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International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2004 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
June 2003
Report
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Interregional Aviation Support

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

60,000 65,000 70,000

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe Government of Colombia (with INL support and assistance) will conduct an aggressive aerial eradication program to reduce coca and opium poppy cultivation in Colombia.

All known areas of coca and opium poppy in Colombia will be sprayed with herbicide and cocaine and heroin production will be reduced as a result of this eradication.

The Governments of Peru and Bolivia (with INL-provided air transportation support to move people and materials) will expand manual eradication efforts in outlying areas of their respective countries.

In Bolivia, all residual coca will be eliminated and new plantings will be prevented in the Chapare region: there will be a reduction of illegal coca in the Yungas region (subject to the cooperation of the host government).

Coca cultivation in Peru will be reduced as evidenced by the abandonment of the remaining coca fields (subject to the cooperation of the host government).

INL will support missions to transport host government law enforcement or counternarcotics military personnel by air in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, and other countries for the purpose of destroying cocaine and heroin processing laboratories and interdicting drug trafficking activities.

The number of interdiction operations along Bolivia’s borders and in the Yungas region will be increased to prevent the influx of drug trafficking activity resulting from the implementation of Plan Colombia.

The number of interdiction missions flown in Peru will increase significantly in 2004.

Aerial reconnaissance missions will be conducted to locate drug crops and production facilities and verify eradication program results.

Drug production areas and facilities will be successfully identified and mapped year-around in Colombia and on an as-needed basis in other countries.

Border security reconnaissance and interdiction operations in Pakistan will be effective against trafficking of narcotics and weapons, illegal border crossings, and terrorism.

Operations, training, and logistical support provided to the Pakistan border security aviation program will result in more frequent and more effective missions.

Host government institutions will have enhanced capabilities to undertake counternarcotics and border security air operations safely and effectively (Colombian National Police, Colombian Army, Peruvian National Police, Bolivian Air Force Red Devil Task Force, Pakistan Ministry of Interior Border Security Unit).

INL support for institution building of cooperating host government counternarcotics aviation programs in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, and Pakistan will result in more professional, capable and effective forces.

The aerial eradication and interdiction programs will see objective improvements in effectiveness, efficiency and safety.

Technological innovations will be developed and implemented to improve the effectiveness and safety of aerial eradication and interdiction efforts.

Program JustificationThe INL aviation program is an essential element in achieving international counternarcotics objectives. INL assists host governments worldwide in their efforts to locate and eradicate drug crops, interdict drug production and trafficking activities, and develop internal institutional counternarcotics aviation capabilities.

The aviation program provides eradication, mobility, interdiction, and logistical support capabilities that augment and facilitate ground operations and in many cases perform functions that would not be possible by any other means. For example, aerial eradication techniques allow for campaigns to destroy illicit crops that are faster, more widespread, and more cost effective than manual eradication. This is particularly important in eradicating the vast growing areas in Colombia during the limited dry season when a window of opportunity for this activity exists. In those countries that conduct manual, rather than aerial, eradication, crop destruction is substantially less. Nonetheless, INL aircraft provide essential transportation of manual eradicators and supporting logistics to remote drug growing areas. These efforts significantly reduce the amount of illegal drugs entering the U.S. by eradicating raw materials for drug production where they are cultivated. Airplanes and helicopters allow for transportation of law enforcement personnel, critical supplies, and equipment to remote, underdeveloped, unsecured regions that would otherwise be inaccessible. Air reconnaissance assets are an essential element in locating, identifying and targeting drug activities and verifying operational results.

By working closely with host government personnel to instill aviation technical and management skills and technology transfer, INL supports the operational goal of enhancing political determination to combat illegal drug production and trafficking. This builds long-lasting institutions that have the trained personnel and demonstrated abilities to assume increased responsibility for counternarcotics air activities.

Program AccomplishmentsThe Interregional Aviation Support program has made possible the tremendous expansion of aerial eradication in Colombia that, along with alternative development, is the backbone of that country’s counternarcotics strategy. INL and the Colombian National Police have collaborated in the mounting of an effective campaign using T-65 Thrush, OV-10D Bronco, and AT-802 Air Tractor spray planes to eradicate coca and opium poppy cultivation in the various regions. In CY 2002, over 122,000 hectares of coca were sprayed – a record setting year. INL has assisted the Colombian National Police with training, maintenance, logistics, and operational support to make this effort possible. The program also has provided logistical and operational support in the form of C-27 cargo airplanes and a Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS) mounted on a Cessna Caravan for identification and mapping of coca.

Besides supporting Colombian National Police aerial eradication activities, the Interregional Aviation Support program initiated and sustained the Colombian Army (COLAR) UH-1N helicopter program that provides air mobility to the counterdrug battalions. This project included establishing infrastructure, training personnel, and preparing, configuring, deploying, and supporting the operation and maintenance of thirty-three UH-1N helicopters. The result of this effort, a fully trained COLAR aviation unit capable of conducting air mobile operations, is yielding results in terms of interdiction and ground support to aerial eradication. That unit has flown over 29,000 hours since its inception, with only one serious accident. More recently, INL-owned UH-60 and Huey-II helicopters were integrated into the COLAR counternarcotics aviation program allowing it to expand on the success of the initial group of UH-1N aircraft.

INL aviation support to Peru and Bolivia has also been instrumental in continued coca reduction operations. In Peru, INL-owned helicopters transport manual eradication teams and Peruvian counternarcotics police in order to implement far-reaching counternarcotics operations using a mobile-basing strategy. In Bolivia, INL helicopters have enabled the government to project authority over vast areas where drug traffickers previously operated with impunity. The significant eradication of coca in the Chapare region of Bolivia would not have been possible without the helicopter support provided through the INL aviation program. INL-provided aviation technical, training, and logistical support was an essential ingredient of the success enjoyed by host nation personnel operating these helicopters. The aviation program has also continued to make progress in establishing self-sufficiency in host nation counternarcotics aviation organizations.

INL has provided support to other Latin American countries in identifying and curtailing drug cultivation through its Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) program. In addition to keeping drug crop cultivation in check in Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, Belize, and several other countries, this program has provided a capability to intercept drug smuggling aircraft, day or night, on a short-notice temporary deployment basis.

In 2002, INL established and supported a project in Pakistan to assist the host government in securing its border with Afghanistan. This project provided five Huey-II helicopters to the Ministry of the Interior in order to provide law enforcement with the operational capability to interdict drug trafficking and other illegal activities. We have already begun to reduce contractor presence at that location due to successful training and institution building efforts.

INL has put into place many technological innovations to enhance the safety and effectiveness of operations. INL has continued to modify its OV-10 aircraft to provide appropriate armoring and night vision goggle capability in addition to state-of-the-art, satellite guided spray systems. This has provided more protection and safety for crews, while delivering herbicide in an effective manner. Many of these same features were incorporated in the more recently acquired Air Tractor spray planes. The aviation program also established a technologically advanced system for identifying, plotting, and targeting coca cultivation using multi-spectral digital imaging.

In FY 2003, the Interregional Aviation Support program will continue successful eradication efforts in Putumayo, Caqueta, Guaviare and other coca growing regions in Colombia. INL will continue to provide flight operations and instruction, maintenance quality control, and repair parts support to the CNP to make possible a high sortie rate against illicit crops. Simultaneously, we will train police and military counternarcotics elements allow them to assume increased responsibility in these areas. INL will continue to support helicopter operations in Peru, Bolivia, and Pakistan. Training and institution building efforts will allow us to continue to reduce the number of American contractor personnel at those locations. At the same time, we will continue to pursue technological innovations to improve aircraft performance and explore the use of new variations of aircraft to enhance eradication capabilities at a reasonable cost.

FY 2004 Program

In FY 2004, the Interregional Aviation Support budget will continue to provide core level services necessary to operate a fleet of 164 fixed and rotary wing aircraft supporting counternarcotics aviation activities in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru, border security operations in Pakistan, and, as needed, programs at other temporary deployment locations. This base of support is essential to logistically sustain depot level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. This budget will be augmented with funding various country programs to support specific, dynamic local NAS and cooperating host government missions.

A primary concern will be the continued aggressive aerial eradication of Colombian coca. Success in that campaign is expected to reduce the target population of coca fields, allowing for some aircraft to be shifted toward the task of eliminating opium poppy in Colombia and increasing surveillance and eradication activities in other countries to prevent resurgence.

In Bolivia, we will continue to support efforts to eliminate residual coca and prevent new plantings in the Chapare region, and reduce illegal coca in the Yungas region. INL will also support increased interdiction operations along Bolivia’s borders and in the Yungas. In Peru, we will continue to support the reduction of coca cultivation, seek to aerially verify the extent of opium poppy cultivation, and increase the number of interdiction missions. In Pakistan, INL will refine operational procedures and provide logistical support, including the introduction of fixed wing, sensor-equipped aircraft.

The establishment of host country self-sufficiency in counternarcotics and border security aviation programs will continue to be a priority in Bolivia, Peru, Pakistan, and Colombia. We expect dramatic results in this area with the COLAR aviation program, as personnel we have trained gain experience and maturity, allowing the reduction of contractor support requirements. We will continue to emphasize technological improvements to maximize productivity and safety of spray platforms while maintaining cost effectiveness.

The Interregional Aviation Support program budget, as augmented by country program funds for location-specific requirements, will continue to provide safe, professional aviation support to counternarcotics and border security programs worldwide.


Interregional Aviation Support
INL Budget
($000)

  

FY 2002

FY 2002
Supp

 FY 2003

FY 2004

            
Aviation Support Services Contract 51,700 56,250 58,775
DOD-Source Parts, Maintenance and Overhaul 4,000 4,000 5,000
Operations Support        
Salaries and Benefits 1,700 1,900 3,300
Field Travel 220 235 235
Administrative Services and Program Support 1,780 1,925 2,000
Base Support at Patrick AFB 600 690 690
Subtotal 4,300 4,750 6,225
Total 60,000 65,000 70,000

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

6,000 4,000 5,000


Systems Support and Upgrades

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe number of detections of narco-trafficking events will increase significantly in the Eastern Caribbean with the C-26 aircraft in Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. Effective Colombian National Police (CNP) signal collection in Colombia will continue to provide valuable intelligence while surveillance missions in Mexico will begin paying dividends to that nation's counternarcotics effort.

The C-26 Support project will provide more effective surveillance aircraft and better-trained personnel to accomplish counternarcotics detection and monitoring missions within each host nation area of operation.

The effectiveness of host-nation C-26 programs will continue to be improved.

The Airborne Surveillance Initiative project will support upgrades of aviation performance characteristics while promoting program cost savings through standardization of services and using economy-of-scale procurement.

Program JustificationThe Systems Support and Upgrade program has historically included the C-26 Support project, the Airborne Surveillance Initiative project, OV-10 Broncos refurbishments, and UH-1H helicopter upgrades. Through this funding, specialized systems that were previously not available were to be provided to meet counternarcotics mission requirements in support of surveillance, detection, eradication, interdiction and logistics. This project also allowed INL to improve the performance characteristics of existing systems to better utilize their capability, extend their useful life, and increase the effectiveness of reconnaissance, eradication and interdiction efforts.

