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International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2003 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 2002
Report
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                                  Laos

FY 2001 Actual

FY 2002 Estimated

FY 2003 Request

4,200

4,200

3,000

Objectives

    Justification

    Due to the ban on opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, Laos became the world’s second largest producer of illicit opium in 2001. According to U.S. estimates, opium poppy cultivation in Laos decreased five percent and potential opium production fell slightly to 200 metric tons in the 2001 growing season. This level of production is still higher than in 1998 and 1999, and indicates that the opium poppy crop has recovered from those poor growing seasons. Opium poppy is generally grown in remote, mountainous areas largely populated by ethnic minority groups that have traditionally resisted the imposition of central authority. Laos is one of the world’s poorest countries, with a lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail that isolates rural villages from the market economy and most government services and influence.

    INL development projects are aimed at providing income alternatives for opium poppy farmers before instituting a program of crop eradication. Without such alternatives the farmers would face extreme hardship and the Lao government would be unwilling to enforce eradication. The crop substitution areas funded by the U.S. government consistently show low levels of opium cultivation. However, developed areas comprise only a small percentage of the opium-growing region. The INL-funded alternative development project in Houaphanh Province has succeeded in meeting its goal of bringing opium production in the project area to below commercial levels. The project has included construction of rural access roads, irrigation and hydroelectric dams, clean water systems, local hospitals, and primary schools. New rice strains and commercial crops have been introduced, and commercial weaving and silk production have been promoted. The project’s success has led INL to establish a similar crop control project in Phongsali Province.

    Laos is also a transit route for Burmese drugs going to China, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia and beyond, and is increasingly coming under siege by drug traffickers. The first INL-supported counternarcotics units (CNUs), now in nine provinces, are slowly maturing and expanding cooperation with other counternarcotics forces in the region. The INL project intends to eventually open CNUs in all eighteen provinces and to equip and staff branch offices along trafficking routes.

    Laos has the second highest opium addiction rate in the world and much of the opium poppy grown is consumed in Laos. The addict population supports Lao opium production and increases the difficulties of eradication and crop substitution. In addition, Laos shares with the rest of South East Asia the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse. There is still little understanding in Lao society of the complexity and pathology of drug addiction.

    FY 2003 Program

    The Narcotics Crop Control Project has been concentrated in Houaphanh and Oudomxai provinces, the latter in collaboration with the United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP.) Funding for both the Houaphanh and Oudomxai projects ended in 1999, although some residual activities extended into FY 2001.

    FY 2003 program funds will be used to expand the crop control project begun in FY 1999 in Phongsali Province, and to support eradication efforts in areas that have received crop control assistance. Phongsali Province is the most important opium-producing province in Laos, according to the most recent UNDCP surveys, and has seen little development assistance because of its extremely remote location and lack of roads. The Phongsali project began with a heavy initial investment in road construction to provide access to markets and government services, which will be followed by support for improved food production and alternative income activities such as weaving and raising livestock. The new 72-kilometer road, although not yet complete, is already providing a platform for project development activities. Funds will also be used to expand the project northward and southward to include new villages.

    The goal of the Narcotics Law Enforcement Project is to improve Lao counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities and promote effective interaction with law enforcement agencies in the international community. INL supports the participation of Lao officials to attend ILEA Bangkok training programs to boost their own abilities and establish relationships with regional counterparts. In FY 2003, the project will continue to support the special Counter Narcotics Units (CNUs) in nine provinces and house, equip, and train additional CNUs requested by the Lao, with the goal of having one in each of the country’s 18 provinces. Assistance will also continue to the Lao Customs Department and National Commission for Drug Control and Supervision, which oversees all GOL counternarcotics activities. The FY 2003 request for law enforcement is less than in prior years because the Lao were unable to open additional planned CNUs in FY 2002.

    The Demand Reduction Project will support a number of efforts throughout the country to increase education and treatment. In previous years demand reduction programs were financed through the Crop Control Project, but this new initiative reflects an expansion of those efforts. Financial support will be provided to a Demand Reduction Training Center to be operated by an NGO Consortium and to other NGOs within the country to develop a nationwide train-the-trainer effort. Funds will also be provided to assist the National Center for Demand Reduction in Vientiane and drug counseling centers.

