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Diplomacy in Action

Other Latin America


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2005 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2004
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The Bahamas

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

1,100

1,000

1,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) impede the movement of illicit drugs through Bahamian territory to the U.S.

The number and amount of seizures of cocaine and marijuana will increase, along with the number of arrests of narcotics traffickers.

Bahamian law enforcement, with U.S. assistance, conducts sophisticated criminal and financial investigations and effective maritime interdiction operations that will result in a reduction in narcotics trafficking activity.

Cooperation and coordination with U.S. law enforcement will increase and several major Bahamian drug trafficking organizations will be dismantled. The number of narcotics trafficking and money laundering cases successfully prosecuted will increase.

Judicial institutions are modernized so that drug traffickers and money launderers are successfully prosecuted in an expeditious manner and their assets seized and forfeited.

The value of assets seized and forfeited will increase significantly and the government will respond expeditiously to U.S. extradition requests.

The Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas (GCOB) reaches Bahamian youth - including remote islands - with effective drug-use prevention programs.

Local surveys will show a decline in drug use.

Program Justification

An estimated 12 percent of the cocaine from South America destined for the United States passes through the Jamaica-Cuba-Bahamas sector. Bahamian drug trafficking organizations prefer to send go-fast drug smuggling boats to Jamaica to pick up cargoes of cocaine and marijuana or, less frequently, to areas around Cuba to pick up airdrops from South America or Jamaica. These boats then return to The Bahamas before attempting to smuggle the drugs into south Florida. In 2003, law enforcement officials documented sightings of go-fast type vessels every 3.5 days on average. Since its inception in 1982, the Bahamian and U.S. governments have cooperated closely in OPBAT to interdict the flow of drugs through The Bahamas. OPBAT has access to seven helicopters and other USG surveillance aircraft. It coordinates with Bahamian interceptor boats to detect and interdict drug smuggling go-fast boats operating in Bahamian waters. Detection of go-fast boats is difficult from the air as is the pursuit and arrest of smugglers who, once sighted and pursued by OPBAT, typically dump their contraband in the sea and abandon their boats on the beach. The key to countering this threat in an area similar in size to the state of California is accurate intelligence and effective communication to facilitate coordinated deployment of OPBAT's air, sea and land assets. INL assistance is directed toward improving the capacity of Bahamian law enforcement to effectively participate in joint interdiction efforts.

The Bahamas is a major offshore financial center. In June 2000, citing deficiencies in the Bahamian anti-money laundering regime, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) included The Bahamas in a list of "non-cooperating" jurisdictions in the fight against money laundering. The Bahamas responded by enacting legislation in December 2000 reforming its bank secrecy laws and creating a Financial Intelligence Unit. In June 2001, FATF recognized these improvements by removing The Bahamas from the list of "non-cooperating" jurisdictions. Nevertheless, FATF continues to monitor The Bahamas to ensure compliance with international standards and the development of legal and financial expertise to effectively detect and prosecute financial crimes.

Program Accomplishments

OPBAT is an important USG drug interdiction effort in the Caribbean and a model for regional cooperation. As in past years, project funding will support maintenance and operating costs of three OPBAT helicopter bases and additional training for the Bahamian Drug Enforcement Unit training. In FY 2001-2002, INL provided go-fast interceptor boats to the Bahamian police to permit the pursuit and arrest of drug smugglers. Additional refurbished seized go-fast interceptors will be provided to the police in FY 2005. Total cocaine seizures by OPBAT and Bahamian police during FY 2003 increased to 7 MTs from 5.3 MTs in FY 2002. At the same time, marijuana seizures declined to 12 MTs from 14 MTs. Bahamian police seized an estimated $2.8 million in assets. In FY 2001 - FY 2002, joint Bahamas-U.S. investigations resulted in the takedown of two major Bahamian drug trafficking organizations. The ringleaders of these organizations are currently appealing their extradition to the U.S. The Bahamas Customs Department created a canine drug detector unit in FY 2002 to prevent the exploitation of the Freeport Container Port by drug smugglers.

FY 2005 Program

Law Enforcement Investigations: This project works to increase the efficiency of the Royal Bahamian Police Force, and Customs Department to detect, investigate, and prosecute drug smugglers. It will fund training, technical assistance and vehicles as well as the expansion of the Customs drug interdiction initiatives in its vulnerable port facility.

Operation Bahamas Turks and Caicos (OPBAT): This project will provide support to maintain OPBAT bases, repair and replace communications equipment, and refurbish seized go-fast interceptors for the Bahamian police, and provide interdiction operations training to promote more effective joint interdiction efforts.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction: This project will continue to provide funding to the National Drug Council to promote drug public awareness activities to foster support for the interdiction programs.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funding will be used to cover the cost of salaries, benefits, and allowances of U.S. direct hire personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operational expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

The Bahamas
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement
Law Enforcement Investigations 167 - 320 - 240
OPBAT 156 - 318 - 285
Fast Response Boats 397 - - - -
Sub-Total 720 - 638 - 525
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 50 - 50 - 50
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 155 - 147 - 200
Non-U.S. Personnel - - - - -
ICASS Costs 106 - 99 - 135
Program Support 69 - 66 - 90
Sub-Total 330 - 312 - 425
Total 1,100 - 1,000 - 1,000

Guatemala

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

2,500

3,000

2,820

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Guatemala (GOG) maintains their status as a "certified" nation and continues to work to achieve an effective program to interdict illicit drugs transiting the region en route to the United States.

The amount of drugs seized continues to increase. Increase number of arrests and prosecutions by emphasizing institution building and cooperation between government agencies (police, military, and prosecutors).

The GOG makes progress in the international arena to actively pursue narcotraffickers and money laundering.