INL has contracted for engineering and modification services to modify C-26 aircraft (owned by the host governments of Barbados, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago) with a suite of surveillance sensors. To ensure effective utilization of these powerful resources, host countries must be taught the appropriate tactics, techniques, and related doctrine that will lead to a systems approach in their counternarcotics surveillance and interdiction efforts. With appropriate information management protocols in place, these host nation operations will generate surveillance information of import to the U.S. and other donor nations. As C-26 operations mature, the need for optimized spare parts protocols (both airframe and sensor system) will be of increasing importance. An appropriately tailored spare parts protocol could save C-26 user nations as much as 50 percent of the cost of traditional spares packages.

Program AccomplishmentsThe C-26 Support project has given host nations (Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Colombia) their own capability to conduct surveillance, detection and monitoring missions. In addition, Joint Interagency Task Force East (JIATF-E) has been able to schedule the use of the two aircraft from Barbados (used by the Regional Security System) in other parts of the Caribbean as a force multiplier. As a result, JIATF-E has shifted meager USG detection and monitoring assets to critical areas throughout the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific. The program in Barbados also supports the U.S. Coast Guard GANTSEC and British, Dutch and French counternarcotics operations in the Caribbean. For the Barbados program, the following statistics are available for CY 2002.

C-26 Support

  • Total number of C-26 counterdrug missions: 285

  • Total number of C-26 Mission Hours: 1,105 hrs.

  • Average Mission Time: 3.87 hrs.

  • Total number of counterdrug events involving suspect vessels detected and monitored with other law enforcement agencies that lead to an end game: 38

  • Estimated amount of marijuana seized or shipments disrupted: 10,000 lbs.

  • Estimated amount of cocaine seized or shipments disrupted: 3,300 lbs.

The program in Trinidad and Tobago was started more recently. Two aircraft have been modified and delivered to the Trinidad and Tobago Coast Guard Air Service. Extensive training for the pilots, sensor operators and mechanics is being provided. Counternarcotics surveillance operations will begin in FY 2003 and the program will be in full operation by the end of the calendar year.

The C-26 program in Mexico, operated by the Mexican Air Force, is now beginning to conduct operations after extensive training in both the United States and in Mexico. We have trained over 45 sensor operators, and 9 pilots. This program should be showing result during CY 2003.

The CNP C-26 signal collection aircraft continue to perform successful missions in support of the Colombian National Police (CNP) the Colombian armed forces, DEA and other USG Embassy agencies. These aircraft are continually being flown is support or eradication missions, and hostage/rescue situations. These aircraft continue to be the aircraft of choice for host nation aerial surveillance/collection missions without the need to ask for USG for assistance.

Airborne Surveillance Initiative

To date, we have completed sensor upgrades for two C-26 aircraft each in Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Colombia. The programs in Barbados and Colombia are already providing valuable information and results. The aircraft in Trinidad and Tobago conducted operations throughout the Caribbean in support of JIATF-E. In Colombia, the C-26 program continued to provide valuable signal communications information that the CNP and military forces have used in drug laboratory seizure and aerial eradication missions.

FY 2004 ProgramIn FY 2004, the System Support and Upgrades budget will continue to support C-26 Support programs in Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia and Mexico. Contractor Logistical Support (CLS), including spare parts, and training will continue to be provided to the programs in Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. Training and sensor spare parts for the program in Colombia will also be maintained. The program in Mexico will be expanded to include training and operational support for an analysis center and a FLIR maintenance facility to provide the Mexican Air Force the ability to service and repair these sensitive infrared radar systems.

C-26 Support

Our primary emphasis will be to continue training pilots and sensor operators for the C-26 aircraft and to ensure that the aircraft maintained properly while we move from the initial training phase to a fully operational program. Host nation self sufficiency of the C-26 programs remains an important goal and INL will continue to explore ways to increase the level of host nation funding and involvement in order to decrease USG contributions.

Airborne Surveillance InitiativeOne of the critical shortfalls in the current counternarcotics operational structure overseas is the lack of host government surveillance, detection, and monitoring capability. Traffickers operate with near impunity as they violate border integrity while transporting a variety of forms of contraband. Customs laws have been meaningless as air, land and maritime traffickers choose the points-of-entry to be used at their own discretion.

INL will continue to upgrade C-26 aircraft and surveillance systems and train host nation forces to utilize emerging technology in a manner that benefits domestic, international and U.S. counternarcotics objectives. Additional training will be provided in data management and analysis and the development and implementation of information sharing protocols across host nation interagency and regional counternarcotics communities will be promoted. A systems approach to maritime- and land-based surveillance operations will emphasize the requirement for effective coordination between strategic and tactical airborne surveillance units as well as those directly involved in ground-based interdiction activities. INL will take advantage of contractor, U.S. military, and other law enforcement expertise to provide the international C-26 community with the tools to effectively prosecute their drug law enforcement missions.

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

16,000 12,200 14,000


International Organizations

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe integration and coordination of counternarcotics programs with anticrime and, where appropriate, counter-terrorism programs will be refined and improved.

UNDCP

At least three of the United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP) projects funded by the U.S. will have crossover elements involving at least two of the three issues.

There will be an increase in regional coordination and leadership in counternarcotics control efforts.

The majority of UNDCP projects funded by the U.S. will be regional or global in nature, as opposed to country specific.

OAS/CICAD

The Organization of American States (OAS) Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) member states will improve their performance in the fight against narcotics trafficking and reducing drug use.

Technical assistance will be extended to at least a third of OAS member states to address weaknesses identified by the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM), resulting in measurable progress in strengthening national drug commissions and/or strategies, modernizing legislation, or improving the performance of demand- or supply-side program agencies.

The effectiveness of counternarcotics law enforcement institutions will increase as a result of enhanced cooperation in the Western Hemisphere.

Through regional and sub-regional cooperative activities, active cooperation among hemispheric countries on shared criminal threats, such as cross-border or maritime smuggling, money laundering (including terrorist financing), arms trafficking, chemical diversion, drug abuse, and youth gangs will increase.

There will be an increase in regional information exchange.

At least one of the Commission’s hemispheric model laws will be updated.

UN Crime Center

There will be increased integration and coordination of anticrime programs with counternarcotics and, where appropriate, counter-terrorism programs.

International regimes will be enhanced in order to combat and prevent organized crime and corruption, particularly with support from the UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and member states to implement the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its protocols and to bring the Convention Against Corruption into force.

The Convention against Transnational Organized Crime will be in force: technical activities of the UN Crime Center will promote implementation of the Convention.

The Corruption Convention has been completed and is open for signature: the UN Crime Center will construct program to assist requesting states to ratify and implement the Corruption Convention.

Program JustificationThe universal recognition of the close connections among illicit drug trafficking, organized crime, and terrorism after the attacks of September 11, 2001 has changed the way the U.S. and the world look at these phenomena and the approach we take to fighting them. We no longer try to separate them out as three separate and distinct problems, and we do not think that we can successfully defeat them by attacking them only within our own borders. The United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP), as the established leader in international, multilateral counternarcotics efforts, is ideally positioned to work closely with its sister UN organization, the Center for International Crime Prevention (CICP), to provide law enforcement training and technical assistance on intersecting issues, such as money laundering and border security.

UNDCP

U.S. support to a multilateral organization such as the UN complements our bilateral programs and allows us to leverage our funds to gain increased buy-in and support from other countries for our overall anti-narcotics efforts. Through these multilateral programs we are able to address problems on a regional basis and reach areas where it is difficult for the U.S. to operate bilaterally.

OAS/CICAD

Over the past 15 years, U.S. foreign policy has been extremely successful in promoting a strong anti-drug coalition among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. While the OAS has become much more active in anti-terrorism and other security-related matters in the past two years, drug trafficking remains one of the most pressing, shared concerns of the 34 OAS Member States. Therefore, the role of the drug arm of the OAS, the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), has continued to grow in importance. CICAD has been instrumental in building this solidarity and in moving the 34 OAS member states forward in developing strong national anti-drug programs and policies. Because of its recognized expertise in areas such as money laundering and arms trafficking control, CICAD has been an important player in the hemispheric response to terrorism, partnering with the OAS Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE) to confront terrorist financing.

UN Crime CenterSince the events of September 11, 2001, the United Nations has joined with the U.S. in paying greater heed to the close connection between international terrorism and various manifestations of transnational organized crime, particularly crimes that provide the financial wherewithal to support terrorist acts. There is a need to advance the coordination of efforts at the regional and international levels in order to strengthen the global response to this vital security challenge. Our global counter-terrorism efforts require improvements in the capabilities of other governments to counter transnational, sub-state threats. Given the clear nexus between international organized crime and terrorism – particularly in support of terrorist financing – we must use the UN to leverage improved international efforts to combat these mutual threats. We no longer try to separate them out as three separate and distinct problems, and we do not think that we can successfully defeat them by attacking them only within our own borders. The United Nations Center for International Crime Prevention (CICP), otherwise known as the Crime Center, is the established leader in international, multilateral anticrime efforts and is ideally positioned to work closely with other agencies within the UN system, particularly the UN Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and with other relevant international organizations to provide law enforcement training and technical assistance to combat these interconnecting issues.

U.S. support to Crime Center programs complements our bilateral programs and allows us to leverage our funds to gain increased buy-in and support from other countries for our overall anti-crime efforts. These multilateral programs act as force-multipliers in support of key U.S. objectives, and allow us to better reach areas where it is difficult for the U.S. to operate bilaterally.

Program AccomplishmentsUNDCP has been a leader in the counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan as it has begun to provide assistance to the Afghanistan government to build its capacity to fight the prevalence of illicit poppy cultivation and drug trafficking. The global program against money laundering has placed mentors in several different regions, and these mentors have been the driving force in pushing through new financial legislation that brought the countries closer to meeting international standards. A special narcotics law enforcement agency in Tajikistan that is fully supported by UNDCP is making significant seizures of illicit drugs entering and transiting that country and received an excellent report recently from a team of independent evaluators. Computer-based training developed by UNDCP initially for one country has been expanded throughout Southeast Asia and is so successful that it is now being developed for Central Asia. At least five separate but coordinated programs to develop data banks to track precursor chemicals are operating in Asia and Latin America at the same time that the programs are training law enforcement officials in this relatively new area. Alternative development programs in Burma and Laos continue to build the capacity of communities to sustain themselves with licit economic opportunities.

UNDCP

Since May 2002, the UNDCP has been under new leadership and a number of management reforms have been implemented. The organization is winning back the confidence of donors as it integrates programs to eliminate overlap and brings transparency to its operations.

OAS/CICADCICAD combines a policy-level commission similar to the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) and a UNDCP-equivalent Secretariat that is headed by a talented and experienced U.S. citizen. The Commission provides a forum for discussion among governments on pressing drug problems and for developing coordinated responses to those problems. Technical sub-groups of CICAD likewise permit valuable exchanges of information and experience among national experts. The Secretariat provides a central resource and coordination point for hemispheric statistics and information, training and technical support, legal standards, national experiences and research. The Secretariat, using funds from INL and other donors, provide a wide array of technical assistance to Member States, some on an individual basis (e.g., national drug strategies) but most often in sub-regional groupings (e.g., Central America, the English-speaking Caribbean, the Andes). At the request of INL and several drug-cultivating countries in South America and the Caribbean, CICAD is also coordinating several multilateral activities in support of Alternative Development, including use of satellite technology to support development programs and research into pests that threaten viable alternative crops (cacao, coffee and banana).