    The Program Development and Support funds are used for salary and benefits for the U.S. Direct Hire Narcotics Affairs Officer, locally-hired American and foreign national personnel, International Cooperative Agreement Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other administrative costs for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

    Effectiveness Measurements

      Laos

      INL Budget

      ($000)

    • Reduction, leading to elimination, of opium cultivation in expanded project areas of Houaphanh, Oudomxai and Phongsali provinces;
    • Improved enforcement effectiveness resulting in more heroin, opium and methamphetamine seizures and more arrests for drug trafficking; and
    • Increased participation in demand reduction and treatment programs.
    •  

      FY 2001

      FY 2002

      FY 2003

      Crop Control/Alternative Development

      3,310

      3,250

      2,225

      Agricultural Assistance, Alternative Economic Activities, Infrastructure Improvements, Public Health and Education

           

      Narcotics Law Enforcement

      500

      500

      50

      Commodities and Training

           

      Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

      0

      0

      250

      Program Development and Support

           

      U.S. Personnel

      215

      260

      274

      Non-U.S. Personnel

      20

      16

      18

      ICASS Costs

      50

      60

      63

      Program Support

      105

      114

      120

      Subtotal

      390

      450

      475

       

      _____

      _____

      _____

      Total

      4,200

      4,200

      3,000

       

      Pakistan

      Budget Summary ($000)

      FY 2001 Actual

      FY 2002 Estimated

      FY 2003 Request

      3,500

      2,5001

      4,000

      1 Does not include $73 million from the FY 2002 Emergency Response Fund.

      Objectives

      • Improve the effectiveness of Pakistan’s counternarcotics efforts, with particular emphasis on the destruction of major heroin trafficking organizations, tracing and seizing assets of such organizations, strengthening Pakistan’s judicial system, and prosecuting key figures in the heroin trade;
      • Consolidate and maintain opium poppy eradication efforts, eliminate Pakistan as a source of opium, and significantly reduce the flow of opium from Afghanistan; and
      • Increase political and public awareness of the negative impact of illegal drug use and trafficking on Pakistani society.

      Justification

      During 2001 Pakistan registered another dramatic drop in domestic cultivation of opium poppy, which declined from an estimated 515 hectares to approximately 213 hectares, a decrease of 59 percent. To put this decline in long-term perspective, poppy cultivation has declined to its present level from a high of 8,530 hectares in 1992, when Pakistan was the world’s third largest illicit opium supplier, a decline of 98 percent.

      The sole obstacle standing in the way of a poppy-free Pakistan is cultivation in remote, currently inaccessible areas of Khyber Agency. While the Government of Pakistan has successfully eradicated the bulk of Pakistan’s opium production, the ban on poppy production announced by the Taliban in July of 2000 and renewed by Afghanistan’s interim government in January 2002, the subsequent rise in the price of opium, as well as changes in the local government structures in potential growing areas, place Pakistan at risk of a resurgence in cultivation.

      While opium poppy cultivation has plummeted in Afghanistan as well, dropping from an estimated 64,510 hectares in 2000 to approximately 1,635 hectares in 2001 (a decline of approximately 97 percent), drugs from Afghanistan continue to flow into Pakistan. Most of these drugs are believed to come from stockpiles that trafficking organizations have maintained. Drugs entering Pakistan’s Northwest Frontier Province are normally consumed in Pakistan or trafficked through Punjab and Sindh provinces and exit Pakistan through international airports, the Arabian Sea, or the Indian border. Drugs are also smuggled from southern Afghanistan through Baluchistan and onward to the Arabian Sea or to Iran. The vast and rugged terrain along the Pakistan/Afghanistan border has complicated interdiction efforts.

      A vetted unit within the Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) called the Special Investigative Cell, or SIC, was established in 1999 and has exceeded expectations. It doubled in size during 2000 and is targeting major heroin trafficking organizations by investigating and arresting major drug violators and tracing and seizing assets of major heroin traffickers. The work of this unit, which has been funded and trained by the USG, has resulted in a number of arrests and successful prosecutions. Other recent developments include Pakistan’s establishment of special narcotics courts, the extradition to the U.S. of a fugitive wanted on drug-related charges, a major seizure of heroin by the Pakistani Coast Guard, and a court ruling confiscating the assets of a convicted drug dealer.