The GOG moves forward with implementation of the new Maritime Agreement and the new precursor chemical law. Asset forfeiture legislation and/or procedures are adopted. The GOG is removed from the FATF NCCT list by pursuing legislation and licensing of offshore banks to bring Guatemala into compliance with international standards.

The GOG maintains the capability to perform professional and effective investigations that lead to the successful prosecution and conviction of narcotraffickers.

The GOG continues to streamline narcotics-related arrests and move forward on pending extradition cases.

The GOG maintains an effective and well-publicized demand reduction program.

Survey results show that drug use decreases.

Program Justification

Guatemala is a significant transit country for cocaine from South America to Mexico and onward to the United States. U.S. intelligence experts estimate that between 150 and 250 metric tons of cocaine is transshipped annually through Guatemala. Small amounts of opium poppy and marijuana are cultivated for domestic consumption. Diversion of precursor chemicals is a serious concern.

While significant poppy cultivation in Guatemala has been eliminated, it remains necessary to periodically assess the magnitude of the crop using the INL Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) capability. The Peten region of the country continues to be the main source of marijuana cultivation. GOG narcotics control police carry out manual eradication, limited air-mobile interdiction (with INL assistance), port control operations, narcotics investigations, and road interdiction and inspection functions.

Program Accomplishments

After the February 2003 finding that the GOG had "failed demonstrably" in its counternarcotics efforts, it began to work - with NAS support - to strengthen its drug enforcement capability. A new counternarcotics investigation unit, the SAIA, had already been established in October 2002. The GOG put strict measures (random drug testing and polygraphs) into force to ensure the integrity of the SAIA. The Ministry of Government (MOG), the Public Ministry (MP), and Judicial organizations have initiated the integration of computerized systems to track cases and enhance information sharing within the GOG and eventually with counterpart Central American institutions. The GOG supports interdiction and eradication operations, including - when available - the use of aerial spraying against marijuana and opium poppy crops. At the same time, the Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addictions and Illicit Drug Trafficking (SECCATID) is aggressively pursuing a demand reduction program in Guatemala.

The GOG signed and ratified a Maritime Interdiction Agreement with the U.S.; the Guatemalan Congress passed an asset forfeiture law; and the courts accelerated the sale of seized assets. Seized drugs are being burned in a timely fashion and strict procedures are in place to ensure the testing of and accountability for the drugs. In addition, cocaine seizures have increased significantly - from approximately 2.4 tons in 2002 to about 8.7 tons in 2003. Assets including boats, aircraft, vehicles, guns, grenades, gold and cash (almost $22 million dollars, Quetzals and other foreign currency) have been seized. Regulations controlling precursor chemicals have been officially published.

FY 2005 Program

The INL program for FY 2005 will permit continuation (but not expansion) of ongoing programs/projects.

The Narcotics and Law Enforcement Project will focus on developing the capacity of the GOG's anti-drug police (SAIA), a specialized division of the National Civil Police. It will strengthen Guatemala's enforcement capability by: providing training, and equipment; supporting an integrated computerized system to track vehicles, identify personnel, monitor active cases, and provide and enhance information sharing with the GOG and counterpart Central American institutions; supporting an eradication and interdiction projectto deter transshipment of cocaine and continue the eradication of opium poppy and marijuana plants; and providing operational training to support Mayan Jaguar and other USG regional eradication and interdiction efforts, including Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) and Central Skies regional deployments. The overall goal for this project is to support the GOG's narcotics enforcement institutions, so that they can effectively disrupt drug trafficking and illicit crop production in Guatemala.

The Narcotics Prosecutor Assistance Project will provide funding for the special narcotics prosecutors unit of the Attorney General's office (Public Ministry). This project will expand the number of prosecutors in the program, increase professional training, integrate the current narcotics case tracking system with the case management system that the GOG is developing for the National Civil Police, and increase drug convictions. This project supplies equipment and training in coordination with USAID judicial reform efforts and funds a local-hire legal advisor.

This project will also give continued support to the anti-corruption and anti-money laundering prosecutors units in the Public Ministry. These prosecutors are part of a Guatemalan Supreme Court initiative, which establishes "high impact" courts designed to handle sensitive organized crime and narcotics cases that regular courts cannot. In addition to staff training, the court case tracking system will eventually be integrated with the National Civilian Police case management system. The primary objective of the project is to promote greater coordination and cooperation between the judiciary, the prosecutors and the police. Already the GOG has adopted a "task force" method by appointing 10 police officers to help as investigators in the anti-narcotics prosecutors unit in Guatemala City. This group will serve as a model for anti-corruption and anti-money laundering units as well. Project provided training and technical assistance would also encourage the adoption of asset forfeiture laws and narcotics-related legal reforms.

The Demand Reduction and Public Awareness Project is designed to advance GOG efforts in this area while encouraging the government to pass needed counternarcotics legislation. The GOG recognizes that domestic drug addiction is a growing threat and has made demand reduction a national priority. The main recipient of aid from this program is the Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addiction and Drug Trafficking (SECCATID). SECCATID develops education programs and actively promotes public awareness of drug issues. The project will also develop specific advertising and public information programs, including videos addressing the dangers of drug use by youth.

Program Development and Support funds will provide for salaries, benefits and allowances of U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs and general administrative and operational expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Guatemala
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement
Narcotics Interdiction 246 - 220 - 200
Eradication 109 - 110 - 100
Institutional Development 986 - 1,486 - 1,170
Sub-Total 1,341 - 1,816 - 1,470
Administration of Justice 500 - 500 - 500
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 150 - 225 - 225
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 180 - 167 - 228
Non-U.S. Personnel 77 - 73 - 99
ICASS Costs 143 - 136 - 185
Program Support 109 - 83 - 113
Sub-Total 509 - 459 - 625
Total 2,500 - 3,000 - 2,820

Jamaica

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

1,200

1,500

1,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The capability of the Government of Jamaica (GOJ) to take effective action to disrupt, and ultimately deter, drug trafficking and other transnational criminal activities will be strengthened through the development of strong, effective, corruption-free law enforcement institutions.

