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Other Latin America


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2003 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 2002
Report
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                           The Bahamas

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2001 Actual

FY 2002 Estimated

FY 2003 Request

1,200

1,200

1,200

 

Objectives

    • Support Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) to deny the use of Bahamian territory for the movement of illicit drugs to the U.S.;
    • Enable Bahamian law enforcement to conduct increasingly sophisticated investigations, effective maritime interdiction operations, and financial analyses in order to stem the flow of illegal drugs, aliens and weapons through Bahamian territory;
    • Strengthen judicial institutions so that drug traffickers, money launderers and perpetrators of other crimes will be prosecuted expeditiously, and the proceeds of their crimes seized and forfeited; and
    • Assist the GCOB to reach Bahamian youth on remote islands with drug-use prevention programs.

    Justification

    The Bahamas has a population of 300,000 people scattered across 700 islands that combine to form an area the size of California. Located between Colombia and the United States, The Bahamas is a continuing target for drug transshipments as well as international crime.

    Over the past few years, an estimated 12 percent of the cocaine from South America destined for the United States has passed through the Jamaica-Cuba-Bahamas vector. Bahamian drug trafficking organizations send go-fast drug smuggling boats to Jamaica to pick up cargoes of cocaine and marijuana or, less frequently, to areas around Cuba to pick up airdrops from South America or Jamaica. These boats then return to The Bahamas before attempting to smuggle the drugs into south Florida. In 2001, a multi-national law enforcement operation led by DEA and the Bahamian Drug Enforcement Unit (DEU) effectively dismantled the Samuel "Ninety" Knowles drug trafficking organization, one of eight major Bahamian organizations.

    Since 1982, the Bahamian and U.S. governments have cooperated closely in OPBAT (Operation Bahamas, Turks and Caicos) to interdict the flow of drugs through The Bahamas. Despite the seven USG helicopters now assigned to OPBAT and the assistance of other USG surveillance aircraft, OPBAT is able to seize less than ten percent of the drugs estimated to be transiting the region. Two factors account for this low seizure rate. Drug smuggling go-fast boats are difficult to detect from the air and a lack of high-speed fast response boats prevents actual confrontation and arrest of smugglers who typically, once sighted and pursued by OPBAT aircraft, dump their illicit cargoes at sea, beach their boats and escape into the bush.

    The Bahamas is a major offshore financial center. The government has cooperated with USG agencies on money laundering and drug asset forfeiture cases since 1996 when it first criminalized money laundering. Nevertheless, until recently, The Bahamas remained an attractive target for money laundering and other financial crimes. In June 2000, citing deficiencies in the Bahamian anti-money laundering regime, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) included The Bahamas in a list of "noncooperating" jurisdictions in the fight against money laundering. The Bahamas responded by enacting legislation in December 2000 reforming its bank secrecy laws and creating a Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU). In June 2001, FATF recognized these improvements by removing The Bahamas from the list of "non-cooperating" jurisdictions. The Bahamas now must develop the expertise and demonstrate the willingness to detect and prosecute financial crimes.

    The Government of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas (GCOB) allocates approximately 14 percent of its annual budget to counternarcotics activities. Nonetheless, because of the country’s small population and budget, and its expansive geography, the GCOB requires significant USG assistance to fight international narcotics trafficking and crime.

    The INL program in The Bahamas has three key counternarcotics objectives: (1) support the drug interdiction operations of OPBAT; (2) strengthen law enforcement institutions to allow the GCOB to more effectively combat drug trafficking, money laundering, and other criminal activity; and (3) strengthen judicial institutions so drug traffickers, money launderers and other criminals will be effectively prosecuted and sentenced.

    FY 2003 Program

    The Narcotics Law Enforcement Project will continue to support jointly operated OPBAT bases in FY 2003. OPBAT is an important USG drug interdiction effort in the Caribbean and a model for regional cooperation. Project funding will be used for construction, maintenance and operating costs of three OPBAT helicopter bases and for additional training for the Bahamian DEU Strike Force. Project funds will also be used to purchase additional interceptor boats to complement those procured in FY 2001 and 2002, providing Bahamian police with better capability to confront and arrest smugglers. This project will also fund communications and navigation equipment for seized go-fast boats to be used by the Bahamian police in OPBAT operations.

    This project will also continue to support the Royal Bahamas Police Force (RBPF) Drug Enforcement Unit (DEU), which is composed of 80 officers dedicated to investigating drug trafficking and money laundering cases. INL funding will also be provided for additional dogs and for handler training for the DEU canine unit. The DEU money laundering/asset forfeiture section will receive training to develop the capability to effectively pursue sophisticated money laundering investigations.

    INL will fund a modest project with The Bahamas National Drug Council to enable it to deliver a Drug Awareness and Demand Reduction Project to youth on the more remote islands.