The work of CICAD has been highlighted in the Summit of the Americas process, where heads of state have entrusted CICAD with both the negotiation of the Anti-Drug Strategy of the Americas and an innovative peer review system for evaluating national anti-drug efforts. This Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) provides each country with an objective diagnostic of the weaknesses in its anti-drug strategies, programs and laws. It likewise identifies ways in which the countries can improve regional and international cooperation. These reports help to validate national requirements for technical and material support and are proving helpful to INL and other international donors in prioritizing their counternarcotics assistance programs. The MEM system will continue to report publicly on the problem until it is addressed, keeping pressure on individual governments.

UN Crime CenterThe Crime Center has taken a leading international role in promoting the ratification, accession, and implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and its three protocols. Working with a pool of international experts from member state governments (including the U.S.) the Center is preparing legislative guides to provide legal advice to countries that need legislative changes for the ratification of the Convention in their national law. The Crime Center is also organizing workshops for law-enforcement practitioners to build capacities through action-oriented training in fighting organized crime and its links with corruption as a first step to prepare the ground for the early implementation of the TOC Convention. The first such workshops were held in Romania and Nigeria in 2002, with additional workshops planned for 2003, including in Ukraine and Indonesia.

With strong U.S. support, the Center has also assumed a leading role in promoting international efforts to combat trafficking in persons, one of the fastest growing and most brutal forms of organized criminal activity. With U.S.-provided funds, the Center is preparing to initiate technical assistance projects in Vietnam, South East Asia, and West Africa.

Using previous-year funds provided by the U.S., the Center initiated in 2002 a preparatory assistance project aimed at providing the required tools for the ratification and implementation of the 12 international conventions targeting terrorism. Aided by a U.S.-funded senior consultant, the Center drafted a set of explanatory materials to serve as guidance notes for legislating and implementing the international instruments pertaining to terrorism, including a checklist for legislators in this field. The Center has also compiled model laws. Examples of relevant legislation are regularly updated to keep abreast of developments in legislating against terrorism. The center has also established a preliminary web page containing examples from national counter-terrorism legislation.

FY 2004 ProgramInternational Organizations (IO) funds will support the UNDCP global program against money laundering. This program places mentors in a country for a year or more to assist them in bringing their laws and regulations up to international financial standards. The program then follows through with training for prosecutors, regulators, investigators and judges to ensure that they understand how to effectively use the legislation. Its work is coordinated with and complimentary to that done by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF). Funds will also support the global legal advisory program as it continues to provide assistance to ensure that parties to the international drug conventions have adequate laws to enforce the treaties and capacity to do so.

UNDCP

As trafficking in the chemical precursors used to manufacture cocaine, heroin, and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) grows, UNDCP has been at the forefront of developing programs to enable law enforcement officials to track these precursors. Funds will be used to continue our support to several regional tracking projects and to train law enforcement officials. Alternative development for regions that have historically had few legal economic activities are beginning to show progress in areas such as Burma and Laos, and we will continue to support those projects. These are usually long-term programs and require support for many years to turn the community away from the lure of the easy money from illicit crops.

OAS/CICADFY 2004 funding will be used to support the implementation of the Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere, including the effective operation of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM). Much of the increase will be devoted to providing technical support and training to address shortcomings in country antidrug programs identified by the MEM. It will also support expansion of increasingly sophisticated CICAD demand-side, supply-side and legal development programs. INL funding will be used to support programs in the following areas.

  • Funds will be provided for the operation of the MEM and follow-on technical support to OAS Member States.

  • Funding will be provided for demand reduction and youth programs including regional demand reduction training, epidemiological surveillance system support, adoption of minimum standards of drug treatment, treatment training for nurses, an on-line Masters program, and policy and program development for youth gang prevention.

  • Funding will be provided for the operation of hemispheric statistical systems, the development of national observatories, and the development and maintenance of data banks to track chemical precursors.

  • Funding will be provided for the development of national drug strategies and drug policy coordinating bodies.

  • Funding will support legal development, including efforts to update regional model legislation (firearms, money laundering, chemicals), orientation for legislators and judges, and communications systems provided to facilitate regional exchange of information and cooperation.

  • Funding will be provided for programs related to the control of money laundering, chemical diversion, and arms trafficking; training for regulators (bank, chemical, weapons) and investigators; and for expansion of port security projects.

UN Crime Center

FY 2004 funds will be used to support efforts to ratify and implement the Convention against Corruption. This project will presumably include pre-ratification legal preparatory assistance and technical support for officials and practitioners to better implement measures called for in the Convention. The U.S. contribution may also support the implementation by foreign countries of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and supplementary protocols.

The remainder of our contribution will support projects addressing organized crime and corruption. Contingent upon the outcome of a pilot project underway to assist countries to ratify and implement the 12 counter-terrorism conventions, we may also fund some follow-up projects to increase the United Nation's ability to provide technical assistance to states to strengthen their legal frameworks to prevent and fight terrorism, working in close collaboration with other UN and regional organizations.

International Organizations
INL Budget
($000)

 

FY 2002

FY 2002
Supp

 FY 2003

FY 2004

         
UNDCP 10,000 7,400 8,000
OAS/CICAD 6,000 4,800 5,000
UN Crime Center1 1,000
Total 16,000 12,200 14,000

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

5,000 5,000 5,000


1Prior to FY 2004, INL contributions to the Crime Center were made from the INL Anticrime Programs account.

Drug Awareness & Demand Reduction

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsSelect foreign countries will be able to apply best practices and new prevention/treatment technologies that are scientifically sound and effective at both the national and community level.

One training conference and ten workshops will be conducted to promote skill development in prevention methods related to evidence-based models of prevention.

One training conference and ten workshops will be conducted to promote skill development in treatment methods related to evidence-based models of treatment.

Two parent drug-corps programs each will be established in Latin America and Asia.

Two drug-free communities programs each will be established in Latin America and Asia.

INL will have in place regional-level capabilities for better dissemination and utilization of best practices and scientific knowledge about effective prevention and treatment technologies.

An addiction technology transfer center for the Asia/Pacific region will be established.

Support for technical assistance provided by the Eastern European Institute for Substance Abuse to three Russian countries will be extended.

The number of Latin American students trained in the Colombian and Brazilian sub-regional demand reduction academies will increase by 50 percent.

The international community will be better educated about U.S. policies, programs, and successes in combating drug abuse.

Four regional-level seminars will be provided in collaboration with the White House on U.S. policies and programs to combat drug use.

Multilateral alliances will be established to build public support and political will to combat drug trafficking and abuse, develop support for U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and initiatives, and improve America’s image overseas.

There will be an increase in membership in the Global Drug Prevention Network by 500 overseas drug prevention programs or individuals.

There will be an increase in membership in the Western Hemisphere Drug Prevention Network of the Americas by 250 programs or individuals.

The faith-based network of Muslim anti-drug programs in the South/Southeast Asian region will be expanded to 400 programs or individuals.

An International Community Anti-Drug Coalition Institute will be created to provide global technical assistance on forming effective community anti-drug coalitions.

International program accomplishments and lessons learned will be utilized to benefit both U.S. and foreign demand reduction services.

Three international drug prevention best-practices research studies will be conducted and disseminated.

Two international drug-treatment best practices research studies will be conducted and disseminated.

A long-term, outcome-based evaluation of INL demand reduction training in Peru will be completed and disseminated.

Program JustificationThe Demand Reduction program seeks to reduce the worldwide demand for illicit drugs by motivating foreign governments and institutions into giving increased attention to the negative effects of drug abuse on society.

Demand reduction efforts aim to reduce the use and abuse of illicit drugs worldwide. The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health, welfare, security, and economic stability of all countries. In addition, profits from drug distribution are a major source of funding for terrorist organizations. Foreign countries recognize the vast U.S. experience and efforts in reducing drug demand and increasingly request technical and other assistance from the USG to address their problems. Assisting countries to reduce drug consumption helps in an important way to preserve the stability of that country and cut off a major source of terrorist financing. On the other hand, INL support for public/private networks (national and regional) of demand reduction programs helps facilitate support for overall USG counter-narcotics policies in foreign countries. This involves the development of community coalitions of private/public social institutions, the faith community, civil society, and law enforcement entities to implement strong counter-narcotics policies and programs, in addition to improving America’s image overseas. Lastly, foreign countries are collaborating with the USG on developing model research-based programs to improve the delivery of prevention/treatment services and reduce drug-related violence among youth.

Program AccomplishmentsAs a result of INL-funded training and technical assistance, foreign governments are engaging their own national institutions, communities, and resources to address demand for illicit drugs. In Thailand, with INL-funded training, the Department of Health established over 200 treatment centers to address the growing epidemic of methamphetamine abuse. The Philippines Bureau of Corrections instituted drug intervention programs in over 50 institutions covering over 4,000 drug-addicted inmates daily. Furthermore, St Petersburg, Russia established a citywide services delivery system consisting of intake, outreach, outpatient and residential treatment programs. Governments in South America continue to implement their own national-level, counter-narcotics media campaigns: local media advertisers and businesses in Chile, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Peru, and Uruguay contributed nearly $250 million to counternarcotics media advertisements since the programs inception in 1996. INL technical assistance resulted in the creation of an Eastern European Institute for Substance Abuse Prevention in the Czech Republic that services seven additional countries. Also, an Addiction Technology Transfer Center that disseminates best practice information to seven Southeast Asian countries was established in Thailand. Finally, public/private sector demand reduction networks significantly increased membership in the Western Hemisphere to 3,500 organizations and internationally to 7,000 organizations from over 70 countries.

FY 2004 ProgramINL-funded training will continue to strengthen host nation counter-narcotics institutions so that they can conduct more effective demand reduction and public awareness programs on their own. The program will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, address the recurring methamphetamine abuse problem in Southeast Asia, and address the heroin threat for Asia and Colombia. An expanded area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based antidrug programs are members of the global INL drug prevention network. INL will increase support to its sub-regional demand reduction academies in Brazil and Colombia with the aim of increasing the number of students trained at the centers by 50 percent. INL will enhance the services provided by the Prague-based Eastern European Institute for Substance Abuse Prevention to surrounding countries in the region, including Russia. INL will also maintain support for the Bangkok-based Addiction Technology Transfer Center for the Southeast Asian region. These activities will be undertaken in collaboration with other donor countries and international organizations to reflect an emphasis on increased multilateral activities.

The FY 2004 training and technical assistance program will be designed to prevent the onset of use, to intervene at critical decision points in the lives of at-risk populations to prevent initial use and further use, and to improve effective treatment and prevention programs. The program will expand its emphasis on the development of national, regional, and international coalitions of public/private sector organizations to strengthen international opinion and actions against the drug trade and to strengthen America’s image overseas. Programs will continue to facilitate cross-cultural, comparative research to directly benefit foreign and U.S.-based demand reduction programs. The results of this research will be a compilation of best-practices and lessons learned from organizations in selected countries that have developed successful demand reduction programs, both INL- and self-funded. INL will support five international drug treatment and prevention best-practices research studies that provide detailed descriptions of successful local innovations that can be replicated worldwide.

The Demand Reduction Program budget will also support the enhancement of the ability of foreign countries to build public support and strengthen political will to implement strong antidrug programs. Training will emphasize the development of national-level drug awareness campaigns that demonstrate connections between the drug trade, terrorism, and other concerns such as economic growth, democracy, and the environment. On the national level, technical assistance will target the enhancement of the six existing private sector media partnerships for drug prevention education in Latin America. It will support government efforts to conduct and sustain drug awareness campaigns by building linkages between the corporate sector and the mass media.