      A supplemental appropriation of $73 million was received in FY 2002 for a Border Security project. The focus of the project will be Pakistan’s 1,500-mile border with Afghanistan. It will address the interwoven problems of drug trafficking, smuggling, terrorism, crime, and trafficking in persons by providing Pakistani law enforcement agencies with the means to more effectively police and secure the border. Among the components of the project are mobility, including helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, and vehicles; communications; border security equipment and hardware, including night-vision goggles; and training. FY 2003 costs for this project will be funded from the $73 million supplemental. The FY 2003 request for Pakistan will be used to continue and expand the existing narcotics law enforcement, crop control/alternative development and drug awareness/demand reduction programs in Pakistan.

      FY 2003 Program

      The Narcotics Law Enforcement Project provides operational, training, and commodity assistance to the Government of Pakistan (GOP) to support efforts to investigate, arrest, and prosecute narcotics offenders; to interdict trafficking in heroin, opium, and hashish; to prevent smuggling of acetic anhydride (AA); to eliminate heroin laboratories; and to enforce a ban on the cultivation of opium poppy. To advance these goals, the project provides commodities, including vehicles, communications equipment, office equipment and technical investigation equipment; advocacy fees (a program through which the U.S. government subsidizes highly competent private attorneys serving as GOP prosecutors in certain high-profile cases); operational support; and training. Project assistance facilitates cooperation between GOP Law Enforcement agencies and the DEA and increases the GOP’s responsiveness to U.S. government requests for the arrest and extradition of narcotics offenders. As opium production in Pakistan declines, law enforcement cooperation will focus on the reduction of the flow of heroin out of Afghanistan. INL will build on earlier cooperation to enhance Pakistan’s interdiction capacity. Other important aspects of the Narcotics Law Enforcement Project include assistance to the Special Investigative Cell (SIC); a maritime interdiction project focused on the interdiction of narcotics along the Makran coast; assistance to the Frontier Corps Baluchistan (FCB) and the Frontier Corps Northwest Frontier Province (FCNWFP); prosecutor training to streamline the extradition process; assistance to the Special Narcotics Courts (SNC); and funding of special prosecutors in certain high-profile narcotics cases. Assistance provided will include transportation and communications equipment, office supplies and equipment, and certain operational support costs, including fuel and maintenance. Training assistance will include professional development courses for prosecutors and judges in the Special Narcotics Courts.

      The Crop Control/Alternative Development Project has played a major role in the drastic reduction in poppy cultivation in Pakistan. In order to consolidate these gains, and to eliminate poppy production in the country altogether, alternative development project activities such as road construction, crop substitution, provision of potable water, and agricultural extension will be expanded to the remaining remote and isolated areas where some poppy is still grown (such as the Khyber Area) and to areas where poppy cultivation has ceased, but where there is a danger of its reintroduction. The Khyber Area Project is modeled on the successful Bajaur and Mohmand Area Development Projects. All will continue to receive INL funding in FY 2003.

      Despite the fact that Pakistan has a very large number of persons addicted to heroin and other drugs, demand reduction efforts in the country suffer from inadequate public and governmental recognition of the severity of the problem. The GOP has approved a five-year master plan for demand reduction, but implementation has been delayed due to lack of funding. The Demand Reduction Project will support aspects of this master plan, and will include treatment and rehabilitation programs for addicts and former addicts, workshops for teachers and social workers, support for non-governmental organizations that are active in demand reduction efforts, and speakers who will address specific aspects of demand reduction to specially targeted audiences. We will also encourage an increased role for provincial and district level officials in demand reduction efforts. One way in which this will be accomplished will be through the establishment focal points within various provincial and district governments. INL funding will support the start-up costs including training, office equipment and supplies.

      Program Development and Support funds provide for salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

      Effectiveness Measurements

        Pakistan

        INL Budget

        ($000)

      • Disruption and dismantling of major trafficking organizations as measured by statistics from Pakistani law enforcement agencies and by the number of major traffickers arrested;
      • Seizures of opiates and precursor chemicals will increase 10 percent over FY 2002 and the GOP will conduct follow up investigations of such seizures in order to identify, arrest, and prosecute major traffickers responsible;
      • Increased Pakistani-U.S. cooperation in law enforcement efforts as reflected by an increased number of investigations, arrests, and extraditions;
      • Little or no poppy cultivation and the elimination of stockpiles by 2001; and
      • Improved public awareness of the personal and societal costs of the serious drug addition problem in Pakistan and a reduction in addiction rates as measured by UNDCP addiction surveys.
      •  

