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Diplomacy in Action

Anticrime Programs


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2003 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 2002
Report
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                            INL Anticrime Programs

Budget Summary1 ($000)

FY 2001 Actual

FY 2002 Estimated

FY 2003 Request

50,500

50,000

50,500

1The FY 2001 budget total does not reflect $13 million in FREEDOM of Support Act (FSA) and $97.3 million in Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act funds transfers or $15.5 million in Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) fund allocations. Similarly, the FY 2002 and 2003 budgets do not reflect FSA and SEED Act or PKO funding.

Program Summary

The international crime threat to U.S. interests is manifest across three broad, interrelated fronts: threats to Americans and their communities, threats to American businesses and financial institutions and threats to global security and stability. The impact of international crime is felt directly on the streets and in the communities of the United States; hundreds of thousands of individuals enter illegally each year, and there is wide-scale smuggling of drugs, firearms, stolen cars, child pornography, and other contraband across our borders. Criminals seek to protect their anonymity and their wealth by laundering their profits through the vast, complex, and unevenly regulated international banking and financial systems. The U.S. needs to confront these activities and those who carry them out with comprehensive, coordinated, and effective law enforcement and diplomatic efforts that include forging crime control alliances with our international partners.

The U.S. is making strides globally towards enhancing international cooperation in the fight against international organized crime. In addition to training, INL provides technical assistance, equipment and other assistance to countries to combat transnational crimes such as alien smuggling, trafficking in stolen vehicles, illegal trafficking in small arms and firearms, trafficking in persons, money laundering and other financial crimes. INL also has programs in anticorruption, border controls, rule of law, critical infrastructure protection, cyber crime and intellectual property rights. INL will continue these training and technical assistance programs in FY 2003.

INL uses federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP), the Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development and Training (OPDAT), and other organizations to provide law enforcement training programs and technical assistance to Russia and other countries in the NIS, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia. Multilateral international organizations also serve as implementation mechanisms, and INL provides contributions to several, including the UN Center for International Crime Prevention, the Financial Action Task Force, the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force, and the Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), a group created under the auspices of the Council of Europe.

FY 2003 Programs

The FY 2003 budget request is based on the requirements set forth in PDD-42, International Organized Crime, and the Administration’s International Crime Control Strategy, and reflects the consolidated management of law enforcement and police training programs. INL will continue to use federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP), the Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development (OPDAT), and other organizations to provide law enforcement training programs and technical assistance to the Newly Independent States (NIS), Russia, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia. The program will place significant emphasis on combating organized crime, financial crimes, money laundering, migrant smuggling, and weapons trafficking. Funding for these programs will continue to come, as it has in the past, through a combination of International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) funds, FREEDOM Support Act funds and Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act funds.

Alien Smuggling

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2001 Actual

FY 2002 Estimated

FY 2003 Request

800

700

400

Objectives

    • Attack criminal smuggling organizations at all points of their organizational structure;
    • Provide technical assistance and training to foreign immigration officers, border guards, and police officials; and
    • Coordinate the activities of the USG agencies working to counter alien smuggling in their efforts to disrupt major alien smuggling rings operating both domestically and overseas.

    Justification

    Smuggling of illegal migrants is a widespread, expanding, and increasingly sophisticated criminal industry that has a serious and direct impact on the United States. The United Nations estimates that nearly four million human beings are smuggled and trafficked across national boundaries every year and roughly $7 billion is paid to criminal organizations involved in alien smuggling. Viewed from a global perspective, smuggling in illegal migrants is a widespread criminal industry. According to the U.S. Government’s recent International Crime Threat Assessment, some 500,000 illegal aliens are brought into the United States annually by organized crime smuggling networks. They arrive from around the world: Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands are the major sources in the Western Hemisphere; China, India, and Pakistan are the major sources in Asia. They often take indirect routes to get here. Chinese organizations, for instance, will frequently direct their operations through South and Central America. Eventually, most of the illegal aliens enter the United States by way of Mexico and Canada.

    Foreign governments and law enforcement authorities are sometimes reluctant to dedicate resources to alien smuggling cases because they see this as a victimless crime. The reality is that migrants are often subjected to inhumane or dangerous treatment and in some cases to violence. In addition, alien smuggling has a corrosive effect on the integrity of public institutions since bribery is a key component of the alien smuggler’s trade.

    INL has a series of initiatives underway to combat alien smuggling. The bureau has provided funding to conduct a training course for mid-level managers in developing countries on ways to combat international migrant smuggling and illegal migration. The course is designed to provide technical, legal, and managerial training to enhance the participating foreign official’s ability to professionally and effectively implement border security. INL has also provided funding to deliver a training course designed to provide senior instructors and training managers with the skills to develop and manage basic immigration law enforcement training. INL continues to encourage governments throughout the world to sign, ratify and implement the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocol on migrant smuggling. To date, nearly 100 countries have signed the protocol. The convention creates an obligation for the United States to assist developing countries in implementing the convention, while the protocol lays out the blueprint for combating migrant smuggling. The main themes of the protocol are smuggling criminalization, law enforcement cooperation and border controls, including document security, training, and ensuring the prompt return of the smuggled migrant.

    In response to the migrant smuggling challenge, and to further our anti-alien smuggling objectives, INL is working closely with the Department of Justice to establish an inter-agency Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons Coordination Center (MSTPCC). This initiative brings together federal agency representatives from the policy, law enforcement, intelligence, and diplomatic arenas to work together full-time to make progress on these problems, particularly in terms of converting intelligence into effective enforcement actions. The center, which will begin operation in FY 2002, provides a mechanism to foster greater integration and overall effectiveness in U.S. government enforcement and other response efforts, and promotes similar intensified efforts by foreign governments and international organizations, to combat migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons.

    FY 2003 Programs

    The MSTPCC will provide strategic assessments, identify issues that need interagency coordination and attention, and coordinate or otherwise support agency or interagency efforts in particular cases. In 2003 the center will expand its capabilities by funding experts to conduct research in the fields of alien smuggling and its link to terrorism, and on the coordination of overseas law enforcement operations.

    INL will continue to provide technical and other support to assist countries in implementing the terms of the United Nations protocols on alien smuggling and trafficking in persons. Many of these countries continue to need help in drafting legislation, organizing their border police, training their immigration officials, and upgrading their equipment and border infrastructure. INL assistance will help these countries to improve their ability to combat smugglers and traffickers and terrorist which use smuggling organizations.

    Effectiveness Measurements

      Anticorruption

      Budget Summary ($000)

    • Increase the number of foreign border guards, and immigration and police officials trained each year;
    • Improve immigration controls and the quality of travel and identity documents and issuance systems of select priority countries;
    • Use INL participation in international working groups devoted to the subject of alien smuggling to combat such crimes; and
    • Tool INL diplomatic initiatives and law enforcement coordination efforts to specifically increase the negative impact on alien smugglers and organizations.
    • FY 2001 Actual

      FY 2002 Estimated

      FY 2003 Request

      3,950

      3,500

      1,800

      Objectives

        • Advance the adoption of comprehensive internationally recognized norms for actions governments should take to prevent, disclose, investigate and punish corruption among public officials;
        • Support the development and implementation of effective regional anticorruption regimes, commitments and activities;
        • Enhance the institutional capabilities of individual countries to promote public integrity and prevent, deter and punish official corruption;
        • Initiate and support systematic international research and academic scholarship to enhance public comprehension of factors that encourage, promote, or combat public corruption; and
        • Support public education awareness campaigns on anticorruption and foster innovative public-private partnerships with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the business community on the rule of law, transparency, public integrity, and corporate governance.