    Program Development and Support

    Effectiveness Measurements

      The Bahamas

      INL Budget

      ($000)

    • Upward trend in OPBAT end-game statistics and increased amount of cocaine and marijuana seized from trafficker surface assets, expressed as a percentage of the estimated drug flow through The Bahamas;
    • Increased number of major Bahamian drug trafficking organizations dismantled, increased number of successful prosecutions of major drug traffickers, increased number and value of asset seizures and increased frequency and improved quality of cooperation with USG law enforcement; and
    • Reduced drug use as reported by the National Drug Council and NGO drug-use survey results (demand reduction).
    • funds will cover the salaries and benefits of U.S. personnel in the Narcotics Affairs Section, along with International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

       

      FY 2001

      FY 2002

      FY 2003

      Narcotics Law Enforcement

           

      Commodities

      430

      366

      325

      Training

      198

      200

      175

      Other Costs

      195

      250

      300

      Subtotal

      823

      816

      800

      Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

      60

      50

      50

      Program Development and Support

           

      U.S. Personnel

      197

      207

      217

      ICASS Costs

      75

      79

      83

      Program Support

      45

      48

      50

      Subtotal

      317

      334

      350

       

      _____

      _____

      _____

      Total

      1,200

      1,200

      1,200

      Guatemala

      Budget Summary ($000)

      FY 2001 Actual

      FY 2002 Estimated

      FY 2003 Request

      3,000

      3,500

      3,400

      Objectives

        • Increase the interdiction of illicit drugs transiting the region en route to the United States;
        • Maintain opium poppy and marijuana cultivation at low levels through the support of eradication operations;
        • Improve counternarcotics and law enforcement capabilities, modernize the judiciary and pass updated counternarcotics legislation;
        • Increase public awareness of the dangers of illicit drug production, narcotics trafficking and drug abuse; and
        • Increase regional cooperation and through training and exchanges of information.

        Justification

        Guatemala is a major transit country for cocaine from South America to Mexico and onward to the United States. U.S. intelligence experts estimate that between 150 and 250 metric tons of cocaine are transshipped annually through Guatemala. Small amounts of opium poppy and marijuana are cultivated for domestic consumption. Diversion of precursor chemicals is a serious concern.

        The Government of Guatemala (GOG) is actively working to strengthen its drug enforcement capability. Extensive training, and the provision of equipment and infrastructure for the Department of Anti-Narcotics Operations (DOAN), and the Narcotics Prosecutors, continues. The Ministry of Government (MOG), the Public Ministry (MP), and judicial organizations have initiated the integration of computerized systems to track cases and enhance information sharing within the GOG and eventually with counterpart Central American institutions. The GOG fully supports interdiction and eradication operations, including when available, the use of aerial spraying against marijuana and opium poppy crops. At the same time, the Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addictions and Illicit Drug Trafficking (SECCATID) is aggressively pursuing a demand reduction program in Guatemala.

        Although the GOG seized almost triple the amount of cocaine during 2001 that it seized during 2000, its interdiction performance still lags behind the 1999 benchmark of more than 10 metric tons. INL support for interdiction efforts will include increased training, operational support and maintenance of equipment for the Guatemalan counternarcotics police. While significant poppy cultivation in Guatemala has been eliminated, it remains necessary to periodically assess the magnitude of the crop using the INL Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) capability. The Peten region of the country continues to be the main source of marijuana cultivation. GOG drug control police carry out manual eradication, limited air-mobile interdiction (with INL assistance), port control operations, narcotics investigations, and road interdiction and inspection functions.

        INL provided supplemental Hurricane Mitch funding to Guatemala to implement projects that address a variety of problems, including narcotics related corruption and drug smuggling in commercial freight. These projects address anticorruption efforts in customs agencies, encourage implementation of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, and build a capability to reduce alien smuggling. Although Mitch-funded projects will be completed by early 2002, those requiring additional or continuing support will be incorporated into other INL projects.

        FY 2003 Program

        The INL program for FY 2003 continues to reflect a shift to a regional focus in interdiction and program support activities that began in 1999. Funding will be used to support a full-time regional advisor, the initiatives of the Central American Drug Control Commission (CCP), the expansion of regional training as well as the regional Mitch-funded projects. This will help Guatemala and its neighbors to combat common problems and stimulate the regional cooperation necessary to counter the considerable resources and ingenuity of narcotics traffickers

        The Narcotics Law Enforcement Project focuses on three areas: narcotics interdiction, drug crop eradication and institutional development. The Institutional Development Project utilizes INL funding to develop the investigative and operational capacity of the Department of Anti-Drug Operations (DOAN) of the National Civil Police. It will strengthen Guatemala’s enforcement capability by providing training, equipment, and infrastructure for the DOAN. New DOAN units, such as the antismuggling unit, will be used to expand its presence in the interior and to deploy mobile inspection teams to prevent drugs, weapons, illegal aliens, and other contraband from entering and transiting Guatemala. Other new units include a special chemical diversion investigative unit to interdict precursor chemicals transiting Guatemala on a daily basis and the police polygraph unit. INL will support the expansion of the Guatemalan Regional Anti-Narcotics Training Center into a fulltime facility offering more courses for other Central American police as well. The NAS-funded canine training program at the center currently offers courses for detector dog handlers, instructors, supervisors and narcotics investigators for countries throughout the region. The Joint Intelligence Coordination Center (JICC) project is in the process of implementing an integrated computerized system to track vehicles, identify personnel, monitor active cases, and provide and enhance information sharing with the GOG and counterpart Central American institutions.

        The Interdiction Project supports the objective of deterring the transshipment of cocaine while continued eradication of opium poppy and marijuana plants is the goal of the Eradication Project. To accomplish these goals, INL funds will be used to continue to strengthen interdiction and eradication capabilities through training and logistical support for police units involved in counternarcotics operations. Operational training will be provided to support Mayan Jaguar and other USG regional eradication and interdiction efforts, including RARE and Central Skies regional deployments. The project supports the DOAN port security program by funding a U.S. Customs port advisor and training for DOAN agents.

