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International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2004 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
June 2003
Report
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Nigeria

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

2,270 1,760 2,250

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe capacity of Nigerian law enforcement to deter, prevent and investigate trafficking in narcotics, illegal migration, and financial fraud will increase.

There will be an increase in the number of seizures of narcotics and successful prosecutions of major traffickers; major narcotics trafficking organizations will be disrupted; an increasing number of illegal migrants will be detected and more smuggling organizations will be disrupted; an increasing number of financial fraud rings will be investigated and put out of business; sufficient resources will be committed to agencies responsible for trafficking and fraud investigations; and the number of countries participating in regional counternarcotics operations will increase.

The Nigerian Police Force (NPF) will become increasingly modernized.

Modern police training curricula will be developed and implemented for recruits and officers; modern adult training techniques in all police academies will be utilized; the administration and management of the NPF will be improved, including its crisis management capacity; the NPF will receive increased public and parliamentary support; sufficient resources will be provided to the NPF to meet basic requirements; and there will be a reduction in the number of police corruption incidents.

Program JustificationINL programs in Nigeria in FY 2004 are designed to achieve key U.S. foreign policy objectives of improving the performance of the criminal justice sector and of strengthening democratic institutions.

Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade and transport narcotics to markets in the U.S., Europe, Asia and Africa. Some of these criminal organizations are engaged in advance-fee fraud and other forms of financial crime that defraud U.S. citizens and businesses. Years of military rule and economic decline contributed to the expansion of narcotics trafficking and criminality in Nigeria. Severe unemployment and widespread corruption provided both an incentive and the means for Nigerian criminal organizations to make Nigeria a major transit point in the international narcotics trade. Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin smuggled through Nigeria amounts to a significant portion of the heroin smuggled into the U.S., resulting in Nigeria being placed on our list of major drug producing and drug-transit countries.

Since the end of military rule and dictatorship in 1999, the NPF has made efforts to adopt modern and effective techniques appropriate for policing in a democracy. A follow-on program is needed to train an additional 500 trainer candidates from the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) to enhance the effectiveness of the 200,000-member NPF. Success in this effort is critical to strengthening democratic institutions in Nigeria.

Program AccomplishmentsCounternarcotics Support. Under a democratically elected president, Nigeria has demonstrated its commitment to cooperating with the U.S. in combating international crime emanating from Nigeria, including narcotics trafficking, illegal migration, and financial fraud.

Nigeria earned full certification in 2001 and 2002 for its counternarcotics efforts, including the extradition of a fugitive from U.S. justice in August 2002, the first in many years, and the passage of strengthened money laundering legislation in December 2002. By the end of 2002, five banks were under investigation for alleged complicity in narcotics-related money laundering activities.

In January 2003, the instruments of ratification of the U.S.-Nigerian Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty were exchanged and the Treaty entered formally into force. In addition, the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission, which has received U.S. assistance, had successfully investigated and prosecuted some 20 public corruption cases, including those involving high-ranking officials, and reportedly has many more under investigation.

Counternarcotics assistance has been focused on the Nigerian National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), which has sole responsibility for combating narcotics trafficking and abuse and which cooperates with U.S. counterpart law enforcement agencies. U.S.-provided equipment and training have assisted the NDLEA in detecting and deterring narcotics trafficking from Lagos’ Murtala Mohammed International Airport. Traffickers are increasingly avoiding this airport, evidence of NDLEA’s success there as well as an illustration of the need to increase interdiction capacities elsewhere in Nigeria and West Africa.