        FY 2001

        FY 2002

        FY 2003

        Narcotics Law Enforcement

        857

        600

        1,350

        Vehicles, Radios and Other Equipment, Training and Operational Support

             

        Crop Control/Alternative Development

        1,700

        1,000

        1,700

        Road and Irrigation Construction, Electrification and Farm Project Costs

             

        Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

        80

        100

        100

        Seminar, Workshop and Training Project Costs

             

        Program Development and Support

             

        U.S. Personnel

        454

        442

        462

        Non-U.S. Personnel

        78

        80

        83

        ICASS Costs

        170

        180

        190

        Program Support

        161

        98

        115

        Subtotal

        863

        800

        850

         

        _____

        _____

        _____

        Total

        3,500

        2,5001

        4,000

        1 Does not include $73 million from the FY 2002 Emergency Response Fund.

        Thailand

        Budget Summary ($000)

        FY 2001 Actual

        FY 2002 Estimated

        FY 2003 Request

        4,095

        4,000

        3,750

        Objectives

          Justification

          Thailand is positioned in the center of the Golden Triangle and has the most advanced transportation system in the region. Thailand has a long tradition of cooperation with the United States and the international community in counternarcotics programs. Extensive cooperative law enforcement programs continue to bear fruit. Thailand has one of the most effective opium eradication and crop substitution programs in the world and narcotics traffickers must now import opiates from Burma and Laos to satisfy domestic demand. Thailand has also been a leader in developing programs aimed at treatment, epidemiology of substance abuse and demand reduction. Thailand has added to its leadership in the region in transnational crime issues by co-managing the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Bangkok with the U.S.

          Despite these accomplishments, much remains to be done. Traffickers have diversified drug smuggling operations to include direct maritime transshipment from Burma to major container ports, many of which are in Thailand. The road network in northern Thailand links drug refineries in Burma with the Thai transportation system providing a conduit for drugs flowing out and for commodities needed by trafficking groups flowing back into Burma. There is increasing pressure on law enforcement assets as a result of a dramatic surge in methamphetamine production and trafficking in the region, usually by the same groups involved in opium production. Although Thailand’s cooperative counternarcotics operations with the U.S. have had many successes, the Thai criminal justice system lacks the tools to effectively prosecute and convict drug kingpins and dismantle trafficking organizations. Despite the success in crop reduction, continued attention is required as growers adopt double cropping and irrigation techniques and traffickers offer advance payments to growers in order to maintain a viable opium poppy supply. A sharp increase in the local use of methamphetamine requires a different approach to demand reduction activities than were used when the main focus was on heroin use.

          FY 2003 Program

          The majority of the resources requested for FY 2003 will be directed toward law enforcement efforts. The main focus of the Narcotics Law Enforcement Project is law enforcement institution building aimed at achieving more effective prosecutions of significant traffickers. FY 2003 resources will provide training, equipment and improved coordination throughout the country. Cambodia, Laos and Malaysia border areas, and Thailand’s long coastlines, are under increasing pressure as law enforcement activities in northern Thailand increase. Additional resources will be needed to raise law enforcement capabilities in other areas of the country up to the level found in the north where, due to previous production and trafficking patterns, the majority of assistance has been targeted. Toward this end, the project will support efforts to upgrade new law enforcement officer skills, provide computer, investigative and communications equipment and vehicles to law enforcement agencies and train prosecutors and judges.

          The Crop Control/Alternative Development Project focuses on eradication of drug crops and low-cost, small-scale development projects to replace lost income. Poppy cultivation has been reduced from 9,600 hectares in 1986 to less than 1,000 hectares in each of the last three years. Besides providing ongoing development assistance in 42 opium-growing villages (working primarily through the Royal Thai Army and other Thai government agencies) the FY 2003 funding request will support the annual destruction of approximately half of the poppy fields. This continues to be an important project as traffickers continuously seek new ways to increase crop production.

          The Legal Reform Project was launched in FY 2001. It responds to the Thai government’s recent willingness to confront narcotics-related crime and modify their criminal justice system to make it more efficient with the use of modern prosecutorial tools, such as wiretap evidence. FY 2003 support will be in the form of technical assistance, including legal advisors. In addition, INL will support the Thai anti-money laundering office and the related police unit by providing equipment and training. This will benefit the U.S. in that the same organizations that traffic methamphetamine to Thailand are trafficking heroin to the U.S. The legal changes will improve the Thai capability to disrupt drug trafficking organizations and arrest and convict drug kingpins.