        The Narcotics Prosecutor Assistance Project provides funding for the special narcotics prosecutors unit of the Attorney General’s office (Public Ministry). The objective is to expand the number of prosecutors in the program, increase professional training, integrate the current narcotics case tracking system with the case management system that the GOG is developing for the National Civil Police, and increase drug convictions. This project supplies equipment and training in coordination with USAID judicial reform efforts and funds a local-hire legal advisor. A well-received element of the project, developed in 1998, provides assistance to the GOG to streamline operations, prepare cases and draft counternarcotics legislation. The legal advisor, working with the host government since 1999, assisted in the development of recently passed money-laundering legislation in Guatemala. He will continue to support the drafting of counternarcotics and organized crime legislation in Guatemala and other Central American countries. The legal advisor will also help the GOG organize a financial crimes unit to investigate and prosecute money-laundering crimes.

        The High Impact Courts Project will support a Guatemalan Supreme Court initiative establishing "high impact" courts designed to handle sensitive organized crime and narcotics cases that regular courts cannot. In addition to staff training, the court case tracking system will eventually be integrated with the National Civilian Police case management system. The primary objective of the project is to promote greater coordination and cooperation between the judiciary, the prosecutors and the police. Project provided training and technical assistance would also encourage the adoption of asset forfeiture laws and narcotics-related legal reforms.

        The Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction Project is designed to advance GOG efforts in this area while encouraging the government to pass needed counternarcotics legislation. The GOG recognizes that domestic drug addiction is a growing threat and has made demand reduction a national priority. The main recipient of aid from this program is the Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addiction and Drug Trafficking (SECCATID). SECCATID develops education programs and actively promotes public awareness of drug issues. In 1999, SECCATID completed the first phase of a nationwide study to gather baseline data on drug addiction; sponsored, with INL assistance, a countrywide drug awareness contest; and sponsored a regional demand reduction seminar in conjunction with ONDCP. During FY 2002 and FY 2003, the project will help SECCATID conduct another survey of drug usage and continue to build on ideas generated by a regional demand reduction seminar. As it expands the GOG outreach program will begin to reach all school children. The project will also help SECCATID develop specific advertising and public information programs, including videos addressing the dangers of drug use by youth.

        Program Development and Support

        Effectiveness Measurements

          Guatemala

          INL Budget

          ($000)

        • Increased institutional capability within the DOAN for illicit drug interdiction, opium poppy eradication and drug trafficker prosecutions;
        • Increased participation of students from other nations in the region in training activities and an increase in the exchange of law enforcement information between Central American countries;
        • Adoption of measures, legislative and regulatory, to strengthen the judicial system, leading to an increase in effective prosecution of criminal cases; and
        • Enhanced level of drug awareness, demand reduction, and counternarcotics expertise developed among prosecutors, public health, media and educational institutions.
        • funds will provide resources for salaries and benefits of U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs and general administrative and operational expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

           

          FY 2001

          FY 2002

          FY 2003

          Narcotics Law Enforcement

               

          Interdiction

          300

          325

          325

          Training, Equipment, Operational Support, Command and Control, Port Security and Border Control

               

          Eradication

          135

          150

          150

          Training, Equipment and Operational Support

               

          Institutional Development

          1,375

          1,525

          1,525

          Training, Equipment and Operational Support

               

          Subtotal

          1,810

          2,000

          2,000

          Administration of Justice

               

          Narcotics Prosecutors

          250

          375

          275

          Training, Equipment and Operational Support

               

          High Impact Courts

          150

          225

          175

          Training, Equipment and Technical Assistance

               

          Subtotal

          400

          600

          450

          Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

          250

          270

          270

          Program Development and Support

               

          U.S. Personnel

          195

          208

          220

          Non-U.S. Personnel

          80

          90

          100

          ICASS Costs

          175

          200

          220

          Program Support

          90

          132

          140

          Subtotal

          540

          630

          680

           

          _____

          _____

          _____

          Total

          3,000

          3,500

          3,400

           

          Jamaica

          Budget Summary ($000)

          FY 2001 Actual

          FY 2002 Estimated

          FY 2003 Request

          2571

          1,550

          1,300

          1 During FY 2001, the program was managed with prior fiscal year funding.


          Objectives

          • Assist the Government of Jamaica (GOJ) to develop laws and regulations to control international organized crime, especially drug trafficking, and to identify and prevent narcotics-related corruption of public officials;
          • Improve the ability of the GOJ to conduct sophisticated law enforcement investigations and operations, including drug interdiction, marijuana eradication, detection of the illegal diversion of precursor and essential chemicals, money laundering and asset forfeiture, leading to the successful prosecution of drug traffickers, money launderers, and other criminals;
          • Enhance Jamaican ability to detect and deter the transshipment of drugs and other contraband through Jamaica’s air and sea ports;
          • Improve GOJ ability to fulfill the terms of our bilateral mutual legal assistance and extradition treaties; and
          • Assist the GOJ to prevent drug consumption among its citizens.

