The fundamental mission of the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is to protect America's security by fighting international crime and drug trafficking and strengthening law enforcement overseas. Since the events of 9/11, INL has broadened its policy and program focus, emphasizing capacity building in key developing countries with weak justice sectors vulnerable to terrorist threats and areas critical to protecting our homeland security. INL programs produce:
Fewer illegal and dangerous drugs on America's streets, with higher prices and lower purities;
Greater host nation law enforcement capabilities to work jointly with U.S. agencies on counterterrorism operations;
Improved security and political stability in post-conflict situations;
Enhanced host nation capabilities to stem money laundering and interdict sources of terrorist financing; and
Greater host nation capacity to combat corruption and organized crime;
INL counterdrug and law enforcement country programs are the primary vehicles for the provision of bilateral assistance. Country programs:
Are developed on the basis of country strategies coordinated at post by the Country Teams and/or Law Enforcement Working Groups and host nation officials;
Are formalized through bilateral Letters of Agreement that set out key objectives, program priorities, performance targets, and funding levels;
Strengthen relationships with various host country ministries and law enforcement authorities;
Support operational law enforcement cooperation between the host governments and the FBI, DEA, and others by providing valuable training/equipment/technical assistance platforms;
Are coordinated at post by Narcotics/Law Enforcement Section Officers directly linked to INL;
Are supported in Washington by INL subject and country experts and policy apparatus;
Are implemented by a wide variety of U.S. law enforcement and regulatory agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and international assistance agencies.
INL's regional and global programs complement country programs in key areas:
Anticorruption programs create awareness and support for international standards in transparency and good governance;
Regional law enforcement training brings together professionals from neighboring countries and builds them into a network for future cooperation;
Demand reduction programs reach out to grass-roots constituencies with education and support, improving American's own image in the process;
Anti-money laundering/terrorist financing programs identify vulnerabilities in key countries and provide speedy assistance to create sound financial institutions;
Anti-alien smuggling and border security programs help extend our first line of defense against all forms of transnational crime;
Cybercrime, cybersecurity and intellectual property crime programs address the growing impact of criminal misuse of information technology.
International crime and terrorism remain serious threats to the United States and many close friends and allies. Both follow the path of least resistance; where laws and law enforcement are weak or compromised, those who thrive by preying on others move in.
Global recognition of the dangers of drugs and crime -- and the need for stronger international cooperation to fight those threats -- has steadily increased. The one-time divide between "producer" and "consumer" countries of illicit narcotics has vanished, replaced by understanding that all countries are vulnerable and that domestic drug problems are on the increase in drug producing and trafficking states around the world. Similarly, nations on all continents have begun to accept that corruption and money laundering associated with trafficking relentlessly undermine governments and national economies. U.S. leadership has galvanized support for new multilateral instruments, such as conventions against organized crime and corruption. Meanwhile, the international community continues to support strongly the ambitious antidrug commitments embodied in the three U.N. drug conventions.
To meet these challenges, the President has placed the fight against terrorism, international narcotics, and transnational organized crime high on our national security and foreign policy agendas. The State Department and the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) play a key role in carrying out the President's agenda by leading in the development and coordination of U.S. international drug and crime policies and programs. To deal with the increasing linkage and overlap among drug, crime, and terrorist groups, INL has begun shifting from separate programs for counternarcotics and anticrime to a broader and more integrated law enforcement effort to combat the full range of criminal, drug, and terrorist threats. INL does this through a range of bilateral, regional, and global initiatives to build up the law enforcement capabilities of foreign governments so they can help stop these threats before they reach U.S. soil. This includes extending our first line of defense by strengthening border controls of other countries in addition to our own, ensuring that global criminals have no place to hide, attacking international financial and trade crimes, and responding to emerging crime challenges.
INL efforts center on two performance goals:
Although the FY 2004 INL counternarcotics budget represents only a small (five percent) part of the federal drug control budget, INL bilateral and multilateral programs and diplomatic initiatives are currently strengthening counternarcotics and law enforcement efforts in more than 150 countries around the world in support of the President's 2003 National Drug Control Strategy and other strategies aimed at fighting crime and protecting our national security interests. The focus of our programs, and our budget, remains countries of the Andean Ridge, the primary source of the cocaine and heroin entering the United States, and their immediate neighbors. INL is also targeting major transit states in South and Central America and the Caribbean, and Mexico, which is also a source country for heroin and marijuana. Finally, INL is also giving increased attention the entry of synthetic drugs via the Western Hemisphere into the United States.
CY 2003 posed many new challenges as INL focused on strengthening the counterterrorism elements of our program. It also presented new opportunities, including Iraq, where the U.S. and other coalition members are working to build stability, democracy, and economic progress in the post-conflict period. Highlights of INL programmatic and diplomatic accomplishments over the year include the following:
ACI: Eradicating Drugs in the Andes that Target U.S. Citizens
Colombia: Colombia is the source of more than 90 percent of the cocaine and most of the heroin entering the United States. In 2002, for the first time in ten years, the INL-supported aerial eradication program reduced coca cultivation by 15 percent and opium cultivation by 25 percent. In 2003, following another record-breaking year in terms of the number of hectares sprayed, coca cultivation declined by an additional 21 percent, for a total of 33 percent over the past two years. This represents a major breakthrough in terms of attacking cocaine production at the source. If INL continues to post gains of this magnitude, INL should be able to fundamentally reduce coca production to a de minimus level in Colombia within the next 18-24 months, assuming continued strong Colombian leadership. With U.S. support, the Uribe Administration has intensified its attack on narco-terrorism, extraditing more than 87 narco-terrorists to the U.S. over the past year. INL also helped fund Uribe's successful move to establish a police and security presence in all of the 158 municipalities located in conflict zones that had no such presence as recently as a year ago. To make more effective use of alternative development (AD) funds, USAID refocused its efforts in 2003 away from crop substitution in Putumayo and Caqueta, which had had limited success, toward infrastructure development and income-boosting private sector partnerships in nearby provinces where economic opportunities are better and where such programs have been more successful in the past. In FY 2003, AD programs aided more than 31,170 families. The resumption of the Colombian Air Bridge Denial Program adds a force multiplier to fight against drugs and its illicit proceeds.
