico and Canada.

    Foreign governments and law enforcement authorities are sometimes reluctant to dedicate resources to alien smuggling cases because they see this as a victimless crime. The reality is that migrants are often subjected to inhumane or dangerous treatment and in some cases to violence. In addition, alien smuggling has a corrosive effect on the integrity of public institutions since bribery is a key component of the alien smuggler’s trade.

    INL is increasing efforts to combat alien smuggling. We have provided funding to ICITAP to conduct a training course for mid-level managers in developing countries on ways to combat international migrant smuggling and illegal migration. The course is designed to provide technical, legal, and managerial training to enhance the participating foreign official’s ability to professionally and effectively implement border security. INL has also provided funding to ICITAP to deliver a training course designed to provide senior instructors and training managers with the skills to develop and manage basic immigration law enforcement training. INL initiated a project to improve the Dominican Republic’s passport controls by providing a machine-readable passport issuance system. The system is designed to prevent the issuance of improper or illegal passports with fraudulent data, to prevent the alteration of photosubstitution of legitimately issued passports, and to control the stocks of blank passports to prevent theft and/or illegal issuances. INL also provide technical assistance to help the Government of Costa Rica draft an alien smuggling statute. This was only a small part of a larger INL effort to encourage governments throughout the world to sign and begin implementing the UN Transnational Organized Crime Convention’s protocol on alien smuggling. INL played a major role in negotiating and drafting the convention and its protocols that were signed in Palermo, Italy in December 2000. The Convention creates an obligation for the United States to assist developing countries in implementing their terms.

    In response to the migrant smuggling challenge and to further our anti-alien smuggling objectives, INL is establishing an inter-agency Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons Coordination Center (MSTPCC). The Departments of State, Justice, and Transportation, and agencies in the intelligence community signed a charter approving the Center in December 2000. The Center will provide a mechanism to foster greater integration and overall effectiveness in U.S. government enforcement and other response efforts, and to promote similar intensified efforts by foreign governments and international organizations, to combat migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons. This initiative will bring together federal agency representatives from the policy, law enforcement, intelligence, and diplomatic arenas to work together on a full-time basis to achieve increased progress in addressing these problems, particularly in terms of converting intelligence into effective enforcement actions.

    FY 2002 Programs. INL will continue to fund the interagency Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons Coordination Center (MSTPCC). The Center’s efforts will be fundamentally supportive rather than directive in nature, consisting primarily of strategic assessments, identifying issues that might benefit from enhanced interagency coordination and/or attention, and coordinating or otherwise supporting agency or interagency efforts in appropriate cases. In FY 2002, INL will expand the capabilities of the Center by sponsoring regional alien smuggling conferences and providing funding to experts to conduct research in the field of alien smuggling. Separate from the Center, INL will also provide technical and other support to help countries implement the terms of the United Nations protocols on alien smuggling and trafficking in persons. Many of these countries need help in drafting alien smuggling legislation, organizing their border police, training their immigration officials, and upgrading their equipment and border infrastructure. INL will provide funding and technical assistance to these countries to improve their ability to combat smugglers and traffickers.

    Effectiveness Measurements

      • Number of foreign immigration and police officials trained;
      • Implementation of action items generated at alien smuggling conferences and meetings sponsored or organized by INL;
      • INL participation in international working groups devoted to the subject of alien smuggling; and
      • Number of alien smugglers or organizations negatively impacted by INL diplomatic initiatives and law enforcement coordination efforts.

      Anticorruption

      Budget Summary ($000)

      FY 2000
      Actual

      FY 2001
      Estimated

      FY 2002
      Request

      2,233

      4,500

      4,200

      Objectives

        • Promote comprehensive internationally recognized norms for actions governments should take to prevent, disclose, investigate and punish corruption among public officials;
        • Develop political will by governments to implement comprehensive measures against public corruption;
        • Support development of effective regional anticorruption regimes, commitments and activities;
        • Enhance the institutional capabilities of individual countries where U.S. interests are important to implement effective practices at the national level to promote public integrity and prevent, deter and punish official corruption;
        • Initiate and support systematic international research and scholarship to improve understanding and enhance public comprehension of factors that encourage, promote, or combat public corruption; and
        • Encourage and support selected pilot activities in cooperation with non-governmental organizations, the media, business groups and civil societies to develop laws, practices and capabilities to enable non-government parties to contribute to and provide political support for national anticorruption efforts.

        Justification

        Corruption threatens U.S. interests on many levels. It is inevitably and inextricably linked to all forms of organized and transnational crime. Criminal groups employ corruption to frustrate action by governments that impede illegal activities, and to protect the organizations, their leaders, members and assets from government actions in response. Corruption within a country also impairs the functioning and political legitimacy of democratic institutions of government. Corruption can rise to levels where it impairs or jeopardizes the ability of a legitimate government to maintain the rule of law and in extreme cases, can lead to the institutional collapse that characterizes a "failed state." It distorts the operation of free markets, impairs economic stability and growth, impairs or jeopardizes privatization and economic rationalization, and it is a serious impediment to foreign investment, and free and fair competition. Corruption affecting multilateral or bilateral foreign economic assistance not only deprives recipient countries of benefits, but also makes continued political support for such programs in donor countries problematic.