          Justification

          Jamaica is a major transit point for South American cocaine en route to the U.S. and the largest Caribbean producer and exporter of marijuana for U.S. markets. Traffickers use Jamaica’s ports, offshore waters and airstrips to move drugs to the U.S. Jamaican ports are also vulnerable to the illegal diversion of precursor and essential chemicals. Corruption continues to undermine law enforcement and judicial efforts against drug-related crime in Jamaica. While Jamaica is not considered an important regional financial center, tax haven, or offshore banking center, the U.S. is concerned about the increase in money laundering in the Caribbean, including in Jamaica.

          The Government of Jamaica (GOJ) publicly states its commitment to combating illegal drugs, but operates under severe resource constraints. Over 60 percent of its national budget is used for debt servicing and 30 percent for government salaries, leaving less than ten percent for operating and capital expenses. Therefore, U.S. and other donor assistance is essential to help the GOJ develop and sustain an effective counternarcotics/anticrime capability. Despite budget constraints, over the last four years, the GOJ acquired seven helicopters, a former U.S. Navy tugboat, and X-ray machines for use at its two international airports. In 2001, the GOJ hired staff for its Financial Investigative Unit. The GOJ also continued to support the Fugitive Apprehension Team, which has been successful in locating and arresting persons subject to U.S. extradition. The GOJ extradited ten people to the U.S. during 2001. Beginning in June 2001, the GOJ assumed the funding of salaries related to marijuana eradication efforts (which the USG had been funding). In addition, in 2001 the GOJ initiated a one-year pilot drug court project under which three such courts have been established. The GOJ continues to support the operations of the Caribbean Regional Drug Law Enforcement Training Center.

          The GOJ has also taken steps to strengthen its counternarcotics/anticrime legal regime. During 2001, the GOJ brought into force an Anti-Corruption Act, amended the Integrity of Parliamentarians Act, and ratified the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption. The GOJ is in the process of drafting implementing regulations for the Precursor Chemicals Act that entered into force in 2000. The GOJ has strengthened its Money Laundering Act by amending it in 1999 to require suspicious transaction reporting and to raise the threshold for mandatory transaction reporting; in 2000, the Act was further amended to expand the predicate offenses beyond drug-related money laundering to include offenses related to fraud, firearms, and corruption. In October 2001, the U.S. and GOJ signed a new Letter of Agreement that redirects prior-year unexpended counternarcotics assistance funds to projects identified as high priority by both parties.

          Counternarcotics assistance for the GOJ seeks to build upon limited counternarcotics and law enforcement resources and help the GOJ to enact and implement effective anticrime/corruption legal regimes. It helps the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF), the Jamaica Defense Force (JDF), the Jamaican court system, and other GOJ agencies carry out effective counternarcotics and anticrime law enforcement investigations and operations resulting in the arrest and prosecution of drug law violators, money launderers and other criminals, and the seizure of the proceeds of their criminal activities. The program also seeks to strengthen GOJ ability to detect and deter public corruption. Limited funding is provided for programs to reduce the demand for drugs in Jamaica. The U.S. has provided, and will continue to provide, extensive training and equipment to the JCF Narcotics Unit, the JDF Coast Guard, the Contraband Enforcement Team, the Port Security Corps, the National Firearms and Drugs Intelligence Center, the Fugitive Apprehension Team, and the Joint Intelligence Coordination Center. In November 2000, a resident Narcotics Affairs Officer was assigned full-time to the Embassy in Kingston.

          FY 2003 Program

          All aspects of the counternarcotics program are focused on Jamaican implementation of the 1988 UN Convention. The program provides resources to enable the GOJ to counter public corruption in compliance with the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption. The requested funding level for FY 2003 will permit the GOJ to undertake the intensity of counternarcotics and anti-money laundering law enforcement and anticorruption efforts that are needed to foster an environment conducive to the development of legitimate agriculture and commerce.

          In support of the U.S.-Jamaica maritime counternarcotics cooperation agreement that went into force in 1998, the U.S. and Jamaica have undertaken combined maritime operations that have been successful in interdicting vessels transporting drugs. To augment Jamaica’s maritime interdiction resources, the USG provided two 82-foot cutters and is refurbishing boats, two of which have been turned over to the JDF Coast Guard (JDFCG). These boats perform routine counternarcotics patrols and interdiction operations, but lack the speed necessary to counter the threat of go-fast vessels transporting drugs. In October 2001, the U.S. and GOJ developed a revised plan for unexpended prior year counternarcotics funds that redirected a portion of these funds to a new Maritime Interdiction Project that will fund the procurement of three go-fast boats for the JDFCG. Continued funding of this project will support the acquisition of additional boats and equipment to support interdiction operations, as well as training and technical assistance to strengthen JDFCG ability to effectively operate and maintain the fleet.

          The Narcotics Law Enforcement Project provides training, technical assistance, and equipment for Jamaican agencies involved in counternarcotics and anticrime activities. Project activities are designed to strengthen GOJ capability to target, investigate and prosecute drug traffickers and money launderers; apprehend fugitives from justice; detect the diversion of essential and precursor chemicals; and eradicate marijuana cultivation. The project assists the GOJ in preparing modern drug control legislation to bring it into compliance with the 1988 UN Drug Convention and in strengthening Jamaican legal institutions through training and technical assistance to judges and prosecutors in the areas of extradition, asset forfeiture, money laundering and drug prosecutions. Assistance is also provided to help the GOJ implement effectively its anticorruption laws and the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption.