Peru and Bolivia: INL led interagency efforts to bolster political will in Peru and Bolivia to consolidate the hard-won gains in recent years against coca cultivation and trafficking that ended their long reign as the primary source of the world's cocaine. Following a small rise in cultivation in 2002, eradication efforts in Peru in 2003 produced a 15 percent decline in coca cultivation, bringing Peru to its lowest level since the mid-1980s. To support region-wide efforts to interdict the aerial trafficking of drugs, INL has taken the USG policy lead to support Peruvian efforts to begin to track trafficking routes and link this information with more effective interdiction actions. Bolivia continued to make progress with its forced eradication program in the once infamous Chapare valley, where coca cultivation dropped by 15 percent in 2003. However, cultivation increased 26 percent in the Yungas region. Although some coca is grown legally in that region, illegal cocaleros and other political activists have actively -- and in some cases violently -- opposed eradication and related alternative development programs. Despite the overall increase of 17 percent in coca cultivation countrywide in 2003, Bolivian levels remain well below the high point of the mid-1990s. Meanwhile, Bolivian interdiction forces enjoyed a banner year in 2003, seizing nearly 13 metric tons of cocaine.
Eradicating Opium Poppy in Asia: Quiet Success Stories
Thailand: Through U.S. assistance and consistent domestic effort, Thailand has fallen from the ranks of Major Producers of illicit opium. Thailand, once a major source of heroin into the U.S. and elsewhere, is now a net importer of heroin. Thailand's production has remained below the statutory level for inclusion in the Majors List (1000 hectares) for five consecutive years.
Pakistan: With U.S. support, Pakistan, also once a major producer of opium poppy, has reduced cultivation there to minimal levels over the past several years. Although cultivation has increased in the past two years along the western border due to the resurgence of the opium trade in neighboring Afghanistan, Pakistan remains a marginal producer of opium.
SE Asia: International diplomatic pressure and alternative development programs in Burma and Laos have helped bring about sharp reductions in opium poppy cultivation in those countries in recent years, a trend that is expected to continue.
Other Key Successes
Mexico: Protecting our Border and Partnering Against International Threats: Our law enforcement partnership with Mexico is critical to U.S. national security. Our shared 2,000-mile border with Mexico is the entry point into the U.S. of huge amounts of illicit drugs, including the majority of South American cocaine shipments as well as the overwhelming majority of illegal aliens, some with links to organized crime and terrorist groups. According to U.S. law enforcement, Mexican cartels now dominate 11 of the 13 major domestic drug distribution centers inside the U.S. Department programs to accelerate Mexico's steps to reform and modernize it justice sector are significantly improving U.S. and Mexican abilities to cooperate and coordinate at the operational level. Mexican law enforcement agencies and military personnel continued their successful targeting of major drug trafficking organizations and their leaders, arresting numerous major fugitives wanted on drug charges in the U.S. During 2003, the Government of Mexico extradited 35 fugitives (20 for counternarcotics offenses) to the United States. However, extradition levels continue to be low. Drug seizures increased substantially. Opium poppy cultivation, widely dispersed in small plots in isolated areas, continued to drop under Mexico's aggressive eradication program. Border security projects are ahead of schedule, with planned placements of non-intrusive inspection equipment at several main ports of entry near completion.
Afghanistan: The inability of the Afghan national government to establish an effective police and counternarcotics presence in the provinces led to a doubling of opium poppy cultivation during the 2002-2003 growing season, more than offsetting the significant drop in cultivation levels in SE Asia. Without an organized security force or rule of law, the drug trade and the revenues and criminal groups generated by it will continue to undermine the stability of both Afghanistan and the region. Working with Germany to help rebuild the national police force, the U.S. built new training facilities and graduated the first 2,000 lower-level police officers (out of 50,000 planned). They have now been deployed in regular police units.
Pakistan: Pakistan remains a key ally in the campaign against terrorist and drug trafficking in SW Asia but it has been hampered by the inaccessibility of large portions of its 1,500-mile border with Afghanistan, which have served as safe havens for fugitives and as the source of new plantings of opium poppy. INL assistance to border guard units, including much-needed helicopters, more than 1,000 vehicles, and associated training, are now beginning to provide some of the increased mobility needed to monitor the region and to carry out interdiction and other operations, with full operations expected in 2004. Cooperation on counternarcotics remains excellent. Pakistani police authorities have greatly increased their interdiction efforts and seizures of illicit drugs and should soon be able to increase eradication efforts in the border area.
Fighting Corruption and Setting International Standards Against Crime: Early in his Administration, President Bush identified the fight against corruption as a key foreign policy objective. In support of this objective, INL championed and delivered the first global instrument against corruption - the UN Convention Against Corruption - that commits governments to cooperate in combating corruption. The Department played a key role and provided important financial and political support during two years of negotiations leading to the completion of the convention, which was signed in December 2003, by the United States and nearly 100 other countries in Merida, Mexico. The Convention Against Corruption follows closely on the heels of the completion of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and the Supplementary Protocols on Trafficking in Persons and Migrant Smuggling in 2000, all of which recently entered into force, much sooner than expected. The TOC Convention and the Protocols now take on the force of international law. In 2003, INL advanced the notion of anti-corruption "compacts" in which the Bureau, using INCLE and other funds, would coordinate the development of comprehensive anti-corruption regimes in strategic countries that demonstrate a serious commitment to combating this threat. Work began on a pilot project in Nicaragua that will set the stage for a much broader effort to other countries in 2005.