        Justification

        Corruption threatens U.S. national interests on many levels. Corruption destabilizes institutions and undermines democracies throughout the world. Corruption may rise to levels where it jeopardizes the ability of a legitimate government to govern and, in extreme cases, may lead to the institutional collapse that characterizes a "failed state." Corruption distorts the operation of free markets, impairs economic stability and growth, jeopardizes privatization and economic rationalization, and is a serious impediment to foreign investment and free and fair competition. It is also inevitably and inextricably linked to all forms of organized crime. Criminal groups employ corruption to undermine law enforcement. Terrorists manipulate and take advantage of corrupt officials to further their terrorist acts and obtain illegal weapons, false documents, and access to sensitive information and intelligence. Corruption affecting multilateral or bilateral foreign economic assistance not only deprives recipient countries of benefits, but also renders problematic continued political support for such programs in donor countries.

        Since 1977, with the adoption of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), the U.S. has been a leader in the international fight against corruption. In 1996, the U.S. Government joined with several other countries to create the first international convention (the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption) that establishes internationally recognized anticorruption norms and governmental commitments to address corruption. In 1999, the U.S. and 33 other countries adopted the OECD Convention Against Transnational Bribery in International Business Transactions, which outlaws the bribery of foreign public officials in the conduct of international business. The United States continues to work with other countries to encourage a broad range of effective principles and practices that help authorities detect and prevent corruption and promote public integrity including the Council of Europe Group of States Against Corruption, and the Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative. In January 2001, the United Nations began negotiations to develop a global convention against corruption, and the U.S. Government is actively involved in this process. The U.S. is also the founder of the intergovernmental Global Forum process. Support for this process continues: the U.S. recently served as co-sponsor of the Second Global Forum Against Fighting Corruption, held in The Hague in May 2001, attended by representatives from 143 nations; and we will assist the Korean government with its preparations to host the Third Global Forum in 2003.

        INL furthers U.S. foreign policy and national security objectives in the anticorruption area through policy development, interagency coordination, bilateral economic and anticrime assistance, participation in activities of international financial institutions (IFIs), public diplomacy, and diplomatic engagement with the United Nations and provides support for other organizations and programs that promote anticorruption efforts. For example, INL coordinates U.S. involvement in the Global Forum process and heads the U.S. delegation involved in negotiating a global United Nations convention against corruption. INL is a primary player in efforts to create a mutual evaluation mechanism to monitor implementation of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, is a member of the organizing committee for the ADB/OECD Asian Anticorruption Initiative, co-chairs U.S. representation in the Council of Europe’s Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), supports multilateral and bilateral anticorruption projects in coordination with the South Eastern Europe’s Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative (SPAI) and has taken a leadership role in discussing the importance of anticorruption in the promotion of corporate governance particularly within the World Bank-OECD Global Corporate Governance Initiative. In addition, INL coordinates and oversees production of three major reports to Congress that outline U.S. strategies and international efforts to address corruption: the International Anticorruption and Good Governance Act of 2000 report, the report required by the Senate ratification of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, and the International Narcotics Control Strategy Report.

        INL implements a growing range of bilateral and multilateral anticorruption assistance projects to support U.S. diplomatic anticorruption efforts and promote innovative approaches to preventing and deterring corruption. We pay U.S. dues to the GRECO, and contribute funds to the SPAI, the ADB/OECD Asian Anticorruption Initiative, UN negotiations and related anticorruption programs, the new OAS mechanism to monitor implementation of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (including interim programs by the OAS to promote implementation), and the Global Forum. Innovative preventive projects supported by INL include a civic education program being tested in four countries and the World Bank/OECD Corporate Governance Initiative. INL promotes the involvement of faith-based organizations in the fight against corruption, fosters anticorruption in environmental protection efforts, explores the link between corruption and terrorism, and has assigned an anticorruption advisor help Asian countries implement multilateral anticorruption commitments.

        FY 2003 Programs

        INL will continue to promote internationally accepted comprehensive norms against corruption as the UN continues negotiations to develop a global anticorruption instrument, including support for participation in UN negotiations by appropriate officials from developing or transitional countries. We will also continue our support for the Global Forum on Fighting Corruption, a U.S.-initiated process that generates important international political support for effective measures against public corruption. We will support anticorruption norm-setting, implementation review, and institutional development activities of regional organizations and groups such as the GRECO, the new OAS mechanism to monitor implementation of the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption, the Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative in Southeast Europe, the ADB-OECD Anticorruption Initiative for the Asian Pacific Region, the Global Coalition for Africa, and other regional or multilateral organizations or groups whose activities against corruption are important to U.S. national interests. INL will support technical assistance projects that help countries meet their commitments under these multilateral initiatives. For FY 2003, a total of $1.8 million is requested to support these multilateral initiatives and to develop technical assistance that will assist countries meet their commitments under the various existing regional anticorruption regimes. Included in this request is $250,000 for the U.S. annual compulsory contribution to the Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), an organization established under the auspices of the Council of Europe to promote adherence to anticorruption norms.

        We will emphasize the strengthening of key democratic institutions and the rule of law, including training for police, prosecutors, defense counsels, judges, ethics officers and other law enforcement officials. We will further develop and support projects that reach beyond the law enforcement community and promote innovative approaches to preventing corruption, including supporting the development of a culture of integrity and lawfulness in governments and societies; fostering internal controls, transparent systems and corporate and economic governance; and engagement of civil society in national anticorruption efforts. Finally, we will undertake new or enhanced INL international training activities that specifically address relationships between corruption and other forms of transnational crime of strategic concern to the U.S., such as terrorism, trafficking in persons, cyber crime, environmental crime, and the role of the media in the fight against corruption and money laundering, including drug trafficking and "kleptocracy".

        Effectiveness Measurements

          Border Controls

          Budget Summary ($000)

        • Progress toward international acceptance of comprehensive norms for government action against corruption;
        • Agreement among governments that the effectiveness of their implementation of anticorruption commitments will be subject to mutual evaluation by other governments on a permanent, continuing basis;
        • Establishment and continued implementation by governments of effective national ethics laws, integrity standards, transparency measures and practices to engage civil society in national efforts against corruption; and
        • Increased enforcement and prosecution and conviction of public officials found to have been engaged in corrupt acts, or adverse action against elected officials found engaged in corrupt activities.
        • FY 2001 Actual

          FY 2002 Estimated

          FY 2003 Request

          200

          1,000

          600

          Objectives

            • Improve the proficiency of customs, immigration, and other border control officials;
            • Assess border control capabilities of selected developing and transit countries and recommend improvements to visa processes, travel and identity documents, and immigration policies to facilitate travel while enhancing border control; and
            • Improve the integration and coordination among the various law enforcement entities at the borders.

            Justification

            Lax border controls greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid arrest. In seeking to move their contraband around the world, they will typically either try to avoid these controls, suborn them through corruption, negate them with falsified documentation, or overwhelm them. In many countries, effective control of the movement of persons, vehicles, and cargo across national land borders is non-existent. Border control officials are often poorly trained and equipped and inspections facilities are substandard.

            As the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls provide substantial deterrence to smugglers and other traffickers. They can force them into other, less attractive routes, provoke them into taking measures that raise their operational costs, and make them more vulnerable to law enforcement countermeasures. Borders are also intelligence collection points. Information gleaned from seizures, arrests, and documents can provide leads useful to making even bigger cases that dismantle major international criminal syndicates. Successful enforcement is a powerful instrument for generating greater public support for fighting transnational crime.