The number of successful maritime interdictions of vessels transporting drugs will be increased.

The GOJ's ability to detect drugs, precursor chemicals and other contraband transiting Jamaica via commercial means will be improved, resulting in increased seizures and arrests.

Intensified law enforcement operations will result in an increase in the amount of marijuana cultivation eradicated and increased marijuana seizures.

The GOJ will investigate, arrest and prosecute public officials for corruption.

The GOJ's ability to identify, investigate, and arrest major drug traffickers and dismantle transnational drug trafficking organizations operating in Jamaica will be improved.

The GOJ will have an improved capability to collect, analyze and disseminate intelligence for effective law enforcement action.

The adoption of modern law enforcement investigative tools will enable Jamaican law enforcement to conduct sophisticated investigations, resulting in the arrest of major drug traffickers and members of their organizations.

Jamaica's criminal justice system will be strengthened and reformed, thereby improving the capacity for investigating and prosecuting drug traffickers and other criminals.

The enactment of modern anti-crime legislation, including an effective asset forfeiture law, will enable the GOJ to arrest and successfully prosecute major drug traffickers and other transnational criminals and seize and forfeit the proceeds of their criminal activities.

The GOJ will respond more quickly to U.S. requests under the bilateral extradition and mutual legal assistance treaties.

The domestic consumption of drugs in Jamaica is reduced.

Support for GOJ and NGO demand reduction efforts will increase the number of people who benefit from the anti-drug message, thereby reducing domestic consumption.

Program Justification

Jamaica is a major transit point for South American cocaine en route to the U.S. (an estimated 10 percent) and the largest Caribbean producer and exporter of marijuana for U.S. markets. Traffickers use Jamaica's offshore waters, ports and airstrips to move drugs to the U.S. Jamaican ports are vulnerable to the illegal diversion of precursor and essential chemicals used in the production of illicit drugs. Corruption continues to undermine law enforcement and judicial efforts against drug-related crime in Jamaica. Jamaica is not a significant regional financial center, tax haven, or offshore banking center. However, the U.S. is concerned about the increase in money laundering in the Caribbean, including Jamaica.

The GOJ is publicly committed to combating illegal drugs and drug-related crimes. The GOJ, however, operates under severe resource constraints, with over sixty percent of its national budget going to debt servicing. Therefore, U.S. and other donor assistance are essential to help the GOJ develop and sustain an effective counterdrug/crime capability.

Counternarcotics assistance for Jamaica seeks, through the provision of equipment, technical assistance and training, to help the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF), the Jamaica Defense Force (JDF), Jamaica Customs, and other GOJ agencies carry out effective counterdrug and anticrime law enforcement investigations and operations. This will result in the dismantling of drug trafficking and other international criminal organizations, a reduction in the amount of drugs transiting Jamaica destined for the U.S., increased seizures of precursor and essential chemicals being diverted for the manufacture of drugs, and the extradition to the U.S. of fugitives from U.S. justice. The program also provides assistance to strengthen the GOJ's ability to counter public corruption as well as limited funding for demand reduction programs in Jamaica.

Program Accomplishments

The GOJ continues to support existing counternarcotics law enforcement and interdiction programs and is taking steps to strengthen its counterdrug law enforcement capability, with the support and direction of the political leadership. Despite severe resource constraints, the GOJ spends substantial amounts to maintain an interdiction capability consisting of helicopters and patrol vessels. To augment its limited maritime interdiction resources, in 2003, program funding was used to purchase for the JDF Coast Guard (JDFCG) three go-fast interceptor boats, contracted maintenance, equipment, and training. The JDFCG worked with the USG's Joint Inter-Agency Task Force/South throughout the year to successfully disrupt a number of planned drug deliveries via go-fast vessels. In July 2003, the U.S. and GOJ negotiated a protocol that will strengthen operations under the 1998 bilateral maritime counternarcotics cooperation agreement.

In 2003, the Port Authority of Jamaica (PAJ) procured closed-circuit television systems and non-intrusive inspection equipment to improve security at Jamaica's seaports. The PAJ hired an expert to provide technical assistance in port security as well as additional personnel to operate the security equipment. The GOJ continues to implement its Customs modernization program and, in late 2003, hired 21 new officers for the Contraband Enforcement Team (CET). The JCF Narcotics Division is undergoing a multi-year restructuring and expansion program, which will increase its staffing to 250 officers over the medium term. The JCF special vetted unit continues to work with DEA on intelligence-driven investigations targeting major drug trafficking organizations, but the GOJ has yet to arrest a major drug trafficker. In September 2003, with technical assistance provided by a program-funded advisor, the GOJ established a new National Intelligence Bureau (NIB) to serve as a central coordination point for the police intelligence function.

The GOJ continues to provide resources for the Fugitive Apprehension Team (JFAT), which locates and arrests persons subject to U.S. extradition requests. In 2003, the GOJ extradited ten fugitives to the U.S. The GOJ continued its marijuana crop eradication program, although the amount eradicated in 2003 fell far short of the declared target. Significantly, though, the GOJ destroyed over 3 million cannabis seedlings at 252 nurseries during the year.

Program funds have been used to provide equipment, training, vehicles and operational support for the CET, the JCF's special vetted unit, Narcotics Division and JFAT. Program funds were also used to procure computers/software and office equipment for the new NIB. An additional $2.2 million was provided for a border control project, currently being implemented by the International Organization for Migration, that will dramatically improve Jamaica's border management capabilities through the use of computers and new technology at Jamaica's international airports and seaports, along with technical assistance and training in risk profiling, document fraud prevention, and criminal intelligence.