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering: Terrorist groups, drug traffickers, and traditional transnational crime organizations share many traits, but none so compelling as the need to launder, hide, or secretly move their profits and operating funds. In the past two years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. In FY 2003, INL funding provided multi-agency training for more than 35 countries. To promote global cooperation on anti-money laundering, INL provides support to the multilateral Financial Action Task Force (FATF), which has added a special set of anti-terrorist financing recommendations to both its general anti-money laundering and recently revised recommendations, and to five FATF-style regional bodies. Our programs helped "graduate" eight countries from FATF's list of non-cooperating states and territories in 2002 and four in 2003 by improving their performance in combating money laundering. INL has also provided assistance to 16 of the 19 states identified by the USG and the FATF as most "at risk" for terrorist financing operations.
Establishing Rule of Law in Post Conflict Societies: To meet urgent needs in countries in the post-conflict period, INL is taking measures to enhance the USG capacity to identify, train, equip and deploy civilian police, law enforcement and justice advisors to participate in multilateral peacekeeping and complex security operations. Using International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE), Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF), Peace Keeping Operations (PKO), and Support for East European Democracy (SEED) money, INL currently deploys approximately 775 police advisors and justice experts in seven countries, including over 600 uniformed and armed U.S. police to conduct law enforcement operations in UN peacekeeping missions in Kosovo and East Timor, and unarmed missions in Liberia and Sierra Leone. To meet future needs, INL is preparing to build a "ready reserve" of up to 2,000 pre-screened and pre-trained civilian police, law enforcement, and justice advisors for rapid deployment in multilateral peacekeeping and complex security situations. INL continues to implement programs that have helped establish, train, and equip 6,200 members of the new Kosovo Police Service as well as provide training for the 3,000-member East Timor Police Service. In Iraq, INL is working with the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) to provide training for approximately 35,000 Iraqi police recruits over the next two years. This includes the first 1,000 police who have graduated from the training facility in Jordan that INL is building to support the program. INL is also implementing police, justice, and prison programs in Iraq, which involve over 500 U.S. trainers and advisors. In Afghanistan, INL is managing police and justice programs designed to stand up and train 50,000 police in regional training centers in Kabul and the provinces, as well as assist with reform of the Ministries of Interior and Justice.
Law Enforcement Training: To date, our four International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana and New Mexico have trained nearly 13,000 mid-level officials from over 50 countries, including 2,400 officials trained in 2003. The permanent "home" for the Botswana ILEA was completed in 2003 and completion of the permanent facility for ILEA-Bangkok is set for 2004. Revisions to the ILEA curricula in 2003 now include more courses on counter-terrorism and on combating trafficking in persons. In addition to the regionally based and focused training of the ILEAs, INL also delivered a broad range of specialized training tailored to the needs of individual countries. Beginning in 2003, such training became increasingly project-based, which helps focus resources and is more cost effective.
Trafficking in Persons: According to some experts, at least 800,000, and as many as 4 million people, primarily women and children are trafficked around the world each year, where they are subjected to economic and/or sexual exploitation. Using INL and other resource funding, the Department's Office to Monitor and Combating Trafficking in Persons assessed the progress of 165 governments in addressing trafficking in 2003 and published the findings in the third annual Trafficking in Persons Report. The Office also funded over 65 programs benefiting approximately 50 countries around the world, including a sex tourism prevention program, research on best practices around the world to address the demand for sex trafficking, development of a global database on the number of victims, law enforcement training and sensitization, shelters for trafficking victims, equipment for anti-trafficking police and prosecutor teams, and assistance in drafting anti-trafficking laws. The Office also continued to engage in a strong outreach program aimed at governments, international and regional organizations, private groups and the media to increase awareness about trafficking and the contributing causes such as prostitution.
Cybercrime, Cybersecurity, and Intellectual Property Enforcement: The global spread of the Internet and networked information systems has brought significant economic and social benefits. However, the promise of e-commerce, e-government, and other beneficial uses of information technology (IT) are threatened by the encroachment of criminals. Cybercrime, whether crimes such as hacking or denial of service attacks, or the use of IT in traditional crime such as fraud and smuggling, is growing. Likewise, critical sectors of our nation such as electricity, water and transportation, are dependent on networked systems potentially vulnerable to cyber attack. Intellectual property (IP) theft causes tremendous losses annually to the most cutting-edge U.S. industries such as copyright and trademark (e.g., music, movies, computer software) with IT playing an increasing role (e.g., online music piracy). International law enforcement cooperation is an essential element in meeting the borderless threat of IT-enabled crime. To achieve this, the USG needs to assist its foreign partners in building the capacity to combat cybercrime, protect shared critical infrastructures and address IP piracy. INL plays a key role in providing cybercrime and IP enforcement training to foreign law enforcement and INL is doubling its FY 2004 resources devoted to this purpose.
The FY 2005 INL budget request of approximately $1.90 billion is designed to support President Bush's comprehensive strategy for combating the global threat of narcotics, organized crime, and terrorism. It also reflects INL's shift away from separate programs for counternarcotics and anticrime to a broader and more integrated law enforcement approach. The request builds on and strengthens ongoing initiatives in the Andean region, South Asia, and international law enforcement training while continuing to place increased emphasis on border projects. While attacking the core targets in Latin America and Asia, the strategy focuses on strengthening host nation capabilities to fight international drugs and crime. It is a long-term approach to create competent and honest counternarcotics and anticrime forces in countries where laws and institutions are weak. The strategy also supports efforts by multilateral organizations to reduce drug crop production in those major growing areas where our access is limited, such as Burma. Finally, the budget places special attention on anti-corruption, money laundering and financial crimes.