        The U.S. Government has led international efforts to prevent bribery of foreign public officials in commercial transactions for two decades. In February 1999, INL assisted and supported the first Global Forum on Fighting Corruption: Safeguarding Integrity Among Justice and Security Officials. Since then, the United States has sought to advance comprehensive national programs and to promote consolidated, internationally recognized anticorruption norms. In the fall of 2000, the UN General Assembly decided to begin work on a global instrument against corruption, and anticorruption initiatives have become prominent in a growing number of regional organizations and groups. The United States has been working with the Dutch and contributing to their effort to host Global Forum II in The Hague in May 2001.

        U.S. bilateral economic and crime control assistance, participation in International Financial Institutions (IFIs) activities, public diplomacy and diplomatic engagement with the UN and other organizations and programs are employed to further these goals. INL has coordinated the Global Forum process and other growing USG international efforts against corruption, including helping to organize and participate in several regional conferences to advance regional-based anticorruption institutions. For instance, INL contributes dues to the Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), the formal mechanism created by the Council of Europe (COE) to monitor implementation of the COE Criminal Law Convention Against Corruption. GRECO uses the dues to fund evaluations of member states. INL also contributed funds to the OAS and participated in its negotiations to create a mechanism for mutual evaluation of the implementation of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption.

        INL is continuing to implement a growing range of bilateral and multilateral anticorruption assistance projects. We have funded a Department of Justice anticorruption advisor to assist Caribbean countries—the Bahamas, Dominican Republic, Guyana, and Trinidad and Tobago—that have signed and ratified the Inter-American Convention on Corruption. We will expand this as more countries sign and ratify the convention. And in April 2001, we produced the congressionally mandated International Anticorruption and Good Governance Act report that further identifies likely priority countries for our anticorruption assistance.

        FY 2002 Programs. During FY 2002, INL will continue to promote internationally accepted comprehensive norms against corruption in negotiations at the UN to begin in 2002, including support for participation by appropriate officials from developing or transitional countries. We will also continue support for the Global Forum on Fighting Corruption as a U.S.-initiated process that has developed important international political support for effective measures against public corruption, including follow-up to the May 2001 Global Forum II in The Hague, Netherlands, and regional follow-up meetings or activities. We will support anticorruption norm-setting, implementation review, and institutional development activities of regional organizations and groups such as the OAS, the Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative in Southeast Europe, the Global Coalition for Africa, and for other regional or multilateral organizations or groups whose activities against corruption are important to U.S. national and programmatic interests. For FY 2002, a total of $200,000 is requested for the U.S. annual compulsory contribution to the Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), an organization established under the auspices of the Council of Europe to promote adherence to anticorruption norms. We will develop a project-oriented approach emphasizing strengthening key democratic institutions and the rule of law with training for police, prosecutors, judges, ethics officers, internal oversight institutions and law enforcement officials. We will similarly develop a culture of integrity and lawfulness in governments and societies which reaches beyond investigation and prosecution to address preventive measures, internal controls, transparency systems, business and economic governance, and engagement of civil society in national anticorruption efforts.

        In the bilateral area, we will strengthen cooperation and anticorruption assistance with strategic partners, focusing particularly in transitional countries such as Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Nigeria, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, the Baltic states, Romania, Nepal and other emerging democracies. We will elaborate new or enhanced INL international training activities that address specifically relationships between corruption and other forms of transnational crime of strategic concern to the U.S., such as trafficking in persons, cybercrime, environmental crime, and money laundering including drug trafficking and "kleptocracy" situations. We will seek to provide full-time anticorruption advisers for selected emerging democracies in priority geographic regions (e.g. the Caribbean, Eurasia). Funding will include training initiatives for three or four selected countries in each region. Meanwhile, we will develop sustained, multi-year interagency USG approaches for selected countries that display genuine political commitment, at government and popular levels, to act against corruption.

        Effectiveness Measurements

          • Progress toward international acceptance of comprehensive norms for government action against corruption, along lines of the Guiding Principles for Fighting Corruption of the First Global Forum;
          • Agreement by governments that the effectiveness of their implementation of anticorruption commitments will be subject to mutual evaluation by other governments on a permanent, continuing basis, and the results at country level that are attributable to such mutual evaluation processes in appropriate regional, global or specialized intergovernmental fora or groups;
          • Establishment and continued implementation by governments of effective national ethics laws, integrity standards, transparency measures and practices to engage civil society in national efforts against corruption; and
          • Prosecution and conviction, on a regular basis, of public officials found to have been engaged in corrupt acts, or adverse action against elected officials found engaged in corrupt activities in subsequent elections.

          Border Controls

          Budget Summary ($000)

          FY 2000
          Actual

          FY 2001
          Estimated

          FY 2002
          Request

          714

          100

          600

          Objectives

            • Assess the current border control capabilities of various developing countries;
            • Provide training and equipment to improve the proficiency of customs, immigration, and other border control officials;
            • Recommend physical improvements at selected ports of entry; and
            • Improve the integration and coordination among the various law enforcement entities at the borders.

            Justification

            Lax border controls greatly enhance the ability of international criminals to expand their operations and avoid arrest. In seeking to move their contraband around the world, they will typically try to avoid these controls, suborn them through corruption, negate them with falsified documentation, or overwhelming them if they are under-equipped. In many countries, effective control of the movement of persons, vehicles, and cargo across national land borders is non-existent. Border control officials are poorly trained and equipped, and inspections facilities are substandard.