FY 2005 Program

All aspects of the counternarcotics program are focused on Jamaican implementation of the 1988 UN Convention Against the Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The program also provides resources to enable the GOJ to counter public corruption in compliance with the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption. To this end, the requested funding level for FY 2005 will permit the GOJ to undertake an integrated set of counterdrug, anti-money laundering and anti-corruption efforts.

Narcotics Law Enforcement: This project is designed to strengthen the GOJ's capability to identify, investigate and prosecute drug traffickers, money launderers and other international criminals and dismantle their criminal organizations; apprehend fugitives from justice; detect diversion of essential and precursor chemicals; eradicate marijuana cultivation; and counter public corruption. Requested funding will be used for equipment, training, operational support and replacement vehicles for the JCF's special vetted unit, JFAT, Narcotics Division and NIB. Funding will also support an anti-corruption project.

Border Control and Port Security: This project is designed to improve the GOJ's capability to disrupt the movement of drugs and other contraband via commercial cargo and conveyances at air and seaports and free trade zones. Requested funding will be used to train and equip newly-hired CET personnel, purchase an additional vehicle to transport members of the expanded CET between duty stations at the airports and seaports, and support a multi-agency airport interdiction task force to be set up by the GOJ.

Maritime Interdiction: This project supports the U.S.-Jamaica maritime counternarcotics cooperation agreement by strengthening the GOJ's ability to successfully interdict vessels transporting drugs. In the past, the USG provided two 82-foot cutters and refurbished several boats for the JDFCG. As these boats lack the speed necessary to counter the threat of go-fast vessels transporting drugs, the U.S., as noted, has provided three go-fast interceptor boats to the JDFCG. Requested funding will be used for the procurement of an additional go-fast interceptor boat, training and equipment to establish a vessel maintenance program, and continued support for GOJ efforts to establish forward positioning sites that will enable the rapid deployment of boats for maritime drug interdiction operations.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction: The INL program also provides limited assistance for demand reduction activities, the majority of which are supported by the GOJ, NGOs, and other donors. The requested funding for this project will enable the U.S. to continue support for existing demand reduction programs and organizations.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds cover the cost of salaries, benefits, and allowances of U.S. and foreign national direct hire personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Jamaica
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement 439 - 282 400
Border Control and Port Security 160 - 200 - 75
Maritime Interdiction 261 - 700 - 615
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 32 - 35 - 30
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 116 - 116 - 158
Non-U.S. Personnel 21 - 21 - 50
ICASS Costs 77 - 75 - 107
Program Support 94 - 71 - 65
Sub-Total 308 - 283 - 380
Total 1,200 - 1,500 - 1,500

Mexico

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

12,000

37,000

40,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INTERDICTION

Strengthen Mexico's ability to control its borders, territorial waters and airspace, preventing criminal groups from smuggling drugs, weapons or other contraband into Mexico or through Mexico to the United States.

Through support to Mexican border control agencies, including high-tech screening equipment and training, improve their ability to find contraband in cargo crossing land borders or entering/leaving the country via maritime and air ports.

Provide training, equipment and other assistance to enhance law enforcement capability and capacity to control border areas and combat trans-border criminal activity.

Improve law enforcement efficiency at ports of entry through programs such as SENTRI and Border Wizard. Mexico will receive assistance to enhance screening of northbound overland traffic from Central America for illicit drugs and other contraband.

Strengthen bilateral cooperation to reduce the flow of drugs, weapons and other trafficked items between Mexico and the United States.

Through support to Mexico's air, land and maritime interdiction programs, enhance the GOM's ability to identify, track and intercept suspect aircraft, vessels and vehicles, and thereby to increase seizures of illicit drugs and other contraband.

Dismantle transnational organized crime groups; disrupt their criminal activities; arrest and successfully prosecute major criminals, notably key narcotraffickers.

Through operational support to specialized investigative and prosecutorial units, increase the number of significant drug traffickers and other organized crime figures investigated, indicted, arrested, prosecuted and convicted.

ERADICATION

Reduce and ultimately eliminate illicit drug crop cultivation (opium poppy and marijuana) and production of methamphetamines and other synthetic drugs.

Increase scale and effectiveness of drug crop eradication efforts; through sustained enforcement, further reduce area under cultivation.

Technical support to the eradication program will improve GOM's ability to track changes in cultivation, evaluate the impact of its eradication efforts, and to improve its ability to plan eradication deployments.

Through support to chemical diversion control programs and specialized chemical units, prevent the diversion of precursor and essential chemicals into criminal hands, and safely destroy clandestine laboratories.

JUSTICE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT

Promote criminal justice sector modernization and reform to strengthen the criminal justice system's ability to investigate and prosecute transnational organized crime (notably drug trafficking, money laundering and other crimes affecting the U.S.).

Through training and technical assistance and material support to prosecutorial and investigative units, to key management offices, and to the federal training academies, improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the Mexican criminal justice system.

Improvements to personnel system, e.g., should lead to increased personnel retention and increased professionalism.

Enhance anti-corruption institutions and mechanisms, including internal affairs to investigate and prosecute public corruption cases.

Through technical advice, improve the internal affairs component of the PGR and other agencies to improve screening of new/existing personnel, and provide a credible ongoing deterrent to future corruption or other abuses of authority.

Prevent the laundering of drug trafficking or other criminal proceeds detect/deter terrorist financing:

Through training and technical assistance, computers and software, improve the ability of Mexican treasury personnel to detect and freeze criminal proceeds or terrorist financing; likewise, to enhance the justice ministry's ability to prosecute such cases and forfeit the assets.

SOCIAL SECTOR SUPPORT

Reduce drug abuse and promote community mobilization against illegal drugs.