The primary focus of the FY 2005 budget request remains our counternarcotics efforts in Latin America, the principal source of drugs for the United States; Afghanistan, the world's leading source of illicit opium, is also a high priority. The approach is regional, aimed at eliminating both the production and trafficking of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana from the Andean Ridge and Mexico. The budget will focus on enhanced interdiction efforts - including key transit zones of Central America and the Caribbean - as well as furnishing training and equipment to strengthen local law enforcement's ability to capture and prosecute drug traffickers and seize their assets. The program supports projects initiated under the FY 2000 Emergency (Plan Colombia) Supplemental and continued under the Andean Counterdrug Initiative. The request will continue to support key alternative development programs.
Country Programs - $ 943.1
Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) - $ 731.0 million
Colombia ($463.0 million): As the source of approximately 90 percent of the cocaine sold on American and European markets, Colombia continues to be the focus of our counternarcotics effort. FY 2005 programs will face major challenges in building upon the historic successes of 2002 and 2003 and to help President Uribe break the hold of narco-terrorism in the country. The increasingly successful aerial eradication, which is the centerpiece of our effort, will become more difficult, costly, and dangerous as growers disperse into smaller, more isolated fields and traffickers resort to greater violence to halt operations. In 2003, the number of ground-fire hits on aircraft carrying out eradication activities doubled over the previous year, to more than 300. At the same time, the air assets and the Colombian forces INL is training will be called on to more aggressively attack narco-terrorist assets, defend vital infrastructure, and support rescue operations. FY 2005 funding will support expected growth in missions, areas of operations, and the number of vetted units for counternarcotics police and military forces and includes new and upgraded aircraft for the Colombian National Police (CNP) as well as increased logistical and other support for the Colombian Army counterdrug Mobile Brigade. To help consolidate the government's security presence throughout the country to enhance the rule of law and protect local populations against drug traffickers, INL will help further expand the CNP presence in conflict zones by funding the organization, training, and equipping of municipal police and mobile "carabineros" (rural police) units and train police investigators and prosecutors to implement a range of new criminal code procedures. Using INL funding, USAID will continue to support alternative development projects both to transition coca growers into the legal economy and provide alternatives to drug production. USAID (and the Bureau for Population, Refugees and Migration) will provide support to displaced people and USAID as well as the Department of Justice will support a variety of projects - administration of justice, human rights, local governance, transparency and accountability - to build and strengthen democratic institutions.
Peru and Bolivia ($203.0 million): INL programs in Peru and Bolivia are designed to continue the effective eradication programs that have reduced cultivation in both countries to a fraction of their highpoint in the 1990's, to increase seizures of drugs and prevent spillover of trafficking activities from neighboring Colombia. These programs complement and support specific host government initiatives and include aggressive eradication, interdiction, alternative development, and institution-building components. For Bolivia, this means forced eradication in the Chapare, where all coca is illegal, and enforcing a strategy to prevent excess illegal cultivation in Yungas, where Bolivian law allows up to 12,000 hectares of legal coca cultivation for traditional uses. FY 2005 funding will support the continued upgrade of the Peruvian counternarcotics air fleet to provide greater mobility for expanded and improved monitoring, eradication, and interdiction operations, an enhanced port interdiction program, alternative development and livelihood programs to move farmers away from coca farming, and institution-building to strengthen counternarcotics investigations and prosecution. FY 2005 funding will support Bolivian efforts to reduce the growth and export of coca, increase interdiction of essential chemicals and cocaine products, foster alternative economic development, increase successful prosecutions of narcotics-related cases, and improve the quality of investigations into alleged human right violations.
Other ACI countries ($44.0 million): In Ecuador, Brazil, Venezuela, and Panama the INL programs aim at disrupting trafficking organizations in these transit states and ensuring that traffickers and Colombian insurgents forced out of Colombia do not establish themselves in these countries. To help guard against this in Ecuador ($26.0 million), INL will continue to assist National Police and military efforts to protect the northern border as well as air and sea ports of entry. The Northern Development Project will assist the government in strengthening state presence and community structures in the north, generally supporting and expanding licit social, economic and political activities. Increasingly successful counternarcotics efforts in Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia have aggravated the drug transit problem for neighboring Brazil. FY 2005 assistance to Brazil ($9.0 million) will focus primarily on operations designed to secure the border with Colombia and the adjoining, largely unpopulated Amazonian basin against traffickers and other crime groups. INL will also support drug awareness/demand reduction programs in Brazil, which has become the world's second largest consumer of cocaine after the United States. Colombian traffickers heavily exploit neighboring Venezuela's location on the Caribbean to ship drugs to the U.S. To counter this, U.S. assistance to Venezuela ($3.0 million) will provide training, equipment, and management support to improve detection, seizure, intelligence, and investigative capabilities of law enforcement bodies and support on-site advisory assistance by USG experts at land, air, and sea ports of entry. Funding will also support the creation of an intelligence fusion center to identify and track key criminal trafficking drugs in and through Venezuela. Training for additional public prosecutors is critical for continuing the transition for the traditional closed, inquisitorial justice system to the adversarial system put in place in 1999. INL assistance to Panama ($6.0 million), Colombia's northern neighbor, will also focus on border control enhancement and will include training and equipment to both border and port security units. Counternarcotics and law enforcement assistance will strengthen GOP ability to interdict shipments of narcotics, arms, precursor chemicals, and stolen vehicles as well investigate contraband shipping as part of the Black Market Peso Exchange. Since Panama's dollar economy and relatively sophisticated banking system make it attractive for money laundering operations, our assistance also includes training for prosecutors and the Financial Investigation Unit to enable them to detect, investigate and successfully prosecute such operations.