In 2002, the NDLEA received a special allocation from the Government of Nigeria (GON) for operations and continued facility upgrades, though funding remains inadequate to meet current demands given budget shortfalls and the costs related to the spring 2003 state and national elections. Nevertheless, the NDLEA has used its own funds to recondition four of the 10 blocks of dormitories at its training academy in Jos, as well as two classroom buildings and the administrative block, and built a large library to house the Computer Resource Center the U.S. has funded and equipped. This facility will be used as a low-cost venue for U.S. training, possibly to include participants from other West African countries. U.S. assistance was used to facilitate regional exchanges such as the creation of the West African Joint Operation (WAJO) initiative that brought together drug enforcement personnel from 15 countries in the region to help improve regional cooperation and NDLEA’s participation in the USSS-sponsored Nigeria Organized Crime Conference held in Boston in September 2002. A six-week operation involving nine West African countries netted over 160 arrests, seizures of over 30 pounds of heroin, 20 pounds of cocaine, 20,000 pounds of marijuana and forfeiture of assets equivalent to more than $190,000. Because of this type of experience, the NDLEA is now cooperating with South African police on narcotics related crimes where Nigerian criminal organizations are responsible for the bulk of drug trafficking. The quantity of heroin seized at Lagos airport and seaports were up from 2001 levels by more than 50 percent. The quantity of cocaine was down from the 2001 level by the same percentage; however, in 2001, the NDLEA seized a record 60 kilos of cocaine at Lagos’ Tin Can Island.

Illegal Migration. The USG hopes to enter into a Memorandum of Understanding calling for technical assistance at the international airport in Lagos. This MOU would allow the U.S. to send personnel to Nigeria to provide advice and technical assistance to Nigerian counterparts on issues of mutual interest. The Agreement has been cleared by the Department of State and is currently under review by the Department of Homeland Security for final approval prior to the commencement of bilateral negotiations.

The proposed Agreement is a framework to enhance cooperation between the U.S. and GON to curb the number of airline passengers traveling to the United States on fraudulent travel documents. Under this agreement, the GON would establish an interagency anti-fraud unit and taskforce that will be responsible for combating the use of fraudulent documents. The unit would pre-screen passengers boarding flights from Nigeria to the U.S. and present cases for prosecution related to fraudulent documents. The GON would agree to strengthen its Immigration Service and make best efforts to strengthen its criminal penalties for using fraudulent documents. Further, the GON would consult the U.S. regarding strategies to identify and intercept fraudulent U.S. passports and other travel documents, provide security for U.S. personnel assigned to assist in this initiative, and issue appropriate badges or permits authorizing U.S. personnel access to key areas in the airport.

Pursuant to this Agreement, the USG, through the Department of Homeland Security, would provide the GON with statistics and analysis regarding malafide passengers arriving from Lagos. The USG would cooperate with the GON interagency taskforce through an INL-funded technical assistance initiative on the following: identification and interception of fraudulent documents, U.S. travel documentation requirements, and appropriate controls to prevent illegal entry by air. INL has obligated the FY 2002 funding for this project through a Letter of Agreement signed in September 2002.

Financial Fraud. Advance-fee frauds, a type of fraud dominated by Nigerian criminals, have become a global menace. U.S. assistance in combating financial fraud, including advance-fee frauds and counterfeiting of U.S. currency, the passing of counterfeit or fictitious checks, and the unauthorized use of credit card numbers has been focused on the NPF Special Fraud Unit (SFU). USSS, which has an office in Lagos, works closely with the SFU. The SFU recovered $150,000 in 2002 from a criminal who had defrauded a U.S. citizen. U.S. intervention was instrumental in the Obasanjo Administration pushing through legislation such as the new money-laundering bill and the creation of an Anti-Terrorism, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission that responded to Financial Action Task Force (FATF) standards. The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) was recently empowered, through an amendment to the Banks and Other Financial Institutions Act of 1991 (BOFIA), to freeze accounts of customers suspected of being involved in financial crimes.

Police Modernization. The objective of this project is to professionalize the NPF by establishing a new police academy curriculum that reflects modern police techniques and respect for human rights; training police trainers, new recruits and senior police managers; and offering civil disorder management training. The police reform project will enhance professional capabilities to carry out investigative functions; assist in the development of academic instruction and curricula for law enforcement personnel; improve the administrative and management capabilities of law enforcement agencies, especially their capabilities relating to crisis management; improve the relationship between the police and the community they serve; and create or strengthen the capability to respond to new crime and criminal justice issues.