            As the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls can create substantial deterrents to smugglers and other traffickers. Controls can force them into other routes and measures that raise their operational costs and make them potentially more vulnerable to law enforcement countermeasures. And they are points at which to collect important intelligence. Information gleaned from seizures, arrests, and documents at borders can provide leads that are useful to making even bigger cases that dismantle major international syndicates. They can also be a powerful instrument for generating greater public support for fighting transnational crime.

            Last year, INL conducted assessments of immigration controls in five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Based on those assessments, INL provided computer equipment to each country to enhance their border control capabilities for screening passengers as they enter the country through airports. In addition, INL funded an evaluation of Nicaragua’s border control software equipment, and INL has selected a software system to be delivered to the Government of Nicaragua. INL is also responding to a request by the Government of Haiti for an evaluation of major land border crossings between Haiti and the Dominican Republic. In January 2001, the U.S. Customs Service and INS completed a series of border studies in Southern Africa that revealed serious structural and systemic problems along the borders of a number of countries in the region.

            FY 2002 Programs. Effective border control programs depend on having adequate automated systems to track the movement of cargo and people through ports of entry. INL will identify several of the most vulnerable countries and will work with them to upgrade their automated systems by providing hardware, software, and training. INL will implement a program in Haiti, Central America, and Southern Africa to improve border controls in countries with identified border weaknesses. A recent survey of the Malpasse border station in Haiti revealed serious vulnerabilities that INL will address through a training and technical assistance program. INL will address the border control problems identified in the Southern Africa survey through a series of border improvement projects. One of the featured pieces of assistance for the countries identified as needing help will be to provide them with the necessary software and hardware to create fully automated ports of entry.

            Effectiveness Measurements

              • Number of border control officials trained;
              • Number of foreign inspections facilities upgraded;
              • Number of border assessments conducted;
              • Number of border posts receiving equipment and technical assistance;

              Critical Infrastructure Protection and Intellectual Property Rights

              Budget Summary ($000)

              FY 2000
              Actual

              FY 2001
              Estimated

              FY 2002
              Request

              281

              100

              100

              Objectives

                • Expand USG international efforts on Critical Infrastructure Protection cooperation with like-minded and friendly nations;
                • Coordinate Critical Infrastructure Protection international outreach by USG agencies;
                • Assess potential INL funding of Critical Infrastructure Protection technical assistance and training;
                • Expand USG efforts to fight Intellectual Property Rights crimes;
                • Establish country priorities for Intellectual Property Rights assistance; and
                • Coordinate Intellectual Property Rights training within the context of the Interagency Working Group

                Justification

                The Internet revolution and the spread of information technology (IT) generally have led to tremendous productivity gains in the global economy. However, these advances have created new challenges for the USG in the areas of law enforcement and national security, including economic security. The open access nature of the Internet, while facilitating free exchange of ideas, goods and services, also means that people and organizations are exposed to attacks in cyberspace. The reliance of many key sectors like the electrical grid and air traffic control on information technology has created new vulnerabilities. Moreover, the growing salience of IT as a factor in the transnational crime threat also impacts the area of intellectual property rights (IPR).

                Under a Presidential Decision Directive (PDD 63) in May 1998, the USG is to take all necessary measures to eliminate significant CIP vulnerabilities within its borders. The strategy also appoints the Assistant Secretary of INL as coordinator of all USG foreign affairs activities to encourage international cooperation in managing the global CIP problem.

                The Department of State has also long been engaged on issues related to protection of IPR. The 1998 Crime Control Strategy directed U.S. agencies to protect IPR rights by enhancing foreign and domestic law enforcement efforts. State is tasked with a mission to help combat IPR theft worldwide and to help create predictable legal and economic environments so American business interests can prosper.

                In FY 2000, at the direction of the NSC, State developed an interagency-approved four-track strategy for international CIP outreach. The plan calls for an expanding circle of outreach, starting with key allies, moving eventually to encompass all other concerned nation-states, multilateral and multinational organizations, and the private sector. INL has participated in a series of initial meetings with members of the first track and has now begun to assess priorities and methods for conducting further outreach in accordance with the four-track plan.

                INL has funded a number of training courses for foreign judicial and law enforcement officials in IPR enforcement, including officials in Russia, Vietnam, and Central America. We will continue to support such programs, using in-country or ILEA facilities, based on several indicators, including: adequacy of a foreign nation’s IPR laws; willingness on the part of the foreign government to implement IPR reforms; input from U.S. missions; input from State’s IPR IWG; and country status in the U.S. Trade Representative’s 301 report.

                FY 2002 Programs. INL will continue international outreach under the four-track plan for Critical Infrastructure Protection in FY 2002. This will include working with our closest allies to facilitate sector-to-sector relationships and connectivity between our law enforcement organizations on law enforcement-related CIP issues. We will also begin to expand our circle of contacts to selected countries and multilateral organizations in the remaining three tiers. In addition, we will assess and monitor training assistance for IPR and consider future demand for INL CIP-related training funding. Finally, we will help strengthen USG interagency coordination on CIP and IPR through participation in the inter-agency CIP and IPR coordination groups, that, among other objectives, will determine priority countries that warrant our CIP and IPR attention, and assess their training or other technical assistance needs.