The Demand Reduction program budget request will also accommodate the increased need for enhancing national, regional and international coalitions of civil society/grassroots organizations to mobilize international opinion against the drug trade, encourage governments to develop and implement strong anti-drug policies and programs, and improve America’s image overseas. With INL support, an International Community Anti-Drug Coalition Institute will be established to provide training and technical assistance to key leaders on forming and sustaining effective drug-free community coalitions.

INL support will allow membership in the Western Hemisphere Drug Prevention Network of the Americas to increase by 250 programs or individuals, and the Global Drug Prevention Network to increase by 500 the number of its affiliated programs or individual members. INL funds will expand the Colombo Plan’s regional network of Muslim, faith-based demand reduction organizations in South and Southeast Asia. Given the priority on improving America’s image and relations with Muslim countries, these networks provide INL with a unique opportunity to deliver services in regions critical to the U.S. for cooperation in the worldwide coalition against terrorism.

At the grassroots level, the program will continue to help establish and sustain strong community partnerships and coalitions of public/private sector programs for drug prevention, expand community mobilization efforts against drugs, and create or enhance effective community- and school-based prevention programs. A goal of strong community-based partnerships is to establish demand reduction programs that address drug-related crime and violence and support national policies.

The demand from foreign countries for INL-sponsored technical assistance on drug prevention programming continues to increase rapidly. Membership in INL-sponsored international and regional demand reduction networks has expanded exponentially, and initial findings from INL-funded research shows potential to directly enhance U.S.-based programs. Increased funding will allow us to better mobilize international opinion and cooperation against the drug trade, encourage governments to develop and implement strong anti-drug policies and programs, and strengthen support for USG counter-narcotics policies and initiatives.

Drug Awareness and Demand Reduction
INL Budget
($000)

 

FY 2002

FY 2002
Supp

 FY 2003

FY 2004

         
Training & Technical Assistance 1,500 2,500 2,000
Research and Evaluation 1,200 600 750
Coalitions and Networks 1,300 1,300 1,250
Demonstration Programs 1,000 600 1,000
Total 5,000 5,000 5,000

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

5,000 4,500 1,000

Regional Narcotics Training

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe technical and investigative skills of counternarcotics law enforcement personnel and levels of cooperation and coordination between U.S. and foreign law enforcement officials in key countries will be strengthened.

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

15,330 12,300 8,000

There will be improved cooperation among counternarcotics law enforcement agencies within and between countries as measured by the increased numbers of narcotics traffickers arrested and successfully prosecuted.

Program JustificationThe Narcotics Law Enforcement Training project is designed to assist cooperating countries to create effective national organizations for investigating drug trafficking and interdicting illegal narcotics. It is important to note that additional funding for these activities comes from other program categories within the INL budget. International counternarcotics training is managed and funded by INL and carried out by a variety of U.S. law enforcement agencies including DEA, Coast Guard, and Customs. Between fiscal years 1998 and 2002, INL funding has resulted in training for approximately 7,877 foreign officials. Generally, training programs in the U.S. are tailored to senior-level management and policy-level officials, while programs offered overseas are reserved for operational personnel.

Program AccomplishmentsINL-funded international counternarcotics training is carefully targeted based on objectives outlined by each U.S. Embassy Mission Performance Plan. The overall objective is to enable each recipient country to develop self-sufficient counternarcotics institutions. The training delivery focus includes a needs assessment stage where we develop relevant course materials, develop new courses targeted at the legal structures existing in each country, and develop a program evaluation component. The resulting training is tailored to the recipient country, with an emphasis on major producer and transit nations. Regional training is frequently used to foster international cooperation – a necessity given the transnational nature of organized crime and narcotics trafficking.

This constant analysis and refinement of INL law enforcement training programs to meet the current needs of the recipient country is one of the best means to promote U.S. counternarcotics goals. Our efforts aim to create effective host country enforcement institutions and take drugs out of circulation before they reach the U.S.

FY 2004 ProgramIn FY 2004, INL-funded training will continue to support the major U.S. and international strategies for combating narcotics trafficking worldwide. INL will continue to furnish programs only to those countries considered to be a high priority for U.S. counternarcotics interests. Major emphasis will be placed on coordination with other donors to organizations such as the UNDCP, the OAS, and the EU, to urge them to shoulder greater responsibility in providing training that serves their particular strategic interests. This coordination will also help avoid wasteful duplication of efforts.

INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of Washington agencies in response to assistance requests from U.S. embassies. Again, this will help avoid duplication of effort and ensure that presentations reflect the full range of U.S. policies and priorities. FY 2004 funding will enable INL to continue to use counternarcotics training as a vehicle for achieving basic policy objectives.


INL Anticrime Programs

Budget Summary ($000)

Program SummaryThe terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were not only acts of war against the United States and its allies, but also an attack on civilized society and the rule of law. As we confront this dire terrorist challenge, we also face the unprecedented spread of international crime groups that exploit the vulnerabilities of the global economy to amass illicit wealth using increasingly sophisticated and creative means. Terrorists utilize these international crime groups for financing and other activities. More than ever, effective international law enforcement cooperation is an essential element to ensuring global stability and protecting American communities, businesses, and financial institutions.

The Secretary of State mandates the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) to fund, coordinate, and provide policy guidance for international crime control matters. INL targets strategic countries and provides support for international negotiations and organizations to combat a broad spectrum of transnational crime threats, including those connected to international terrorism and corruption. Specific areas of concentration reflect Presidential and other national security priorities such as the National Security Strategy of the United States, the National Strategy for Homeland Security, and the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace.

Since September 11, we have redoubled our efforts to strengthen laws and institutions to fight terrorism and other crime and to ensure that our foreign law enforcement partners have the tools they need. For example, some Allied nations are committed to fighting terrorist financing, but lack the legal framework, training, or technical capabilities to fulfill their sovereign responsibilities. Others lack the capability to assert control over their entire territory. In many nations, official corruption renders law enforcement ineffective or worse. Addressing these issues is key to ensuring our national security.

FY 2004 ProgramsINL will continue to combat a broad range of crime challenges to our national security, including those with a strong connection to terrorism.

We will contribute to international organizations like the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) to promote the standard-setting and peer reviews vital to fighting terrorist financing. We will continue bilateral efforts to build anti-terrorist financing regimes in priority countries as mandated by the NSC and also in countries such as Egypt and Guatemala that are on the FATF black list. These programs will focus on creating robust anti-money laundering regimes, law enforcement capabilities, and regulatory agencies.

A key objective of the war on terrorism is stopping the threat as far from our borders as possible. Strong border controls also hinder narcotics traffickers, alien smugglers, and other contraband traders. While continuing to focus efforts on the Caribbean and Central America, we will also look at assessing needs in other areas of the world important to the war on terror.

One serious threat linking transnational crime and terrorism is the likely use of alien smuggling infrastructures by terrorists. We will work to strengthen the ability of priority countries to identify, apprehend, and prosecute alien smugglers and destroy these infrastructures. Suriname, for example, has become a major staging area for smuggling illegal Chinese aliens. We will assess immigration controls in Suriname and provide equipment and training to improve the capabilities of Surinamese immigration and police authorities.

As the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace makes clear, the prospect of a terrorist-related cyber attack on critical U.S. infrastructures is a growing concern. To support a strategy that addresses this threat, we will provide technical assistance and training to build legal regimes and law enforcement capabilities in key developing nations like the Philippines, Nigeria, Brazil, Argentina, India, and Mexico and work as part of an interagency process to advance cyber security initiatives bilaterally and in forums like APEC and the OAS. In addition, INL funds training for foreign law enforcement to combat intellectual property crime, which has a growing IT component.

The President has made anti-corruption a major foreign policy initiative in the G-8 and elsewhere. INL supports several international mechanisms at the UN, Council of Europe, OAS, and OECD that monitor anticorruption commitments made by governments around the world. INL will continue to ensure translation of these commitments into action by directing technical assistance to strategic countries.

The U.S. G-8 presidency in 2004 will present a critical opportunity for the U.S. to build support for the war on terror. The anti-crime Lyon Group, along with the counter-terrorism Roma Group, coordinates anti-crime and counter-terrorism policies and technical assistance within the G-8. As chair of the Lyon group, INL will lead its efforts and host and chair multiple plenary and working group meetings.

FY 2002 Actual FY 2002 Supp FY 2003 Estimate FY 2004 Request
905 600 400

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will work with international partners to interdict and halt alien smuggling as far from our borders as possible. Our efforts will focus on attacking criminal smuggling organizations at all points of their organizational structure. INL will provide technical assistance and training to foreign immigration officers, border guards, and police officials. We will also coordinate the activities of the interagency alien smuggling community in their efforts to disrupt major alien smuggling rings operating both domestically and overseas.

FY 2002 Actual FY 2002 Supp FY 2003 Estimate FY 2004 Request
1,000 800 600

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will continue to assist selected countries strengthen their border control regimes to make it more difficult for criminals and terrorists who threaten the interests of the United States to pass through without being detected and apprehended. INL will identify priority countries, assess their current border control capabilities, and develop implementation plans for strengthening their border control regimes. INL will conduct training to improve the proficiency of customs, immigration, and other border control officials. We shall provide equipment such as computers, vehicle search tools, and narcotic test kits for controls at inspection points. We will work to recommend physical improvements at selected ports of entry, visa processes, travel and identity documents, and immigration policies so as to facilitate travel while at the same time enhancing border controls. And we will improve the integration and coordination among various law enforcement entities at the borders.

Priority countries will identify border security vulnerabilities and develop implementation plans to remedy them through on-site assessments.

The technical capabilities of border control systems in selected countries will be strengthened through the provision and proper use of modern technology.

The competency and professionalism of border control officials will be improved through training and technical assistance, as reflected in increases in confiscations, detentions, investigations, and information exchanges.

Program Justification

Lax border controls greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid arrest. In seeking to expand their operations and move their contraband around the world, they will typically either try to avoid these controls, suborn them through corruption, negate them with falsified documentation, or overwhelm them. In many countries, effective control of the movement of persons, vehicles, and cargo across national land borders is non-existent. Border control officials are poorly trained and equipped and inspections facilities are substandard.

As the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls provide substantial deterrence to smugglers and other traffickers. They can force them into other, less attractive, routes, provoke traffickers into taking measures that raise their operational costs, and make traffickers more vulnerable to law enforcement countermeasures. Borders are also the points at which to collect important intelligence. Information gleaned from seizures, arrests, and documents can provide leads useful to making even bigger cases that dismantle major international criminal syndicates. Successful enforcement is a powerful instrument for generating greater public support for fighting transnational crime.

Program Accomplishments

In FY 2002, INL conducted a migration management study in Jamaica that was designed to improve border management systems through the provision of computers and software in major airports and seaports. Additional institution building related technical assistance and training is also being provided as a part of this program to ensure its sustained effectiveness. INL also assessed the passport issuance systems of Honduras and Belize and will soon be providing equipment for both countries to improve their systems. In Nicaragua, INL has reached agreement to install the PISCES computer system at the international airport in Managua. This system will greatly enhance the ability of Nicaraguan police immigration officials to identify smugglers, criminals, and possible terrorists who transit through Nicaragua.