A DOJ/ICITAP technical advisor was assigned in August 2002 to assist the NPF with modernization and reform efforts. Additional long-term technical advisors were deployed to different police training academies to work with senior police officials in the development of a modern police academy curriculum and to train trainers and new police recruits by utilizing the new curriculum. Training for trainers in Civil Disorder Management (CDM) will be implemented in four different states before the scheduled national elections from mid to late April 2003. While it is too early to evaluate the dividend paid by this training, over 80 police officers have been trained in Election Security and more than one hundred police trainers and their supervisors will undergo training to teach CDM in various locations throughout Nigeria. By the end of 2003, approximately 1000 NPF trainer personnel will have received training focused on civil disorder management, election security, field training officer development, community oriented policing, recruit training and management.

In 2002, the FBI sponsored police training that included courses in officer safety and street survival, collection and preservation of evidence, and violent crime analysis. Training is scheduled in financial and institutional fraud, cyber crimes, forensics and community policing as well as a database project. Passport screening equipment and related training will be sought for the State Security Service for use at the international airports.

FY 2004 ProgramNigerian criminal organizations are international in scope and have a direct impact on the U.S. FY 2004 funds will be used to continue to build strong counterpart agencies for U.S. law enforcement in three critical areas: counternarcotics, illegal migration, and financial fraud. FY 2004 funding will also continue support for modernization of the NPF.

Counternarcotics Support. FY 2004 funds will be used to continue interdiction training (through DEA) at the NDLEA academies in Jos and in Lagos, where much of the NDLEA’s operational activities take place. To institutionalize regional cooperation, DEA will co-sponsor a West Africa Joint Operations conference and coordinate a regional Operation Jetway training course. DEA will work with NDLEA to establish intelligence information collection for Nigeria and West Africa to include West African seaports. In addition, NDLEA’s training center in Jos will be used as a regional training facility for West Africa.

Police Modernization. FY 2004 funds will be used to provide advisory technical services (through a DOJ/ICITAP technical advisor assigned to NPF HQ) to senior police managers to monitor progress and help develop long-term strategies. The advisor will also work to ensure the sustainability of the changes and investment made during the previous two to three years, namely the implementation of the new curriculum, an assessment of police academy trainers using the new curriculum, and assessing the impact of the project’s training on the police force as a whole. To train the approximately 200,000 police personnel in the new curriculum and techniques, a follow-on program will be implemented to train an additional 500 train-the-trainer candidates from the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) to enhance the effectiveness of the overall police force. The trainers will receive specific training in human rights, use of force, ethics, and community oriented policing strategies. Once fully trained, the trainers will offer courses in their states to the rank and file through scheduled 40-hour block sessions. Supervisors will receive additional training in professional standards investigations and complaint resolution.

Kano is the main center for training entry-level officers and has two complete computer training centers. With the completion of the database project, scheduled for 2003, ten trainers will be identified and trained in crime analysis through the use of computer crime data. These trainers will then train officer candidates in data input and crime analysis as part of the standard curriculum. Periodic course offerings would be made for all management personnel to enhance their computer skills and crime analysis capabilities. An advanced cyber crimes course and advanced evidence collection course (FBI), and counterfeit detection (USSS) training are also planned for FY 2004.

Technical advisors will make final evaluations of the new curricula, methods of training used by college and academy trainers using the new curricula, the impact of community policing strategies on the target areas of Kaduna, and an overall assessment of the impact of the program on the police force as a whole.

Illegal Migration. FY 2004 funds will be used to provide technical advisory services (through DHS) to Nigerian Customs and the NDLEA to improve inspections of passengers boarding flights to the U.S., and to improve communication and coordination between U.S. and Nigerian law enforcement agencies.