The Airbridge Denial Program ($21.0 million): Funding in FY 2005 will provide effective intelligence; surveillance for the Colombian ABD program that will lead to increased interdiction of illicit drug trafficking aircraft and provide a real deterrent to the narco-traffickers in the region. FY 2005 funding will establish additional forward operating locations to support an anticipated increase in the number of Colombia Air Force tracking operations into previously untracked air space. Funds will also support the training of additional pilots, technical operators, and maintenance personnel to support additional tracker aircraft entering into the program, and to focus on a future shift of more program and fiscal responsibility to Colombia.
Other Latin America - $48.6 million
Mexico ($40.0 million): Mexico is critical to U.S. security interests. It is the transit zone for most illicit drugs entering the U.S. and a source country for heroin and marijuana. Mexican criminal organizations now dominate the sale and distribution of illicit narcotics in the U.S. and engage in a broad array of other criminal activities. Mexico is also the overwhelming source of host country or transiting illegal aliens entering the U.S., some with links to terrorist organizations. Our main diplomatic and programmatic challenge has been to support the Fox Administration's criminal justice system reform effort. INL is also focused on homeland/border security, a high priority for the President. FY 2005 programs will focus on three areas: 1) criminal justice institution and sector development, 2) crime control and counternarcotics operational support, including operational support to specialized crime units and assistance to Mexico's three-pronged (air, land, sea) drug interdiction strategy, and 3) homeland security and border control, including enhanced screening at key ports of entry/exit and choke points in both the north and south of Mexico. The latter is designed to promote the efficient flow of goods, people and services across the U.S.-Mexican border -- including development of a fast-lane system to expedite crossing for low-risk vehicles and people -- while providing a broad-based screening system to protect U.S. national security. INL counterdrug assistance will focus primarily on modernizing the airwing of the counternarcotics unit. Assistance for the justice sector will focus on institutional development and rooting out corruption, including professionalization of police agents, prosecutors, and both state and federal judges. Assistance will also be directed at strengthening the specialized anti-money laundering units belonging to the Treasury Department and the Attorney General.
Other Western Hemisphere ($8.6 million): Central American, Caribbean, and non-Andean South American countries represent critical transit corridors for the movement of drugs, precursor chemicals, illegal trafficking funds, weapons, and illegal aliens. In addition, these countries are important regional allies in the global fight against transnational crime and terrorism. Funding will be directed towards continued efforts in improving the interdiction capabilities of transit countries by modernizing enforcement, investigative, judicial and prosecutorial capabilities to battle corruption, money laundering and drug trafficking; upgrading intelligence; and modernize justice sector institutions and legal framework by providing training, technical assistance, equipment and operational support.
Africa - $ 10.5 million
The Africa program is aimed at states in the region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing and/or states with the political will to achieve these goals. Much of the funding for FY 2005 will go to the law enforcement and criminal justice sectors of key states Nigeria and South Africa. FY 2005 funds will be used for programs designed to upgrade core policing skills through modernization of academies and teaching methodologies and to improve forensic capacity. Programs will improve the capacity of governments to combat trafficking in narcotics and other contraband, illegal migration, public corruption, and financial fraud.
Liberia ($5.0 million): INL's FY 2005 funding will continue to support the broader USG efforts, which will begin in FY 2004, to build a stable and democratic society following years of dictatorship and civil war. INL crime control assistance includes support for up to 35 (down from a peak of 75) U.S. civilian police deployed as part of the UN Peacekeeping Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), which will help rebuild, train and equip (non-lethal) a new police force. Criminal justice assistance is designed to help reform, professionalize, and make more accountable a judicial system that has suffered from extensive corruption in the past. Funding will also help refurbish courts and provide legal materials and other basic supplies.
Afghanistan ($90.0 million): Continued insecurity in Afghanistan over the past year has placed increasing demands on INL programs, requiring the acceleration and substantial expansion of the three main programs: law enforcement, counternarcotics, and judicial reform. INL law enforcement programs will continue to complement the German-led effort to rebuild the Afghan national police by providing basic, including human rights, training for up to 50,000 lower-level police, non-lethal personal equipment and communications equipment and other material and supplies. The U.S. will continue to support the UK lead on counternarcotics by providing enhanced assistance to eradication teams, continued support to sustainable alternative development, and expansion of specialized training and equipment of drug enforcement at the provincial level to enforce the poppy ban outside Kabul. Administration of justice assistance will continue to support Afghan and Italian-led efforts to rebuild and reform the domestic justice sector. This includes helping to rebuild the justice system infrastructure, training of justice system personnel in criminal procedure, human rights and basic skills, and working with the Judicial Commission to revise the current system of laws.
Pakistan ($40.0 million): The events of September 11 shifted the focus of INL assistance to Pakistan from drug control and related programs to law enforcement, including security of the critical border with Afghanistan. The Border Security Program is designed to strengthen the capacity of law enforcement agencies in Pakistan to secure the western border against terrorists, criminal elements, and narcotics traffickers. With the delivery of needed aircraft and vehicles for the Border Security Program now complete, funding will shift to maintenance, support and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing. Funds will also be used to construct border security roads in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas as well as additional checkpoints at key roadway intersections. INL will also continue to support law enforcement and judicial development programs to help modernize Pakistan's antiquated justice sector. Counternarcotics funding will support crop control operations in areas of new or expanded opium cultivation in the border areas with Afghanistan.