Support epidemiological surveys and social/economic studies to understand the nature of drug abuse in Mexico. Conduct public education campaigns and school-based initiatives to reduce drug abuse, mobilize communities, and promote a culture of lawfulness aimed at enhancing government drug, crime and corruption prevention efforts.

Program Justification

With over 2000 miles of shared border and the expanding effect of Mexico-based criminal organizations on the United States, the bilateral law enforcement partnership is vital to U.S. national security. Mexico is not only a major drug trafficking and producing country, but hosts a wide array of other transnational crimes, including weapons smuggling, trafficking in persons, and money laundering.

Mexican drug trafficking cartels organize the movement of 60-70% of the cocaineentering the U.S. and produce huge quantities of marijuana, heroin and methamphetamines. Mexico-based trans-border criminal organizations constitute the most serious foreign criminal threat inside the U.S. According to DEA, Mexican cartels now dominate 11 of the 13 major domestic drug distribution centers inside the United States.

The Government of Mexico (GOM) recognizes organized drug trafficking as the nation's major national security threat, and has developed an ambitious national planto combat it. In addition, each ministry has developed reform and modernization plans. Mexico has achieved significant success in its comprehensive, long-term strategy against illegal drug abuse, trafficking and production. Its criminal laws have been updated to respond to modern transnational organized crime, but its criminal justice institutions, and regulatory and investigative capabilities are inadequate to respond effectively to transnational and organized crime in the 21st century, and the corrosive problem of public corruption further seriously impairs those institutions. Therefore, Mexico's justice sector reform and border security efforts are important for both U.S. and Mexican security. In 2005, the penultimate year of the Fox Administration, increased U.S. assistance is needed to institutionalize the criminal justice sector reforms undertaken by President Fox.

While Mexico's effort to reduce and eliminate opium poppy and marijuana cultivation and heroin production has been effective, it remains a significant source country for heroin (30-40% of total consumed in the U.S.) and the principal foreign supplier (up to 80%) of marijuana consumed in the U.S. Mexican groups now supply up to 80% of the U.S. methamphetamines consumed in the U.S., much of it produced in U.S.-based "super labs."

Mexico is now experiencing a rapid rise in abuse of illicit drugs and concomitant increase in violence. Mexico is a leader in programs for prevention and treatment of drug abuse in the Americas, and has been active bilaterally and through the OAS and UN drug programs, in sharing its technical expertise.

Corruption remains the major impediment to effective criminal justice. The Fox Administration's anti-corruption and police modernization efforts enjoy widespread popular support, but mid-term election results indicated that the public is becoming impatient. Also, little has been accomplished at the state and local levels, ensuring that criminals continue to enjoy an unacceptable level of impunity. Low salaries, lack of benefits and job security increase the temptations facing law enforcement personnel to engage in corrupt practices.

The U.S. remains vulnerable to foreign terrorists who could use existing drug- and people-smuggling networks in Mexico to enter the United States. At this time, INL has a historic, window of opportunity to promote vital U.S. national security interests in Mexico. A major infusion of resources will help to dry up the drug flow, dismantle drug- and people-smuggling networks, weaken drug distribution, and create professional police institutions that will survive changes in Mexican political leadership.

Program Accomplishments

INL enjoys unparalleled cooperation with its Mexican counterparts in combating transnational crime: Mexican officials have arrested numerous drug kingpins, seized tons of drugs, eradicated thousands of marijuana and opium poppy fields, handed over record numbers of fugitives, and reduced corruption in federal police agencies.

INCLE programs in Mexico have successfully focused on strengthening criminal justice and security sector institutions to be able to dismantle the major trans-border drug trafficking groups and to confront other criminal threats. INCLE funding has been used to promote the modernization of police and prosecutorial units - notably the Federal Investigations Agency (AFI) and the counternarcotics and anti-crime intelligence center (CENAPI). INCLE funding has contributed to the increasing professionalism of Mexican personnel, and the operational readiness of key units. Given Mexico's size and the difficult terrain in the key drug producing and trafficking regions, air mobility is essential to both interdiction and eradication. INCLE funding is being used to assist the Office of the Attorney General to modernize its air fleet and improve maintenance and safety, as well as to continue support to the Mexican Air Force's C-26 program.

INCLE funding advanced implementing the U.S.-Mexico Border Security Accord, signed following September 11, 2001. INCLE funding supported customs and other border agency efforts to enhance security and enforcement capacity at Mexico's borders, seaports, and airports, including the delivery of three mobile x-ray units to boost GOM land interdiction capabilities.

INCLE-funded programs promote a wide range of activities, including: participation by INCLE-supported units in operations against major drug cartels; providing computer support to CENAPI to process warehoused documentation for future prosecutions; and assistance in refurbishing PGR helicopters for sustained surveillance and interdiction capabilities throughout the country.

FY 2005 Program

The FY 2005 program has five general programs: 1) homeland security and border control; 2) significantly reduce illicit drug crop cultivation (opium poppy and marijuana) and production of methamphetamines and other synthetic drugs; 3) criminal justice sector development and institution building; 4) crime control and counternarcotics operational support; and 5) demand reduction. INL seeks a balanced approach that achieves both short-term operational objectives -- such as increased seizures and arrests -- as well as long-term institutional objectives aimed at improving the effectiveness and integrity of the enforcement, investigative, prosecutorial and judicial entities. Border control and homeland security activities complement both the operational and institution-building programs by strengthening Mexico's ability to control the movement of goods, people, and services through its territory, particularly along the shared border with the United States. U.S. enforcement agencies have stressed the importance of assisting Mexico in enhancing its overland controls in the southern part of the country to intercept drug and other clandestine shipments heading north from Central America.