Financial Fraud. FY 2004 funds will be used to provide advisory technical services (through USSS and FBI) to the NPF SFU to improve its capacity to locate, investigate and disrupt organizations involved in advance fee fraud and other financial crimes. Funds will also be used to procure equipment for training the SFU and INTERPOL unit of the NPF in the detection of counterfeit U.S. currency utilized by narcotraffickers.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). These funds will provide resources for salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned US and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.


Nigeria
INL Budget
($000)

 

FY 2002

FY 2002
Supp

 FY 2003

FY 2004

         
Law Enforcement Support        
Counternarcotics Support 520 150 500
Police Modernization 1,150 1,060 800
Illegal Migration 100 200
Financial Fraud 100 200
Subtotal 1,870 1,210 1,700
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel 174 166 177
Non-U.S. Personnel 19 61 65
ICASS Costs 135 148 158
Program Support 72 175 150
Subtotal 400 550 550
Total 2,270 1,760 2,250

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

2,034 1,442 1,770


South Africa

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe capacity and infrastructure within the Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department (JMPD) to assist the South African Police Service (SAPS) deter, prevent and investigate crimes in the largest and most crime-ridden metropolitan area in South Africa will be improved.

There will be effective utilization of a U.S. advisor in the operational, management and training aspects of the new JMPD training academy, developed to professionalize and build the capacity of both new and existing officers in the JMPD; an increased number of police trained in safety and survival and violent crimes investigation techniques; and an increased number of cases of violent crime brought to trial and successfully prosecuted.

The capacity of the Government of South Africa to efficiently and effectively combat and prosecute all forms of complex crime, including financial and organized crimes, drug trafficking, counterfeiting, trafficking in persons, and migrant smuggling, will be improved.

There will be an increased number of investigations, arrests and prosecutions of criminals involved in all types of organized and complex crime in South Africa and increased seizures of contraband at points of entry.

The capacity of the Department of Correctional Services to manage prisoner caseloads, introduce rehabilitation programs and use selected long-term prisoners as resources within the prison populations will be developed.

There will be reduced numbers of prisoners awaiting trial, increased access to rehabilitation programs for willing prisoners and continued development of programs for long-term prisoners in drug peer counseling.

Program JustificationSouth Africa is an anchor for stability and prosperity in the Southern African region, and therefore is a high priority in the President's National Security Strategy. It is a catalyst in the region for encouraging other countries to address crime, terrorism and immigration threats, under the umbrellas of the Southern African Development Community, the New Partnership for Africa's Development and the Southern African Regional Police Chiefs Cooperation Organization. Assisting South Africa on law enforcement and judicial issues addresses U.S. priority goals of supporting a stable and prosperous South Africa, fighting transnational security threats and creating a favorable climate for investment in the region.

Organized and complex crimes continue to vex the South African Police Service (SAPS), which faces widespread street crime and among the highest rates of murder and rape in the world. When the walls of apartheid crumbled, elements of organized crime entered South Africa and set up business, taking advantage of established smuggling routes, a world-class transportation system and sophisticated financial institutions. Providing technical assistance, training and select material to the South African law enforcement sector for detecting, investigating, and prosecuting complex and organized crime will help address one of South Africa’s priority impediments to economic development, support its still-fragile democratic systems, and enhance stability in the region.

In order to provide better security for its citizens, give police responsibility for distinct geographic areas, and improve the capacity of the SAPS to deter crime, the South African Government has begun to establish municipal police forces. These forces have limited powers, and are meant to assist the SAPS through more visible policing and by spearheading the initial investigations of many less complex and serious crimes. In assisting the municipal police force in South Africa, we are providing much-needed stability in an area where established businesses are fleeing and new investors fear to tread due to rampant crime. The Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department has existed for almost two years and needs technical support, direction and management advice. The JMPD also needs an upgraded training facility to continue the professionalization of its members.