          The Regional Narcotics Control Project funds regional meetings, workshops and training. Activities will be based on U.S.-Thai enforcement goals with Thai agencies assisting and/or consulting with third country counterparts including ASEAN members and other countries.

          The Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction Project has been well received by Thai society. A consensus has emerged that the use of illegal drugs is a national crisis. The Royal Thai Government (RTG) realizes that the long-term solution to drug abuse lies in demand, as well as supply reduction. In FY 2003, INL will continue to provide modest funding support for RTG and NGO demand reduction training and for counternarcotics community outreach through a nationwide network of community colleges, police, the Office of Narcotics Control Board (ONCB) and the border patrol. INL will continue to support epidemiological and drug prevention studies in the areas of both opiate-based drugs and methamphetamine abuse.

          Program Development and Support funds provide resources for salaries and benefits of U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, short-term TDY assistance, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

          Effectiveness Measures

            Thailand

            INL Budget

            ($000)

          • Continued high levels of heroin seizures and arrests and convictions of major drug traffickers;
          • Disruption and dismantling of major trafficking organizations;
          • Prosecutions based on the Anti-Money Laundering Act and continued reform of the judicial and legal process through statutory change;
          • Suppression of opium cultivation through crop control and alternative development; and
          • Increased regional cooperation on seizures, arrests and convictions.
          •  

            FY 2001

            FY 2002

            FY 2003

            Narcotics Law Enforcement

                 

            Commodities

            709

            950

            851

            Investigative and Communications Equipment and Vehicles

                 

            Training

            350

            400

            350

            Other Costs

            100

            200

            175

            Task Force, Personnel and Project Support and Travel

                 

            Subtotal

            1,159

            1,550

            1,376

            Crop Control/Alternative Development

                 

            Commodities

            73

            100

            100

            Agricultural Supplies, Construction Materials, Training and Survey Equipment, Vehicles, Eradication and Communications Equipment

                 

            Other Costs

            624

            700

            600

            Technical Assistance, Training, Survey Support, Agricultural Extension and Marketing Assistance and Other Project Costs

                 

            Subtotal

            697

            800

            700

            Legal Reform Project

            1,095

            500

            500

            Regional Narcotics Control

            150

            150

            150

            Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

            344

            350

            350

            Program Development and Support

                 

            U.S. Personnel

            155

            162

            170

            Non-U.S. Personnel

            77

            85

            90

            ICASS

            190

            200

            210

            Program Support

            228

            203

            204

            Subtotal

            650

            650

            674

             

            _____

            _____

            _____

            Total

            4,095

            4,000

            3,750

            Asia Regional Cooperation

            Budget Summary ($000)

            FY 2001 Actual

            FY 2002 Estimated

            FY 2003 Request

            2,233

            5,050

            4,500

            Objectives

              Justification

              The transnational character of illicit narcotic trafficking and crime requires a regional approach for both multilateral and bilateral programs if success is to be achieved. The Asia Regional Cooperation account takes such an approach and complements U.S. drug-control funding provided through international organizations such as the UNDCP. Drug trafficking continues to proliferate through South and East Asia and into the Middle East and Africa as local criminal organizations prosper and develop into regional, interregional, and global networks. Several nations in the region, including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, are significant transit routes for narcotics. In many cases, governments with poorly trained and financed law enforcement infrastructure provide fertile environments in which trafficking organizations have flourished. Traffickers seek to exploit weak law enforcement environments to create networks reaching from Southeast and Southwest Asia to Europe and Africa and to the United States. These networks can also be used by terrorist organizations for financial and logistical support. A relatively new phenomenon is the rapid increase in illicit ATS production and trafficking by Southeast Asian organizations that also traffic in heroin. The explosion in ATS trafficking and abuse threatens the stability of our traditional Asian allies and trading partners, and is beginning to penetrate the U.S. market for ATS.

              FY 2003 Program

              The regional cooperation program is designed to help governments establish and strengthen counternarcotics law enforcement units, obtain training or equipment and conduct demand reduction/public awareness campaigns. The FY 2003 request will be used to strengthen law enforcement and judicial institutions in East Asia; counter the increasing threat in East Asia posed by ATS trafficking; and, boost commodity support to counternarcotics agencies coping with a proliferation of trafficking routes throughout all of Asia.