FY 2002 Actual FY 2002 Supp FY 2003 Estimate FY 2004 Request
650 300 200

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL programs will expand U.S. government international cooperation on critical infrastructure protection (CIP) with like-minded and friendly nations. This will be accomplished by a coordinated INL approach to providing technical assistance and training to foreign law enforcement in fighting cyber crime. We will also provide intellectual property rights (IPR) training and technical assistance in accordance with priorities established by the inter-agency working group.

FY 2002 Actual FY 2002 Supp FY 2003 Estimate FY 2004 Request
3,575 2,300 3,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

In advancing important national security and foreign policy objectives, INL has in recent years pursued a mix of diplomatic and programmatic efforts to attain four USG primary anticorruption goals. These goals, articulated in Secretary Powell’s first two reports to Congress pursuant to the International Anticorruption and Good Governance Act in 2001 and 2002, include the following.

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitment. The USG opens the door to better bilateral and multilateral cooperation on traditionally local fronts. This, in turn, encourages the sharing of best practices, builds trust and relationships between cooperating countries, and ultimately increases the effectiveness of USG government and other aid programs that assist these efforts.

Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments. The fight against corruption begins at the national and local levels. Where pockets of political will exist, the USG can assist governments to strengthen political commitment to take effective action against corruption. This can involve helping governments take a wide range of actions to address corruption, such as enforcing anticorruption laws and instituting preventive measures within the public administration. The U.S. is also beginning through the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) and other initiatives to reward those countries that are committed to effectively rooting out corruption.

Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action. Popular will is the best expediter of political will against corruption. The USG can help enhance popular will in other countries by helping encourage civil society and the private sector to be active in the fight against corruption, increase transparency in governments, and increase integrity in the private sector.

Leading By Example. The USG has been a leader in the fight against corruption by promoting integrity within our own country and making our actions an example for the world. The international community can benefit from our examples, particularly regarding efforts to prevent U.S. multinational business from bribing overseas, enforce corruption laws, promote good public/corporate governance, and build tools and institutions to prevent corruption. The USG is also advancing important anticorruption and accountability elements in its foreign assistance programs including, for example, the President’s Millennium Challenge Account and within the G-8 process.

The number of governments committed to implementing comprehensive regimes to address their corruption problems will increase.

International cooperation among governments in the fight against corruption will increase.

FY 2002 Actual FY 2002 Supp FY 2003 Estimate FY 2004 Request
1,508 832 1,0001

1The total commitment is $3.5 million, of which $2.5 million will come from carryover balances.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will promote the use of criminal and regulatory legal tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions. Activities and programs will strengthen cooperation against all financial crime and terrorist financing by working with foreign governments to establish or update enforcement and regulatory tools and to implement international anti-money laundering standards. INL will encourage the formation of Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) and enhance their ability to share critical financial intelligence by providing technical assistance to those countries that have adequate and appropriate anti-money laundering laws and regulations in place and encouraging them to become members of the Egmont Group of FIUs.FY 2004 Program

There will be an increase in the numbers of successful investigations and prosecutions abroad of important money laundering cases.

There will be an increase in the number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards including the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Special Eight Recommendations on Terrorist Financing as reflected by mutual and other evaluations conducted by FATF and other international standard-setting and peer review bodies.

There will be an increase in the number of effective FIUs.

Program Justification

Financial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat to the United States and other countries around the world. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, skew currency markets, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals and terrorists seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, terrorism, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds $750 billion per year and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free-markets.

Program Accomplishments

In the past two years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime and money laundering, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. In FY 2001, INL provided $6 million in training and technical assistance programs that delivered over 27 courses to bank regulators, bankers, law enforcement, prosecutorial, and judicial personnel from 25 governments. A multi-agency team of experts representing the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), and the Federal Reserve Board delivered the training courses. The FY 2002 statistics include $3.6 million for 35 training courses presented in 27 countries. In addition, INL provided contributions to multilateral organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the Caribbean Financial Task Force (CFATF), the Asia/Pacific Group, and other regional bodies to support anti-money laundering efforts in those areas. The members of these bodies have made a commitment to meet international anti-money laundering standards and undergo mutual evaluations by their peers. Our contributions assist in supporting the ongoing operations of these bodies, as well as funding for special programs, such as mutual evaluation training seminars.

During 2001-2002, INL also participated in the development of the FATF’s Non-Cooperating Countries and Territories (NCCT) program to identify jurisdictions not cooperating in the fight against money laundering. Many of the 19 jurisdictions that FATF identified as NCCTs were the subject of U.S. Treasury Department advisories, warning all U.S. financial institutions to pay enhanced scrutiny to financial transactions with the listed NCCTs. INL provided training and technical assistance to many of these jurisdictions to help them correct the deficiencies identified by the FATF. With the help of this assistance, FATF removed eight of them from the list in 2002.

In addition, INL participated in the FATF Extraordinary Plenary on the Financing of Terrorism held in Washington, D.C. on October 29-30, 2001. As a result of this meeting, FATF expanded its mission beyond money laundering and now also focuses on a worldwide effort to combat terrorist financing. INL is co-chairing an interagency process to identify the countries most vulnerable to terrorist financing activities around the world. The Bureau is a central contributor to assessing the anti-terrorist financing needs of these countries and developing implementation plans for them, and funding anti-terrorist financing technical assistance programs so they can combat this threat.

In FY 2004, INL will aim its training and technical assistance programs toward countries that need to improve their ability to combat terrorist financing, financial crimes, and money laundering. Training will focus on: tracking, freezing, and seizing terrorist assets; developing anti-money laundering laws and regulations that meet international standards; training bank supervisors to ensure compliance with regulations; developing anti-money laundering examination procedures; providing law enforcement with financial investigative skills; and training prosecutors to develop money laundering cases.

FY 2002 Actual FY 2002 Supp FY 2003 Estimate FY 2004 Request
500 500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

When the United States serves as President of the G-8 in 2004, INL will use the U.S. chairmanship of the Crime (Lyon) and Counterterrorism (Roma) Experts Groups to advance US initiatives to combat international crime and terrorism, including increasing the level and coordination of G-8 countries’ capacity building assistance against terrorism and crime. Additional initiatives include establishing a shared international database to combat internet child exploitation, developing agreed principles on Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) protection, and moving to implementation stage of expected 2003 agreement on G-8 biometric standards for travel documents.

FY 2002 Actual FY 2002 Supp FY 2003 Estimate FY 2004 Request
6,000 500 1,200

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will contribute to the basic infrastructure needed to carry out law enforcement activities in cooperating countries. We will improve the technical and investigative skills of law enforcement personnel in key countries and increase cooperation and coordination between U.S. and foreign law enforcement officials.

There will be enhanced cooperation among regional law enforcement agencies.

Communication of law enforcement officers within and between countries, regions and U.S. law enforcement will be improved.

An increased number of criminals will be successfully prosecuted.

Program Justification

The Regional Crime Training Program is designed to assist cooperating countries create effective national organizations for preventing and investigating crime. It is important to note that additional funding for these activities comes from other program categories within the INL budget.

Program Accomplishments

International crime training is managed and funded by INL and carried out by a variety of U.S. law enforcement agencies including DEA, FBI, DOJ, Department of Homeland Security, and U.S. Coast Guard. Between fiscal years 1998 and 2001, for example, INL funding resulted in training for approximately 10,000 foreign officials. Generally, training programs in the U.S. are tailored to senior-level management and policy-level officials, while programs offered overseas are reserved for operational personnel.

During the past year, the process for delivering INL-funded international law enforcement training was significantly enhanced. Courses were targeted to objectives outlined in each U.S. Embassy Mission Performance Plan (MPP) to increase the ability of each recipient country to develop self-sufficient law enforcement institutions. This shift in training delivery focus also included the introduction of a needs assessment process to develop relevant course materials, the development of new courses targeted at legal structures existing in each country, and the development of a program evaluation component.

FY 2004 Program

Refining INL law enforcement training programs to meet the needs of recipient countries constitutes one of the best means of implementing the USG anticrime strategy for institution building and host nation self-sufficiency. INL will continue to furnish programs only to those countries considered high priority for U.S. anticrime interests. Major emphasis will be placed on coordination with other donors (e.g., the OAS and the EU) to urge them to shoulder greater responsibility for training that serves their particular strategic interests. This coordination will help avoid wasteful duplication of efforts.

In FY 2004, INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of Washington agencies in response to assistance requests from U.S. embassies. This will ensure that programs reflect the full range of U.S. policy priorities. Continued funding will allow us to accommodate the growing emphasis on law enforcement training as a vehicle for achieving many of the basic objectives of USG anticrime policy.

FY 2002 Actual FY 2002 Supp FY 2003 Estimate FY 2004 Request
1,142 1,000 1,100

Program Justification

Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds are used to cover the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL staff, personal services contract personnel, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel, field travel, maintenance of information resource management systems, and administrative support expenses such as office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, miscellaneous contractual services, materials, supplies, furniture, furnishings, and equipment.

FY 2004 Program

PD&S funding will be required in FY 2004 to continue the evolving mission of INL. The FY 2004 budget includes a modest increase to cover planned increases in field travel and the anticipated higher costs for salaries and benefits, personal services contracts, miscellaneous contractual services, and expenditure for office materials, supplies, equipment and telephone expenses.

INL Anticrime Programs
INL Budget
($000)

 

FY 2002

FY 2002
Supp

 FY 2003

FY 2004

         
Alien Smuggling 905 600 400
Anti-Money Laundering 1 4,968
Border Security 1,000 800 600
Cyber-Crime, IPR and CIP 650 300 200
Fighting Corruption 3,575 2,300 3,000
Financial Crimes & Money Laundering2 1,508 832 1,000
G-8 and Lyon Group 500 500
Law Enforcement and Police Science 6,000 500 1,200
Rule of Law 550 500
Program Development and Support 1,142 1,000 1,100
Total 15,330 12,300 8,000

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

4,670 2,700


1These funds will be directly apportioned to the Department of Treasury.
2For FY 2004, the total commitment is $3.5 million, of which $2.5 million will come from carryover balances.

Civilian Police Contingent

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThe overall program objective for the Civilian Police Program (CIVPOL) is to continue to develop and enhance the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police missions and respond to complex security operations; and to enhance the capabilities of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, regional organizations and other countries to address civilian police and justice issues in countries emerging from hostilities.

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

14,500 14,500 14,500

The capacity of the USG to identify, train, equip, deploy and support uniformed police and advisors overseas will be enhanced.

The process of obtaining certification of the basic U.S. training program from every state will be completed.

A command structure will be established and implemented that will include a formal performance evaluation system and code of conduct and ethics for the CIVPOL program.

A logistical system for rapid deployment of U.S. police to support international police and complex security operations will be implemented.

Specialized training programs that complement the basic training program will be established and implemented.

U.S. federal, state and local law enforcement agencies will support the CIVPOL program.

INL will continue to establish and broaden its relationships with nation-wide law enforcement associations, organizations, and unions.

INL will work with other countries to develop standardized civilian police training programs.

Selected countries will be invited to become involved in our CIVPOL training programs and related activities.

Program JustificationU.S. participation in international civilian police operations will continue in 2003 with approximately 550 experienced police officers and advisors assigned to Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia, East Timor, and Afghanistan. The CIVPOL support contract solicited in FY 2003 will provide a mechanism to establish a cadre of up to 500 U.S. police and a roster of an additional 1,500 potential candidates for the cadre. The FY 2003 program will build on existing training and advisory capacities and further improve our capacity to respond to requests from internal U.S. agencies, the UN and other organizations for U.S. participation in police components of international peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations.