            INL conducted border assessments of immigration controls in several Central American, South Asian, South African and Caribbean countries. Based on those assessments, INL is recommending appropriate policy and structural changes to improve border controls in these countries. As appropriate, these countries may receive training and/or equipment that will enhance their ability to control the movement of persons and cargo across their international borders.

            FY 2003 Programs

            Effective border control programs depend on adequate training, visa regimes, and equipment, including automated systems to track the movement of cargo and people through ports of entry. Through our border assessments, INL will identify several of the most vulnerable countries and will work with them to upgrade their border control systems, including assisting them to improve travel document issuance systems. INL will concentrate on those countries that are major transit locations used by migrant smugglers and terrorist organizations.

            Effectiveness Measurements

              Critical Infrastructure Protection, Cyber Crime and Intellectual Property Rights

              Budget Summary ($000)

            • Increase in the number of border control officials trained annually;
            • Increase in the number of effective border assessments conducted;
            • Increase in detection of illegal transit attempts by host nations;
            • Increase in the number of border posts receiving equipment and technical assistance; and
            • Increase in the number of countries that have improved their travel and identity documents.
            • FY 2001 Actual

              FY 2002 Estimated

              FY 2003 Request

              600

              300

              250

              Objectives

                • Expand U.S. international efforts to increase critical infrastructure protection (CIP) cooperation with like-minded and friendly nations;
                • Develop a coordinated INL approach to providing technical assistance and training to foreign law enforcement in fighting cyber crime; and
                • Provide intellectual property rights (IPR) training and technical assistance in accordance with priorities established by the inter-agency working group.

                Justification

                The Internet revolution and the spread of information technology (IT) generally have led to tremendous productivity gains in the global economy. However, these advances have created new challenges for the U.S. in the areas of law enforcement, national security, and national economic security. In the twenty-first century, nation state boundaries and distinctions are becoming almost inconsequential. The global interdependence of infrastructures across various sectors such as finance, trade, transportation, energy and communications means a physical or cyber attack on the critical infrastructures of one nation will likely impact other nations. Consequently, U.S. national security depends not only on our own domestic CIP efforts, but also on the capabilities and cooperation of our foreign partners upon whose infrastructures we rely.

                Pursuant to Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 63 issued in May 1998, the U.S. government began to take all necessary measures to eliminate significant CIP vulnerabilities within its borders. In FY 2000, at the direction of the National Security Council, the Department of State developed an interagency-approved four-track strategy for international CIP outreach. In October 2001, President Bush issued Executive Orders 13228 and 13231 establishing, respectively, the Office of Homeland Security and the President’s CIP Board. Under the new policy, the Department of State will continue its role as lead agency for international outreach and coordination. Within State, the PM Bureau is designated functional coordinator, with the INL having particular responsibility for law enforcement-related CIP issues.

                Cyber crime is a significant issue. The criminal misuse of IT has increased exponentially in the last several years. Cyber crimes can include activities such as fraud, child pornography, and extortion, where IT is a means for carrying out the elements of the crime, and also activities such as hacking, intrusion, and denial of service attacks where computer networks are themselves targeted. INL provides technical assistance and training to foreign law enforcement personnel in detection, prevention, and prosecution of high-tech crimes. INL also participates in developing U.S. policy positions on cyber crime in organizations such as the G-8, the Council of Europe, and the United Nations.

                The U.S. has also long been engaged in issues related to protection of intellectual property rights (IPR). The 1998 Crime Control Strategy directed U.S. agencies to protect IPR rights by enhancing foreign and domestic law enforcement efforts. The State Department remains tasked to help combat IPR theft worldwide and to help create predictable legal and economic environments so that American business interests can prosper. Through an inter-agency working group that includes industry representatives, INL will promote IPR international training and technical assistance projects that involve significant cooperation with the private sector.

                FY 2003 Programs

                INL will continue to participate as part of the State Department inter-agency working group on CIP international outreach activities. This will include working with our closest allies to facilitate sector-to-sector relationships and connectivity among law enforcement entities, as well as expanding our circle of contacts to selected countries and multilateral organizations. INL will coordinate its activities with the new entities created by Executive Orders 13228 and 13231.

                Training and technical assistance for foreign law enforcement personnel to combat criminal misuse of IT is provided through a range of INL programs. INL provides assistance either by training to fight cyber crime itself, or by assistance in fighting substantive crimes such as money laundering and child pornography that are furthered through use of IT. Raising the technical capabilities of our foreign law enforcement partners is essential to the mission of U.S. law enforcement.

                INL will continue to promote IPR enforcement through participation in the International Training Coordination Group. Our particular responsibility will be to deliver assistance to countries identified as priorities for IPR training. Last year, INL funded IPR training courses in several nations, including Russia and Vietnam, and several nations in Central America. We look not only to increase the numbers of such programs, but also to integrate input from private industry into our long-term IPR assistance plans.

                Effectiveness Measurements

                  Financial Crime and Money Laundering

                  Budget Summary ($000)

                • Expand our existing international CIP outreach efforts beyond the circle of our closest allies;
                • Provide INL training and technical assistance to combat cyber crime and related criminal misuse of IT; and
                • Increase the number of INL-sponsored IPR training projects with an emphasis on long-term planning and involvement of private industry.
                • FY 2001 Actual

                  FY 2002 Estimated

                  FY 2003 Request

                  3,500

                  3,225

                  1,725

                  Objectives

                    • Combat money laundering and terrorist financing by denying criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and by strengthening enforcement efforts to reduce inbound and outbound movement of criminal or terrorist funds;
                    • Enhance bilateral and multilateral cooperation against all financial crime and terrorist financing by working with foreign governments to establish or update enforcement and regulatory tools and to implement international anti-money laundering standards; and
                    • Encourage the formation of foreign Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) and enhance their ability to share critical financial intelligence by providing technical assistance and encouraging membership in the Egmont Group of FIUs.

                    Justification

                    Financial crime, terrorist financing and money laundering continue to pose a significant national security threat to the United States and countries around the world. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, skew currency markets, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals and terrorists seek access to the countries’ financial systems to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, terrorism, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of financial crimes. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds $750 billion a year and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes limited only by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free markets.

                    INL has developed an aggressive program to combat international financial crime and money laundering. In FY 2001, INL implemented a $6 million training and technical assistance program that delivered over 27 courses to bank regulators, bankers, law enforcement, prosecutorial, and judicial personnel from 25 governments. A multi-agency team of experts representing the Departments of State, Treasury and Justice, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) and the Federal Reserve Board delivered the training courses. In addition, INL provides contributions to multilateral international organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the Caribbean Financial Task Force (CFATF), the Asia/Pacific Group and other regional bodies to support anti-money laundering efforts in those areas. The members of these bodies have committed to meeting international anti-money laundering standards and undergoing mutual evaluations by their peers. Our contributions assist in supporting the ongoing operations of these bodies, as well as funding for special programs, such as mutual evaluation training seminars.

                    In 2001, INL participated in the development of the Financial Action Task Force’s Non-Cooperating Countries and Territories (NCCT) program to identify jurisdictions not cooperating in the fight against money laundering. Many of the 19 jurisdictions that FATF identified as NCCTs were subject of U.S. Treasury Department advisories, warning all U.S. financial institutions to pay enhanced scrutiny to financial transactions with the listed NCCTs. INL is providing training and technical assistance to many of these jurisdictions to help them correct the deficiencies identified by the FATF so that they can be removed from the NCCT list. In addition, INL participated in the FATF Extraordinary Plenary on the Financing of Terrorism held in Washington, D.C. on October 29-30, 2001. As a result of this meeting, FATF expanded its mission beyond money laundering and will now also focus on a worldwide effort to combat terrorist financing.