              East Asia

              The program in East Asia is designed to strengthen law enforcement and judicial institutions and help develop a capability to address domestic drug abuse. Indonesia, with weak institutions and continued political turmoil, has become a transit point as well as destination for illicit narcotics and is a new focus of INL counternarcotics and law enforcement enhancement efforts. Institution building and material assistance are needed throughout East Asia, where drug trafficking and abuse are serious problems and where the governments have limited experience and capabilities in confronting these problems. INL programs will also assist countries in developing legislative and judicial structures to deal more effectively with drug trafficking and related crimes, such as money laundering. Smaller projects to enhance law enforcement and demand reduction capabilities are planned for a variety of countries in East Asia and the South Pacific. The U.S. will continue to encourage enhanced regional cooperation in addressing narcotics control, including the East Asian regional campaign against ATS trafficking.

              South Asia

              India is a key heroin transshipment area due to its proximity to both Burma and Afghanistan, the two main sources of illicitly grown opium. It is also one of the world’s top producers of licit opium and is the world’s sole producer of licit opium gum. The diversion of licit production to illicit use is therefore an important concern. In India, the INL program will provide equipment and commodities to a broad range of state and federal law enforcement agencies throughout the country to improve investigative and interdiction capacities against increasingly sophisticated drug trafficking organizations. INL funds will be used to assist Bangladesh with the development of a strategic plan to improve the criminal investigative capacity of the Bangladeshi law enforcement agencies, develop a functioning counternarcotics forensic facility, and improve criminal investigations and prosecutions. Funds will be allocated to assist Sri Lanka improve airport control and maritime and coastal interdiction, while Nepal will benefit from a drug enforcement training program. Funds for demand reduction programs in several countries will be administered through the Colombo Plan.

              Program Development and Support funds pay for salaries and benefits, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs and general administrative and operational expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation for Narcotics Affairs Sections in Brussels, New Delhi, Ankara and programs at other posts as needed.

              Effectiveness Measurements

                Asia Regional Cooperation

                INL Budget

                ($000)

              • Increased national and regional capacities to combat illegal narcotics production and trafficking and related criminal activities;
              • Enhanced capabilities of law enforcement agencies measured by the quantities of drugs interdicted, the number of arrests of major criminals and the degree to which trafficking networks are disrupted;
              • Adoption of effective counternarcotics and money laundering legislation and countercorruption measures;
              • Effective use of counternarcotics legislation, including conspiracy and asset forfeiture statutes;
              • Reduction in the diversions of India’s licit opium crop; and
              • Decreased levels of drug abuse.
              •  

                FY 2001

                FY 2002

                FY 2003

                Narcotics Law Enforcement

                     

                Commodities

                962

                1,445

                1,045

                Vehicles, Information Systems, Communications, Investigations and Other Equipment

                     

                Other Costs

                552

                2,650

                2,500

                Training and Technical Assistance

                     

                Subtotal

                1,514

                4,095

                3,545

                Crop Control/Alternative Development

                255

                255

                255

                Program Development and Support

                 

                 

                 

                U.S. Personnel

                180

                250

                250

                Non-U.S. Personnel

                30

                10

                10

                ICASS Costs

                98

                220

                220

                Program Support

                156

                220

                220

                Subtotal

                464

                700

                700

                 

                _____

                _____

                _____

                Total

                2,233

                5,050

                4,500


                Southwest Asia Initiatives

                Budget Summary ($000)

                FY 2001 Actual

                FY 2002 Estimated

                FY 2003 Request

                3,000

                3,000

                Objectives

                  Justification

                  Successful eradication efforts in Pakistan and the ban on opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan have greatly reduced opium poppy cultivation in Southwest Asia. In order to prevent a resurgence of cultivation in Afghanistan and eliminate pockets of cultivation in Pakistan, it is essential that crop control and alternative development plans in the region be continued. The drug trade is behind rising crime, corruption, drug addiction, and HIV infection in Central, Southwest, and South Asia, and is a source of income for organized crime and terrorist groups stretching across Russia into Europe and the U.S. The Afghan drug trade, in particular, adversely affects U.S. interests through its links to international terrorism and by fostering instability in the region. To help stem the flow of heroin to the U.S., INL has proposed the provision of $15 million over a five-year period for crop control and alternative development programs in Southwest Asia, beginning in FY 2002.