Deployment of U.S. police and law enforcement advisors can range from short-term assessments or training and advisory activities requiring only a few weeks, to secondments for a year or more to operational missions that may include the authority to carry weapons and perform a full range of law enforcement functions. To be prepared for such operations, personnel included in the U.S. contingent are issued basic uniforms and personal equipment applicable to all deployments. Special equipment and materials needed to accommodate a particular operating environment are provided immediately prior to an actual deployment. Such equipment may include communications equipment, uniforms and other clothing, medical supplies and protective gear to meet conditions in the particular area of operation, and camping gear in the event lodging accommodations are not available. While this program may fund short-term and urgent requirements for law enforcement expertise and field activities, the long-term operational support needed to maintain U.S. police in actual CIVPOL operations continues to be provided from other regional or special accounts, such as Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED), Peacekeeping Operations (PKO), and funds made available from supplemental budgets.

Program AccomplishmentsINL is currently managing program implementation involving the placement of up to 775 police, advisors and justice experts in seven countries; the secondment of a technical expert to OSCE Vienna and another to a position at the USUN in New York; and agreements with other U.S. agencies to provide training and justice sector expertise overseas. We have deployed over 600 uniformed and armed U.S. police to conduct law enforcement operations in United Nations peacekeeping missions in Kosovo and East Timor. INL implemented programs that helped establish, train and equip 5,500 members of the new Kosovo Police Service; provided training expertise needed to establish the 2,500-member East Timor Police Service; and produced training events for over 20,000 local police in Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Serbia. In addition, INL implements programs to train judges and prosecutors in Kosovo, Bosnia, and Afghanistan to assist with judicial reform and rebuilding in post conflict environments.

The CIVPOL training program has been greatly improved in the recent past. The completion of accreditation requirements for 11 states will complete an effort to meet in-service training criteria for police officer certification in every state of the country. In FY 2003, INL will implement training and equipment programs to support the Afghanistan National Police, Border Police, and the reestablishment of judicial capacities in Afghanistan.

FY 2004 ProgramBuilding on funds provided in FY 2001 and FY 2003, FY 2004 funding will be used to sustain the cadre of U.S. police, maintain databases of qualified individuals and equipment inventories, and maintain the capacity to identify and provide, on short notice, law enforcement personnel to participate in international peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. FY 2004 activities will also include continued INL program management and oversight; continued development of training curricula; and outreach to the U.S. law enforcement community and international organizations involved in police peacekeeping and justice-related issues.

The FY 2004 budget will sustain the voluntary reserve of law enforcement personnel who remain in their regular jobs until called for duty. The FY 2004 program will continue to implement standardized organizational structures, operating procedures, a code of conduct, ethics standards, and the systems needed to effectively manage personnel identified for the roster. Through this program, U.S. police will have better opportunities to participate in specialized law enforcement training that is designed to meet U.S. Police Officer’s Standards and Training (POST) in-service training requirements to keep their police credentials up to date, as well as basic and advanced instruction that is unique to the organizational and operational challenges presented by international missions. The FY 2004 program will sustain an advisor to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), an INL training coordinator in Washington, D.C., and a position established at the U.S. mission in New York responsible for working with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. FY 2004 funds will also sustain an earlier U.S. commitment to identify a voluntary cadre of police experts to respond to requests from the OSCE for U.S. contributions to operations in the European region that are recently emerging from conflict.

The FY 2004 program will also sustain the logistical capability to insure timely U.S. response to calls from the UN or other organization to contribute American police on an expedited basis to address a special circumstance or to participate in an international effort to assist a country emerging from a crisis situation. Key elements of this capacity will be contingencies for transporting U.S. personnel and equipment, providing emergency medical support, administrative and logistical support in the field, and an operational communications system. The FY 2004 program will also sustain a U.S. ability to provide an evacuation contingency for U.S. police in the event of a terrorist threat or attack.

FY 2004 funds will support continued outreach efforts to U.S. local, state, and federal law enforcement, agencies and professional associations for the purpose of attracting and encouraging law enforcement interest and participation in UN or OSCE missions. In addition, we will engage in efforts to assist police programs, planning, training, and operations of other countries, regional or international organizations. Administration of such a comprehensive program will continue to strengthen existing and developing capacities designed to assess, conceptualize, plan, prepare, implement, manage, and evaluate U.S. participation in international police missions.


International Law Enforcement Academy

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsNational law enforcement capabilities will be strengthened and stronger linkages between U.S. law enforcement entities, foreign law enforcement authorities, and future criminal justice leaders will be established.

ILEA graduates will adopt methods and technologies learned at the academies to conduct successful criminal investigation.

ILEA alumni will be actively engaged in training others, either at their national academies or on-the-job.

Specific areas of growing international criminal activity will be addressed by presenting training on counterterrorism, corruption, and trafficking in persons to combat these trends.

A modified core curriculum designed to counter international criminal trends (with no fewer than 15 hours of training on counterterrorism, corruption, trafficking in persons, and related topics) will be implement in gradual phases.

Four specialized courses will be introduced to address the same international criminal trends as the core curriculum: implementation will begin with ILEA Budapest and continue to the other academies.

The present level of student output for the existing ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, and Roswell will be maintained.

The annual student output will not drop below 2,100 for all four academies.

The establishment of a new ILEA for Latin America to serve critical countries in the Andean region, Central America, and the Caribbean will be completed.

A new ILEA that we hope to establish in San Jose, Costa Rica will begin operations and launch an initial program of core and specialized courses.

Program Justification

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) help advance U.S. interests through international cooperation while promoting social, political, and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEAs provide high-quality training and technical assistance, support institution building and enforcement capability, and foster relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts in the region. The ILEAs encourage strong partnerships among regional countries, to address common problems associated with criminal activity. The ILEAs also develop an extensive network of alumni, who will become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective countries to exchange information with their U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations.

The Department of State works with the Departments of Justice, Treasury, Homeland Security, and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA program. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs: the core program, specialized training courses, and regional seminars, all targeted at mid-level officials in the police and criminal justice services of strategic countries throughout the world. State’s primary roles are to provide foreign policy guidance to the ILEA Directors, ensure availability of adequate funding to support ILEA operations, and provide oversight that will ensure that U.S. foreign policy objectives are achieved.

The ILEAs will continue to be a dynamic training program, providing quality training in an environment of shifting regional economic, social and political issues as well as challenges created in dealing with international criminal activities such as terrorism, corruption, financial fraud and money laundering, alien smuggling, and organized crime.

Program AccomplishmentsThe Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) has established ILEAs in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, and New Mexico. To date, these ILEAs have trained over 8,500 officials from over 50 countries.

The ILEA in Budapest, Hungary, opened in 1995 and has trained over 5,900 officials from Central, Southern European countries as well as Russia and the former Soviet Union. ILEA Bangkok in Thailand opened in 1999 and has trained over 1800 officials from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ILEA Gaborone in Botswana opened in FY 2001 and has since trained over 450 officials from the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It now operates from its permanent facility, which was completed in early FY 2003. INL opened a graduate style ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico, in late FY 2001 and has trained over 350 international criminal justice officials who had graduated from the regional academies.

In FY 2002, a bilateral agreement was signed with the government of Costa Rica to establish an ILEA in San Jose. This agreement has not yet been ratified by the Costa Rican parliament. If and when it is established, participants of ILEA San Jose will be criminal justice officials from Central America, the Andean region, and the Caribbean. It is hoped that this ILEA will open during calendar year 2003 and have a full training program shortly thereafter.

Extensive surveys from a number of ILEA graduates showed that criminal investigators adopted more rational, democratic solutions to administrative and operational challenges of law enforcement. Participation in ILEA is associated with an increased willingness to share information with U.S. police and surveys taken of a large pool of students showed that former ILEA participants are more likely than any other police to exchange information with foreign police.

FY 2003 ProgramsINL will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, and Roswell. INL will also continue to encourage ILEA alumni to be actively engaged in training others in methods and technologies learned at the academies, either at their national academies or on-the-job. This in turn will either open or strengthen lines of communications to conduct joint investigations, and to share information with US counterparts.

INL will continue negotiations with Costa Rica for the establishment of the new ILEA in San Jose. If established, ILEA San Jose is expected to deliver its full training program in FY 2004. Similar to the other regional ILEA's curricula, the ILEA will offer a mid-level management core program for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. The training program will concentrate on attacking international terrorism, illegal trafficking in drugs, alien smuggling, financial crimes, and accountability in government.

Other activities will include modifying the core and specialized curriculum to target areas of growing international criminal activity such as terrorism, hazardous materials, corruption, and trafficking in women and children. ILEA Budapest will introduce a series of specialized training courses in counter-terrorism with the anticipation of expanding these courses to all other academies.

International Law Enforcement Academy
INL Budget
($000)
  

 

FY 2002

FY 2002
Supp

 FY 2003

FY 2004

          
Bangkok, Thailand 3,198 3,155 2,900
Budapest, Hungary 355 539 600
Gaborone, Botswana 3,857 2,910 2,700
Roswell, New Mexico 5,000 5,000 5,000
San Jose, Costa Rica 2,090 2,896 3,300
Total 14,500 14,500 14,500


Trafficking in Persons

Budget Summary ($000)

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsThere will be an increased number of regional and country initiatives underway to strengthen and standardize penalties against trafficking in persons, a modern form of slavery.

West African and Central American countries will review and revise their anti-trafficking legislation.

Police academies in some of the Tier 2 and 3 countries will have anti-slavery curriculums.

Training of trainers will be provided in at least three countries.

With US assistance, academies will develop anti-trafficking curriculums.

Task forces or police units will be materially equipped to investigate and prosecute trafficking cases.

There will be more investigations initiated against slave traffickers.

An increased number of shelters able to house victim/witnesses and provide venue for investigators and prosecutors to interview these witnesses will be available.

Shelters will be refurbished and available to provide safe housing.

Victim/witnesses will begin collaborating with police and prosecutors.

There will be improved information collection on the scope and magnitude of modern-day slavery as well as on the number of prosecutions and convictions where there is currently little information.

The TIP report will include more information about prosecutions and convictions.

Program JustificationTrafficking in persons is among the fastest growing human rights violations and transnational crimes internationally. This modern-day form of slavery involves both sexual and labor exploitation, adopting such forms as indentured servitude, debt bondage, chattel slavery and peonage. Estimates vary, but at least one million people, primarily women and children, are annually trafficked worldwide, of which tens of thousands are brought into the United States each year.

The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons is the U.S. Government’s focal point for assisting the President’s Interagency Task Force on Trafficking in Persons to coordinate implementation of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. Since FY 2002, the Anti-Trafficking Office has taken over the management of INL’s programs in this area leading to a significant increase in requested funding. The Office uses INCLE funds to leverage the efforts of other funding offices especially in the areas of prosecution against slave traders, bilateral programs, and underserved geographic regions.

Program AccomplishmentsINL has supported unique projects throughout the world. In Thailand, for example, a well-respected Thai NGO conducted 10 training seminars for over 2,200 police, prosecutors, and social workers. The training emphasized changes in the Thai penal code and awareness of a Memorandum of Understanding between the NGOs and the Thai government on proper treatment of victims. Our embassy reported that the trainings were well received by the participants.