Indonesia ($10.0 million): The largest Muslim country in the world, Indonesia is an emerging democracy practicing a pragmatic form of Islam and poised for a leadership role in the Islamic world. INL's FY 2005 police assistance program has three components: transformation of the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) from a military-led to a civilian-led police force built on democratic principles and respect for human rights, support for modernizing the Marine Police, and assistance to POLRI's counterdrug unit. Earlier phases of the POLRI program focused on developing leadership among high-ranking officers and providing specialized law enforcement training. FY 2005 funds will continue these efforts and will advance and institutionalize an on-going anti-corruption and police disciplinary system, and improve core police skills and expertise in specialized investigative areas, including cybercrime. Also included is support for the Police Media Relations Project, which includes community policing, operational transparency, and public awareness. Assistance to the Marine Police is part of a long-range modernization project to improve the effectiveness of the force charged with protecting Indonesia's maritime borders, which stretch across 17,000 islands and which are vulnerable to a range of criminal activities from narcotics trafficking to terrorism. INL assistance will also support the professionalization of the criminal justice system, which is rife with corruption and not reflective of Indonesia's move toward an open and democratic government.
Morocco ($6.0 million): Due to its long and poorly controlled borders with Algeria, Mauritania, and the Spanish enclaves, its extensive coastline, and its proximity to Europe, Morocco has significant problems with illegal migration and human smuggling, narcotics production and trafficking, the movement of terrorists through its territory, and commercial smuggling. These criminal activities undermine the rule of law, foster public corruption, and weaken Moroccan institutions that assist the U.S. in the war on terrorism. Country-specific funding is requested for the first time in FY 2005, following emergency police assistance in the wake of a series of terrorist bombings in 2003. Funding will focus on border control, including extensive technical advice as well as some equipment. Funding will also go to community-policing projects designed to increase public confidence in law enforcement institutions. Finally, assistance will be used to improve Moroccan police capability to properly manage demonstrations and civil disorder.
Thailand ($2.0 million): Thailand is a long-time U.S. ally, in the fight against drugs and host to one of our regional ILEAs. At one time a source country for heroin, Thailand's aggressive counternarcotics strategy kept opium poppy cultivation below 1000 hectares in 2003, for the fifth year in a row, and at the lowest level since the mid-1980s. Thailand also plays a leading regional role in combating illegal drugs and other transnational crime. Even so, Thailand serves as a transit zone for heroin and the sharp increase in methamphetamines coming out of Burma and other states in the region. At U.S. urging and with INL assistance, Thailand is in the process of amending virtually all of its basic narcotics laws and all substantive and procedural criminal laws, including those that pertain to money laundering. Our FY 2004 funding will continue to support this important and on-going effort.
Laos ($2.0 million): Laos is one of the world's least developed countries and the third largest source - after Afghanistan and Burma - of opium poppy. In keeping with its stated goal of becoming opium-free by 2006, the total area under cultivation dropped by 20 percent in 2003. However, due to improved climatic conditions and consequently higher yields, potential production actually increased by about 10 percent. Laos is also a transit route for Burmese drugs going to China and other SE Asian states. INL development programs are aimed at stemming production and trafficking of illicit opium by providing market-based income alternatives for poppy farms and training and equipment for counternarcotics units.
Interregional Aviation Support ($68.6 million): In FY 2005, the Interregional Aviation budget will continue to provide only core level services necessary to operate a fleet of over 160 fixed and rotary wing aircraft supporting aviation activities in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru, border security operations in Pakistan, and, as needed, programs at other temporary deployment locations. This base of support is essential to logistically sustain depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational deployment of INL air assets. Funding from various country programs to support specific, local NAS and cooperating host government missions will augment this budget.
International Organizations ($13.0 million). The International Organizations budget funds multilateral approaches to fighting crime and drugs, allows financial and political burden-sharing, and permits the United States to reach areas where U.S. influence is limited. For some lesser-developed countries, assistance from international organizations is often more palatable politically than direct bilateral assistance from developed nations. FY 2005 funds will support ongoing efforts by the UN Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to implement the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its supplemental protocols against human trafficking and migrant smuggling, all of which have now entered into force. Funding will also support ratification and implementation of the newly completed UN Convention Against Corruption. On the counternarcotics side, assistance to UNODC will support opium eradication through alternative development programs in Burma and Laos -- the second and third largest source of illicit heroin worldwide -- where opium poppy cultivation levels continue to decline. The development and maintenance of national data banks to track chemical precursors and to train law enforcement officials on the issue of chemical precursors; the global program against "traditional" forms of money laundering for countries not on the terrorism financing priority list; and the global legal advisory program, which focuses on implementation of the various international drug conventions. Funding for the OAS/Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) will allow key technical support and training to Latin American countries as they seek to enhance their ability to fight drugs and related crime, focusing in particular on shortcomings identified in the Mutual Evaluation Mechanism (MEM).
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction ($4.2 million): While INL programs focus primarily on reducing the supply of drugs entering the United States, our demand reduction programs have become increasingly important in recent years as both producing and transit countries suffer from increasing drug use. Sharing "best practices" increases prospects for success. INL has provided assistance to or has networking relationship with more than 7,000 public and grassroots organizations worldwide. In FY 2005, INL assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, address the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, and address the heroin threat from Asia and Colombia. An expanded area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of the global INL drug prevention network.
Trafficking in Persons ($5.0 million): INCLE funds will be used to support the second year of activities of FY 2004 U.S. grant recipients. U.S. NGOs will conduct programs designed to address the priorities of the Trafficking in Persons Office to include: raising awareness of law enforcement on the negative impact of trafficking and the importance of prosecuting traffickers and protecting victims; developing and enforcing new or existing laws; promoting multi-disciplinary (police, prosecutors, NGO service providers, for example) and coordinated approaches to addressing trafficking; collecting law enforcement data in a consistent and standardized manner; enhancing cross-border collaboration; building the capacity of foreign NGO partners; and rescuing and assisting victims. The proposed countries are India, Mexico, Ecuador, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Ethiopia, Mauritania, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Thailand and Burma. East Asia and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries are proposed targets for regional programs.