                Effectiveness Measurements

                  • Extent of INL efforts as lead coordinator of USG international CIP outreach efforts and as a participant in the EB-chaired IPR IWG.; and
                  • Extent of international contacts, both government and private sector, who are aware of and support USG international CIP and IPR efforts.

                  Financial Crime and Money Laundering

                  Budget Summary ($000)

                  FY 2000
                  Actual

                  FY 2001
                  Estimated

                  FY 2002
                  Request

                  2,891

                  2,612

                  2,700

                  Objectives

                    • Combat money laundering by denying criminals access to financial institutions and by strengthening enforcement efforts to reduce inbound and outbound movement of criminal proceeds;
                    • Enhance bilateral and multilateral cooperation against all financial crime by working with foreign governments to establish or update enforcement tools and to implement multilateral anti-money laundering standards; and
                    • Encourage the formation of Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) and enhance their ability to share critical financial intelligence through membership in the Egmont Group of FIUs.

                    Justification

                    Financial crime and money laundering are a growing global phenomenon and continue to pose a significant national security threat to the United States and other countries around the world. They have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, skew currency markets, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals seek to access the financial systems of countries to launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, terrorism, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds $750 billion per year and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Our ability to conduct foreign policy and to promote our economic security and prosperity is hindered by these threats to our democratic and free-market partners.

                    INL has developed an aggressive program to combat international financial crime and money laundering. In FY 2000, INL implemented an $11 million training program that delivered 64 courses to bank regulators, bankers, law enforcement, prosecutorial, and judicial personnel from 35 governments. A multi-agency team of experts representing the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice and the Federal Reserve Board delivered the training courses. INL provides contributions to multilateral organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the Caribbean Financial Task Force (CFATF) and other regional bodies. The members of these bodies have committed to meet international anti-money laundering standards and undergo mutual evaluations by their peers. Our contributions assist in supporting the ongoing operations of these bodies, as well as funding for special programs, such as mutual evaluation training seminars.

                    In 2000, INL participated in the development of the Financial Action Task Force’s Non-Cooperating Countries and Territories (NCCT) program to identify jurisdictions not cooperating in the fight against money laundering. The 15 jurisdictions that FATF identified as NCCTs were subject of U.S. Treasury Department advisories, warning all U.S. financial institutions to pay enhanced scrutiny to financial transactions with the listed NCCTs. INL is providing training and technical assistance to many of these jurisdictions to help them correct the deficiencies identified by the FATF so that they can be taken off the NCCT list. A new round of NCCT reviews will span FY 2001 and 2002.

                    FY 2002 Programs. In FY 2002, INL will continue to provide training and technical assistance to countries to improve their ability to combat financial crimes and money laundering. Training will focus on developing anti-money laundering laws and regulations, training bank supervisors to develop anti-money laundering examination procedures, providing law enforcement with financial investigative skills, and training prosecutors to develop money laundering cases. Country advisors will also assist in the development of financial intelligence units to analyze suspicious transaction reports. We will continue to work closely with other USG agencies, including the U.S. Secret Service, U.S. Customs Service, Internal Revenue Service and the Federal Reserve Board of Governors to provide this assistance. It is expected that training will focus on many of the NCCT jurisdictions including Russia, Lebanon, the Marshal Islands, and NCCT jurisdictions and other countries located in the Western Hemisphere. In addition, assistance will be provided to many emerging jurisdictions that are in need of technical assistance to develop anti-money laundering laws to protect their economy and financial services sector.

                    We will continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations such as the FATF, Asia-Pacific Group, Council of Europe, CFATF, the Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD) and the Egmont Group. We will place special emphasis on expanding support to the two new FATF-like regional organizations that have been created in Africa, and a third that has been established in South America. We will continue to participate in bilateral negotiations to develop, enhance, and improve anti-money laundering regimes around the world. We are currently looking at some of the NCCT jurisdictions and others such as Romania and Thailand. We will support the creation of Financial Intelligence Units in those jurisdictions that have passed the necessary anti-money laundering legislation and are in need of technical assistance.

                    Effectiveness Measurements

                      • Greater compliance with international anti-money laundering norms;
                      • Enactment of more and stronger national laws against money laundering’
                      • Creation of Financial Intelligence Units;
                      • Increased exchanges of money laundering information among anti-money laundering enforcement and regulatory agencies and officials;
                      • Increased investigation and prosecution abroad of important money laundering cases; and
                      • Enhanced collegial effort among FATF members and greater willingness to undergo mutual evaluations.

                       Firearms and Small Arms Trafficking

                      Budget Summary ($000)

                      FY 2000
                      Actual

                      FY 2001
                      Estimated

                      FY 2002
                      Request

                      716

                      75

                      100

                      Objectives

                        • Support implementation of the protocol to the Transnational Organized Crime Convention that calls for effective import, export, marking laws, regulations and practices for firearms that is being negotiated in FY 2001;
                        • Limit the spread of Small Arms and Light Weapons to regions of conflict through effective laws, strong enforcement and international cooperation;
                        • Promote enforcement by urging states to adopt appropriate laws, policies and regulations;
                        • Provide training and technical assistance to facilitate the advancement of law enforcement;
                        • Ensure a successful outcome of the 2001 UN Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons; and
                        • Encourage and support regional initiatives calling for the development of norms, promotion of best practices, advancement of model legislation and regulations, and strong enforcement of border control and firearms laws.