Border Control/Homeland Security

This funding will be used to assist Mexico in establishing checkpoints at strategic locations in southern Mexico to counter the steady northern flow of drugs, arms, undocumented aliens and other clandestine movements.

Enhanced Inspection - Funding will be used to procure and install up to ten additional Non-Intrusive Inspection units to:

Improve capabilities at selected northern ports of entry.

Enhance coverage at a selected seaport and a commercial air cargo facility.

Establish interior transportation choke points (mobile units) and

Establish screening capacity at 1-2 key chokepoints in southern Mexico.

Enhanced Traffic Flow - Funds will assist Mexico develop and install automated systems to better document, monitor and efficiently control the flow of commercial cargo, private vehicles, and pedestrians across our common border. By expediting transit of registered, frequent travelers through the FAST, NEXUS, or SENTRI programs, law enforcement can focus increased inspection resources on suspicious targets. Funding will be used to develop systems on the Mexican side of the border to complement the SENTRI lane construction on the U.S. side. Public information efforts will promote enrollment of Mexican businesses and frequent travelers in the SENTRI program. "Border Wizard" modeling programs will be installed to enhance operation of ports of entry.

Institution Building for Border Security Agencies: Funding will be used to provide training, technical assistance and commodities needed by Mexican law enforcement, security and intelligence services to better secure Mexico's borders, investigate criminal activities and prevent terrorist breaches. Resources will fund enhanced command and control and communications systems, and the creation of an intelligence center. Agencies will also be provided training and equipment to enhance border safety, e.g., emergency response and safety training.

Port Security: Maritime trafficking is the primary transportation mode for bringing illicit drugs weapons and other contraband into Mexico. FY 2005 funding will be used to initiate port security projects to one additional maritime port to assist authorities to improve the capacity to detect suspicious shipments and to investigate criminal activities, e.g., x-ray equipment, inspection and analytical training, small patrol craft, drug detection equipment, and computers. It will also be used to expand the public-private sector Business Anti-Smuggling Coalition (BASC). The extension of a DHS advisor will sustain the momentum.

Enhance law enforcement capabilities and inter-agency cooperation: Funding will be utilized to enhance law enforcement capacity to control border areas and combat trans-border criminal activity through providing training and technology, including the deployment of an inter-agency National Criminal Data Base (initiated in FY 2004) and improved reconnaissance and surveillance capabilities on the United States border.

Strengthening Controls in Southern Mexico: Funding will assist Mexican agencies to improve their ability to control the flow of drugs, people, vehicles and goods entering Mexico from the south. The pilot activity will focus on the natural chokepoint at the Gulf of Tehuantepec, where there are only two major northbound highways. In addition, funds will be used to promote cross-border cooperation between Mexico and its southern neighbors, Belize and Guatemala, such as joint training and planning exercises, compatible communications equipment, integration of the Central American Containerized Freight Tracking System (CFTS) into Mexican tracking systems.

Counternarcotics Institutions /Criminal Justice Sector Institution Building:

Projects in this area will strengthen criminal justice sector institutions.

Training and Professionalization: Longer-term projects will include technical assistance in (1) modernizing the training facilities, curriculum and teaching methods for federal training academies for investigators, technicians and prosecutors; (2) improving human and financial system management in justice sector entities; (3) providing infrastructure and technical support for antidrug and anti-organized crime units, as well as investigative and prosecutorial training, professional development, and anti-corruption programs; (4) developing a national criminal data base installing an encrypted radio network equipment; and (5) supporting the National Judicial Council, law faculties and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) - primarily with training. Continuation of a criminal justice advisor will be an essential component of the program.

Law Enforcement Institutions: Funding for infrastructure support of key federal law enforcement agencies. The project will support the Office of the Mexican Attorney General (PGR), and improve the ability of the Federal Agency for Investigation (AFI), the Organized Crime Unit and other specialized units to investigate and prosecute federal crimes such as drug trafficking, operating clandestine laboratories, arms trafficking, kidnapping, and terrorism and will include the purchase of investigative equipment, secure communications, computers, analytical software, and vehicles. (Note: In 2003, Mexico's anti-drug intelligence center was expanded to encompass all organized crime, and became a regional fusion center serving the Central American region.) Funding will be used to upgrade computer and communications equipment.

Anti-Corruption: Funding will be specifically directed to enhance the ability of the PGR's internal affairs unit (the Confidence Control Center) to investigate/combat/deter corruption, including training in anti-corruption investigation techniques, information management, computers, lie detector equipment (maintenance and operation). It will also support seminars, professional exchanges, and other activities to assist in enhancing the judiciary's ability to bring criminal organizations to justice. The program will expand support for the Culture of Lawfulness Project -- an anti-crime initiative that mobilizes teenagers and communities to improve their system of government, fight corruption, and to resist the lure of youth gangs.

Organized Crime and Counternarcotics Enforcement

Law Enforcement Operations: Funding for enforcement activities will include operational support to specialized crime/narcotics units, including such things as vehicles and tactical training. The project will assist the Federal Agency for Investigation (AFI), the Organized Crime Unit, and other specialized investigative units to participate more effectively in cooperative law enforcement investigations and actions with U.S. counterpart agencies, such as in efforts to dismantle drug cartels, locate and dismantle clandestine laboratories or runways, detect/prevent diversion of arms or chemicals, and to respond to emergent situations involving kidnappings or terrorism.