Because South Africa's policing efforts have improved in the past five years, prisons in South Africa are overcrowded, under-resourced, and have become training grounds in illegal activities for young criminals. Numbers of prisoners awaiting trial in South Africa rank among the highest in the world according to the Office of the Inspecting Judge of Prisons; 41% of such prisoners remain incarcerated owing to an inability to pay fines of $6 or less. The recidivism rate in South Africa stands at approximately 80%, according to South Africa's Institute for Security Studies, and prison personnel are unable to conduct programs that will both reduce the numbers of criminals in prison and rehabilitate those who are open to changing their lives. Working with the Department of Correctional Services in pilot projects has paid large dividends in rehabilitating and reintegrating juvenile offenders into the community and turning them into productive members of society. These programs have also assisted in decreasing the numbers of juveniles in prison through diversion programs, and reduced sentences for prisoners enrolling in rehabilitation programs. These programs will need to continue in the near term before the problem of overcrowding can be addressed.

Program AccomplishmentsLaw enforcement training programs in FY 2000 – FY 2002 have greatly assisted the SAPS. These programs professionalize their officers, teaching them specialized skills in a wide range of courses including financial crimes, computer crimes, counterfeiting detection, interviewing techniques, border and port control, and drug detection. Relevant parts of these courses have been integrated into the SAPS’ own training program and are now a regular part of their training curriculum. An additional benefit of the training courses has been the enhanced cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies stemming from personal relationships formed with SAPS officers. In particular, these relationships have proved extremely useful in post-September 11 FBI investigations.

Equipment donated to the police over the past three years has also proved invaluable to the SAPS. U.S.-donated Analyst Notebook software helped the SAPS organized crime units better coordinate their work, detect overlaps in different cases, and follow complex evidence chains. The software has assisted in numerous investigations on narcotics, criminal gangs, and the South African terrorist group, People Against Gangsters and Drugs. Forensic equipment purchased for the SAPS forensics lab has helped the SAPS and U.S. Secret Service agents in South Africa detect several million dollars worth of counterfeit U.S. currency and numerous fraudulent documents both from South Africa and from around the African continent. Computer forensics reference material purchased for the commercial crimes section of the SAPS have contributed to the knowledge of police officers working on complex computer fraud cases and built upon training provided by numerous U.S. law enforcement agencies, resulting in better investigations and court cases.

U.S. pilot programs in the South African Department of Correctional Services have won awards for their innovativeness, effectiveness and results. Eighteen long-term juvenile prisoners (serving sentences of 15 years or more) have gone through a drug rehabilitation program, learned to be drug peer counselors, and are now working throughout the Johannesburg Maximum security prison to counsel their fellow inmates. Not only is this program assisting the inmate population, but it is also relieving the work of prison social workers and wardens who are overburdened and not prepared for this type of intervention.

A second U.S.-funded pilot project in diversion has reached over 150 children in high-risk areas, diverting them from the criminal justice system. The courses were also provided to select children awaiting trial, and in some cases, the courses assisted in reducing or negating the sentence for these children. Most of the children who have been through this diversion program do not continue with crime as a way of life.

FY 2004 ProgramThe FY 2004 program has three major components that build upon efforts undertaken in previous years.

Johannesburg Metropolitan Police. FY 2004 funds will be used to build on the successful utilization of a U.S. advisor and training infrastructure developed in previous years. By providing the JMP with more advanced knowledge, management skills, and training techniques, the JMP will develop into a respected police force that will answer the needs of all citizens. INL will continue supporting the force through a U.S. advisor and with training and equipment.

Complex Organized Crime. Assistance to law enforcement agencies in FY 2004 will address objectives by providing continued training on new techniques to deter, detect, investigate and prosecute complex organized crime, and providing equipment needed to enhance SAG law enforcement ability to combat complex organized crimes. This support will facilitate important operations against drug, people and natural resource traffickers, financial criminals and other individuals involved in organized crime.