The Trafficking Office proposes to continue to support specialized anti-trafficking programs conducted at the International Law Enforcement Academies in Bangkok, Botswana and Budapest. Specifically, INL proposes to target local law enforcement officials and prosecutors working with U.S. grant recipients and their local NGO partners in East Asia, SADC countries, Estonia and Slovenia. These officials and prosecutors will receive technical training on investigative and prosecutorial techniques to combat trafficking in persons. The Department of Justice, Department of Homeland Security or an organization will be contracted to provide the training at the ILEAs.
INL Anticrime Programs ($19.0 million): INL will continue to support a range of diplomatic and programmatic anti-crime initiatives, funded in part from the Anticrime account, but also from other INL budget line items, such as International Organizations and some country accounts. The most prominent programs will focus on money laundering, corruption, migrant smuggling, border security, and various intellectual property theft and cyber-related threats, but funds will also be used to meet a wide range of other law enforcement training needs in scores of countries around the world.
Migrant Smuggling: The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. Funds for this program will help support the newly created Human smuggling and Trafficking Center - a joint State/Justice/Homeland Security center that has begun to collect, analyze, and disseminate intelligence and other information to facilitate coordinated international law enforcement efforts against illegal migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons. INCLE funds will also be used to conduct assessments and create "vetted units" and provide other training and technical assistance.
Border Security: Porous borders greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid apprehension. However, as the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls can be a substantial deterrent to such activity and be a vehicle for gleaning useful information for identifying, investigating, and dismantling crime syndicates. INCLE border control funds will continue to be focused on strengthening and complementing several of the programs INL has underway in South and Central America that are needed to stop a rash of criminal activity including narcotics trafficking, alien smuggling, and money laundering in this region. Our focus will include the Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay tri-border area, where all three threats as well as terrorism merge.
Fighting Corruption: Any effective anti-crime/anti-terrorism program must also attack corruption. As part of the President's anticorruption initiative in the G-8 and other fora, INCLE funding will support several international mechanisms - at the U.N., Council of Europe, OAS, the OECD, and others - to monitor and assist in the implementation of anti-corruption commitments by more than 60 nations. Funding will also support creation of anti-corruption compacts - fully integrated, government-wide programs designed to attack corruption across multiple sectors -- as pilot projects in several countries.
Anti-Money Laundering/Terrorist Financing: INL will promote the use of legislative, enforcement and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. With Homeland Security, INL will fund initial training and equipment to set up Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) in selected countries to combat funds moved through alternative remittance systems and falsified trade data in South Asia and Latin America. INCLE funding will develop new regional technical assistance/training programs in Central America and the Pacific Island region, using the Caribbean Anti-money Laundering Program as a model. Regional programs are particularly cost effective because they provide training and assistance to several countries sharing similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. Funding will also provide short and long-term advisers to selected countries to help strengthen their overall anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes, including creating Financial Intelligence Units (FIU). INL programs will also continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the Financial Action Task Force and regional FATF-style bodies, as well as the creation of new regional bodies for Central Asia and the Middle East.
Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and IP Crime: INL fills a key role in the overall USG strategy to combat criminal misuse of information technology through our ability to provide capacity-building training to foreign law enforcement. Since many governments are just now beginning to write adequate laws on cybercrime and IP, INL supports DOJ legislative-drafting workshops, such as the ones held last year for APEC and OAS member states. As part of the USG inter-agency working group on critical infrastructure protection (CIP), INL provides policy support and training assistance to our foreign partners to help them address cyber security concerns. In FY 2004, INL will double its enforcement training budget to meet increased demand from developing nations for assistance in building specialized cybercrime and IP enforcement units, enable USG agencies to counsel foreign policy makers on writing effective cybercrime and IP laws, and provide support for the CIP goal of promoting a global culture of cyber security.
Civilian Police Program ($2.7 million): FY 2005 funding will build on FY 2004 progress in establishing a cadre of civilian police, law enforcement and justice advisors. The FY 2004 goal is to identify, screen, equip and pre-train approximately 500 police who would be available for duty abroad on short notice to serve in international peacekeeping and complex security missions. Given the currently heavy demand for civilian police around the world, however, it will be difficult for the "ready reserve" to stay ahead of actual deployments. Using INCLE, IRRF, and SEED funding, INL expects to manage post conflict operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Macedonia, East Timor, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. These together will involve nearly 1,000 U.S. civilian police and criminal justice experts.
International Law Enforcement Academy ($14.5 million). Our regional International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) not only provide high-quality training and technical assistance to foreign law enforcement officials, they also encourage strong partnerships among participating regional countries, and foster relationships between U.S. trainer-agencies and their counterparts in the region. The ILEAs also develop an extensive network of alumni who become leaders and decision-makers in their respective countries and who are more likely to apply rational, democratic solutions to administrative and operational problems and challenges of law enforcement, according to extensive surveys of ILEA graduates. In FY 2005, INL will continue to support the work of established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone and Roswell, New Mexico. In addition, INL is still considering opening another ILEA in Latin America. Funding will also be used to continue upgrading and updating the core and specialized curriculum to reflect cutting-edge issues, such as terrorism and trafficking in persons.