Counternarcotics Aviation, Interdiction and Eradication: Mexico's three-pronged drug interdiction strategy includes coordinated air, maritime, and overland interdiction involving federal police, Army and Navy elements. Aviation plays a key role in air and overland interdiction and a supporting role in maritime interdiction. The Office of the Mexican Attorney General (PGR) operates a large air fleet that includes fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft for tracking and interception as well as for aerial eradication. The workhorse of the interdiction air fleet is the UH-1H transport helicopter. The 24 UH-1Hs require refurbishment to perform their missions effectively; INL plans to assist in refurbishments of at least ten aircraft. Continuation of a contract with a U.S.-based aviation company will assist the PGR in improving fleet management. Funding will also be directed to provide pilot/mechanic training, support an interagency interdiction Command/Control Center, repair sensors on the PGR's tracker aircraft, continue support for the Air Force's C-26 surveillance aircraft, provide other interdiction-related training and equipment, and continue to employ a contract aviation advisor. This will result in increased mobility and air readiness in support of interdiction and eradication missions. In addition, the program will seek to assist the PGR and the Mexican Army to enhance their robust drug crop eradication programs through technical assistance.

Money Laundering: Mexico is the primary placement point for drug and organized crime proceeds from the U.S. into the international financial system. Controlling this activity is vital not only to combating crime and corruption, but terrorist financing as well. This program will enhance the capacity of the treasury ministry (Hacienda) - in partnership with the banking industry - to detect suspicious transactions and to enhance the ability of the PGR to investigate and prosecute such offenses. Funding will be used not only to provide training, computers and analytical support to GOM agencies, but also to promote an effective partnership between these agencies and Mexican financial institutions, and with international partners (such as the U.S.). In addition, the project will assist the PGR in pursuing asset forfeiture and managing seized/forfeited assets, through training in legal forfeiture, asset management, accountability, and implementing anti-corruption measures.

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness/Alternative Development

Drug abuse in Mexico is soaring. This program will include support to the National Council on Addictions (CONADIC) in conducting epidemiological surveillance and establishing a telecommunications network. It will also provide funding to various governmental entities and NGOs in drug abuse awareness, prevention, and treatment, and rehabilitation. Another sub-project will promote drug awareness and alternative economic development in communities in drug-producing regions to discourage involvement in drug production, trafficking and abuse. This program will fund public awareness campaigns, training for community leaders, and promoting alternative economic development in drug-growing regions. In combination with intensive eradication efforts, these activities should help to curb the expansion of drug crop cultivation.

Program Development and Support

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, ICASS costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Mexico
INL Budget
($000)

 
FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Homeland Security/Border Control 500 - 15,000 - 15,000
Narcotics and Crime Law Enforcement
Institutional Support
Office of the Attorney General 913 - 1,500 - 1,500
Proffessionalization and Training 2,500 - 2,500 - 2,500
Anti-Corruption 450 - 500 - 500
Equipment and Infrastructure 1,187 - 1,000 - 1,000
Anti-Money Laundering 200 - 500 - 1,000
Sub-Total 5,250 - 6,000 - 6,500
Counternarcotics/Organized Crime
Support - 1,000 - 1,000
Drug Interdiction & Crop Eradication
Support 286 - 3,278 - 5,167
Aviation Support 3,928 - 10,017 - 10,333
Sub-Total 4,214 - 14,295 - 16,500
Total -Operational Support 9,664 - 20,295 - 23,000
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction/
Community Outreach 658 - 250 - 250
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 339 - 358 - 455
Non-U.S. Personnel 178 - 190 - 259
ICASS Costs 335 - 324 - 442
Program Support 526 - 583 - 594
Sub-Total 1,378 - 1,455 - 1,750
Total 12,200 - 37,000 - 40,000

Latin America Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Request

6,5003

4,850

3,250

3$3.0 million was loaned to support the Iraq program. This amount was returned under the IRRF supplemental appropriation.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Law enforcement has an enhanced ability to investigate, prosecute, seize and forfeit assets, interdict drug and chemical shipments and control money laundering.

The number of arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers and money launderers will increase significantly, as will the number of drug seizures, the amount and value of drugs and assets seized, and the number of smuggling attempts deterred.

Criminal justice institutions are better able to respond effectively to threats of drug trafficking, narcotics-related crime and corruption.

Effective statutes against narcotics trafficking, money laundering, and corruption will be adopted and implemented and the number of successful investigations and prosecutions will increase.

Bilateral and multilateral mutual legal assistance and extradition cooperation are expanded.

The response time for responding to MLAT requests will improve while the number of successful extraditions will increase.

As nations enter into cooperative agreements and receive training, materiel and support for combined operations, the number of successful drug interdictions will increase.

Hemispheric and sub-regional institutions that promote intergovernmental initiatives against drug abuse and drug-related crime are fortified.

Regional bodies will undertake new antidrug initiatives that will result in a decrease in the level of drug abuse registered.

Program Justification

The countries covered by the Latin America Regional Account are important drug transit countries for South American drugs headed to the U.S. These include Argentina, Aruba, Belize, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Eastern Caribbean islands, El Salvador, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos, and Uruguay. Many of these transit zone countries have weak institutions and few resources to fight trafficker violence, corruption, and drug abuse. For these countries to become effective partners in our efforts to disrupt the drug trade, they desperately need assistance to strengthen their law enforcement institutions and their capacity to interdict drug shipments. They also have a strong need for drug abuse prevention/treatment programs to protect their societies from the corrupting influences of the narcotics trade.

Program Accomplishments

Cooperative arrangements, bilateral and multilateral, have been negotiated to increase the ability of governments to detect and interdict illicit drugs headed to the U.S. To date, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize have concluded Maritime Agreements. Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico have signed Stolen Vehicle Treaties with the United States. During 2002, the U.S. participated in successful negotiations co-chaired by Costa Rica, the Netherlands and CARICOM on a Caribbean Regional Maritime Counternarcotics Cooperation Agreement designed to foster cooperation and coordination in the carrying out of maritime law enforcement operations. The initial signing ceremony was held in April 2003, and as of December 2003, 10 nations (Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, the Netherlands, Nicaragua and the United States) had signed it.

