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Diplomacy in Action

Program Overview and Fiscal Summary


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2003 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 2002
Report
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Program Overview

The illegal drug trade and growing criminal enterprises around the world are among the most serious threats to the United States in the post-Cold War era. Few foreign policy concerns affect so many Americans so directly, adversely, and persistently as international narcotics trafficking and other forms of crime. Like terrorism, drugs and other international crime are especially dangerous because they simultaneously target both our domestic and international interests. They are also among the most important sources of global instability today, affecting both the developed and developing world. The U.S. government is responding to these threats by placing the fight against international narcotics and organized crime high on our national security and foreign policy agendas. Within the State Department, the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) has broad responsibility for narcotics control and law enforcement policy and program coordination in the international arena.

Although the FY 2002 INL counternarcotics budget represented only a small (4.4 percent) part of the federal drug control budget, INL bilateral and multilateral programs and diplomatic initiatives are strengthening counternarcotics and law enforcement efforts in more than 150 countries around the globe This represents a good return on U.S. tax dollars. The social and economic costs of drug abuse in America are staggering. Each year, illicit drug use directly or indirectly causes the death of more than 50,000 Americans. The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) estimates that illicit drugs cost our society more than $160 billion in 2000 in terms of health care, loss of productivity, law enforcement, and social welfare programs—an increase of 57 percent since 1992. This is in addition to the estimated $65 billion spent by drug users on illicit drugs. But even these large numbers do not take into account the heavy social costs—the lives wasted and destroyed by addiction, the devastating impact on families, schools, and communities, and the generally corrosive effect on public institutions. In President Bush’s words: "Illegal drug use threatens everything that is good about our country."

While the rate of drug use has stabilized among young people in recent years, it remains at an unacceptably high level. Moreover, recent surveys have indicated that American high school students ignorant of the epidemic of the 1960s and 1970s are increasingly experimenting with "chic" heroin—the most insidious and addictive of the hard drugs. Unlike during the 1960s and 1970s, with their dark legacy of dirty needles and shooting galleries, the high-purity Colombian heroin available in the United States today can be sniffed like cocaine. The U.S. is also feeling the impact of what amounts to a global surge in the use of synthetic drugs such as methamphetamine and MDMA ("ecstasy"). This phenomenon is affecting both industrialized countries and many areas of the developing world. In Thailand, for example, where heroin has been the drug of choice for centuries, methamphetamine has replaced heroin as the most abused drug. Unlike heroin and cocaine, synthetic drugs are relatively easy to manufacture and do not depend on vulnerable crops. The best place to hide a synthetic drug lab is not deep in the rain forest away from other people but in an urban industrial setting, or even the basement of a residence.

Domestic prevention programs and enforcement alone cannot cope with the latest onslaught of drugs destined for the U.S. These approaches must be coupled with an aggressive international strategy that targets drug production at the source and disrupts the movement of drugs in transit. The Administration is fully committed to working with producing and transit nations to eliminate drugs at their source or intercept them en route to the United States.

While narcotics trafficking generally receives more media attention—large drug busts, for example, make good footage for the evening news—transnational organized crime represents a rapidly growing threat whose global economic costs rival and probably exceed those of narcotics trafficking. Of the approximately $750 billion in money laundered each year (some estimates run as high as $1 trillion), about half is from non-drug crime. Fed by the same globalization and technological advances that supported the U.S. economic expansion over the past decade, international crime has spread at an unprecedented rate and scale since the end of the Cold War. The accompanying growth in the power, influence, and sophistication of international criminal organizations and their global reach pose a severe threat to free market economies around the world, to governance and stability in many countries, including some western democracies, and to U.S. domestic and international interests. Emerging crimes such as trafficking in persons, especially women and children, and high-tech and intellectual property rights crimes are demanding more of our attention, even as we continue to address money laundering, alien smuggling, corruption, stolen cars, credit card fraud, and firearms trafficking. Together, these crimes take a substantial toll on our economy and foreign interests. We pay through higher costs and poorer quality goods and services and lower standards of living at home because, in increasingly dangerous, uncertain, and unregulated foreign environments, we cannot protect our investments abroad.