                    FY 2003 Programs

                    In FY 2003, INL will aim its training and technical assistance programs toward countries that need to improve their ability to combat terrorist financing, financial crimes and money laundering. Training will focus on: tracking, freezing and seizing terrorist assets; developing anti-money laundering laws and regulations that meet international standards; training bank supervisors to ensure compliance with regulations; developing anti-money laundering examination procedures; providing law enforcement agencies with financial investigative skills; and training prosecutors to develop money laundering cases. Country advisors will also assist in the development of financial intelligence units to analyze suspicious transaction reports and share information with allies. We will continue to work closely with other USG agencies to provide this assistance, including the FBI, Secret Service, Customs Service, Internal Revenue Service, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors and the OCC. It is expected that training will focus on many of the NCCT jurisdictions, including Russia, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Ukraine. In addition, assistance will be provided to many emerging jurisdictions that are in need of technical assistance to develop anti-money laundering laws to protect their economy and financial services sector against financial crime and terrorism.

                    INL will continue to support international anti-money laundering organizations such as the FATF, Asia-Pacific Group, Council of Europe, CFATF, the Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD) and the Egmont Group. We will place special emphasis on expanding support to the FATF-like regional organization that has been established in South America.

                    INL will also continue to provide technical assistance to develop, enhance, and improve anti-money laundering regimes around the world. We are currently looking at some of the NCCT jurisdictions and others located in the Middle East. We will support the creation of Financial Intelligence Units in those jurisdictions that have passed the necessary anti-money laundering legislation and are in need of technical assistance.

                    Effectiveness Measurements

                      Law Enforcement and Police Science

                      Budget Summary ($000)

                    • Increased number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards, including Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing;
                    • Enactment of more and stronger national laws against money laundering;
                    • Creation of additional Financial Intelligence Units in targeted regions;
                    • Increased exchange of money laundering information among anti-money laundering enforcement and regulatory agencies and officials; and
                    • Increased numbers of investigations and prosecutions abroad of important money laundering cases.
                    • FY 2001 Actual

                      FY 2002 Estimated

                      FY 2003 Request

                      3,350

                      3,000

                      1,600

                      Objectives

                        • Support regional and national criminal justice institution building;
                        • Promote regional cooperation and coordination of law enforcement activities;
                        • Assist in the professionalization of foreign law enforcement organizations;
                        • Strengthen basic infrastructures for carrying out law enforcement activities in cooperating countries;
                        • Improve technical and investigative skills of law enforcement personnel; and
                        • Develop long-lasting relationships between U.S. law enforcement entities and foreign law enforcement authorities.

                        Justification

                        Law enforcement and police science training is managed and funded by INL and carried out by the Departments of Justice and Treasury, as well as several other smaller federal law enforcement organizations. Training and technical assistance provided to foreign law enforcement to combat crime helps to advance U.S. interests in international cooperation while also promoting social, political and economic stability. INL emphasizes regional approaches to training and coordinates with other training providers, such as the European Union and UNDCP, to ensure that this training serves a common strategic interest.

                        In FY 2001, INL focused increasingly on ensuring that training courses were provided within the larger context of overall program or project development. That is, INL and other U.S. agencies increasingly evaluated requests for training on the basis of how that training applied to achieving concrete law enforcement project objectives by the host government.

                        Our program addresses virtually every type of international crime and related issues including the following: alien smuggling, border control, corruption, narcotics trafficking, domestic violence, trafficking in women and children, illicit firearms, cyber crime, intellectual property rights, money laundering and financial crime, rule of law, and law enforcement and police sciences. Where feasible, INL relies on regional training courses to bring together law enforcement officials from neighboring countries to foster increased law enforcement cooperation and coordination.

                        In FY 2001, 7,100 foreign officials from over 100 countries participated in INL-funded international narcotics and crime control training programs. Continued funding will accommodate the growing emphasis on law enforcement training as a vehicle for achieving many of the USG’s basic international law enforcement and foreign policy objectives. Continuation of INL law enforcement training programs constitutes one of the surest means of institution building and promotion of host nation self-sufficiency.

                        FY 2003 Programs

                        In FY 2003, INL-funded training will continue to support major U.S. and international strategies for combating crime worldwide. Law enforcement efforts overseas will be evaluated in terms of what they have done to bring about establishment of effective host country enforcement institutions. INL will maintain its role as coordinator of the activities of Washington-based agencies in response to assistance requests from U.S. embassies. INL will also continue to focus on training courses that address elements of larger overall law enforcement development programs or projects. INL and U.S. agencies will continue to evaluate training requests based on how that training supports the host government in achieving concrete law enforcement project objectives.

                        Effectiveness Measurements

                          Regional Narcotics Law Enforcement Training

                          Budget Summary ($000)

                        • Enhanced cooperation among regional law enforcement agencies;
                        • Improved communication of law enforcement officers within countries, regions and with U.S. law enforcement;
                        • Increased number of criminals successfully prosecuted; and
                        • Increased number of successful criminal prosecutions involving multinational crimes.
                        • FY 2001 Actual

                          FY 2002 Estimate

                          FY 2003 Request

                          5,500

                          5,000

                          5,000

                          Objectives

                            • Contribute to the basic infrastructure for carrying out counternarcotics law enforcement activities in cooperating countries;
                            • Improve technical and investigative skills of counternarcotics law enforcement personnel in key narcotics countries; and
                            • Increase cooperation and coordination between U.S. and foreign law enforcement officials.

                            Justification

                            The Regional Narcotics Law Enforcement Training program is designed to assist cooperating countries to create effective national organizations for investigating drug trafficking and interdicting illegal narcotics. It is important to note that additional funding for these activities comes from other program categories within the INL budget.

                            International counternarcotics training is managed and funded by INL and carried out by a variety of U.S. law enforcement agencies including DEA, FBI, DOJ Office of Prosecutorial Development Assistance and Training (OPDAT), U.S. Coast Guard, and U.S. Customs Service. Between fiscal years 1998 and 2001, INL funding has resulted in training for approximately 10,000 foreign officials. Generally, training programs in the U.S. are tailored to senior-level management and policy-level officials, while programs offered overseas are reserved for operational personnel.

                            Accomplishments

                            During the past year, the process for delivering INL-funded international counternarcotics training was significantly enhanced. Courses were targeted to the objectives outlined in each U.S. embassy Mission Program Plan (MPP) to increase the ability of each recipient country to develop self-sufficient counternarcotics institutions. This shift in training delivery focus also included the introduction of a needs assessment process to develop relevant course materials, the development of new courses targeted at the legal structures existing in each country, and the development of a program evaluation component.

                            The resulting training was tailored to the level of sophistication of the foreign law enforcement organizations receiving it, with emphasis placed on major producer and transit countries. Basic and advanced instruction programs were provided to the major drug producing and trafficking countries to strengthen institutional capabilities. Regional training courses were frequently used to foster increased cooperation and coordination of law enforcement activities needed as a result of the increasing transnational nature of organized crime and narcotics trafficking.

                            FY 2003 Programs

                            Refining INL law enforcement training programs to meet the needs of recipient countries constitutes one of the best means of implementing the USG counternarcotics strategy for institution building and promotion of host nation self-sufficiency. USG counternarcotics efforts overseas will be evaluated in terms of what they have done to bring about the establishment of effective host country enforcement institutions, thereby taking drugs out of circulation before they start their journey toward the U.S.

