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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Asia and the Middle East


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2005 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2004
Report
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Afghanistan

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2004 Supp.

FY 2005 Request

220,0004

90,000

4$50.0 million of Emergency Response Funds reallocated and transferred from the Department of Defense pursuant to P.L. 108-38 and $170.0 million provided under the "Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense and for the Reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan, 2004.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The overall INL program objective is to work with the Government of Afghanistan (GOA) and the international community to improve law enforcement capabilities, reduce poppy cultivation, and reform the Afghan judicial system in order to enhance public security, strengthen the rule of law, and attack illegal drug production and trafficking. INL program objectives in Afghanistan are consistent with the USG longer-term goal to create stability so as to prevent Afghanistan from again becoming a haven for terrorists and criminal activities. The following programs are based upon an integrated approach. All of these objectives must be pursued simultaneously on a holistic basis to achieve success.

Civilian Law Enforcement: Under German leadership, Afghan police (including border police and specialist units such as a highway patrol) will be reformed and upgraded through training, technical assistance, and institutional capacity building in order to directly enhance security throughout Afghanistan.

Construction of the seven Regional Training Centers (RTC) used to bring police training to the provinces will be completed. Each finished RTC will have a capacity of 750-900 students with housing, classroom, and office facilities included on site.

By the end of December 2005, training for a total of 50,000 combined national police, border police, and highway patrol officers will be completed.

Upon completion of training, law enforcement personnel will continue to receive new uniforms and basic police equipment.

Afghan trainers will be added to the cadre of international trainers through the programs "train-the-trainer" approach.

Training efforts will be reinforced with a broad reform program at the Ministry of Interior that utilizes embedded, international police experts who can mentor and monitor performance in Kabul and regional capitol areas. Basic office supplies, equipment, and infrastructure support will be provided to police stations throughout Afghanistan, including border posts and crossing points.

An INL-developed identification card system linked to a personnel database to register police will be expanded, thus assuring accuracy of muster and payrolls.

The program will maintain and expand an INL-established HF radio communication system that links the Ministry of the Interior with police headquarters in each of the 32 provinces of Afghanistan. The Ministry of Interior will develop a telecommunications maintenance and repair facility to ensure an ongoing capability to keep its radio systems functioning. As police are deployed from the provincial training centers, communications and basic non-lethal equipment will be provided for district police organizations.

Administration of Justice: INL rule of law programs in Afghanistan will support the Italian leadership, the Afghan Judicial Commission, the Ministry of Justice, and related offices to establish a functioning justice system based on the rule of law that meets internationally accepted human rights standards.

Under the auspices of the Ministry of Justice, the Judicial Reform Commission, and other Afghan elements supporting the justice infrastructure, a coordinated approach will be taken to justice reform and the development and implementation of a unified framework to guide reform of the Afghan justice system while respecting the traditions of Afghanistan.

INL will continue to work with the GOA to identify necessary legal changes and draft appropriate laws, focusing specifically on the criminal justice system.

INL will support the GOA and other international donors in rehabilitating and constructing judicial facilities.

INL will focus on provincial and district courthouses and support the extension of the formal justice system into the provinces by developing infrastructure and supplying courts with necessary office supplies and equipment.

INL will provide training for judges, prosecutors, and defense counsel in basic administrative and legal skills.

INL will support programs that promote public access to justice and civil society awareness of the justice system. These include establishment of legal aid clinics; reintegration of women jurists and attorneys; and development of a national bar association.

Support will be provided to the University of Kabul law school through faculty training, curriculum development, infrastructure enhancement, and student and faculty exchanges with United States counterparts.

Counternarcotics Support: INL programs will seek to reduce poppy cultivation, strengthen counternarcotics law enforcement efforts, and increase Afghan government coordination and oversight of national drug control policy and programs. Working with the British who are the designated international lead on Afghan Narcotics assistance, INL will reduce opium poppy cultivation, trade and abuse by providing drug law enforcement assistance including a manual eradication program, alternative livelihoods programs, an anti-drug campaign and demand reduction projects. Greater European involvement in these counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan will occur as a result of the strong U.S./INL initiative.

Afghan authorities will conduct nation-wide eradication and will take responsibility for assessing the extent of cultivation, eradication and areas where alternative development assistance is available.

Rural development assistance will continue to support eradication programs by focusing on medium- and long-term projects that bring sustainable alternative livelihoods to poppy growing areas.