                  FY 2003 Program

                  Traditionally a major source of illicit opium, Pakistan has fought to eliminate poppy cultivation from its territory. INL is building on this largely successful program with a consolidation project to prevent the return of poppy cultivation to project areas. In addition, INL expects to launch a joint U.S.-Pakistan initiative to curb remaining pockets of cultivation and drug trafficking in the Khyber Agency of the Northwest Frontier Province.

                  Afghanistan was the world’s leading producer of illicit opiates during the 1990s. In FY 2003, the U.S. will continue programs begun in FY 2002 aimed at ending poppy cultivation permanently by providing alternatives to opium-based livelihood and by eradicating poppy crops. The U.S. will provide assistance through Afghan government authorities bilaterally and to non-governmental and international organizations to implement these programs. INL will work with multilateral and bilateral donors to ensure that rehabilitation and reconstruction assistance includes counternarcotics goals. Some programs may be implemented through USAID.

                  As a result of years of war and instability, Afghanistan has been left without effective law enforcement agencies or infrastructure. As part of its development in a post-Taliban environment, there will be a need to develop indigenous counternarcotics and law enforcement capabilities, both to ensure internal stability and to end the cultivation, production and trade of illicit opiates. Effective law enforcement capacity will also be necessary to ensure the security of those working to implement alternative development and crop control/eradication projects and to provide an additional incentive to farmers to cultivate licit crops.

                  Effectiveness Measurements

                    Southwest Asia Initiatives

                    INL Budget

                    ($000)

                  • Progressive elimination of opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan and in the remaining pockets of Pakistan;
                  • Reduction or elimination of opium markets, stockpiles, and heroin manufacturing facilities in Afghanistan;
                  • Revival of licit, non-opium poppy crop cultivation in Afghanistan;
                  • Development of effective law enforcement counternarcotics capacity in Afghanistan; and
                  • Reduction in the flow of drugs from the region.
                  •  

                    FY 2001

                    FY 2002

                    FY 2003

                    Crop Control/Alternative Development

                         

                    Commodities

                    1,800

                    1,800

                    Farm Implements, Seed, Fertilizer and Other Agricultural Supplies; Construction Materials; Vehicles; and, Training, Survey, Eradication and Communications Equipment

                         

                    Other Costs

                    1,200

                    1,200

                    Technical Assistance, Training, Survey Support, Rental of Construction Equipment, Agricultural Extension and Marketing Assistance and Other Project Costs

                         
                     

                    _____

                    _____

                    _____

                    Total

                    3,000

                    3,000

                  • Eliminate opium poppy cultivation in Southwest Asia;
                  • In Pakistan, support and extend successful crop control programs;
                  • Support similar crop control programs in Afghanistan; and
                  • Support development of crop control law enforcement capacity within the post-Taliban Afghan government to complement alternative development efforts.
                  • Assist countries adopt and implement strong narcotics control legislation, improve the efficiency and effectiveness of judicial institutions to bring drug offenders to justice, and develop bilateral and multilateral mutual legal assistance cooperation;
                  • Strengthen host nation counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities to deal with drug trafficking and production, including the rising threat of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), money laundering, and other crimes;
                  • Develop governmental and NGO institutional capabilities to address drug abuse and prevention;
                  • Reduce the cultivation and production of illegal drugs through sustainable development and eradication programs; and
                  • Implement demand reduction programs specifically tailored to the needs of each country.
                  • Increase the capabilities of the new anti-money laundering office and streamline and modernize the criminal justice system;
                  • Target traffickers and their organizations, and obtain extraditions through cooperative investigations;
                  • Reduce poppy cultivation (currently below 1,000 hectares) through continued eradication and development of viable economic alternatives for farmers;
                  • Expand and improve drug abuse awareness and demand reduction activities;
                  • Improve drug control institutions through interagency coordination and institutional development; and
                  • Expand Thailand’s role as a regional leader in drug control programs.
                  • Increase drug enforcement efforts to combat production and trafficking of heroin, opium and methamphetamine;
                  • Build Lao capacity to reduce opium production and narcotics refining through alternative development and crop eradication; and
                  • Reduce drug addiction and abuse levels.
                  • Budget Summary ($000)



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