                            INL-funded training will continue to support the major U.S. and international strategies for combating narcotics trafficking worldwide. INL will continue to furnish programs only to those countries considered high priority for U.S. counternarcotics interests. Major emphasis will be placed on coordination with other donors (e.g., UNDCP, OAS, the EU) to urge them to shoulder greater responsibility in providing training that serves their particular strategic interests. This coordination will also help avoid wasteful duplication of training efforts.

                            Due to the monetary linkage between narcotics production/trafficking and narcotics-terrorist organizations, programs dealing with financial crimes (i.e., methods of promoting asset seizure and combating money laundering) will continue to expand. To assist with counternarcotics law enforcement investigations of these organizations, more sophisticated training in the areas of border security, use of special enforcement teams, and counternarcotics security measures will be provided.

                            INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of Washington agencies in response to assistance requests from U.S. embassies. This will avoid duplication of effort, and ensure that presentations represent the full range of U.S. policies and priorities.

                            As in past years, the demand from foreign governments and U.S. embassies abroad has continued to exceed what can be provided with available resources. In addition to the resources provided through this account and other parts of the INL budget, SEED Act and FSA monies were used to fund counternarcotics training in Eastern Europe and the NIS. Continued funding will allow us to accommodate the growing emphasis on law enforcement training as a vehicle for achieving many of the basic objectives of USG counternarcotics policy.

                            Effectiveness Measurements

                              Regional Narcotics Law Enforcement Training

                              INL Budget

                              ($000)

                            • Enhanced cooperation among regional counternarcotics law enforcement agencies;
                            • Improved communication of counternarcotics law enforcement officers within countries, regions and with U.S. law enforcement; and
                            • Increased number of narcotics traffickers successfully prosecuted.
                            •  

                              FY 2001

                              FY 2002

                              FY 2003

                              DEA Training

                              3,000

                              2,600

                              2,600

                              U.S. Customs Service Training

                              1,500

                              1,500

                              1,500

                              U.S. Coast Guard Training

                              600

                              600

                              600

                              Other Training Support

                              400

                              300

                              300

                              Total

                              5,500

                              5,000

                              5,000


                              Rule of Law

                              Budget Summary ($000)

                              FY 2001 Actual

                              FY 2002 Estimated

                              FY 2003 Request

                              3,000

                              2,000

                              1,000

                              Objectives

                                • Assist countries to revise and update their current criminal statutes;
                                • Assist countries to introduce laws to combat such new crime threats as cyber crime, corruption, trafficking in persons, alien smuggling, and money laundering; and
                                • Train prosecutors and judges to implement these laws effectively.

                                Justification

                                There is growing realization in the post-Cold War era that many forms of transnational organized crime pose a serious threat to democracies generally and to the developing world and economies in transition in particular. To prevent and combat transnational organized crime more effectively, nations must improve their criminal law techniques and expand international cooperation. In cooperation with appropriate U.S. federal agencies, INL provides training and technical assistance programs in the criminal justice sector, especially for judges and prosecutors. The programs require sustained, multi-year training efforts, in-country residency assistance, and temporary assignments, and focus on criminal legislation, code revisions and regulatory reform. Such assistance ensures that criminal investigations respect the rights of all citizens and that prosecutions flow from criminal investigations.

                                Rule of Law programs complement INL’s international anticrime programs in two important aspects: legislation and prosecutions. For countries that lack the expertise to mount complex or sustained investigations against international criminals, the Rule of Law strategy calls for expanded training and technical assistance programs to turn foreign prosecutors and judges into more effective crime fighters. For countries where the basic institutions of justice are not adequate to meet the everyday challenges of common crime, let alone the sophistication of an ever expanding international crime threat, the INL program is a country-specific, flexible approach to fostering development of effective criminal justice institutions.

                                Efforts to combat international crime took a giant leap forward when the United Nations Transnational Organized Crime Convention was completed and opened for signature. The purpose of the convention is to prevent and combat transnational organized crime more effectively through international cooperation. It requires party states to have laws criminalizing the most prevalent types of criminal activities associated with organized crime groups, including obstruction of justice, money laundering, corruption of public officials, and conspiracy. The Convention will expand significantly the ability of the United States to work with countries around the globe on organized crime investigations, adoption or revision of their criminal laws, and prosecutions, particularly those countries with which we do not have mutual legal assistance treaties.

                                FY 2003 Programs

                                In FY 2003, INL proposes to continue the Resident Legal Advisor (RLA) program. The RLAs will work with foreign prosecutors, legislators, and judges to more effectively combat crime. Toward this end, they will also assist countries to improve their criminal legislation, codes, or regulations. INL instituted an exchange program that provides judges and prosecutors from Russia and the former Soviet Union states to work with United States jurists at the federal and state levels. In FY 2003, INL will institute a number of similar exchange projects with several Central American countries, South Africa, India, and Thailand. These programs will help foreign officials better understand the U.S. judicial system and how it deals with criminal proceedings. INL will continue its work with international organizations to improve independent civil courts, government transparency and integrity, and improve the administration of courts.

                                Effectiveness Measurements

                                  Program Development & Support

                                  Budget Summary ($000)

                                • Stronger criminal statutes in nations targeted for assistance;
                                • Better-trained prosecutors and judges capable of adjudicating more complex cases, more expeditiously; and
                                • Greater appreciation by foreign jurists of the U.S. legal system, resulting in improved bilateral cooperation.
                                • FY 2001 Actual

                                  FY 2002 Estimated

                                  FY 2003 Request

                                  1,400

                                  1,505

                                  1,625

                                  Objectives

                                    • Develop, manage and coordinate anticrime policies, programs and activities of the U.S. Department of State;
                                    • Provide the infrastructure needed for the bureau to pursue policy objectives and effectively manage INL programs; and
                                    • Provide program and administrative management oversight and direction to embassies worldwide to assure effective implementation of INL policies and projects.

                                    Justification

                                    Anticrime Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds cover domestic administrative operating costs of supporting the Washington-based crime staff. It should be noted that twelve positions in the INL Office of Anticrime Programs are funded from the Department of State D&CP account. Field travel for INL anticrime personnel based in Washington is a significant component of the Anticrime PD&S budget. PD&S funds are utilized for IT hardware and software, office equipment rentals, telephone basic and long distance service, courier, shipping and transportation costs, materials and supplies, miscellaneous contractual services and office furniture, furnishings and equipment.

                                    FY 2003 Program

                                    The PD&S budget request for FY 2003 includes a modest increase to cover higher costs for field travel, office equipment rentals, telephone expenses, miscellaneous contractual services, furniture and equipment.

                                    Civilian Police Program

                                    Budget Summary ($000)

                                    FY 2001 Actual

                                    FY 2002 Estimated

                                    FY 2003 Request

                                    10,000

                                    5,000

                                    Objectives

                                      • Maintain a roster of U.S. police officers that are trained and eligible for assignment overseas to an international civilian police or bilateral police assistance mission;
                                      • Enhance U.S. capability to train and deploy police overseas;
                                      • Increase U.S. participation in UN, OSCE, EU and other organizations to enhance the capacities of other nations to train and deploy CIVPOL; and
                                      • Work with other countries to develop standardized CIVPOL training programs.

                                      Justification

                                      U.S. participation in international civilian police (CIVPOL) operations continued in 2001 with over 800 experienced police officers assigned to Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Southern Serbia, and East Timor. The completion of a competitive solicitation process in FY 2002 to establish a 2,000-member CIVPOL roster and provide related training and advisory services will create a mechanism to further improve USG capacity to respond to requests from the UN and other organizations for U.S. participation in police components of peacekeeping operations.