                        Justification

                        Firearms, small arms, and light weapons are responsible for most of the killing and injuries, especially of non-combatants, in the many intrastate conflicts that have occurred since the end of the Cold War. They figure heavily in growing violent crime rates plaguing many states where internal security has been negatively affected by conflict, weak governments, or economic turmoil. Illicit small arms contribute to regional instability and ultimately hinder economic and political development. Africa has suffered the most, but small arms have exacerbated and prolonged conflicts, undermined peace agreements, and complicated peace-building efforts in large parts of Asia, the Balkans, and Latin America as well.

                        The easy availability and diverse sources of these weapons have exacerbated the problems. Consistent regulations are needed to identify illicit small arms. Many countries lack adequate legislative and enforcement controls over manufacturing, marking, export, import, diversion, brokering, and other key aspects of the small arms trade. Even those with control structures must confront corrupt officials and others who divert legally sold weapons for illegal ends. Smugglers and rogue suppliers have access to old stocks and supplies left over from civil and international wars. Excess small arms and ammunition production capacity in the developed world, and indigenous production in areas of conflict, also contribute to proliferation.

                        The United States has taken a wide range of steps to address growing international concern about trafficking in small arms and light weapons. U.S. efforts focus on a combination of law enforcement and arms control approaches, and are geared toward promoting regional security and to shutting down illicit arms markets that fuel the violence associated with terrorism and international organized crime. The U.S. led efforts to negotiate the 1997 OAS Convention Against Illicit Firearms Trafficking. This agreement brings the other nations in the Western Hemisphere closer to U.S. export standards by requiring proper authorization for firearms exports, marking of firearms, cooperation on law enforcement training, and information sharing. The U.S. is now following up on efforts begun during the negotiations on the 2000 UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime to produce a final protocol on controlling the illicit traffic in firearms worldwide.

                        INL-sponsored training provided Basic Firearms Trafficking courses in Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Newly Independent States and the Middle East. INL is funding the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI) to survey the small arms legislation, regulations, and law enforcement capacities of African countries to provide a benchmark for future work. UNAFRI will provide technical support through a regionally based center focusing on Small Arms. INL also provides technical assistance, principally training, to a number of West African states to assist them in controlling flows of small arms and light weapons. This will improve their capacities to administer and enforce the 1998 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) moratorium on the import, export and manufacturing of small arms in West Africa. Finally, INL is working closely with INTERPOL to overhaul the International Weapons and Explosives Tracking System (IWETS) to better facilitate law enforcement agencies to solve weapons related criminal activity.

                        FY 2002 Programs. The FY 2002 programs will continue to focus on expanding the exchange of small arms and firearms control information between governments and law enforcement organizations. Specifically, our assistance will facilitate developing countries to write and enact legislation to implement the firearms protocol. In addition, we will continue to provide and expand technical assistance, including training, in Asia, Africa, and the Newly Independent States. We will also focus on helping countries to enact the program of Action emanating from the 2001 UN Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons.

                        Effectiveness Measurements

                          • Improved cooperation between U.S. law enforcement agencies and their counterparts, resulting in solving international cases of mutual concern;
                          • Number of international tracing requests conducted and assistance provided to solving crimes;
                          • Number of foreign governments adopting export, import and firearms legislation and regulations to implement their enforcement;
                          • Number of law enforcement officers trained; and
                          • Degree of implementation of Plan of Action emanating from UN 2001 conference.

                          International Law Enforcement Academies

                          Budget Summary ($000)

                          FY 2000
                          Actual

                          FY 2001
                          Estimated

                          FY 2002
                          Request

                          Bangkok

                          3,053

                          3,500

                          3,500

                          Budapest

                          125

                          500

                          Gaborone

                          1,500

                          3,500

                          3,500

                          Roswell

                          5,000

                          5,000

                          South America

                          175

                          2,000

                          Total

                          9,553

                          7,300

                          14,500

                          Objectives

                            • Support regional and national criminal justice institution-building;
                            • Strengthen national law enforcement capabilities;
                            • Assist foreign law enforcement entities in the professionalization of their forces;
                            • Foster cooperation and improve regional coordination of law enforcement activities;
                            • Build stronger linkages between U.S. law enforcement entities and foreign law enforcement authorities and future criminal justice leaders; and
                            • Facilitate strengthened partnerships among countries in regions served by ILEAS aimed at addressing problems of drugs and crime.

                            Justification

                            International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) help advance U.S. interests through international cooperation while promoting social, political and economic stability by combating crime. INL funding has established ILEAs in Budapest, Hungary (1995); Bangkok, Thailand (1999); and, most recently, Gaborone, Botswana (2001). Since opening, ILEA Budapest has provided training to over 2,500 officials from 25 countries; while ILEA Bangkok provided training to over 600 officials from 10 countries. Funding for these academies is shared with the host country.

                            The Department of State works with the Departments of Justice and Treasury and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA program. State’s primary roles are to provide foreign policy guidance to the ILEA Directors, ensure availability of adequate funding to support ILEA operations, and provide oversight that will ensure that U.S. foreign policy objectives are achieved.