Often, the countries that play the most critical roles in furthering the international drug and crime problems are the ones least capable of responding to the problem. Frequently, their law enforcement institutions are too weak to resist rich and violent drug and crime syndicates, and their economies too weak or small to generate alternative incomes for drug producers. Once in place, criminal organizations quickly secure their positions through corruption and intimidation. Their strategic attacks on the rule of law and effective corruption of democratic and free market processes—as seen in Russia, Colombia, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Pakistan, the Balkans, and elsewhere—erode the very foundations of states, putting our entire range of foreign policy interests at risk.

The September 11, 2001 attacks highlighted the close connections between organized crime, particularly drug trafficking, and terrorism. This nexus takes many forms, ranging from facilitation—protection, transportation, and taxation—to direct trafficking by terrorist organizations themselves. Drug traffickers benefit from terrorists’ military skills, weapons supply, and access to clandestine organizations. Terrorists gain a source of revenue and expertise in illicit transfer and laundering of money for their operations. Like traffickers and other organized crime groups, they make use of those countries and jurisdictions where banking regulations are weak. Both groups corrupt officials who can provide fraudulent documents, such as passports and customs papers. Finally, the September attacks demonstrated in horrific detail the great danger to the U.S. posed by a narco-funded terrorists residing in a nation where they can operate with impunity. While INL does not have the lead in the war on terrorism, INL counternarcotics and anticrime programs promote modernization of criminal justice systems and enhance the capabilities of foreign law enforcement agencies charged with countering terrorism. INL will continue to work with the Departments of Justice and Treasury, and with cooperating governments, to focus on counternarcotics and anticrime programs that also have an impact on counterterrorism. In organizations such as the Group of Eight (G-8), and working with the European Union and other key countries, we have sought new approaches to overcome long-standing barriers to closer law enforcement cooperation and to assist other countries in their ability to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1373 to combat terrorism.

The President Bush has made clear that the Administration will be tough on both narcotics trafficking and other forms of transnational crime, and that both will be high-level foreign policy priorities. Our policy aims at achieving greater international cooperation focused on the most critical drug and crime targets. INL has a central role in a strategic approach to international crime control and will strengthen existing programs and create new ones to support strategic objectives. These include extending our first line of defense to strengthen control of our borders, ensuring that global criminals have nowhere to hide, attacking international financial and trade crimes, and responding to emerging crime challenges.

INL’s primary goals and objectives are as follows:

  • Reduce and ultimately choke off the flow of illegal drugs to the U.S.;
  • Enhance the abilities of foreign countries to deter, prosecute, and thwart international crime and criminal organizations;
  • Identify, target, and eliminate those international drug and crime threats that pose the greatest danger to U.S. security interests; and
  • Increase international awareness of these threats and strengthen international cooperation and the ability of national and multilateral institutions to combat them.

Where drugs are concerned, INL programs will:

  • Reduce drug crop cultivation through a combination of bilateral enforcement, eradication, and alternative development programs;
  • Strengthen the ability of foreign law enforcement and judicial institutions to investigate and prosecute major drug trafficking organizations, and to seize and block their assets; and
  • Improve the capacity of host nation police and military forces to attack narcotics production and trafficking centers.

With respect to international crime, our programs are designed to:

  • Build stronger law enforcement networks to prevent and combat, among other threats, financial crimes and money laundering, migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons (especially women and children), violence against women and children, violations of intellectual property rights, and corruption;
  • Strengthen efforts by the UN and other international organizations to assist member states in combating international crime, including implementation of relevant UN Security Council resolutions to combat terrorism; and
  • Thwart the ability of international crime to undermine democracy and free-market economies in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and other vulnerable states by strengthening law enforcement and criminal justice systems and anticorruption initiatives.

The expansion of transnational crime and international narcotics trafficking into new areas has increased the demand for INL programs and assistance. More and more, nations understand the threat that these illicit activities pose to order, economic progress, and good governance, and they are looking primarily to the U.S. for assistance in dealing with these problems. It is in our national security interest to help them respond, but to do so will require significant additional resources.