Net poppy cultivation will fall by one-quarter in comparison to FY 2003.

Drug intelligence, investigation and law enforcement and interdiction units will expand operations focusing on major cities in Afghanistan; British/U.S. trained interdiction units will be replicated in the provinces, providing interdiction operations across the country.

The Ministry of the Interior will have a staffed and equipped counternarcotics department, in accordance with the German plan to reform the MOI. Procedures for securing, testing, and destroying seized drugs will be developed.

The Ministry of Interior will develop a system for centralized reporting on drug arrests and seizures, as well as plans, procedures and records for prosecution of drug crimes.

Afghanistan's National Security Council's Counternarcotics Directorate (CND) will have staffed and equipped regional offices established across the country.

A centralized statistical reporting system will begin to track areas of poppy cultivation, eradication and where alternative development assistance exists.

The CND will conduct a nation-wide, comprehensive anti-drug public affairs campaign aimed at reducing: cultivation, trade and drug abuse and assume a greater working role in the annual opium survey.

Working with the Ministries of Public Health, Information and Culture, Education, and Telecommunications, the CND will coordinate a national drug abuse prevention and treatment program.

A law providing for asset forfeiture in drugs and money laundering crimes will be enacted.

Program Justification

The FY 2005 INL program in Afghanistan will have three main components that build on efforts begun with 2002 supplemental funding and continued with FY 2004 supplemental funding police training and reform, justice sector reform, and counternarcotics activities.

The breadth of INL programs in Afghanistan reflects the country's importance as the epicenter of the Global War on Terrorism. INL programs in Afghanistan support USG counterterrorism, counterdrug and anticrime goals. INL programs are coordinated closely with U.S. coalition partners to complement the respective leading roles played by the United Kingdom on counternarcotics, Germany on police, and Italy on judicial reform. Improved internal security will be required to support and facilitate the reconstruction and other development programs in Afghanistan.

A functioning National Police, Highway Patrol, and Border Police are vital to a safe and secure Afghanistan. The Afghan National Police are being looked upon to perform a host of activities beyond traditional policing including providing support for election security and facilitating customs collection at border posts. While efforts to train, equip, and professionalize the Afghan National Police in Kabul have been ongoing since 2002, much remains to be accomplished throughout the rest of the country. The Ministry of Interior continues to struggle to identify and exert control over police in the provinces. The new Afghan Border Police and Highway Patrol elements must be recruited, trained, organized, and equipped to address the continued threat of illegal trafficking.

The rule of law is a fundamental building block to securing a strong, democratic Afghanistan. A transparent and fair justice system is critical to ensuring that the people of Afghanistan respect the authority and decision-making of the central government. In addition, a functioning judicial system provides a peaceful means of dispute resolution and a sense of redress for ordinary citizens. In particular, a criminal defense system that affords due process and respects international human rights standards is a cornerstone of a society functioning under the rule of law. This is imperative given the critical nexus of Afghanistan and the Global War on Terror. U.S. law enforcement must have the ability to work with Afghanistan in the future on crucial law enforcement issues. Despite Afghan progress on a Constitution and the development of governmental mechanisms and agencies that support justice reform, much work is needed. The infrastructure of the Afghan justice system is near complete collapse. Judicial facilities and courthouses must continue to be rebuilt or newly constructed. Basic supplies are still sorely needed in many courtrooms and law libraries are scarce. Although training has begun, most personnel are untrained in the law and in administrative skills. Finally, Afghanistan is amidst a continuing effort to update and modernize laws and implement international treaty obligations affecting due process and human rights.

Poppy cultivation resumed in Afghanistan after Operation Enduring Freedom began in late 2001. Afghanistan resumed its place as the world's largest producer of opium in 2002 and has maintained this lead with an even larger crop in 2003. The U.S. estimates the extent of poppy cultivation in 2003 to be 61,000 hectares, up from 30,750 in 2002. Although President Karzai has issued decrees outlawing the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs, the central government's ability to enforce the decrees is minimal. Without an organized security force or rule of law, the drug trade and crime will undermine efforts to create a stable recovery in Afghanistan. There is limited Afghan capability to estimate illegal drug cultivation and destroy illegal drug crops, and there is no integrated drug intelligence, investigation, and interdiction capability within the Afghan National Police. Drug arrests, seizures, testing, and destruction are haphazard, and drugs confiscated by the authorities are sometimes stolen and/or resold. There is urgent need to help the Afghans pursue licit crop cultivation and enforce their ban on poppy cultivation and the opiate trade.