In Latvia, INL funds went towards equipping a special interview room within an NGO center for abused children. To minimize further trauma, child victims are interviewed by trained psychotherapists on behalf of police and prosecutors. The child’s testimony is recorded and then used during court proceedings. The interview room is used on a daily basis.

In Calcutta, India, INL funds supported a highly respected NGO to conduct awareness training on trafficking at the village level for 700 law enforcement, local government officials, and residents. This training resulted in back-to-back trafficking cases in West Bengal’s Nadia district. Both the NGO and village level law enforcement believe that the training session played a major role in developing the public and police awareness that led to these cases.

In Mumbai, India, INL assistance was used by an NGO for a successful pilot “Zero Violence Zone” project in four police station areas. The pilot project covered a population of 20,000. The NGO worked in the neighborhood areas with police to raise awareness on trafficking, domestic violence, and women’s rights. The project resulted in increasing numbers of women going to the police to report violence, crimes against women, and trafficking. In addition, community participation was enhanced and trust in the police increased dramatically.

For Fiscal year 2002, the Trafficking Office used INCLE funds to support over 60 programs benefiting approximately 35 countries around the world.

FY 2004 ProgramINCLE funds will be targeted primarily to assistance-eligible countries in Tiers 2 and 3 of the Trafficking in Persons Report, including those underserved countries/regions where there is a modern-day slavery problem.

The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons will seek to assist those governments that are committed to investigating and prosecuting traffickers. Strong legislation is integral to any successful anti-trafficking effort especially if it can be done within a region where countries seek to collectively harmonize and strengthen their penalties against these exploiters. The Trafficking Office proposes to support legislative initiatives, for example, in Central America, a transit region to the United States, and to member states of ECOWAS in Africa, a region with significant child trafficking. Funding will continue to support technical training for police, immigration and criminal justice officials, for example in Thailand, Indonesia, the Dominican Republic and Central America (major trafficking centers). To the extent possible, training will be provided at the International Law Enforcement Academies. The Trafficking Office will work with our embassies to identify local police academies to support the development of anti-trafficking curriculums. Where countries have laws and are receiving training, we will provide equipment such as computers, forensic crime kits, radios, and vehicles for specialized police units or taskforces.

In geographic regions where other USG funds are insufficient or unavailable, the Trafficking Office will use INCLE funds to support protection of victims. Those regions, among others, include Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Cambodia, Vietnam, southern Africa, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Central America, Morocco, Mauritania, Ethiopia, Niger and Chad. Examples of protection programs would include the following: awareness training by NGOs or international organizations for criminal justice officials on appropriate treatment of victims; renovation of shelters; creation of victim-sensitive forensic interview rooms either within a shelter or at a police station; and establishment of national hotlines.

The Trafficking Office also proposes to support anti-trafficking public information campaigns in underserved areas such as Goa in India, southern Brazil, rural parts of Thailand, Pakistan, and Indonesia. We want to continue to gather data on trafficking flows to strengthen the TIP Report as well as help countries build capacity in their law enforcement efforts. The Trafficking Office proposes further research where there is limited information such as Egypt, Algeria, Guyana, French Guinea, Suriname and Central and East Africa.

Trafficking in Persons
INL Budget
($000)
  

 

FY 2002

FY 2002
Supp

 FY 2003

FY 2004

         
Prosecution Program 3,000 4,500 5,000
Protection Program 2,540 3,000 2,500
Prevention Program 2,130 2,500 2,500
Total 7,670 10,000 10,000

FY 2002 Actual

FY 2002 Supp

FY 2003 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

7,670 10,000 10,000


Program Development and Support

Budget Summary ($000) 
 

INL will develop and recommend to ICAO, IMO and ILO for implementation, all portions of the "people" section of the 2002 G8 Action Plan on Transportation Security, including reciprocal access to departure and transit lounges, minimum standards on biometric identifiers, and improved procedures and practices for sharing information on lost/stolen passports.

The G-8 will establish a CTC Support Group, with the broadest possible donor participation and the Lyon/Roma as secretariat, to coordinate, de-conflict, analyze needs and prioritize assistance to ensure global implementation of UNSCR 1373.

Interpol will launch the G-8/EU sponsored database on Internet Child Exploitation.

The G-8 Lyon Group will adopt principles on CIIP and share them with regional and international organizations.

Program Justification

Created at the 1995 Halifax G-8 Summit to address transnational crime issues, the Lyon Group has become one of the G-8’s most active success stories. During its first year, the Group developed 40 recommendations for action against transnational crime, which helped catalyze negotiation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and three Protocols, which the Lyon Group then developed and coordinated. After September 11, 2001, at US initiative, the Lyon and Roma Groups have met jointly, bringing counter-terrorism visibility and focus to the Lyon Group and Lyon Group anti-crime expertise to bear in the fight against terrorism. The Lyon and Roma Groups recently redrafted and issued sets of recommendations on transnational crime and terrorism issues. The Groups developed a 25 Point Action Plan against Terrorism and have worked to implement important elements of the US Transportation Security Initiative and other counter-terrorism measures.

The Lyon Group’s principal resource is the ability to marshal international expert practitioners from all areas of policing and law enforcement as well as foreign affairs to address topics relating to organized crime and to search for specific and practical solutions and ways to cooperate. This has been achieved largely through the work of the Lyon Group’s Subgroups on High Tech Crime, Judicial Cooperation and Law Enforcement Projects and the ad hoc Migration Experts Group.

Since the events of September 11, 2001, the joint meetings of the Lyon Group and the G-8 Counterterrorism Group (Roma Group) have resulted in strengthening both policy coordination and information sharing, as well as engaging in task sharing in order to maximize G-8 resources. These joint meetings have brought visibility and focus to the efforts on migration, high-tech crime, and judicial cooperation to overcome long-standing obstacles to cooperation and develop new measures important to combat terrorism and transnational crime.

At U.S. encouragement, the G-8 Lyon/Roma Groups have exchanged points of contact on capacity building. The French Presidency plans to develop an initiative for announcement at the May 2003 Summit on capacity building with the UN Counterterrorism Committee (CTC) to coordinate delivery of counterterrorism assistance and resources by G-8 countries to help ensure global implementation of UNSCR 1373. The G-8 Lyon/Roma Groups are also addressing important issues of biometric identifiers, passport and travel document issuance standards, information sharing on asylum seekers, protection of critical information infrastructures, and protection of children from exploitation on the Internet.

Program Accomplishments

At the close of 2002, the G-8 Lyon/Roma Groups had compiled a compendium of principles and best practices against crime and terrorism which was shared among the Eight and with more than 30 regional and international organizations, including the UN CTC. The G-8 also developed recommendations on specific aspects of the "people" portion of the Transportation Security Initiative, including passport issuance standards that it shared with ICAO to be adopted as the international standard. Such outreach has been incorporated as an integral part of project undertaken by the Lyon Group.

FY 2004 Program

The U.S. will assume the year-long Presidency of the G-8 beginning in January 2004 and will chair at least three Lyon Group plenary sessions in the U.S. as well as meetings as required of relevant subgroups (likely more often than the plenary) during that time. These funds will ensure these costs will be met.


Law Enforcement and Police Science

Budget Summary ($000) 
 

INL will also fund the placement of intermittent and long-term advisors in countries to assist in the development of financial intelligence units to analyze suspicious transaction reports and share information with allies. We will continue to work closely with other USG agencies to provide this assistance, including the FBI, Secret Service, Customs Service, Internal Revenue Service, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, and the OCC. It is expected that training will focus on many of the NCCT jurisdictions, including Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Indonesia, Philippines, and Ukraine. In addition, assistance will be provided to many emerging jurisdictions that are in need of technical assistance to develop anti-money laundering laws to protect their economy and financial services sector against financial crime and terrorism.

We will continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the FATF, and FATF-styled regional and other anti-money laundering bodies, such as the Asia-Pacific Group, Council of Europe, CFATF, GAFISUD, ESAAMLG, the Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD), and the Egmont Group. In particular, we want our assistance to ensure that the FATF-style regional bodies incorporate anti-terrorist financing training into their anti-money laundering criteria, that they conduct a steady stream of mutual evaluations of their members, and that they train a core of evaluators to conduct these evaluations.

G-8 and Lyon Group

Budget Summary ($000) 
 

The number of countries where political will exists to tackle high-level corrupt actors and problems will increase.

Innovative methods to tackle corruption that show measurable effect against corruption will be developed.

Program Justification

The Administration has made the international fight against corruption one of its key foreign policy priorities. The USG has clear foreign policy and national security interests in seeing corruption addressed on an international scale. Corrupt interests continually hamper global economic activity of American firms, interfere with the accomplishments of USG foreign assistance goals and programs, facilitate the continuing growth of transnational crime and international criminal organizations, and threaten democracy. Terrorists thrive on corruption, using it to facilitate the laundering of funds and illicit trade of weapons, passports, drugs, and persons, obtain sensitive information from government sources, and move across borders and find safe havens.

Program Accomplishments

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitments. Over the past several years INL has helped negotiate and develop several significant regional multilateral anticorruption commitments, including the Inter-American Convention, Council of Europe conventions, Stability Pact compact, the Global Coalition for Africa Anticorruption Principles, the ADB-OECD Asia Initiative, and presently, the Middle East and Gulf Governance Network. A recent INL top priority has been to lead USG efforts to develop the first global convention against corruption at the United Nations. From a diplomatic perspective, the biennial ministerial Global Forum process is by far the most high-level existing intergovernmental forum for promoting the fight against corruption, and INL has led USG efforts to develop and define that process.

Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments. INL has focused its attention and resources on promoting implementation of multilateral anticorruption commitments (e.g., monitoring mechanisms) and helping develop effective governmental approaches to preventing corruption (e.g., addressing corruption within the criminal justice system through the legal profession and private bars). INL has provided or led USG experts and assistance to help over sixty countries implement anticorruption commitments through mechanisms within the Organization of American States, Council of Europe, Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative for Southeast Europe, and the ADB/OECD Asian Anticorruption Initiative. INL has also targeted anticorruption advisors and technical assistance to help governments address weaknesses discovered during these evaluation processes. INL has recently led efforts with State regional bureaus and USAID to develop a coordinated and holistic anticorruption pilot assistance program that can be targeted to countries that exhibit strong political will to address corruption problems. INL continues to lead USG law enforcement-related anticorruption assistance, particularly, to help counties build their capacities to investigate and prosecute corruption cases. Over the past two years INL further developed the capability to react rapidly to unexpected Embassy requests for anticorruption assistance to new governments or governments exhibiting strong and unusual political will to address corruption.Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action. INL has developed and funded innovative technical assistance programs that help build the popular will against corruption and promote integrity within the private sector. Recent examples include the development of a Culture of Lawfulness educational program in several countries targeted at middle-school students and support to develop a corporate governance blueprint for Russian businesses. INL also has led USG input and assistance to the World Bank Corporate Governance Forum, which has sponsored numerous efforts to promote corporate integrity internationally.

Leading By Example. INL has led recent USG interagency participation, including the Department of Justice, Office of Government Ethics, and others, in key multilateral efforts to observe USG anticorruption efforts, and has helped effectively showcase our efforts a model for other countries. INL is in the process of sponsoring development of the first one-stop website where anyone can get comprehensive information on USG governmental and non-governmental activities to combat corruption within our own country and overseas.