INL Budget by Program
|ACI Country Programs|
|Alter. Dev./Inst. Building||41,727||-||41,752||-||42,000|
|Colombia: Interdiction/Eradication (A)||377,000||35,000||313,721||-||313,200|
|Alter. Dev./Inst. Building||149,200||19,000||149,279||-||149,800|
|Alter.Dev. /Inst. Building||15,896||-||15,212||-||15,000|
|Air Bridge Denial Program||-||-||-||-||21,000|
|Statutory Reduction ACI (.59%)||C||-||C||-||-|
|Total ACI Country Programs||788,450||54,000||726,687||-||731,000|
|INCLE COUNTRY PROGRAMS|
|Other Latin America|
|Latin America Regional||6,500||B||4,850||-||3,250|
|East Africa Initiative||-||B||-||-||-|
|Asia and the Middle East|
|Asia/Middle East Regional||4,500||-||1,000||-||1,000|
|Total INCLE Country Programs||63,700||25,000||92,700||220,000||212,070|
|INCLE GLOBAL PROGRAMS|
|Interregional Aviation Support||65,000||-||70,000||-||70,000|
|Systems Support & Upgrades||4,000||-||5,000||-||4,500|
|Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness||5,000||-||4,200||-||4,200|
|Trafficking in Persons||10,000||-||12,000||-||5,000|
|INL Anticrime Programs||12,300||-||11,324||-||19,000|
|Civilian Police Contingent||-||-||2,700||-||2,700|
|Regional Narcotics Training||4,500||-||-||-||-|
|Statutory Reduction INCLE||D||-||D||-||-|
|Total INCLE Global Programs||118,170||25,000||133,724||-||132,900|
|PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT & SUPPORT||13,850||-||13,850||-||13,850|
|TOTAL INCLE BUDGET||195,720||25,000||240,274||220,000||358,820|
|TOTAL ACI BUDGET||788,450||54,000||726,687||-||731,000|
|TOTAL INL PROGRAMS||984,170||79,000||966,961||220,000||1,089,820|
|A - The FY 2003 Actual includes $93 million in FMF Program funds that were transferred from the FY 2003 FOAA to the ACI account to assist the Colombian Military defend the Cano-Limon Pipeline.|
|The FY 2003 Suplemental includes $20 million that was transferred from the FY 2003 Wartime Supplemental Appropriation's FMF program to the ACI account in support of the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance program.|
|B - $17.0 million was "borrowed" from the FY 2003 INCLE account to support the efforts in Iraq. An additional $8.0 million was borrowed from FY 2001 funds for a total of $ 25.0 million.|
|A total of $ 24.601 was replenished with FY 2004 and FY 2004 Supplemental IRRF funds to the following programs:|
|Latin America Regional:||$3.0 million (FY 2003)|
|East Africa Initiative :||$5.232 million (FY 2003)|
|Liberia:||$7.438 million (FY 2004)|
|International Organizations:||$8.931 million (FY 2003)|
|C - Statutory reduction ACI: $4,313 and $4,550 million, in FY 2004 and FY 2003 respectively.|
|D - Statutory reduction (INCLE) $1,426 and $1,280 million, in FY 2004 and FY 2003 respectively.|
|E - Transferred from the Emergency Response Fund pursuant to PL 107-38.|
INL Budget by Function
|Eradication and Interdiction:|
|Narcotics Law Enforcement and Interdiction||362,779||20,000||34.1%||321,223||-||27.1%||302,579||27.8%|
|Eradication and Crop Control||132,104||15,000||13.8%||127,831||-||10.8%||148,597||13.6%|
|Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction||2,944||-||0.3%||2,630||-||0.2%||3,699||0.3%|
|Program Development and Support||14,821||-||1.4%||16,255||-||1.4%||18,115||1.7%|
|Sub-Total Eradication and Interdiction - ACI Funds||512,648||35,000||51.5%||467,939||-||39.4%||472,990||43.4%|
|Alternative Development/Institution Building|
|Administration of Justice and Support for Democracy||30,927||19,000||4.7%||33,976||-||2.9%||32,310||3.0%|
|Sub-Total Alt. Dev./Inst. Bldg.||275,802||19,000||27.7%||258,748||-||21.8%||258,010||23.7%|
|TOTAL - ACI||788,450||54,000||79.2%||726,687||-||61.2%||731,000||67.1%|
|Eradication and Interdiction:|
|Narcotics Law Enforcement and Interdiction||21,480||-||2.0%||34,739||50,000||7.1%||56,993||5.2%|
|Eradication and Crop Control||61,608||-||5.8%||66,032||-||5.6%||64,315||5.9%|
|Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction||7,885||-||-||4,960||-||0.4%||4,905||0.5%|
|Sub-Total Eradication and Interdiction||90,973||-||8.6%||105,731||50,000||13.1%||126,213||11.6%|
|Alternative Development/Institution Building|
|Administration of Justice and Support for Democracy||3,863||-||0.4%||2,872||10,000||1.1%||6,720||0.6%|
|Program Development and Support||24,179||-||2.3%||26,118||-||2.2%||30,340||2.8%|
|Other Global Crime||-||-||-||-||-||-||19,000||1.7%|
|Regional Narcotics Training||4,500||-||0.4%||-||-||-||-||-|
|Civilian Police Program||11,403||-||1.1%||2,700||-||0.2%||2,700||0.2%|
|International Law Enforcement Academy||14,500||-||1.4%||14,500||-||1.2%||14,500||1.3%|
|Trafficking in Persons||10,000||-||0.9%||12,000||-||1.0%||5,000||0.5%|
|Sub-Total - Alt. Dev./Inst. Bldg.||104,747||25,000||12.2%||134,543||170,000||25.7%||232,607||21.3%|
|TOTAL - INL BUDGET||984,170||79,000||100.0%||966,961||220,000||100.0%||1,089,820||100.0%|