          The Border Control and Port Security Project provides training and equipment to strengthen GOJ ability to disrupt the movement of drugs and other contraband via commercial cargo and conveyances at air and seaports and free trade zones. Assistance will be provided to support GOJ implementation of its Customs modernization plan, for instance, through the provision of equipment and training for additional Contraband Enforcement Team staff, and procurement of drug-detection equipment for Jamaican ports.

          The INL program will also provide limited assistance for a Drug Awareness and Demand Reduction Project to support programs of the GOJ, NGOs, and other donors. The NAS will also work with the GOJ to increase public awareness of the consequences of drug abuse by providing expert speakers and advisors.

          Program Development and Support

          Effectiveness Measurements

            Jamaica

            INL Budget

            ($000)

          • Enactment and implementation of a the full range of strong drug control measures by the GOJ;
          • Increased cocaine seizures and a reduction of harvestable marijuana cultivation;
          • Improved capabilities of Jamaican law enforcement and criminal justice institutions, as evidenced by increased number of major drug traffickers and money launderers arrested, prosecuted and sentenced;
          • Decreased time from delivery of U.S. extradition requests to conclusion of Jamaican extradition proceedings;
          • Enhanced GOJ capability to investigate and prosecute corrupt security and justice officials; and
          • Reduction in drug abuse by Jamaican citizens.
          • funds provide for salaries, benefits and allowances of U.S. direct hire and locally hired personnel, International Cooperative Agreement Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

             

            FY 2001

            FY 2002

            FY 2003

            Narcotics Law Enforcement

                 

            Commodities

            500

            240

            Training & Operational Support

             

            370

            210

            Subtotal

            870

            450

            Border Control and Port Security

            150

            200

            Maritime Interdiction

            250

            300

            Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

            30

            Program Development and Support

                 

            U.S. Personnel

            157

            160

            185

            Non-U.S. Personnel

            10

            10

            15

            ICASS Costs

            45

            50

            55

            Program Support

            45

            60

            65

            Subtotal

            257

            280

            320

             

            ____

            _____

            _____

            Total

            2571

            1,550

            1,300

            1 During FY 2001, the program was managed with prior fiscal year funding.

            Mexico

            Budget Summary ($000)

            FY 2001 Actual

            FY 2002 Estimated

            FY 2003 Request

            10,000

            12,000

            12,000

             

            Objectives

              • Modernize and reform the criminal justice sector and eliminate corruption and the abuse of authority;
              • Prevent the use of Mexican territory and territorial waters by drug trafficking organizations to move illicit drugs to the U.S.;
              • Dismantle organized crime groups, especially the drug cartels, and disrupt their criminal activities;
              • Reduce and ultimately eliminate drug crop cultivation, production of methamphetamines, and other illicit pharmaceuticals;
              • Eliminate money laundering and increase the numbers and amounts of seized and forfeited trafficker assets; and
              • Reduce demand for illicit drugs; mobilize communities against drugs and crime.

              Justification

              Entering his third year in office, President Vicente Fox Quesada will need to consolidate his administration’s reforms and begin to institutionalize them. He will also need to be able to demonstrate concrete progress toward achieving at least his top campaign promises: improved public security and the elimination of official corruption. In the early part of his presidency, he has increased substantially the resources and political attention to criminal justice reforms and security. The Mexican government (GOM) has also been more open than in the recent past to technical and other support from the U.S. and other partner nations. It has likewise been open to improved bilateral and multilateral law enforcement cooperation in many areas of law enforcement, notably narcotics control. The Fox administration’s ambitious strategic plan for strengthening and restructuring federal law enforcement agencies has been followed by more specific agency technical plans; this has facilitated the development of better-integrated U.S. support programs, with clearer goals and benchmarks. The INL program will focus on the modernization of key justice sector institutions, notably two key Fox administration goals: strengthening the prosecutorial role of the federal Attorney General’s Office (PGR) and transforming the Federal Judicial Police into a more professional investigative body.

              The success of U.S. national drug control strategy is heavily dependent upon the success of Mexico’s counternarcotics effort. Mexico-based trafficking groups control the flow of large quantities of South American cocaine into the U.S. and operate their own distribution networks within the U.S. for Mexican-produced heroin and marijuana. They have also come to dominate the production and distribution of methamphetamine, one of the fastest-growing and dangerous drug use trends in the U.S. These criminal organizations are a principal cause of violence, corruption and other crimes in both countries, particularly along the border.

              Despite its commitment to reform, the Fox administration faces some daunting obstacles. Corruption is a widespread and serious problem, but perhaps even more difficult to address are the chronic institutional weaknesses within many justice sector entities, including weak personnel systems, low pay and benefits, inadequate internal controls and accountability, outdated management procedures and a lack of automation. Fox administration efforts to professionalize Mexico’s law enforcement agencies, to improve their organization and to institute modern management systems and techniques, will help to address many of these problems. Improved pay and benefits, merit-based promotions, improved training, and stronger internal controls will help improve the efficiency and reliability of law enforcement personnel.

              In addition to strengthening basic federal law enforcement agencies, INL will assist the Fox administration develop specialized units capable of tackling the sophisticated criminal organizations or complicated new forms of international crime, such as cyber-crime.