Performance

INL funds various bilateral and multilateral international drug and crime control programs to accomplish USG goals and objectives. We continue to direct our greatest counternarcotics efforts at Latin America, focusing on eliminating the cocaine and heroin trades along with combating emerging methamphetamine trafficking from Mexico. Our overall aims are to reduce significantly coca and opium poppy cultivation, disrupt processing and trafficking operations in the region, and dismantle the organizations that dominate and finance the drug trade.

We are concentrating most of our efforts in the source countries of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, and the neighboring countries of Ecuador, Brazil, Venezuela and Panama. We are also attacking the major drug transit routes from South America to the U.S.

Our narcotics control priority in Asia is heroin. Efforts to attack the trade in that drug have been complicated by security and political barriers that limit our access to the major opium and heroin producing countries—Burma and Afghanistan. With the change of regime in Afghanistan, a major challenge there will be to work with our international partners to bolster that nation’s recent commitment to eliminate opium poppy cultivation, processing and trafficking, thereby preventing Afghanistan’s return to its status as the world’s leading opium and heroin producer.

Regarding other forms of international crime, INL has increasingly taken the lead to define the threat, develop policy and programmatic responses, and implement training and other programs to confront it. Through diplomacy, training and institution building, our goal is to ensure that foreign authorities have the skills, confidence, professionalism, contacts, and resources necessary to identify, investigate and prosecute the most serious forms of international crime. We will work to strengthen the abilities of foreign judicial systems, intensify our efforts against money laundering and corruption, and strengthen our international web against alien smuggling.

Despite the size of the task and the challenges, INL programs are achieving success. Highlights include:

  • Colombia
    . Despite violence directed at eradication programs, coca replanting, and a problematic political transition in Peru, cultivation levels in Bolivia and Peru remained essentially stable in 2001 and well below the figures of several years ago when the two countries were the world’s primary producers.

    . Huge quantities of illegal drugs entering the U.S. come through Mexico. Bilateral cooperation has improved considerably following President Fox’s inauguration as he follows through on his campaign pledge to wage an all-out effort to dismantle the drug cartels. INL has revamped its programs to support the new government’s criminal justice reform effort, which is essential to effective law enforcement cooperation. U.S. and Mexican personnel are making progress in arresting major narcotraffickers and disrupting their operations. Improved bilateral communication has led to increased drug seizures. Through intensive sustained eradication, Mexico continues to reduce the net production of opium poppy and marijuana.

  • Peru/Bolivia
  • Mexico
  • Asian Heroin. On the other side of the world, under U.S.-supported eradication programs, opium poppy cultivation in Thailand and Pakistan—both major producers at one point—continued to decline in 2001. Thailand is now a net importer of opium, while cultivation levels in Pakistan are down 93 percent from a decade ago. Opium cultivation in Burma has also declined, due in part to drought. The U.S. is unable to provide counternarcotics assistance to the government of Burma, but INL funding for a small UN-sponsored alternative development project in the major-poppy-growing region of Burma’s Shan State has reduced poppy cultivation in the project area.

    . A common trait shared by terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and transnational crime groups is their need to launder money used in their operations and to move it surreptitiously around the international banking system. To combat money laundering—estimated at more than $750 billion annually—the U.S. continued to push global initiatives aimed at increasing banking transparency, tightening practices against money laundering, making it easier to seize assets from such operations, and reducing and ultimately eliminating "safe havens" for illegal money. This process gained urgency and intensity following the September 11 attacks. After extensive review, the 27 members of the multinational Financial Action Task Force (FATF), of which the U.S. is a member, identified eight states as "non-cooperating countries and territories" (NCCTs). However, FATF and U.S. technical assistance helped four countries make significant improvement in their money laundering control regimes and be removed from the NCCT. To broaden the impact of the FATF-agreed norms, the Department also provides political and technical support to efforts to form regional FATF-like bodies in South America and Africa. INL assistance in developing financial intelligence units (FIU) in target countries to analyze suspicious transaction reports yielded, for example, the first-ever prosecutions for money laundering in Thailand and Paraguay last year.

    . An estimated 700,000 people, mostly women and children, are trafficked across international borders each year—approximately 50,000 of these enter the U.S. where they are subjected to various forms of sexual and/or economic exploitation. To combat this growing problem, the Department of State published the first annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which identified 82 countries as having a significant number of trafficked victims. The Department also established an Office on Trafficking in Persons to coordinate interagency information and policy, provide technical assistance to target countries, and to serve as secretariat to the cabinet-level Interagency Task Force on trafficking in persons.