                            The ILEAS have been successful. For example, extensive surveys from a number of ILEA graduates showed that criminal investigators adopted more rational, democratic solutions to administrative and operational challenges. Participation in ILEA is associated with an increased willingness to share information with U.S. police. Surveys taken of a large pool of students showed that former ILEA participants are more likely than any other police to exchange information with foreign police. Building on this success, we are opening a graduate-style ILEA at the de Bermond Training Center in Roswell, New Mexico; the first courses will begin in late 2001. We are also considering a future ILEA for Latin America.

                            FY 2002 Programs. INL will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Budapest and Bangkok. INL will complete the building of new facility for Gaborone, Botswana and complete the construction/renovation of the facility at Roswell, New Mexico. Following an area survey of available locations, INL will begin to negotiate the establishment of a new ILEA in Latin America. Meanwhile, for all ILEAs, INL will develop and implement training initiatives targeting growing areas of international criminal activity which are normally not included in ILEA programs: for example, expand core curriculum and specialized training to include hazardous waste dumping, smuggling proscribed hazardous material, and trafficking in protected natural resources and endangered species. INL will place added emphasis at the ILEAs on trafficking in women and children.

                            Effectiveness Measurements

                              • Network of intra-regional and U.S. law enforcement contacts resulting in increased information-sharing and operational cooperation;
                              • Willingness to advocate and use modern investigative concepts and techniques; and
                              • Merit-based recruitment, retention, and advancement of mid- and senior-level law enforcement officials.

                              Law Enforcement and Police Science

                              Budget Summary ($000)

                              FY 2000
                              Actual

                              FY 2001
                              Estimated

                              FY 2002
                              Request

                              7,699

                              5,128

                              4,030

                              Objectives

                                • Support regional and national criminal justice institution-building;
                                • Promote regional cooperation and coordination of law enforcement activities;
                                • Assist in the professionalization of foreign law enforcement organizations;
                                • Strengthen the basic infrastructure for carrying out law enforcement activities in cooperating countries;
                                • Improve technical and investigative skills of law enforcement personnel; and
                                • Develop long-lasting relationships between U.S. law enforcement entities and foreign law enforcement authorities.

                                Justification

                                Law Enforcement and Police Science training is managed and funded by the Department of State and carried out by the Departments of Justice and Treasury, as well as several other smaller federal law enforcement organizations. It helps to advance U.S. interests through international cooperation while promoting social, political and economic stability by combating crime. INL will emphasize regional approaches to training and will coordinate with other training providers, such as the European Union and UNDCP, to provide training that serves our common strategic interest.

                                INL has increased the specialization and focus of its training over the past year, tailoring courses to better meet the needs and advance the skills of the foreign law enforcement students. Our program addresses virtually every type of international crime and related issues including the following: auto theft, alien smuggling, border control, corruption, narcotics trafficking, domestic violence, trafficking in women and children, illicit firearms, intellectual property rights, money laundering and financial crime, organized crime, rule of law, and law enforcement and police sciences. The courses increasingly provide joint training by two or more U.S. agencies. Where feasible, INL relies on regional training courses to bring together law enforcement officials from neighboring countries to foster increased law enforcement cooperation and coordination.

                                Foreign government demand for it continues to exceed what we can provide with current resources. In FY 2000, nearly 5,000 foreign officials from approximately 90 countries participated in INL-funded international narcotics and crime control training programs. Continued funding will accommodate the growing emphasis on law enforcement training as a vehicle for achieving many of the USG’s basic international law enforcement and foreign policy objectives.

                                FY 2002 Programs. In FY 2002, INL-funded training will continue to support the major U.S. and international strategies for combating crime worldwide. Expansion of INL’s law enforcement training programs constitutes one of the surest means of institution-building and promotion of host nation self-sufficiency. Law enforcement efforts overseas will be evaluated in terms of what they have done to bring about establishment of effective host country enforcement institutions. INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of Washington-based agencies in response to assistance requests from U.S. embassies. INL will focus increasingly on ensuring that training course are provided within the larger context of overall program or project development. In other words, INL and Washington agencies will increasingly evaluate requests for training on the basis of how that training is going to be applied toward achieving concrete law enforcement project objectives by the host government.

                                Effectiveness Measurements

                                    • Network of intra-regional and U.S. law enforcement contacts resulting in increased information-sharing and operational cooperation;
                                    • Willingness of trainees to advocate and use modern investigative concepts and techniques;
                                    • Appropriate foreign personnel receive professional training and subsequently conduct law enforcement activities;
                                    • Host nations become less dependent on U.S. assistance and are able to deliver a wide range of law enforcement training on their own; and
                                    • Closer cooperation between U.S. and foreign enforcement agencies, leading to enforcement actions that disrupt the organizations and incarcerate individuals involved in criminal activities.

                                    Rule of Law

                                    Budget Summary ($000)

                                    FY 2000
                                    Actual

                                    FY 2001
                                    Estimated

                                    FY 2002
                                    Request

                                    852

                                    750

                                    1,500

                                    Objectives

                                      • Assist countries to revise and update their current statutes;
                                      • Assist countries introduce laws to combat such new crime threats as corruption and money laundering; and
                                      • Train prosecutors and judges to implement these laws effectively.