              As the drug cartels’ profits have increased, their need for money laundering services has also grown. Measures enacted in 1996-97 have provided the basis for more effective control of money laundering, and the GOM has strengthened the capabilities of its money laundering investigators and prosecutors. While critical legal and regulatory reforms have been enacted in the past five years, Mexico still lacks the institutional capability to fully implement the new laws and regulations or to prosecute money-laundering groups.

              The border region is not only the most affected by drug-related crime and violence, it also leads the nation in illicit drug use. Abuse of cocaine, crack, methamphetamine, and other drugs is growing rapidly along the border, in large cities and some tourist areas. Public and private sector programs, many with U.S. support, are trying to raise public awareness of this growing problem and to mobilize public support against it.

              FY 2003 Programs

              INL will continue to fund U.S. drug control programs in Mexico that are designed specifically to support the Mexican government’s efforts to strengthen its law enforcement institutions, to enhance human resource management, to modernize its infrastructure and promote anticorruption reforms. While the GOM continues to invest heavily in its own programs, U.S.-funded technical assistance and equipment remains essential to Mexico’s ability to achieve its objectives. In many cases, U.S. assistance permits Mexico to accelerate reform or training efforts. The INL program also seeks to support bilateral cooperation and cooperative activities.

              The Administration of Justice Project will promote the professional development of police agents, prosecutors, and criminal experts from Mexican federal, state, and municipal investigative, prosecutorial, and judicial institutions. The purpose is to improve the institutional capability of these public safety and national security agencies to act effectively against drug trafficking and other organized criminal activities.

              The project will support the efforts by the PGR to develop a stronger administrative framework that will promote proper human resource development, ensuring greater career stability and professional development. Increasing the incentives to honest, professional performance is essential if Mexico is to achieve its objectives of ending corruption and increasing operational effectiveness, which in turn will enhance Mexico’s counternarcotics and anticrime efforts. Training is another key component of the project. U.S. support will be concentrated on strengthening law enforcement training institutions, but will include a wide array of professional training, seminars, expert visits, internships and personnel exchanges with U.S. or other international counterparts. By supporting GOM efforts to make law enforcement a respectable and promising career, this project will help to improve recruitment, reduce chronic turnover and widespread compromise of personnel, and preserve our training investments. In some cases, we will provide computers, software, laboratory equipment, and other materials.

              The project will also support the GOM National Anticorruption Plan and the Secretariat of the Comptroller and Administrative Development. This will include professional development activities for state and federal judges, including modern courtroom administration and promotion of transparency in court proceedings. INL training and technical support will also be used to support the reorganized and streamlined Federal Investigations Agency (formerly the Federal Judicial Police) which is responsible for investigating a broad range of serious crimes, including terrorism, arms trafficking, kidnapping, money laundering and intellectual property theft.

              The Narcotics Law Enforcement Project will provide material and technical assistance to Mexican enforcement programs, particularly to drug control entities, such as the Drug Control Planning Commission (CENDRO), a multi-function agency that coordinates interdiction, conducts intelligence analysis, and participates in drug-related investigations. Many of these programs are designed to support the goals of the Binational Drug Strategy and respond to changing trafficking patterns and emerging threats. In FY 2003, the project will focus support on CENDRO and on specialized anticrime units. It will provide infrastructure support and specialized equipment, such as protective gear for dismantling of clandestine chemical labs.

              While cocaine is transported to Mexico by air, land, and sea, maritime smuggling is the trafficking mode of greatest concern at the present time. INL project funding will continue to include support for maritime and land interdiction, including bilateral work in post-seizure analysis, which is critical to supporting investigations against the trafficking organizations. INL will also support a pilot project to improve maritime port security to detect and deter drug trafficking, with an emphasis on public and private sector cooperation.

              The Anti-Money Laundering Project supports the Secretariat of the Treasury’s Financial Investigative Unit (FIU) and the Attorney General’s Office (PGR) Money Laundering Control Unit. The FIU is the GOM institution responsible for analyzing suspicious transaction reports and conducting audits for money laundering investigations, while the PGR unit carries out the criminal investigation and prosecution. The FY 2003 project will enhance the capabilities of FIU and PGR operations by providing additional information management equipment, consultant services for software design upgrades, office equipment, and training.

              The Aviation Support Project will provide technical assistance to the PGR Air Fleet to improve the efficiency of its fleet in support of eradication, interdiction, or other law enforcement operations. In FY 2003, it will focus on assisting the PGR in implementing its fleet modernization plan, including long-term support for the U.S.-leased aircraft. It will cover some engine modifications, unanticipated repairs, and test equipment. It will also cover specialized training, such as the use of night vision goggles, engine repair and pilot instructor training, all of which will promote optimum safety and efficiency.

              The Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction Project responds to Mexican concern about increasing domestic drug consumption through a public information effort and drug prevention education for high-risk populations, principally in urban areas and in communities along the border. The project will support printed material and outreach programs, as well as curriculum for drug abuse and crime prevention. It will also facilitate the expansion of the Culture of Lawfulness program beyond the pilot activities in Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, and Sinaloa. This program embraces a long-term approach to reducing crime by raising student awareness of the harm that organized crime, corruption, and gangs have on their communities and their nation.