    . Organized criminal groups smuggle some four million illegal migrants across national borders each year, with an estimated 500,000 entering the U.S., including some belonging to terrorist groups. To strengthen our capacity to detect and disrupt these groups and activities before they reach U.S. shores, INL is establishing an interagency Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking In Persons Center (MSTPCC) to coordinate policy and real-time intelligence and to provide assistance for disruption operations. INL is assisting other countries improve their border controls, train border guards and immigration officers, and establish more responsive immigration regimes.

  • Money-laundering
  • Trafficking in Persons
  • Migrant Smuggling
    . In 2001, INL established a new International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Gaborone, Botswana, that will initially serve southern and eventually all of Africa. Like our ILEAs in Budapest and Bangkok, the purpose of our Gaborone ILEA is to strengthen regional cooperation and improve participating law enforcement agency performance. To further upgrade foreign law enforcement expertise and professionalism, the Department also established an ILEA at Roswell, New Mexico, to provide advanced training for graduates of the regional ILEAs. Planning is also proceeding for the possibility of establishing an ILEA for Latin America. ILEA training not only imparts key skills to law enforcement officials, it builds relationships between U.S. enforcement agencies providing the training and their foreign counterparts and strengthens cooperation at the operational level.

  • Law Enforcement Training
    . With U.S. political and financial support, the international community completed work on the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) in December 2000, which obligates governments to strengthen laws against international crime and encourages cooperation among states. More than 140 states have signed the TOC Convention, with the U.S. assisting those states needing help in developing the necessary legislation and other legal changes to implement the convention. Protocols to the TOC Convention address trafficking in persons, migrant smuggling and firearms. The U.S. is providing similar support for negotiations on an international convention on corruption, which are currently underway. INL is the largest contributor to the OAS’s Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), the hemisphere’s principal counternarcotics policy forum. INL funds support a broad array of programs, ranging from development of national drug commissions and strategies to focused law enforcement and demand-side efforts. The U.S. provided political and financial support for the development of the counternarcotics Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM), the peer review system by member states, which has just completed its first round of assessments. Working through the UN International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the UN Center for International Crime Prevention, the U.S. has promoted international cooperation and program assistance in the areas of counternarcotics and crime control.

    . We have also been instrumental in focusing the attention of the G-8 Experts Working Group on Organized Crime on tracing electronic evidence across borders; thwarting the trafficking of persons—especially women and children; migrant smuggling; trafficking in firearms; and adopting mutual legal assistance procedures for the 21st century. Following the September 11 attacks, the Experts Working Groups on Organized Crime and Counterterrorism began meeting jointly and developed a 25-point Action Plan to coordinate G-8 steps on counterterrorism and mobilize international action.
  • International Cooperation
  • G-8
  • . 2001 was a banner year for the U.S.-supported eradication program in Colombia. The expanded aerial spray program treated over 84,000 hectares of coca cultivation, up 78 percent over 2000 and 54 percent over the previous record year (1998). These numbers should increase as additional spray aircraft are delivered over the next year and as areas previously closed to spraying are opened up. In 2001, the complementary alternative development program signed 21 voluntary eradication agreements with small farmer associations in poppy growing areas in the Colombian Departments of Tolima, Huila, Cauca and Narino, resulting in the eradication of 680 hectares of poppy, and benefiting an estimated 1,740 small farm families. In the Putumayo department, 33 voluntary coca eradication agreements were signed with 37,000 families for the eradication of as many hectares of coca. Nevertheless, the security threat and lack of viable economic infrastructure in Putumayo pose formidable obstacles. In recognition of these problems, the GOC and USG plan to refocus alternative development during FY 2002 and FY 2003 to initiate voluntary eradication agreements with entire communities that require the immediate eradication of coca; to emphasize infrastructure development, as opposed to crop substitution; and to expand activities beyond southern Colombia to neighboring departments where a greater number of legal economic activities already exist and have shown a potential for success. In 2001, U.S.-trained counternarcotics forces destroyed over 1,450 base labs and 21 HCL labs. On another front, extraditions of major traffickers to the U.S. more than tripled in number over previous years.