                                      Justification

                                      There is growing realization in the post-Cold War era that many forms of transnational organized crime pose a serious threat to democracies generally, and particularly to the developing world and economies in transition. To prevent and combat transnational organized crime more effectively, nations must improve their criminal law techniques and expand international cooperation. In cooperation with appropriate U.S. federal agencies, INL provides training and technical assistance programs in the criminal justice sector, especially for judges and prosecutors. The programs require sustained, multi-year training efforts, in-country residency assistance and temporary assignments, and focus on criminal legislation, code revisions and regulatory reform. Such assistance assures that criminal investigations respect the rights of all citizens and that prosecution flows from criminal investigations.

                                      Rule of Law programs complement other INL international crime programs in two important aspects: legislation and prosecutions. For countries that lack the expertise to mount complex or sustained investigations against international criminals, the Rule of Law strategy calls for expanded training and technical assistance programs to turn foreign prosecutors and judges into more effective crime fighters. In countries where the basic institutions of justice are not adequate to meet the everyday challenges of common crime, let alone the sophistication of an ever-expanding international crime threat, the INL program maintains a country-specific, flexible approach to fostering development of effective criminal justice institutions.

                                      United Nation members took a giant step forward in 2000 in their efforts to combat international crime through the adoption of a Transnational Organized Crime Convention. The purpose of the Convention is to prevent and combat transnational organized crime more effectively through international cooperation. It requires states parties to have laws criminalizing the most prevalent types of criminal activities associated with organized crime groups, including obstruction of justice, money laundering, corruption of public officials, and conspiracy. The Convention will expand significantly the ability of the United States to work with countries around the globe on organized crime investigations, adoption or revision of their criminal laws, and prosecutions, particularly those countries with which we do not have mutual legal assistance treaties.

                                      FY 2002 Programs. In FY 2002, INL will expand the Resident Legal Advisor (RLA) program, establishing RLAs in South Africa, Costa Rica, and Thailand. The RLAs will work with foreign prosecutors, legislators, and judges to more effectively combat crime. Toward this end, they will also assist countries to improve their criminal legislation, code, or regulations. INL will also work to expand the exchange program it has had with judges and prosecutors from Russia and the former Soviet Union states to work with United States jurists at the federal and state levels. INL will also institute a number of similar exchange projects with several Central American countries, South Africa, India, and Thailand. These programs will help foreign officials better understand the U.S. judicial system and how it deals with criminal proceedings. INL will continue to review the core curriculum at the International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) to ensure that they include Rule of Law training if necessary.

                                      Effectiveness Measurements

                                        • Stronger criminal statutes;
                                        • Better trained prosecutors and judges capable of adjudicating more complex cases, more expeditiously; and
                                        • Greater appreciation by foreign jurists of U.S. legal system resulting in improved bilateral cooperation.

                                         Stolen Vehicles

                                        Budget Summary ($000)

                                        FY 2000
                                        Actual

                                        FY 2001
                                        Estimated

                                        FY 2002
                                        Request

                                        100

                                        Objectives

                                          • Strengthen the international web against trafficking in stolen vehicles through the negotiation and implementation of a series of bilateral treaties that establish procedures for the return by either party of vehicles stolen from the territory of one party and found in the territory of the other;
                                          • Support implementation of recently ratified stolen vehicle treaties with Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Panama through training and technical assistance;
                                          • Continue to support negotiations for the successful completion of stolen vehicle treaties with Poland, Venezuela, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Colombia; and
                                          • Raise global awareness of and promote further commitment for the need to combat trafficking in stolen vehicles by highlighting this threat in regional, international and multilateral crime control fora.

                                          Justification

                                          International trafficking of stolen vehicles—a $10-$15 billion a year global trade—is an increasingly sophisticated activity of organized international crime, and the United States is a major victim of this illegal trade. Some 200,000 vehicles worth some $4 billion on the black market abroad are smuggled out of the United States each year. Stolen vehicles transit many countries before arriving at their final destination: U.S.-owned stolen vehicles may now be found in virtually any country. Scarcely one percent of these vehicles are recovered and repatriated. The trade is particularly appealing to international traffickers, increasingly those from Russia, Eastern Europe and China, because of the apparent low risks they face and the strong demand for high-end, luxury cars that fetch approximately $20,000 apiece on international black markets. These organizations are reportedly working with criminal associates in the United States to steal automobiles and ship them abroad. In some cases, they appear to be operating with Mexican-based organizations in a broad international conspiracy to acquire U.S. vehicles, smuggle them to Mexico, and from there redistribute them to markets in Russia and China. Some groups reap additional benefits from trafficking stolen vehicles because they use them to conceal and transport narcotics and other contraband.

                                          Much of the United States’ past international efforts to combat stolen cars have been focused on Mexico and Central America because of the geographic proximity of this region and our long relationship with Mexico to address stolen cars. The United States has had a stolen car treaty in force with Mexico since 1983. More recently, we have focused on expanding our bilateral efforts by negotiating stolen car treaties with several other countries in Central and South America and Eastern Europe. The recent ratification of treaties with Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Panama should greatly enhance our anti-stolen car efforts by creating a stronger regional defense against this problem. We are working on additional treaties with Poland, Venezuela, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Colombia. We have provided training to authorities in countries where we have negotiated stolen car treaties on how to detect stolen automobiles and investigate these crimes. And in selected cases, we have provided equipment to set up automated databases to help detect and track stolen cars.