Program Accomplishments

INL signed a Letter of Agreement with the government of Afghanistan in 2003 for $60 million to provide justice, law enforcement and counternarcotics program assistance. This agreement is being amended to include programs underway using $50 million of FY 2003 reallocated Emergency Response Funds and $170 million of FY 2004 supplemental funds, a total of $220 million, all of which was received in FY 2004.

Civilian Law Enforcement: INL established a training center in Kabul that has produced over 1600 graduates since training began on May 18, 2003. Courses offered at the training center include basic 8-week courses for new police officers, 3-week courses for members of the "train-the-trainer" program and 2-week refresher courses for current police officers. INL established a communications system linking all 32 provinces to the Ministry of Interior in Kabul, established an ID card system and personnel database and provided personal equipment, and the material for uniforms. INL also provided salary support through contributions to the UNDP Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan (LOTFA).

INL completed site surveys for the first four RTCs and began construction on the first two. INL deployed 15 additional US-police trainers/advisors to supplement on-going police training efforts and prepare for expansion to the provinces. Construction is almost complete at RTC Gardez, and training of small classes has begun with 25 trainees already graduated.

Administration of Justice: The Afghan government has successfully begun the process of drafting a Constitution that respects human rights, the rights of women, and adheres to due process standards. INL is involved in a number of working groups in Afghanistan that include high-ranking GOA officials who meet regularly to coordinate justice reform efforts. With the assistance of the international community, the Ministry of Justice and the Judicial Reform Commission are redrafting and modernizing critical laws such as the criminal code and criminal procedure law.

An overall strategy for court rehabilitation and refurbishment has been identified and the GOA is committed to extending and supporting the formal justice system outside of Kabul. Trainings of senior level judges have begun in Kabul and key judicial facilities, such as the Ministry of Justice and the Prosecutors office, have been rehabilitated.

INL, in coordination with AID, is supporting the construction and equipment of provincial and district courthouses. Reconstructed courthouses receive judicial supply packages that contain basic office equipment and support items needed to properly administer a court. Training programs continue to be developed that are sensitive to both the Afghan traditional context and GOA efforts to modernize the justice system. For example, the Afghans have identified the right to defense counsel as a fundamental right but have minimal institutional knowledge or resources to devote to the implementation of that right. To address this, INL is supporting the training of defense counsel and the establishment of legal aid clinics.

INL has funded Dari and Pashtu translations and distribution of pre-Soviet basic legal codes, the 1964 Constitution, and the Bonn Agreement. INL funds also supported a United States Institute of Peace conference in early February 2003, which brought together Afghan legal professionals, legal activists, members of the Bonn Commissions, and international experts to discuss approaches to criminal justice and the development of an independent and fair system of justice. Discussions that began in Washington continued in Kabul with an INL funded series of workshops.

Additionally, through consultations with the Kabul University Law School and the Ministry of Education, INL is focusing on the needs of the law school and helping to restock law libraries, support curriculum development, and harmonize the civil and Islamic law faculties.

Counternarcotics Support: With significant U.S., UK and UN pressure and substantial assistance, the government of Afghanistan took important steps to curb poppy cultivation and trade in Afghanistan. In accordance with the UK plan, President Karzai decreed a ban on opium poppy in 2002, and created the Counternarcotics Directorate (CND) as the central drug policy-making body for the government. In 2003, provincial governors, under Karzai's direction, undertook eradication efforts in some traditional poppy provinces, which the U.S. supported with significant assistance for alternative livelihoods programs in those areas. Despite the increase of the poppy crop, cultivation estimates for 2003 did reflect a decline in areas where eradication took place.

The CND, with a fully staffed office in Kabul, drafted a National Drug Control Strategy, with extensive assistance from UNODC, the U.S. and the UK. The Strategy was ratified by the cabinet in June 2003 and established five drug sub-sector working groups, alternative livelihoods, demand reduction, law enforcement, judicial reform and coordination activities, to implement counterdrug programs as directed by the CND. The Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD) and the Ministry of Interior (MOI) began efforts to include counternarcotics goals in the alternative development and law enforcement sectors. The MOI began staffing a new national Counternarcotics Department, and the MRRD used USG funds to begin targeting alternative development programs. The Ministry of Justice drafted a new drug law as well.