Financial crime is a major problem in numerous jurisdictions in Latin America and the Caribbean even though most have adopted appropriate anti-money laundering regimes. During a June 2003 review, the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) updated its list of non-cooperating countries and jurisdictions in relation to anti-money laundering by removing Grenada and St. Vincent and the Grenadines and naming Guatemala as the sole remaining country in the region that needs to take steps to address the issue. Paraguay drafted a new anti-money laundering law in 2003 that will improve the effectiveness of prosecutions and establish a single functional Financial Intelligence Unit.

Attention to border security was increased during 2003 - 2004 through a series of programs. Belize and Honduras continue with machine-readable passport programs, with Belize incorporating the first biometric security feature in the hemisphere. Inspection stations in the Container Freight Tracking System (CFTS) have been completed and will ultimately link together the Pan-American Highway countries (Panama through Mexico) to allow for the collection and sharing of inspection information. The region has placed a high priority on programs relating to port and airport security and compliance with U.S. standards for security in the Hemisphere.

Cooperation among countries at the sub-regional level is yielding positive results. The countries of Central America, through the Central American Permanent Commission Against Drug Trafficking and Abuse (CCP), have developed a Regional Action Plan to guide collaborative actions. The countries of the Caribbean continue to pursue program initiatives developed under the Barbados Plan of Action as well. Both receive support from the U.S., UNDCP and OAS/CICAD. Coordinated activities multiply the impact of our investment, and promote common approaches among neighboring countries.

FY 2005 Program

Caribbean Country Assistance: An estimated 30% of the drug flow to the U.S. transits the Caribbean. The U.S. will continue to provide assistance to upgrade Caribbean capabilities in interdiction, law enforcement and administration of justice. Assistance in asset forfeiture and the development of Financial Intelligence Unites (FIUs) will be funded in part under the INL Regional Training and Anticrime programs. Country program funds will be used to improve the ability of law enforcement to interdict maritime drug shipments through training and the provision of go-fast interceptor boats and communications equipment. SOUTHCOM's Joint Inter-Agency Task Force (JIATF-S) will coordinate the distribution of cueing information from maritime and air detection platforms and operational taskings of the Regional Security System (RSS) - a treaty-based organization consisting of the seven Eastern Caribbean islands - and Trinidad & Tobago C-26 programs through negotiated agreements on standard operating procedures. Funds will provide limited support for drug demand reduction activities.

Central America Country Assistance:
An estimated 70 % of the drug flow to the U.S. transits the Central American land/sea corridor. Funding will be used to continue to support important efforts to stop the flow of drugs and help justice sector institutions prosecute drug and arms traffickers, money launderers, alien smugglers, as well as corrupt public officials. Assistance will include such things as computer equipment to upgrade law enforcement, court, immigration, and anti-money laundering systems, maintenance and repair of vehicles and vessels, upgraded communications equipment and training. Regional anticorruption, anti-alien smuggling and commercial freight tracking initiatives being developed throughout Central America and which became operational earlier, will also be supported. The U.S. will also support sub-regional initiatives aimed at cross-border cooperation on drug interdiction efforts, harmonization of legislation, and improved information sharing.

South America Country Assistance: Paraguay, Chile, Uruguay and Argentina are used by traffickers as transit routes for cocaine originating in Andean source countries as well as to launder money and obtain precursor chemicals. In Chile, the focus will be on anti-money laundering training, while in Paraguay, INL will continue to provide training and technical assistance to the Anti-Narcotics Secretariat to enhance their investigative and operational capacity to prosecute major traffickers and money launderers. This funding will complement INL Crime and S/CT projects in the Tri-Border area-targeting terrorist financing and intellectual property rights violations. INL is also supporting President Duarte's efforts against corruption, such as the establishment of an internal affairs unit in its Anti-Narcotics Secretariat, SENAD. In Uruguay, the focus will be on border controls and equipment and training will be provided to mobile law enforcement units operating against drug traffickers and smugglers. In Argentina, funding will support task forces along the northern border to prosecute traffickers and smugglers.

Regional Programs: The Caribbean Support Tender (CST) -- an INL, U.S. Southern Command, and U.S. Coast Guard cooperative initiative to help regional coast guards and navies interdict drugs-- will continue to receive support, although at a reduced level. The CST is a U.S. Coast Guard buoy tender whose mission is to foster international cooperation and operational readiness through formal and on-the-job training to personnel from participating countries as it deploys throughout the Caribbean. During 2003, the two C-26 surveillance aircraft the USG provided to Trinidad & Tobago became operational, joining the RSS C-26 program in providing airborne surveillance of the eastern Caribbean drug trafficking corridor. In 2004, the RSS and Trinidad & Tobago will begin phased-in cost sharing of C-26 program expenses.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, allowances, and benefits of U.S. and foreign national direct hire employees and contract personnel working in Narcotics Affairs Sections or Offices in the region. In addition, funds pay for International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Latin America Regional
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Caribbean Country Assistance 1,600 * 1,076 - 455
Central America Country Assistance 750 ** 1,076 - 455
South America Country Assistance 755 - 567 - 223
Regional Programs 1,700 - 810 - 317
Program Development and Support
US Personnel 700 500 700
Non-US Personnel 400 400 400
ICASS Costs 350 200 400
Program Support 245 221 300
Sub-Total 1,695 - 1,321 - 1,800
Total 6,500 - 4,850 - 3,250
* $ 1.0 million was "borrowed" from this account to support the efforts in Iraq. This amount was replenished with FY 2003 IRRF funds from the Supplemental Appropriation.  
** $ 2.0 million was "borrowed" from this account to support the efforts in Iraq. This amount was replenished with FY 2003 IRRF funds from the Supplemental Appropriation.  



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