FY 2004 Program

INL will lead USG participation in negotiations on the proposed United Nations anticorruption convention, which may be opened for signature in late 2003. Depending on the outcome of negotiations, INL may provide assistance to other governments that choose to sign and implement anticorruption commitments under this new agreement and other regional pacts for Europe, Western Hemisphere, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. INL will continue to spearhead USG involvement in multilateral monitoring efforts, and help transform the Global Forum process into a body to promote intergovernmental standards. INL will also lead USG efforts to develop innovative and comprehensive pilot assistance programs that can be models for other donors and possibly MCA assistance. INL will continue to support law enforcement-related anticorruption assistance worldwide and develop innovative methods to combat corruption within the public and private sectors in select countries. Finally, we will retain our rapid response ability to provide quick assistance when valuable but vulnerable political will to combat corruption emerges in other countries. 


Financial Crimes and Money Laundering

Budget Summary ($000) 
 

International CIP outreach will be expanded beyond the circle of our closest allies, measured by an increase in the number of nations and multilateral and multinational organizations embracing enhanced cyber security policies and practices.

The number of cyber crime and related criminal misuse of information technology (IT) training and technical assistance programs targeted at nations that are key to our law enforcement needs will increase.

INL will increase the number of IPR training projects delivered, with an emphasis on long-term planning and the involvement of the private sector.

Program Justification

The Internet revolution and the spread of information technology generally led to tremendous productivity gains in the global economy. However, these advances created new challenges for the USG in the areas of law enforcement, national security, and national economic security. In the twenty-first century, nation-state boundaries and distinctions are becoming almost inconsequential. The global interdependence of infrastructures across various sectors, such as finance, trade, transportation, energy and communications, means a physical or cyber attack on the critical infrastructures of one nation will likely impact others. Consequently, U.S. national security depends not only on our own domestic CIP efforts, but also on the capabilities and cooperation of our foreign partners upon whose infrastructures we also rely.

Within the Department of State, the Political Military (PM) Bureau has been designated the CIP functional coordinator, with INL having particular responsibility for law enforcement related CIP issues. Pursuant to the Presidential Decision Directive (PDD 63) issued in May 1998, the USG began to take all necessary measures to eliminate significant CIP vulnerabilities within its borders. In FY 2000, at the direction of the National Security Council, the Department of State developed an interagency-approved four-track strategy for international CIP outreach. In October 2001, President Bush issued Executive Orders 13228 and 13231 establishing, respectively, the Office of Homeland Security and the President’s CIP Board (PCIB).

Under the new policy, the Department will continue its role as lead agency for international outreach and coordination. In February 2003, the direction of U.S. policy was further refined through the issuance of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. The National Strategy contains a strong international outreach component, focusing on promotion of watch-and-warning networks and a global culture of cyber security. The direction of the Strategy was also informed by cyber crime and cyber security principles encompassed in United Nations General Assembly Resolutions 55/63 and 57/239 sponsored by the United States.

Cyber crime is a significant related issue. The criminal misuse of IT has increased exponentially in the last several years. Cyber crimes can include activities such as fraud, child pornography, and extortion, where IT is a means for carrying out the elements of the crime, and also activities such as hacking, intrusion, and denial of service attacks where information networks are themselves targeted. INL provides technical assistance and training to foreign law enforcement in detection, prevention, and prosecution of high-tech crimes. Given the nascence of cyber crime in many developing nations, our assistance includes enabling U.S. prosecutors to travel abroad to give key nations legislative drafting advice. INL also participates in developing U.S. policy positions on cyber crime in organizations such as the G-8, the Council of Europe, APEC, the OAS and the United Nations.

The USG has also long been engaged on issues related to protection of IPR. The 1998 Crime Control Strategy directed U.S. agencies to protect IPR rights by enhancing foreign and domestic law enforcement efforts. The Department remains tasked with a mission to help combat IPR theft worldwide and to help create predictable legal and economic environments so American business interests can prosper. Through an inter-agency training coordination group (TCG) that includes industry participation, INL promotes IPR foreign training and technical assistance projects that involve significant cooperation with the private sector.

Program Accomplishments

Since the establishment of the PCIB in 2001, the United States has accelerated its international CIP outreach program. INL has helped advance our diplomatic objectives through participation in bilateral discussions with close allies, with multilateral organizations like the Organization of American States (OAS), the Council of Europe and APEC, and through our input into the National Strategy. This diplomatic activity has often set the stage for concrete follow through. For example, in 2003, INL provided support for the first-ever OAS conference on cyber security in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We followed up bilateral discussions with India by agreeing to provide high tech crime investigative training to Indian national police. We enabled the Department of Justice to provide in-country cyber crime legislative drafting assistance to Brazil and Argentina. We continue to assess our programs with an eye on how best to fulfill the goals of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace.

In FY 2002 INL provided additional targeted IPR crime training assistance to law enforcement in Brazil, Egypt and the Philippines - nations that were targeted by the TCG for extra attention. We engaged in further discussions with private industry on the best ways to coordinate and deliver training and technical assistance, such as the creation of joint training materials.

FY 2004 Program

INL will continue to participate as part of the Department of State Inter-Agency Working Group on CIP international outreach activities. This will include working with our closest allies to facilitate sector-to-sector relationships and connectivity between law enforcement, as well as expanding our circle of contacts to selected countries and multilateral organizations. INL expects to fully coordinate its activities with the new Department of Homeland Security, as well as already existing U.S. agencies.

We expect demand for training and technical assistance from foreign law enforcement to combat criminal misuse of IT to increase throughout the range of existing INL programs. INL will provide assistance either by training to fight cyber crime itself, or by assistance in fighting substantive crimes such as money laundering and child pornography that are furthered through use of IT. Raising the technical capabilities of our foreign law enforcement partners is essential to the mission of U.S. law enforcement. INL expects to work closely with the PCIB and DHS to determine priority targets for such assistance.

INL will continue to promote IPR enforcement through participation in the international training coordination group. Our particular responsibility will be to deliver assistance to countries identified as priorities for IPR training. As we did last year, INL will closely weigh input from the TCG to determine the best candidates for such assistance. We look not only to increase the numbers of such programs, but also to better integrate input and participation from private industry into our long term IPR assistance plans. The countries INL is likely to work with to build institutions to address cyber crime, CIP, and IPR challenges include Philippines, Kenya, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, India, and Mexico.


Fighting Corruption

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Program

Building on our FY 2002 terrorist supplemental request and in support of our border security efforts, INL funds will focus on: improving the ability of governments to control the irregular movement of persons into and through their country, facilitating regular movements, instituting secure travel document issuance systems, and strengthening immigration management systems. Effective border control programs depend on having adequate training, visa regimes, and equipment, including automated systems to track the movement of cargo and people through ports of entry.

Through our border assessments, INL will identify vulnerable countries and will work with them to upgrade their border control systems, including assisting them to improve travel document issuance systems. INL will concentrate on those countries that are major transit locations used by migrant smugglers and terrorist organizations. Initially, INL will focus its attention on improving border controls in Bolivia and Suriname. The Government of Bolivia has expressed interest in improving their migration management systems, and Suriname has become a transit country for aliens destined for the United States.


Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property Rights and Critical Infrastructure Protection

Budget Summary ($000)

The number of countries with comprehensive laws and trained law enforcement authorities to combat alien smuggling will increase.

Foreign authorities (with active cooperation from the United States or based on their own initiatives) will dismantle alien smuggling networks by identifying, apprehending, and prosecuting their leaders and destroying their assets.

Additional alien smuggling networks will be identified as a result of intelligence, leads, and cases generated by U.S.-trained and assisted foreign law enforcement authorities.

Program Justification

The smuggling of illegal migrants is a widespread, expanding, and increasingly sophisticated criminal industry that has a serious and direct impact on the United States. The United Nations estimates that nearly four million human beings are smuggled and trafficked across national boundaries every year, and roughly $7 billion is paid to criminal organizations involved in alien smuggling. Viewed from a global perspective, smuggling in illegal migrants is a widespread criminal industry. Some 500,000 illegal aliens are possibly brought into the United States annually by organized crime smuggling networks. They arrive from around the world: Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands are the major sources in the Western Hemisphere; China, India, and Pakistan are the major sources in Asia. They often take indirect routes to get here. Chinese organizations, for instance, will frequently direct their operations through South and Central America. Eventually, most of the illegal aliens enter the United States by way of Mexico and Canada.

Foreign governments and law enforcement authorities are sometimes reluctant to dedicate resources to alien smuggling cases because they see this as a victimless crime. The reality is that migrants are often subjected to inhumane or dangerous treatment and in some cases to violence. In addition, alien smuggling has a corrosive effect on the integrity of public institutions since bribery is a key component of the alien smuggler's trade.

Program Accomplishments

INL has provided law enforcement training on combating alien smuggling to over three hundred foreign officials in the past three years. The Bureau provided funding to conduct a training course for mid-level managers in developing countries on ways to combat international migrant smuggling and illegal migration. The course was designed to provide technical, legal, and managerial training to enhance the participating foreign official’s ability to implement border security professionally and effectively. INL also provided funding to deliver a training course designed to provide senior instructors and training managers with the skills to develop and manage basic immigration law enforcement training.

INL anticipates providing support to foreign governments that have chosen to ratify and implement the UN Transnational Organized Crime Convention and its protocol on migrant smuggling. To date, over 100 countries have signed the protocol. The main themes of the protocol are to criminalize smuggling, strengthen law enforcement cooperation, enhance border controls, including document security training, and ensure the prompt return of the smuggled migrant.

In response to the migrant smuggling challenge and to further our anti-alien smuggling objectives, INL will help establish a fully operational inter-agency Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons Coordination Center (MSTPCC). This initiative will bring together federal agency representatives from the policy, law enforcement, intelligence, and diplomatic arenas to work together on a full-time basis to achieve increased progress in addressing these problems, particularly in terms of converting intelligence into effective enforcement actions. The Center will provide a mechanism to foster greater integration and overall effectiveness in U.S. government enforcement and other response efforts and would promote similar intensified efforts by foreign governments and international organizations to combat migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons.

INL purchased computers for the Government of Ecuador to use at the international airport in Quito. Funding was also provided to detail a team of attorneys to Ecuador to provide guidance on strengthening alien smuggling legislation. INL also funded an alien smuggling conference for Caribbean immigration and police officials as part of our effort to focus more attention on our third border. Lastly, INL coordinated and helped fund a program on border controls at an OAS (CICTE) conference in El Salvador where the participants explored the links between alien smuggling and terrorism.

FY 2004 Program

INL will continue to support the development of the MSTPCC. The Center’s initial efforts will be fundamentally supportive rather than directive in nature. The Center will provide strategic assessments, identify issues that might benefit from enhanced interagency coordination and attention, and coordinate or otherwise support agency or interagency efforts in particular cases.

INL will also focus on strengthening the investigative and prosecutorial capacity to combat alien smuggling in Ecuador. Ecuador has become a major source and transit country for aliens entering the United States. The vetted unit will be trained in the areas of investigative techniques, consensual monitoring, anti-corruption, and anti-smuggling. After the initial training, the host country vetted units will work in conjunction with trained prosecutors in fully dismantling international smuggling organizations. This team concept will serve to strengthen the law enforcement and prosecutorial branches of the host country government and will provide a reliable and effective means for United States law enforcement and host country law enforcement cooperation.


Border Security

Budget Summary ($000)


Alien Smuggling

Budget Summary ($000)



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