Justification

The FY 2003 INL budget request is formulated to support the Administration’s comprehensive strategy for combating the global threat of narcotics and organized crime. While attacking the core targets, it emphasizes the need to strengthen host nation capabilities through institution building so that key countries can bolster their own effectiveness in fighting international drugs and crime. The budget reflects a long-term commitment to attack these problems globally. It underscores the need to create competent and honest counternarcotics and anticrime forces in countries where laws and institutions are weak, and it promotes more effective action in nations where motivated and capable enforcement organizations are hampered by a lack of public awareness and political will. Requested funding will permit INL to continue implementing the comprehensive heroin control strategy. The strategy supports efforts by multilateral organizations to reduce opium production in those major growing areas where our access is limited, such as in Burma and Afghanistan. Assistance to Burma provided through the UNDCP does not flow to the central government. However, it strengthens law enforcement operations against the major processing, distribution, and financial organizations in countries where we have access. Requested funds will enable INL to respond to the President’s requirement to implement a comprehensive international crime control strategy, including our focus since September 11 to bring these anticrime tools to bear in the fight against terrorism. The anticrime strategy includes aggressive diplomatic initiatives to bolster international cooperation, backed by an expanded international training program through International Law Enforcement Academies. It places special attention on money laundering and financial crimes.

The FY 2003 budget request of $928.713 million directs our greatest counternarcotics efforts at Latin America, a regional approach focused on eliminating the cocaine and heroin trades along with combating emerging methamphetamine trafficking from Mexico. Requested funds will support Latin American programs initiated under the FY 2000 Emergency Supplemental and continued under the Andean Counterdrug Initiative. The requested funds will allow us to advance our source country approach against the cocaine threat in South America; it will provide for alternative development resources to buttress successful crop control efforts; it will allow continued materiel and logistical support to the police and military to block drug shipments out of the producing areas and through key transit zones; and it will furnish the training and other institution-building assistance needed to strengthen the judiciary’s ability to resist trafficker corruption and to prosecute major cases successfully.

For Colombia, INL is requesting $439 million for the operation and maintenance of air assets provided under FY 2000 Emergency Supplemental funding, for Colombia National Police and Colombian Army Counternarcotics Brigade operational support, aerially applied herbicide procurement, airfield upgrades, base and security upgrades, communications equipment procurement, and riverine and coastal interdiction activities. In addition, resources will be used to support the expanded aerial eradication program (which roughly doubled in 2001 and will increase further with the arrival of eight new aircraft in FY 2002) and the standing up of a second CD brigade to provide increased security for the aerial eradication program, alternative development and expanded interdiction operations. At the same time, INL is seeking $164 million for alternative development and institution building programs in support of our long-term goal of institutional development. As a crucial element of enhancing countries’ abilities to counter the production and trafficking of illicit narcotics, psychotropic drugs and other controlled substances, U.S. support for democracy and rule of law objectives will increase.

The requests for Peru and Bolivia focus on interdiction and border control efforts to preempt spillover from aggressive counternarcotics activities in Colombia, continuation of both voluntary and forced eradication, alternative development and institution building. Responding to the violent resistance to eradication in the Chapare and Yungas provinces of Bolivia will require significant additional resources. Similarly, we remain concerned over the revival of Shining Path in coca-growing areas of Peru, which will require additional security resources for alternative development and eradication activities. We are also requesting increased funding for Brazil, primarily in support of stronger border controls but also for demand reduction programs to combat the rapid rise in cocaine use. Brazil has now become the second largest consumer of cocaine, after the United States. Funding for Ecuador will focus on strengthening control along the northern border, where the security situation has deteriorated due to Colombian guerilla, paramilitary and criminal violence. This will be accomplished through improved law enforcement and expanded alternative development activities to create a productive barrier against cross-border influence.