                                      International CIVPOL deployments can range from short-term training and advisory assignments requiring only a few weeks, to long-term assignment to CIVPOL missions for one year or more. To be prepared for such operations, members of the U.S. contingent require basic uniforms and personal equipment applicable to all deployments. Special equipment and materials needed for a particular operating environment are provided immediately prior to an actual deployment, and include communications equipment, special clothing and camping gear. Long-term operational support needed to maintain U.S. police in actual CIVPOL operations continues to be provided from other regional or special accounts, such as Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act or Peacekeeping Operations (PKO).

                                      FY 2003 Program

                                      The FY 2003 budget request will maintain a newly established voluntary reserve roster of 2,000 law enforcement personnel who will remain in their regular jobs until called for CIVPOL duty. The FY 2003 program will continue implementation of standardized organizational structures, operating procedures, and ethics standards and a code of conduct. Through this program, U.S. CIVPOL personnel will have opportunities to participate in specialized law enforcement training developed in 2001 and 2002, both basic and advanced instruction that is unique to the organizational and operational challenges presented by international CIVPOL missions. The FY 2003 program will also sustain prior year efforts to identify a voluntary cadre of 400 police experts to respond to requests from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) for U.S. contributions to operations in European regions that are emerging from conflict. Unique training and preparation will be required for U.S. police to work effectively with the OSCE.

                                      The FY 2003 program will also sustain logistical capabilities to ensure timely U.S. response to calls from the UN or other organization to contribute American police on an expedited basis to address a special circumstance or participate in an international effort to assist a country emerging from a crisis situation. Key elements of this capacity will be contingencies for transporting personnel and equipment, providing emergency medical, administrative and logistical support in the field, and an operational communications system. The FY 2003 program will sustain an ability to provide for the evacuation of U.S. CIVPOL in the event that such action is required.

                                      FY 2003 funds will also support continued outreach efforts to U.S. local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies and professional associations for the purpose of attracting and encouraging law enforcement interest and participation in CIVPOL or OSCE missions. In addition, we will engage in efforts to assist CIVPOL programs of other countries, as well as regional or international organizations. Administration of such a comprehensive CIVPOL program will continue to strengthen the capacity to assess requirements and to plan, implement, manage, and evaluate U.S. participation in international police missions.

                                      Effectiveness Measurements

                                        Africa Regional Anticrime Program

                                        Budget Summary ($000)

                                      • Establishment of a select cadre of CIVPOL management;
                                      • Delivery of comprehensive basic and specialized training programs;
                                      • Provision of basic and specialized equipment to U.S. contingents;
                                      • Establishment of a command structure, formal performance evaluation system and code of conduct and ethics for CIVPOL;
                                      • Establishment of a logistical capability for rapid deployment of U.S. police; and
                                      • Involvement of selected countries in the U.S. civilian police training program and related activities.
                                      • FY 2001 Actual

                                        FY 2002 Estimated

                                        FY 2003 Request

                                        7,500

                                        7,500

                                        7,000

                                        Objectives

                                          • Strengthen host nation judicial and law enforcement institutions ability to deal with trafficking in narcotics and persons, smuggling of goods, illegal migration, money laundering and financial crimes, domestic violence, corruption and other crimes;
                                          • Improve border security throughout the region; and
                                          • Assist governmental and NGO entities in fighting drug abuse.

                                          Justification

                                          Africa, with its porous borders and poorly paid civil servants, is a transit region for heroin bound for the United States and Europe, and cocaine bound for Europe. African criminal organizations are major players in the international drug trade, moving a substantial amount of the world’s heroin and cocaine. Neither growers nor street-level retailers, the African criminal groups are the intermediaries of the drug trade. Increasingly, major African cities are the destination for drug shipments as well as being transshipment hubs. The porous borders and lax controls that make trafficking in narcotics, persons, and goods possible and profitable, coupled with pockets of anti-U.S. extremists, also make Africa an inviting base of operations for terrorists.

                                          Most of the limited anticrime funds spent in Africa have been focused on counternarcotics efforts in Nigeria and South Africa. African criminal groups that operate in these countries have spread throughout the region and increased their geographic diversification. Countries as disparate as Kenya, Togo and Ghana have become transit routes. Nigerian and South African criminal organizations have matured and become transnational concerns that exploit whatever weakness they can find or, with their growing sums of money, create. The law enforcement assault on these organizations must be region-wide and closely coordinated.

                                          The U.S. must dedicate more funds to fight this growing regional problem. While programs will continue to concentrate on Nigeria and Southern Africa, additional funding in FY 2003 is also essential to provide assistance to other governments and regional organizations so that crime will be reduced and eventually eliminated, not just displaced to other countries in the region.

                                          Assistance will be delivered in the form of projects that include training, technical assistance, and appropriate material assistance. Project designs will include measures of effectiveness and provisions for sustainability. Customs training, police science training, training for specialized units (counternarcotics, antitrafficking in persons, money laundering and financial crimes, customs and border control), demand reduction programs, technical assistance, and public education campaigns will account for the majority of Africa regional funding. Material assistance will consist of communications equipment, vehicles, computer databases and other equipment. Assistance will be directed to police organizations that work closely with U.S. law enforcement on transnational crimes that affect the U.S. Material and technical assistance will be essential for those countries participating in training at ILEA Gaborone to give the trainees the tools they need to effectively apply in the field what they have learned in the classroom. Assistance to the police should be complemented with public education and community policing efforts designed to build public confidence in law enforcement and judicial institutions. Assistance will be provided bilaterally and through regional programs, regional organizations and non-governmental and international organizations.

                                          South Africa

                                          South Africa is the economic and political driving force of southern Africa, both in its own right and as the most powerful member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). With its robust democracy, developed economy, and sophisticated financial system, South Africa offers both a major area of opportunity for organized crime and the potential means to successfully combat it, domestically and regionally. In spite of having the most developed crime-fighting infrastructure on the continent, violent street crime rates are among the world’s highest, sapping resources and confidence. South Africa’s murder rate is eight times higher than that of the U.S., and extremist Islamic terrorism is a growing threat. The national police force, the South African Police Service (SAPS), is an organization still in painful transition; its legacy as an instrument of the apartheid regime still evokes public hostility and funding cuts have eroded morale and its ability to fight ever-stronger criminal elements.

                                          The U.S and South Africa have identified the following priorities for U.S. assistance: border controls, counternarcotics, youth and domestic violence, sex crimes, organized crimes, major case management, law enforcement train-the-trainer and curriculum development, corruption and money laundering. In all of these areas, the goal of U.S. assistance is building South African judicial and law enforcement capacity to deal effectively with its very serious crime problems. Additional assistance will be provided to expand existing forensic and investigative capabilities, particularly with regard to financial crime and counterfeiting, which have a direct impact on U.S. citizens and businesses.

                                          In addition to such specialized assistance, programs designed to bring people and police together will be essential in restoring law and order. The SAPS needs to be encouraged and supported in implementing a community-policing model and putting more police on the streets. Such support for the fledgling Johannesburg Municipal Police (JMP) will address a critical need for more focus on street crime by putting local police on the streets and in contact with their communities. A successful municipal police force model would allow the SAPS to put more emphasis on investigations and prosecutions of organized crime, in addition to strengthening democratic policing. Finally, drug demand reduction and prevention programs are necessary to address the conditions underlying much of the violent street crime

                                          Southern Africa (excluding South Africa)

                                          Crime is a growing menace throughout the southern Africa region (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe). To address partially the challenge, judicial and law enforcement personnel from the region will receive training at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Gaborone, Botswana. (Currently Zimbabwe is not participating in ILEA training.) To make the ILEA training effective, it is essential to complement its program with robust bilateral technical and material assistance and specialized training tailored to the individual requirements of the resource-starved and overburdened judicial and law enforcement institutions in the region. Border control programs including professional training, infrastructure upgrades, and technical assistance, are necessary to stop trafficking in persons, smuggling of narcotics and other contraband, and movement of criminals at sea, land and air ports of entry throughout the region. Such programs can be undertaken with the cooperation of regional and international organizations.