Correctional Systems Development. Building on effective rehabilitation, diversion and reintegration programs, FY 2004 funding will be used to expand these programs to prisons and courts across the nine provinces in South Africa. This program will further reduce prison populations and recidivism rates.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). These funds will provide resources for salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned US and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

South Africa
INL Budget
($000)
  

 

FY 2002

FY 2002
Supp

 FY 2003

FY 2004

         
Law Enforcement Programs 395
Administration of Justice        
Johannesburg Metropolitan Police 1,000 300
Complex Crime Investigations 700 600
Correctional Systems Development 490 600
Youth Crime Prevention 400
Subtotal 1,400 1,190 1,500
Program Development and Support        
U.S. Personnel 147 152 163
Non-U.S. Personnel 12 12 13
ICASS Costs 43 49 52
Program Support 37 39 42
Subtotal 239 252 270
Total 2,034 1,442 1,770

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

3,196 3,498 2,980


Africa Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe capacity of criminal justice sectors within select Sub-Saharan African nations will be improved with respect to combating trafficking in narcotics and other contraband, illegal migration, public corruption and other transnational crimes.

Technical assistance, training and equipment delivered and effectively utilized by recipients; improved inspection routines at ports-of-entry; increased interdictions and arrests of traffickers, smugglers and illegal migrants; increased investigations leading to convictions in public corruption cases; improved police-community relations; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation will result in more effective law enforcement institutions.

Sustainable improvements in policing in select Sub-Saharan African countries will be achieved through the modernization and professionalization of select law enforcement groups within the region.

The development and implementation of appropriate curricula and adult teaching methodologies in academies and in-service training programs; development of strategic plans for improving law enforcement training; increase in the numbers of recruits, officers, and instructors trained; improved forensic facilities; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation will result in more effective law enforcement institutions.

Program JustificationCriminal activities throughout the African continent corrupt and weaken governments, undermine progress towards the establishment of democratic institutions, and hinder economic growth and foreign investment. Police professionalization and establishing criminal justice institutions are keys to supporting democracy.

East and Southern Africa (Ethiopia, Djibouti, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya and Mozambique) comprise a transit route for African and Asian criminal activities including trafficking in narcotics, persons, and other contraband; alien smuggling; money laundering; and financial crime.

West Africa (Nigeria, Benin, Cape Verde, Ghana, Togo, and Senegal) is a major transit hub for narcotics trafficking, trafficking of persons, small arms, financial fraud, and fraudulent documents directly affecting U.S. citizens.

Program AccomplishmentsAirport security training, a drug enforcement course and commodities provided to key anti-narcotics units operating in Benin and Ghana have strengthened the capacity of these countries to deal with Nigerian “spill-over crime” and improved cooperation with U.S. law enforcement. Assessments were completed on the capacity of Beninois and Ghanaian airport security to interdict illegal contraband; these formed the basis for planned follow-up consultations and training by DOJ and Transportation Security Administration to improve civil aviation security capacities.

An innovative and technologically appropriate community-policing project resulted in the establishment of a bicycle patrol unit in Ghana. The project provided bicycles as well as training on bicycle patrols and repair. The unit has been sustained successfully by the Ghanaian National Police (GNP). GNP statistics show increased numbers of arrests, and the U.S. mission reports improved community-police relations and cooperation with U.S. law enforcement and mission personnel. The project will serve as a model for future community policing projects in Africa.

Anti-corruption assistance has been aimed at creating effective corruption-fighting laws and institutions. An intermittent legal advisor assisted the Government of Mozambique in preparing a complete curriculum for an in-service training program for provincial prosecutors and judges in the areas of anti-corruption, money laundering and organized crime. The advisor also recommended changes to the draft anti-corruption law to strengthen prosecutorial authorities, and developed a case management system for the anti-corruption unit within the Attorney General’s Office.