              The Alternative Development Project assists an indigenous community located in an area plagued by drug crop cultivation and trafficking to avoid involvement in those activities. Like many other vulnerable areas, this community was drawn to drug crop cultivation by economic desperation or by trafficker intimidation. Activities include prevention education, community mobilization, and the promotion of economic alternatives to poppy or marijuana cultivation.

              Program Development and Support

              Effectiveness Measurements

                Mexico

                INL Budget

                ($000)

              • Increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of criminal justice institutions and personnel in bringing drug violators, including money launderers, to justice;
              • Increase in the number, and importance, of traffickers arrested (e.g., the leaders and the financial, transportation and security experts) as a result of Mexican or cooperative GOM/USG law enforcement investigations;
              • Increase in the detection and interception of trafficker vessels, vehicles, and aircraft, particularly maritime and an increase in drug seizures;
              • Increase in seizures of trafficker assets, including companies used to conceal operations or to launder drug profits;
              • Decrease in the diversion of precursor and essential chemicals, and an increase in seizures, particularly those related to methamphetamine production;
              • Continued decrease in the net production of heroin and marijuana; and
              • Increased public awareness of the dangers of drug trafficking and abuse, and increased community involvement in drug abuse and crime prevention efforts.
              • funds will provide for salaries, benefits and allowances of U.S. and Mexican direct hire and contract personnel, temporary-duty personnel, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

                 

                FY 2001

                FY 2002

                FY 2003

                Narcotics Law Enforcement

                4,850

                5,850

                5,000

                Technical Assistance and Communications, Computer and Other Equipment

                     

                Aviation Support

                1,150

                1,320

                2,000

                Advisors, Training and Maintenance and Repair

                     

                Administration of Justice

                1,975

                2,500

                2,500

                Special Prosecutor’s Office and Federal Judicial Police

                     

                Anti-Money Laundering

                100

                250

                250

                Alternative Development

                55

                50

                75

                Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

                500

                550

                600

                Program Development and Support

                     

                U.S. Personnel

                958

                1,006

                1,060

                Non-U.S. Personnel

                115

                124

                130

                ICASS Costs

                177

                195

                215

                Program Support

                120

                155

                170

                Subtotal

                1,370

                1,480

                1,575

                 

                _______

                _______

                _______

                Total

                10,000

                12,000

                12,000

                 

                Latin America Regional

                Budget Summary ($000)

                FY 2001 Actual

                FY 2002 Estimated

                FY 2003 Request

                8,5371

                10,000

                9,500

                1This total does not include $7 million of FY 2000 Plan Colombia Emergency Supplemental funding provided for Latin America Andean Regional.


                Objectives

                • Strengthen criminal justice institutions to respond more effectively to threats of drug trafficking and narcotics-related crime, including legislative and anticorruption efforts;
                • Enhance capability of law enforcement to investigate, prosecute, seize and forfeit assets, interdict drug and chemical shipments and control money laundering;
                • Develop bilateral and multilateral mutual legal assistance and extradition cooperation;
                • Promote effective maritime enforcement throughout the region by entering into cooperation agreements supported by training, materiel and combined operations; and
                • Reinforce hemispheric and sub-regional institutions that promote intergovernmental initiatives against drug abuse and drug-related crime.

                Justification

                Goal Four of the National Drug Control Strategy is to shield America’s air, land, and sea frontiers from the drug threat. The countries covered by the Latin America Regional Account, which are primarily drug transit countries that lie between the U.S. and the major drug-producing countries, are facing continuing challenges in dealing with changes in traditional drug production and trafficking patterns resulting from the recent increased pressure on the Andean countries. In addition, these countries are subject to increased pressure on their fragile social and judicial institutions because of trafficker violence, corruption, and increased drug abuse. While the U.S. needs the assistance of these countries to interdict U.S.-bound drug shipments, they, in tern, need USG assistance to strengthen their law enforcement institutions, interdiction capabilities and drug abuse prevention and treatment programs to protect their societies from the corrupting influences of narcotics trafficking.

                Cooperative arrangements, bilateral and multilateral, are being negotiated to increase the ability of governments to detect and interdict illicit drugs and other contraband. In 2001, Nicaragua and Panama concluded maritime agreements with the United States, joining Costa Rica, Honduras and Belize—three nations that had already done so. Law enforcement efforts in the Caribbean and Central America appeared to force traffickers to shift routes from the western Caribbean to other areas, notably, the eastern Pacific where many multi-ton seizures have been made. Similarly, Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Mexico have signed stolen vehicle treaties with the United States. El Salvador is currently negotiating a stolen vehicle treaty.

                Financial crime is a serious problem in a number of jurisdictions in Latin America and the Caribbean. During its June 2001 review, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) updated its list of non-cooperating countries and jurisdictions in relation to anti-money laundering. The list currently includes Dominica, Grenada Guatemala, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Guatemala passed money laundering legislation in late 2001, and this, along with the implementing regulations, will correct many of the failings encountered by the FATF. However, FATF also identified the Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Panama as having made significant progress in remedying deficiencies and removed them from the list. There is a continuing need for the U.S. to assist countries in the Hemisphere to develop anti-money laundering regimes that meet international standards and enhance capabilities to implement them.

                Program Development and Support funds pay salaries, allowances and benefits of Foreign Service Officers, U.S. direct-hire and contract personnel and Foreign Service National employees working in Narcotics Affairs Sections or Offices in the region. In addition, funds pay International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. In FY 2003, INL will have a NAS in both Barbados and the Dominican Republic, and offices with locally engaged staff in a number of other missions in the region.