                                          Nigeria

                                          Nigeria is the key to crime control efforts in West Africa. Nigerian organized crime syndicates are major players in worldwide narcotics trafficking and financial crimes and, as such, have a direct impact on U.S. citizens and businesses. Organized crime, coupled with decades of corrupt military rule, has undermined Nigeria’s relatively advanced institutional development.

                                          U.S. assistance will be directed, first of all, to law enforcement and judicial organizations that work with U.S. law enforcement on transnational criminal activities that affect the U.S. Those organizations include specialized units in the police and judiciary dealing with narcotics trafficking, financial crime and counterfeiting, trafficking in persons, and extradition. Other assistance will be directed at critical interventions in the on-going effort to modernize the Nigerian police. Assistance will include long-term advisors to the police at various levels, including headquarters and academies, and specialized assistance in the areas of maintaining a criminal database, personnel management, and forensic laboratory development. Support for anticorruption efforts is an essential complement to all efforts to promote reform and modernization.

                                          West Africa

                                          In addition to homegrown crime problems, the small states in West Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone) also suffer from Nigerian organized crime, including trafficking in narcotics and persons and financial crimes and counterfeiting, all of which have a direct impact on the U.S. The spillover is likely to increase as Nigeria becomes increasingly successful in its efforts to clamp down on these types of crimes.

                                          U.S. assistance will be directed at states in the region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing and/or the political will to achieve these goals. Strengthening border controls and interdiction efforts at sea, land, and air ports of entry is a top priority. Also important are programs to develop the capacity of the judicial and law enforcement institutions to deal with a range of criminal problems, and to build support for these institutions with the general public.

                                          East Africa

                                          East Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Mauritius, Madagascar, Sudan) is a transit hub for African and Asian criminal activities, including trafficking in narcotics and persons, alien smuggling, money laundering, and financial crimes. Major East African cities, such as Nairobi, Mombassa and Addis Ababa, are transit points for heroin headed for the U.S. and Europe from Asia. The will to fight narcotics trafficking exists in East Africa. Kenyan authorities, for example, have participated in European and UN counternarcotics programs as well as U.S.-funded programs.

                                          U.S. assistance will be directed to states in the sub-region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing and/or the political will to achieve these goals. Strengthening border controls and interdiction efforts at sea, land, and air ports of entry is a top priority. Also important are programs to develop the capacity of the judicial and law enforcement institutions to deal with a range of criminal problems, and build support for these institutions with the general public.

                                          Program Development and Support

                                          Program Development and Support funds are used to pay the salaries and benefits for two permanently-assigned U.S. direct-hire positions in Pretoria and Lagos, local American and foreign national staff and contractor personnel, short term TDY assistance and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

                                          Effectiveness Measurements


                                            Africa Regional Anticrime

                                            INL Budget

                                            ($000)

                                          • Increased national political and financial commitment to combat crime and illegal narcotics trafficking;
                                          • Increased institutional capacities of judicial and law-enforcement institutions in the region measured by quantities of drugs interdicted, arrests and successful prosecutions of major criminals and disruption of trafficking networks;
                                          • Increased control over international borders, as measured by a reduction in the volumes of narcotics, persons, and contraband circulating illegally in the region;
                                          • Adoption of effective legislation in the areas of counternarcotics, money laundering and financial crimes, trafficking in persons, alien smuggling and anticorruption;
                                          • Effective use of counternarcotics legislation, including conspiracy and asset forfeiture statutes;
                                          • Improved police-community relations and increased public support for judicial and law enforcement institutions; and
                                          • Increased public awareness of the dangers of drug abuse, decreased levels of drug abuse, and increased resources committed to the problem by host governments.
                                          •  

                                            FY 2001

                                            FY 2002

                                            FY 2003

                                            Commodities

                                            840

                                            1,500

                                            1,000

                                            Vehicles, Information Systems, Communications, Investigative and Other Equipment

                                                 

                                            Other Costs

                                            6,110

                                            5,300

                                            5,300

                                            Training and Technical Assistance

                                                 

                                            Program Development and Support

                                                 

                                            U.S. Personnel

                                            250

                                            250

                                            250

                                            Non-U.S. Personnel

                                            5

                                            10

                                            10

                                            ICASS Costs

                                            132

                                            220

                                            220

                                            Program Support

                                            163

                                            220

                                            220

                                            Subtotal

                                            550

                                            700

                                            700

                                             

                                            _____

                                            _____

                                            _____

                                            Total

                                            7,500

                                            7,500

                                            7,000

                                             

                                            International Law Enforcement Academies

                                            Budget Summary ($000)

                                            FY 2001 Actual

                                            FY 2002 Estimated

                                            FY 2003 Request

                                            7,300

                                            14,500

                                            14,500

                                            Objectives

                                              • Support regional and national criminal justice institution building;
                                              • Strengthen national law enforcement capabilities;
                                              • Assist foreign law enforcement entities in professionalizing their forces;
                                              • Foster cooperation and improve regional coordination of law enforcement activities;
                                              • Build stronger linkages between U.S. law enforcement entities and foreign law enforcement authorities and future criminal justice leaders; and
                                              • Strengthen partnerships among countries in regions served by ILEAs aimed at addressing problems of drugs and crime.

                                              Justification

                                              International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) advance U.S. interests in international cooperation while promoting social, political and economic stability by combating crime. INL funding has established ILEAs in Budapest, Hungary (1995), Bangkok, Thailand (1999), Gaborone, Botswana (2001) and Roswell, N.M. (2001). Since it opened, ILEA Budapest has provided training to over 5,900 officials from 25 countries. ILEA Bangkok has provided training to over 1800 officials from 10 countries.

                                              The Department of State works with the Departments of Justice and Treasury and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA programs. INL’s primary role is to provide foreign policy guidance to the ILEA Directors, ensure availability of adequate funding to support ILEA operations, and provide oversight that will ensure that U.S. foreign policy objectives are achieved.

                                              Several examples demonstrate the success of the ILEA concept. Extensive surveys showed that criminal investigators adopted more rational, democratic solutions to administrative and operational challenges after graduating from ILEAs. Participation in ILEAs is associated with an increased willingness to share information with U.S. police. Surveys of a large pool of students showed that former ILEA participants are more likely than any other police to exchange information with foreign police.

                                              Building on this success, we have opened a graduate-style ILEA at the De Bremmond Training Center in Roswell, New Mexico. The first courses began in late 2001. We are also considering a future ILEA for Latin America.

                                              FY 2003 Programs

                                              INL will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Budapest, Bangkok and Gaborone, and complete renovation of the facility at Roswell, New Mexico. Following an area survey of available locations and identification of a host country, INL may begin to establish a new ILEA in Latin America. Meanwhile, for all ILEAs, INL will introduce new training initiatives on areas of international criminal activity. This will include expanding core curriculum and specialized training in subjects such as hazardous waste dumping, smuggling hazardous material, and trafficking in protected natural resources and endangered species. INL will also place added emphasis at the ILEAs on fighting trafficking in persons, especially women and children.