The transit routes tend to shift between Mexico/Central America, and the countries of the western and eastern Caribbean influenced by factors such as levels of enforcement activity and presence of detection and monitoring platforms. Thus, we will intensify efforts in the Caribbean to respond to signs of renewed trafficking there, while continuing to work closely with Mexico. INL will make use of improved relations with Mexico to work with that government to modernize and professionalize key justice sector institutions, notably prosecutors and federal investigators. The Latin American Regional budget will particularly target drug interdiction efforts and money laundering in the Caribbean, Central America, and the Southern Cone by strengthening host government investigative, judicial and prosecutorial capacities.

The FY 2003 INL budget request for Asia/Middle East programs will continue to support opium crop suppression programs in Pakistan and Thailand, where we have both access and government cooperation, but will also include increased emphasis on law enforcement. Although Thailand has one of the most effective opium eradication and crop substitution program in the world, it remains a major conduit for drugs flowing out of drug producing areas and of goods flowing in to meet the traffickers’ needs. For Pakistan, the recent chain of events in neighboring Afghanistan has increased the importance of law enforcement activities, particularly border control, even as Pakistan continues to reduce the area under opium cultivation. These programs complement U.S. counternarcotics funding provided through international organizations such as UNDCP and are designed to help governments establish and strengthen counternarcotics law enforcement units, obtain training and equipment, and conduct demand reduction and public awareness campaigns in other countries, such as Laos. Programs for Afghanistan will focus on assistance for Afghan authorities efforts to implement the ban on opium production imposed by the Afghan Interim Authority in January 2002 through rural development programs and the establishment of a national police and judicial process to provide enforcement.

The Interregional Aviation Support Program has made possible the tremendous expansion of aerial eradication in Colombia that, along with alternative development, is the backbone of the country’s counternarcotics strategy. The FY 2003 budget request will continue to focus on key programs in Colombia, Bolivia and Peru, with temporary deployments of aircraft and personnel, on an as-needed basis, elsewhere in the Andean region and Central America. Funding increases reflect the added support necessary to sustain the tremendously increased tempo of aerial eradication. Establishment of host government self-sufficiency in maintenance and support remains a priority.

The International Organizations budget is a good example of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts. Multilateral approaches highlight the international nature of the problems caused by drugs, crime, and terrorism, generate increased "buy-in" by more countries, broaden the base of political support, stimulate contributions by other donors, allow us to reach regions where U.S. influence is limited, and often prove more palatable politically to countries with sovereignty sensitivities. The FY 2003 request will support multilateral drug control operations, programs and policy objectives of the U.S. through UNDCP and the OAS’ Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). Funding for UNDCP will help strengthen border controls and border security in Central Asia, address counternarcotics challenges in Afghanistan, and target opium production in Burma, currently the world’s leading supplier. Assistance to CICAD will also support the effective operation and national implementation of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism.

In the past, many countries considered themselves immune to the dangers of drug addiction or were inclined to see trafficking, especially of cocaine, as an American problem. In recent years, however, the rise in heroin addiction in many Middle Eastern and South Asian states, the growth in synthetic drug use in East and South East Asia, and the increasing abuse of cocaine within Latin America has made clear to these governments that drug trafficking is their problem as well. Drawing from the U.S. experience with drug abuse, INL demand reduction programs and public awareness programs are designed to help host governments engage their own national institutions, communities, and resources to address the domestic demand for illicit drugs. One focus of our assistance is the formation or strengthening of regional and sub-regional prevention networks so that all participating groups can share best practices. Funding for the Colombo Plan, an Asian regional organization, will be utilized to enhance our on-going collaboration with faith-based organizations, especially Islamic groups, in addressing counternarcotics challenges in Afghanistan and elsewhere in the region.

The anticrime program budget request of $50.5 million reflects the consolidated management of law enforcement and police training programs. INL will use federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies, as well as multilateral international organizations (UN Crime Center, Financial Action Task Force, Caribbean Financial Action Task Force, Group of States Against Corruption) to provide law enforcement training programs and technical assistance to more than 150 countries around the globe. Programs will give special attention to combating organized crime, financial crimes, money laundering, migrant smuggling, and trafficking in persons. INL also has programs in anticorruption, border controls, rule of law, critical infrastructure protection, cyber crime, and intellectual property rights.