Civil disorder management training was provided to trainers, line officers and commanders of the Tanzanian Police Force. Thirty-seven police commanders participated in the first iteration of training in December 2002, which included a number of practical as well as written exercises. The average score on the final written exam was 90%. The U.S. trainers confirmed that the participants demonstrated a clearly enhanced level of public order management capability at the end of the course. A strategy developed by class participants will act as a model for future iterations of training for line officers in the spring of 2003.

Work has begun on projects to modernize police academy curricula and teaching methodologies in a number of African countries. A comprehensive assessment was completed at the police sciences academy in Mozambique covering administration, management, curriculum and resource issues. The U.S. and the Government of Mozambique then agreed to proceed with the assignment of an advisor to work closely with the law enforcement officials at the academy to implement the recommendations of the assessment report. Similar projects will be carried out for police academies in Ghana, Uganda, Tanzania, and Ethiopia.

INL assistance in the forensics area began in FY 2001, with equipment and drug kit donations, technical assistance on the protection and care of sensitive forensics equipment, and basic and advanced forensics training for technicians along with senior management assistance and direction provided to the national Forensic Drug Laboratory in Senegal. The combination of upgrading the National Drug Lab and excellent technical training of field agents was the necessary first step of the longer-term goal of establishing a West Africa Regional Drug Lab. The U.S. mission confirms that the donated equipment is being maintained and utilized properly. An assessment of the police laboratory facilities in Tanzania was completed at the end of 2002. Fifty loop magnifiers were delivered for use by fingerprint specialists, the GOT funded and commenced upgrades to the lab facility, and the first iteration of training began in February 2003.

FY 2004 ProgramINL funds will be used to effect sustainable improvements in the capacity of African law enforcement and criminal justice institutions dealing with trafficking of contraband, including narcotics and persons; border security issues including illegal migration and people smuggling; police reform and professionalization; public corruption; curriculum development; and forensic laboratory development. U.S. assistance will continue to be directed at states in the region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing and with a record of having used prior-year U.S. assistance effectively. Programs in West Africa (Senegal, Benin, Cape Verde, and Ghana), in particular, will continue to ensure that criminal activities that formerly originated in Nigeria are not simply displaced to neighboring states.

Law Enforcement Development. FY 2004 funding will be used to continue and expand police academy development programs in Ghana, Mozambique, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Uganda. The emphasis in the second phase of these projects will be to improve instructors’ skills and to develop in-service training programs.

Forensic Laboratory Development. Lab development programs initiated in Mozambique, Tanzania, Senegal and Uganda with prior-year funding will continue to receive training, equipment, and resource upgrades for additional specializations. The training laboratory at the police sciences academy in Mozambique will expand to processing evidence for police officers operating within regions near the academy. Support will be given to the Forensics Drug Laboratory in Senegal, which is in the process of becoming a forensics investigations leader in Francophone West Africa, to develop a network of West African experts and investigators through joint training.

Border Security. FY 2004 funds will be used to provide training and drug detection equipment to fight the transit of drugs through Cape Verde to the U.S., an increasing problem.

Anti-Corruption. FY 2004 funding will be used to provide training and technical assistance to investigators, prosecutors and the judiciary in Ghana and Benin. INL will develop a comprehensive anti-corruption program for the judiciary, prosecutors and police in Kenya, including train-the-trainer courses in ethics and public corruption investigations, and technical assistance for the Kenyan Police to set up its own process of internal oversight. Funds will be used for continued assistance to Mozambique's Anti-Corruption Unit within the Attorney General's Office through a joint program with USAID.


Africa Regional
INL Budget
($000)

 

 

FY 2002

FY 2002
Supp

 FY 2003

FY 2004

 
Narcotics Law Enforcement 2,456 1,682 1,480
Forensic Laboratory Development 360 897 800
Border Security 90 669 200
Anti-Corruption 290 250 500
Total 3,196 3,498 2,980



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