                                              Effectiveness Measurements

                                                Trafficking in Persons

                                                Budget Summary ($000)

                                              • Provide advanced training to 400 more students using the new ILEA Roswell;
                                              • Ensure that recently opened academies double the yearly student output worldwide;
                                              • Expand regional coverage by opening a new ILEA in Latin America;
                                              • Assist more ILEA graduates in applying the methods and technologies learned at the academies to criminal investigations in their own nations;
                                              • Encourage ILEA alumni to become actively engaged in training others, either at their national academies or on-the-job; and
                                              • Complete an impact evaluation of the effectiveness of the ILEA in Bangkok, Thailand.
                                              • FY 2001 Actual

                                                FY 2002 Estimated

                                                FY 2003 Request

                                                3,250

                                                7,670

                                                10,000

                                                Objectives

                                                  • Interdict trafficking in persons as far from our borders as possible;
                                                  • Support the efforts of the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons to assist countries in meeting the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking specified in the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000;
                                                  • Encourage source, transit, and destination countries in developing national plans of action to combat trafficking in persons;
                                                  • Strengthen the capacity of foreign law enforcement to adequately investigate and prosecute cases of trafficking in persons and violence against women and children;
                                                  • Facilitate cooperation between law enforcement and immigration officials and NGO service providers to assist victims of trafficking and other forms of violence against women and children; and
                                                  • Improve the capacity of governments and NGOs to provide protection and assistance for victim witnesses.

                                                  Justification

                                                  Trafficking in persons violates the dignity of men, women and children. Well over 700,000 people, especially women and children, are trafficked every year around the world for sexual exploitation, sweatshop labor, domestic servitude and other forms of forced labor. The United States is a destination for an estimated 50,000 trafficked women and children every year. Trafficking networks exploit the vulnerability of persons who desire a better life or who are victims of war. Victims of trafficking are seen as cheap and reusable commodities. The profit derived from trafficking in persons is believed to support other illicit activities of organized criminal groups.

                                                  Like trafficking, domestic violence is a hidden crime because many societies perceive domestic violence as a family matter. A 1999 report from Johns Hopkins University’s Population Information program estimated that on average one in three women around the world has experienced violence in an intimate relationship. To a limited extent, domestic violence encourages flight and contributes to the pool of trafficking victims. Trafficked victims who return to their homes often are isolated by their families and so traumatized by their experience that they may then become victims of domestic violence. According to a 1997 World Health Organization report, at least one in five women suffer rape or attempted rape in their lifetime. In a relatively affluent country in Africa, there were close to 32,000 reported cases of rape or attempted rape of children between January 2000 and June 2001. Rape or sexual assault is often used as a tool by traffickers to make victims more compliant for prostitution or labor purposes.

                                                  In October 2000, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (the Act) became law. The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons was established in October 2001 and reports directly to the Under Secretary for Global Affairs. This office serves as secretariat to a Cabinet-level task force, chaired by the Secretary of State, to implement the provisions of the Act through policy and programmatic coordination of domestic and international USG efforts. INL now provides its antitrafficking programmatic resources to the Trafficking Office to implement some of the programmatic provisions listed in the Act.

                                                  The Trafficking Office is responsible for preparing the annual Trafficking in Persons Report on countries’ efforts to meet the minimum standards as outlined in the Act. This report places countries in one of three tiers. Countries in Tier 3 may be subject to sanctions after the 2003 report.

                                                  INL, together with the Trafficking Office, continues to work with foreign governments to get them to sign and ratify the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. As of November 2001, 100 countries have signed the Trafficking Protocol. This protocol provides a framework for concerned governments to address trafficking based on prevention, prosecution of traffickers and protection for victims.

                                                  FY 2003 Programs

                                                  INL Trafficking in Persons program resources will be targeted at countries in Tier 3 or Tier 2 whose governments have expressed a willingness to address trafficking and are eligible to receive USG assistance. The Trafficking Office will ensure that INL programs complement those of other State Department bureaus, the Department of Labor and USAID.

                                                  Assistance programs for antitrafficking and domestic violence/sexual assault will include the following activities: provide guidance in drafting antitrafficking laws; provide training for multi-disciplinary teams of government officials, medical personnel and NGOs; set up specialized police units; establish child-friendly interview rooms; develop police academy training curriculums; and, provide forensic rape kits.

                                                  NGOs play an important role in helping victims and are a means by which INL has assisted countries’ counternarcotics and anticrime efforts. INL funds will continue to support efforts to protect and assist victims of trafficking and victims of other forms of violence against women and children who may be witnesses against their perpetrators. NGOs will also be included in programs to train law enforcement and immigration officials on proper interview techniques and appropriate protection measures for victims. The Trafficking Office will also encourage governments to provide some resources in conjunction with INL assistance for NGO service providers.

                                                  Effectiveness Measurements

                                                    Anticrime Programs

                                                    INL Budget

                                                    ($000)

                                                  • Fewer countries listed in Tier 3 of the 2003 Trafficking in Persons Report;
                                                  • Increased number of countries receiving INL assistance to draft laws prohibiting and punishing acts of trafficking; investigate and prosecute traffickers and other offenders; and, provide services and protections for victims;
                                                  • Greater number of countries with comprehensive national plans of action to combat trafficking in persons with strategies that include coordination, prevention, protection, and prosecution; and
                                                  • Increased number of countries where there is collaboration between NGOs and government officials.
                                                  •  

                                                    FY 2001

                                                    FY 2002

                                                    FY 2003

                                                    INL Anticrime Programs

                                                         

                                                    Alien Smuggling

                                                    800

                                                    700

                                                    400

                                                    Anticorruption

                                                    3,950

                                                    3,500

                                                    1,800

                                                    Border Controls

                                                    200

                                                    1,000

                                                    600

                                                    Critical Infrastructure Protection, Cyber Crime & Intellectual Property Rights

                                                    600

                                                    300

                                                    250

                                                    Financial Crime and Money Laundering

                                                    3,500

                                                    3,225

                                                    1,725

                                                    Firearms and Small Arms Trafficking

                                                    100

                                                    Law Enforcement and Police Science

                                                    3,350

                                                    3,000

                                                    1,600

                                                    Regional Narcotics Law Enforcement Training1

                                                    5,500

                                                    5,000

                                                    5,000

                                                    Rule of Law

                                                    3,000

                                                    2,000

                                                    1,000

                                                    Stolen Vehicles

                                                    50

                                                    100

                                                    Program Development & Support

                                                    1,400

                                                    1,505

                                                    1,625

                                                    Subtotal

                                                    22,450

                                                    20,330

                                                    14,000

                                                    Civilian Police Program

                                                    10,000

                                                    5,000

                                                    Africa Regional Anticrime Program

                                                    7,500

                                                    7,500

                                                    7,000

                                                    International Law Enforcement Academies

                                                    7,300

                                                    14,500

                                                    14,500

                                                    Trafficking in Persons

                                                    3,250

                                                    7,670

                                                    10,000

                                                     

                                                    ______

                                                    ______

                                                    ______

                                                    Total2

                                                    50,500

                                                    50,000

                                                    50,500

                                                    1Regional Law Enforcement Training funding was moved to the INL Anticrime Program account in FY 2002. FY 2001 has been adjusted accordingly.
                                                    2The FY 2001 budget total does not reflect $13 million in FREEDOM of Support Act (FSA) and $97.3 million in Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act funds transfers or $15.5 million in Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) fund allocations. Similarly, the FY 2002 and 2003 budgets do not reflect FSA and SEED Act or PKO funding.



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