INL will continue to manage the USG interagency regional ILEAs (Budapest, Bangkok and Gaborone) as well as the center for advanced studies in Roswell and a possible new training center in Latin America. When all of the centers are fully operational, the number of law enforcement officials trained will double from the number in FY 2001. INL will provide some type of law enforcement training (ranging from one-day seminars to intensive training courses lasting several weeks) to more than 12,000 officials in FY 2003 using INL, FREEDOM Support Act (FSA) and Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act funding,

In FY 2003, INL program resources will support the efforts of the recently created Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons to identify countries that do not meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking specified in the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 and to provide assistance to those countries seeking to improve their performance. Countries identified in the Department’s Trafficking in Persons Report as Tier 3 may be subject to sanctions after the 2003 report.

To combat alien smuggling, INL will support the interagency Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons Coordination Center in its mission to coordinate USG efforts, including steps to broaden its operations. INL will also provide technical and other support to help states implement the UN protocols on alien smuggling and trafficking in persons and strengthen law enforcement capabilities in these areas.

To advance the U.S. anticorruption agenda, INL works with a range of international and regional organizations to promote anticorruption norm setting and implement a growing range of bilateral and multilateral anticorruption assistance projects to support U.S. diplomatic anticorruption efforts and promote innovative approaches to preventing and deterring corruption. The latter includes projects that reach beyond strict law enforcement to achieve broader anticrime purposes by focusing on developing a culture of integrity and lawfulness in governments and societies, fostering internal controls, transparency systems, corporate and economic governance, and engagement of civil society in national anticorruption efforts.

Like steps to combat money-laundering, strengthened border controls in key areas can pay double dividends by working against both transnational crime, including traffickers, and terrorist groups. Through INL border assessments of several Central and South American and Caribbean countries, we will identify several of the most vulnerable countries and work with them to upgrade their border control systems, concentrating on those countries that are major transit locations used by migrant smugglers and terrorist organizations that engage in crimes relating to terrorism.

The Africa regional anticrime program was initiated in FY 2001 to address the increasing number of criminal groups that have emerged in this region of the world. Most of the limited counternarcotics and anticrime funds spent to date in Africa have been focused on narcotics programs in Nigeria and South Africa. While continuing to concentrate on Nigeria and southern Africa, we are also beginning to aid other governments and regional organizations so that African organized crime will be reduced, not just displaced to other countries in the regions. Training will be paramount in the Africa program for FY 2003 as we work to strengthen host government capacity. Customs training, police science training, specialized training for counternarcotics units, demand reduction programs, technical assistance and counternarcotics public education campaigns will account for the majority of requested Africa regional funding. Material assistance is also planned to include communications, vehicles and computer equipment. In general, assistance will be directed to states with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing and/or the political will to achieve these goals.

U.S. participation in international civilian police (CIVPOL) operations increased to over 855 experienced police officers assigned in Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, southern Serbia, and East Timor in CY 2001, funded primarily with FSA, SEED, and PKO funds. The completion of a competitive solicitation process in 2002 to establish a 2,000-member CIVPOL roster and provide related training and advisory services will establish a mechanism to further improve our ability to respond to requests from the UN and other organizations for U.S. participation in police components of peacekeeping operations.

INL Budget by Program

 

FY 2000
SUPPL

FY 2001
Actual

FY 2002
Estimate

FY 2003
Request

Counternarcotics Programs

       

Andean Counterdrug Initiative
(ACI)1

       

Bolivia: Interdiction & Eradication

25,000

35,000

48,000

49,000

Alt Dev/Institution Building

85,000

17,000

33,000

42,000

Colombia: Interdiction & Eradication

635,500

48,000

243,500

275,000

Alt Dev/Institution Building

203,000

137,000

164,000

Ecuador: Interdiction & Eradication

12,000

2,200

15,000

21,000

Alt Dev/Institution Building

8,000

10,000

16,000

Peru: Interdiction & Eradication

32,000

21,000

75,000

66,000

Alt Dev/Institution Building

27,000

67,500

69,000

Brazil

3,500

2,000

6,000

12,000

Venezuela

3,500

1,200

5,000

8,000

Panama

4,000

1,363

5,000

9,000

Latin America Andean Regional

7,000

Total ACI

1,018,500

154,763

645,000

731,000

International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INCLE)