                FY 2003 Program

                Latin America Regional funds will help nations such as Chile, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay increase investigative, judicial and prosecutorial capabilities through training and modernization of local laws ranging from money laundering to anticorruption. Regional funds will help improve interdiction capabilities of transit countries by providing training and equipment in conjunction with efforts to negotiate bilateral maritime and multilateral law enforcement agreements as a means of increasing interdiction capabilities throughout the region. The Narcotics Affairs Sections in the U.S. Embassies in Barbados, Guatemala and the Dominican Republic will provide management oversight of Latin America Regional funds to ensure that they are used effectively to advance priority U.S. objectives and make certain that programs in different countries complement and reinforce one another.

                Caribbean

                The U.S. will continue to provide assistance to upgrade Caribbean capabilities in interdiction, law enforcement and administration of justice. Regional funds will support increased efforts to detect and prosecute growing financial crime and governmental corruption in certain Caribbean states. Assistance in asset forfeiture and the development of Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) will be funded in part from the Anticrime Programs budget. Joint Information Communications Centers (JICCs) will be established, where appropriate, or upgraded with new equipment, software and training, to promote more real-time interchange of cueing information from maritime and air detection platforms to law enforcement entities. Funds will also provide some support for drug demand reduction activities.

                Central America

                Regional funds will continue to support efforts to modernize justice sector institutions and legal frameworks to allow successful prosecution of drug and arms traffickers, money launderers, alien smugglers, as well as corrupt public officials. Assistance will include such things as computer equipment to upgrade law enforcement, court, immigration, and anti-money laundering systems, maintenance and repair of vehicles and vessels, upgraded communications equipment and training. Regional anticorruption, anti-alien smuggling and commercial freight tracking initiatives now being developed throughout Central America will require continuing U.S. assistance as they become operational in FY 2002. The U.S. will also support initiatives aimed at cross-border cooperation, harmonization of legislation, and improved information sharing.

                South America

                Paraguay, Chile, Uruguay and Argentina are used by traffickers as transit routes for cocaine originating in Andean source countries as well as areas to launder money and obtain precursor chemicals. The FY 2003 plan includes support to Argentina to strengthen its capacity to disrupt trafficking at its land borders and commercial ports. Significant seizures of cocaine transiting Chile highlight the need to support GOC interagency counternarcotics coordination and efforts to tighten container shipping inspection protocols and overland transit. In Paraguay INL will assist police to investigate and prosecute major traffickers and money launderers, and enhance border control by establishing the Chaco Mobil Enforcement Unit within the anti-narcotics secretariat. In Uruguay, equipment and training will be provided to sustain the drug enforcement efforts of several agencies charged with implementing GOU counternarcotics legislation.

                Regional Programs

                The Caribbean Support Tender (CST), a State Department, U.S. Southern Command, and U.S. Coast Guard cooperative initiative, funds a USCG buoy tender whose mission is provide both formal and on-the-job training to personnel from participating countries as it deploys throughout the Caribbean. INL will continue to support the CST to upgrade the capabilities of the Caribbean states to interdict drug shipments and foster regional cooperation. The U.S. has delivered a second C-26 surveillance aircraft to Barbados that will be used by the Regional Security System (RSS), a treaty-based organization consisting of seven East Caribbean countries. INL will continue to provide support for the operation and maintenance of the C-26 aircraft, which are used for maritime interdiction.

                Effectiveness Measurements


                  Latin America Regional

                  INL Budget

                  ($000)

                • Adoption and implementation of effective statutes against narcotics trafficking, money laundering and corruption;
                • Increased number of signed, six-part maritime agreements, especially with Central American countries, and the development of a Caribbean regional maritime agreement;
                • Decrease in illegal drug production;
                • Increased capabilities of regional counternarcotics law enforcement agencies as evidenced by larger quantities of drugs interdicted, larger numbers of smuggling attempts deterred and increased numbers of traffickers arrested;
                • Increased prosecutions of major drug traffickers and money launderers and increased numbers of asset forfeiture cases;
                • Increased host nation capacity to prevent narcotics-related official corruption, and investigate and prosecute corrupt law enforcement and justice officials; and
                • Decrease in drug abuse along with an increase in regional public awareness of, and resistance to, drug trafficking and organized crime.
                •  

                  FY 2001

                  FY 2002

                  FY 2003

                  Caribbean

                  2,200

                  2,875

                  2,600

                  Country Assistance

                  Computers and Support for JICCs and FIUs, Investigative and Other Equipment, Aviation Support, Demand Reduction, Border Control

                       

                  Central America

                  2,635

                  3,150

                  2,750

                  Country Assistance

                  Operational Support, Equipment; Border Control, Regional Initiatives

                       

                  South America

                  750

                  875

                  900

                  Non-Andean Country Assistance

                  Vehicles, Radios and Other Equipment, Operational Support

                       

                  Regional Programs

                  1,500

                  1,600

                  1,700

                  Caribbean Support Tender and RSS C-26 Support

                       

                  Program Development and Support

                  1,452

                  1,500

                  1,550

                   

                  _____

                  ______

                  _____

                  Total

                  8,537

                  10,000

                  9,500

                   



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