                                          FY 2002 Programs. A major objective of FY 2002 will be to promote the completion of bilateral treaties with Poland, Venezuela, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Colombia that are in various stages of negotiation. These agreements will provide standard procedures for the recovery and return of stolen U.S. vehicles. In countries where we have stolen vehicle agreements, we will continue fund training for law enforcement officials and provide them with browser access to the stolen vehicle and boat data base of the National Crime Information Center to encourage and speed the identification of stolen U.S. vehicles and boats located in those countries.

                                          Effectiveness Measurements

                                            • Training initiated with, and technical assistance requirements identified for, countries that have signed bilateral treaties.
                                            • The number or rate of stolen vehicles repatriated to the United States.
                                            • Number of international stolen car rings identified and dismantled through enhanced investigations and prosecutions.
                                            • Additional bilateral treaties signed.

                                            Trafficking in Persons

                                            Budget Summary ($000)

                                            FY 2000
                                            Actual

                                            FY 2001
                                            Estimated

                                            FY 2002
                                            Request

                                            1,021

                                            3,936

                                            4,270

                                            Objectives

                                              • Coordinate international USG programs to combat violence against women and children through a strategy of prevention, investigation and prosecution of traffickers/perpetrators, and protection and assistance for victims/witnesses;
                                              • Assist source and transit countries of trafficking in persons to meet the minimum standards outlined in the "Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000" as well as the provisions of the UN "Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime;"
                                              • Assist emerging democracies to strengthen their national judicial and law enforcement institutions’ capabilities to counter violence against women and children through training, equipment, technical assistance, and by sponsoring coordination task forces;
                                              • Assist non-governmental organizations to provide services to victims of violence against women and children; and
                                              • Ensure that violence against women and children issues continue to be addressed in multilateral fora.

                                              Justification

                                              Trafficking in persons, domestic violence, sexual assault and child sexual exploitation are some of the crime issues that violate the human rights of victims. These crimes are increasingly linked. Over 700,000 people, especially women and children, are trafficked every year around the world for sexual exploitation, sweatshop labor, domestic servitude and other forms of forced labor. The information technology era is facilitating sex tourism and child pornography on the Internet on both the supply and demand sides. The United States is not immune from this trade. Some 45,000 to 50,000 women and children are trafficked to the United States annually, and there have been a few cases where U.S. women have been trafficked abroad.

                                              The United States has taken the lead internationally in giving violence against women and children a much higher foreign policy profile. INL has been a key supporter in this effort diplomatically and programmatically. In December 2000, 81 countries signed the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. INL led the effort on behalf of the U.S. to introduce the trafficking protocol and successfully conclude negotiations.

                                              In FY 2000, INL broadened its programmatic efforts to a project-based approach that complements existing training programs in the area of violence against women and children outside of Russia and the New Independent States. In India, INL supported a public information campaign that brought together numerous antitrafficking NGOs, international organizations, civic leaders, law enforcement officials and Indian film celebrities that resulted in further sensitizing the police force to trafficking issues and, among other accomplishments, the creation of an antitrafficking police unit.

                                              In Chiang Mai, Thailand, INL provided start-up funds to upgrade an existing shelter for abused women and children and to establish the Coordination Center for the Protection of Child Rights. The shelter houses a specialized interview room for child victims and serves as multi-disciplinary intake center. The Center oversees the shelter, contains a database to track trafficking cases and provides meeting rooms and rooms for family counseling. And in Ethiopia, INL also provided start-up funds for the creation of the first Addis Ababa rape crisis intervention center.

                                              Congress recently authorized the State Department, under the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 to establish the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. This office will be responsible for assisting a Cabinet-level task force, chaired by the Secretary of State, to implement the provisions of the Act, through policy and programmatic coordination of domestic and international USG efforts. This new office is also taking the lead in drafting the annual report to Congress on countries’ efforts to meet minimum standards as outlined in the Act.

                                              FY 2002 Programs. INL will work in FY 2002 to make the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking fully operational. The Office will work with USAID, the Departments of Labor and Justice, and other State Department bureaus to fully coordinate international USG antitrafficking programs in the areas of prevention, protection and assistance for victims, and investigation and prosecution of traffickers. The congressionally mandated annual report will help identify countries that recognize that they have a trafficking problem and want to address it. In an effort to assist countries to meet the minimum standards to combat trafficking as well as implement the provisions of the UN trafficking protocol, the Trafficking Office will direct programs at those countries that are attempting to address trafficking. INL will continue its technical assistance programs in other violence against women and children areas, especially in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. INL will also lead the U.S. Delegation to the 2nd World Congress against Child Sexual Exploitation in Tokyo, December 2001.

                                              Effectiveness Measurements

                                                • Ratification of the UN trafficking protocol by a majority of the signatories;
                                                • Improved coordination between governments and civil society in the provision of services for victims and witnesses;
                                                • Implementation of antitrafficking laws; and
                                                • Increased prosecutions against traffickers and perpetrators.

                                                Program Development & Support

                                                Budget Summary ($000)

                                                FY 2000
                                                Actual

                                                FY 2001
                                                Estimated

                                                FY 2002
                                                Request

                                                1,808

                                                2,000

                                                2,000

                                                Anticrime Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds provide for the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based crime staff. PD&S funds are used for staff salaries and benefits, staff travel, payments to the U.S. Department of State for the support services it provides; utilities, primarily telephone; computer equipment, software and office furniture; printing and reproduction; translations, supplies and materials, and office renovations expenses.



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