Other Latin America

       

Bahamas

1,200

1,200

1,200

Guatemala

3,000

3,500

3,400

Jamaica

257

1,550

1,300

Mexico

10,000

12,000

12,000

Latin America Regional

8,537

10,000

9,500

Subtotal Other Latin America

22,994

28,250

27,400

Asia Regional

       

Laos

4,200

4,200

3,000

Pakistan

3,500

2,500

4,000

Pakistan Border Security Supplemental

73,000

Thailand

4,095

4,000

3,750

Asia Regional Cooperation

2,233

5,050

4,500

Southwest Asia Initiative

3,000

3,000

Subtotal Asia Regional

14,028

91,750

18,250

Interregional Aviation Support

50,000

60,000

65,000

Subtotal Country Programs

1,018,500

241,785

825,000

841,650

International Organizations

12,000

16,000

13,000

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 2

4,500

5,000

5,000

Systems Support/Upgrades

4,000

6,000

4,000

Program Development & Support 3

12,187

13,703

14,563

Total Counternarcotics Programs

1,018,500

274,472

865,703

878,213

Anticrime Programs

       

INL Anticrime Programs 2

22,450

20,330

14,000

Civilian Police Contingent

10,000

5,000

Africa Regional Anticrime

7,500

7,500

7,000

International Law Enforcement Academy

7,300

14,500

14,500

Trafficking in Persons

3,250

7,670

10,000

Total Anticrime Programs

50,500

50,000

50,500

Total INCLE

170,209

270,703

197,713

Total INL Programs 4, 5

1,018,500

324,972

915,703

928,713

1 The Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI), the INL component of the Andean Regional Initiative, began in FY 2002.
2 Regional Law Enforcement Training funding was moved to Anticrime Programs in FY 2002. FY 2001 was adjusted accordingly.
3 The FY 2003 total for Program Development and Support includes $ 0.713 million for full funding of federal employee retirement costs. The comparable amounts for FY 2002 ($ 0.703 million) and FY 2001 ($ 0.687 million) are included in those totals.
4 The totals do not include FSA and SEED Act funding transfers from USAID, nor PKO funding.
5 The total for FY 2001 includes a rescission of $ 0.715 million.

INL Budget by Function

($000)

 

FY 2001
Actual

% of
Total

FY 2002
Estimate

% of
Total

FY 2003
Request

% of
Total

Counternarcotics Programs

           

Law Enforcement Assistance and Institutional Development

115,126

35.5

542,171

59.2

524,321

56.5

Eradication, Crop Control and Alternative Development

105,270

32.4

258,585

28.3

286,905

30.9

International Organizations

12,000

3.7

16,000

1.8

13,000

1.4

Drug Awareness and Demand Reduction1

8,309

2.5

9,630

1.0

11,820

1.3

Program Development and Support2

33,767

10.4

39,317

4.2

42,167

4.5

Total Counternarcotics Programs

274,472

84.5

865,703

94.5

878,213

94.6

Anticrime Programs

           

INL Anticrime Programs1

22,450

6.9

20,330

2.2

14,000

1.5

Civilian Police Contingent

10,000

3.1

0.0

5,000

0.5

Africa Regional Anticrime

7,500

2.3

7,500

0.8

7,000

0.8

International Law Enforcement Academy

7,300

2.2

14,500

1.6

14,500

1.6

Trafficking in Persons

3,250

1.0

7,670

0.9

10,000

1.0

Total Anticrime Programs

50,500

15.5

50,000

5.5

50,500

5.4

Total INL Program Plan 3, 4

324,972

100.0

915,703

100.0

928,713

100.0

 

1

Regional Law Enforcement Training funding was moved to Anticrime Programs in FY 2002. FY 2001 was adjusted accordingly.
2 The FY 2003 total for Program Development and Support includes $ 0.713 million for full funding of federal employee retirement costs. The comparable amounts for FY 2002 ($ 0.703 million) and FY 2001 ($ 0.687 million) are included in those totals.
3 The totals do not include FSA and SEED Act funding transfers from USAID, nor PKO funding.
4 The total for FY 2001 includes a rescission of $ 0.715 million.

($000)

Objectives



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