The Afghan Drug Strategy also directed the CND to conduct a major anti-drug public affairs program aimed at reducing poppy cultivation, trade, use and abuse across the country. In August, INL placed an American contractor to serve as a public affairs advisor to the Counternarcotics Directorate. A comprehensive public affairs strategy was created and will be put into action using INL funds in the coming months.

USAID and INL provided more than $135 million in humanitarian, health, and rural livelihood assistance to principal poppy-producing provinces - $22.8 million was directed specifically towards reducing poppy cultivation. Of these funds, $4.0 million in INL funds was funneled directly through the Afghan government to support alternative development programs in poppy areas as part the Afghan national reconstruction plan. This unique program aimed to build a stronger counternarcotics component into Afghanistan's reconstruction plans and built the Afghan government's capacity to manage such programs.

INL established an office in the U.S. Embassy in Kabul and assigned two full-time American officers and one Foreign Service National to manage its police and counternarcotics programs. In addition to this office, funds were contributed to the UNODC to build and staff a field office in Kabul, which was the recipient of $2.8 million in INL funds to support counternarcotics capacity building and enforcement programs in Afghanistan.

In the law enforcement sector, the Germans have established and continue to professionalize a drug intelligence unit, while a British-trained investigative unit for a regional office in Kandahar began conducting operations in 2003. The British also established an interdiction unit in Kabul, which began a "City Gates" project aimed at interdicting drugs being trafficked through Kabul. INL is funding the training and equipping of an additional interdiction unit under the auspices of the UNODC, which should be operational by the end of 2004.

Lastly, the Afghan government tabled a proposal to conduct a national poppy eradication campaign against the 2003-2004 crop. The campaign would be administered by the central government and supported by provincial governors. INL began working with the Afghans and the UK to finalize details of the plan and, if an acceptable and workable proposal is developed, intends to provide substantial funding received in the FY 2004 supplemental for counternarcotics programs to support this plan.

FY 2005 Program

Continued insecurity in Afghanistan over the last year has placed increasing demands on the INL programs, requiring the acceleration and substantial expansion of the three main programs, law enforcement, counternarcotics and judicial reform. The FY 2005 request provides the necessary funding to maintain these larger and more robust programs. INL will utilize $90 million in FY 2005 funds to support programs to continue to improve national law enforcement capabilities to strengthen the rule of law and enhance public security including disruption of drug trafficking and associated criminal activity throughout the country. INL programs in FY 2005 will also continue programs aimed at reducing large-scale poppy cultivation, strengthening drug enforcement capabilities, and increasing Afghan government coordination and oversight of national drug control policy and programs.

Civilian Law Enforcement

Assistance to train and equip police in FY 2005 will continue to complement the German-led efforts to re-establish law enforcement functions. The program will build on an effort that enhanced police capabilities in Kabul; contributed non-lethal personal equipment, materials, and supplies; provided an identity card system with personnel database, and established a country-wide chiefs of police communications network. U.S. assistance will continue to support Afghan training activities at the police school in Kabul as well as support training activities at each of the seven RTCs. Funds will be used to assist Afghan trainers to deliver basic skills curricula for lower-level police and to provide training in the principles of supervision, management and human rights protection for all levels of the police organization. Funds will also be used to provide personal police equipment. U.S. assistance will also expand the police identification card system and communications system and enhance the police physical plant and infrastructure in the provinces. During FY 2005 INL will continue to expand training of police including police from throughout Afghanistan.

INL will work with the Afghan government and major donors to establish the Afghanistan National Border Police (ANBP) to strengthen control of Afghanistan's border. Elements of this program will include personnel support (salaries), support for fixed crossing point infrastructure, a system for monitoring immigration procedures and controls, establishing and maintaining airport watch lists, and developing a capacity to conduct interdiction operations; investigating crimes along the border, and border police support for customs functions. INL funds will support refurbishment and construction of barracks and checkpoints and a provision of equipment and training. Program objectives include the recruitment and training of ANBP officers; refurbishment/construction, equipping, and manning of border checkpoints; and the beginning of ANBP carrying out basic enforcement duties. The ANBP's duties will be gradually expand to counternarcotics, immigration, and customs roles, as overseen by the Government of Afghanistan.

Administration of Justice

Assistance in the justice sector will continue to support Afghan and Italian-led efforts to rebuild and reform the domestic justice sector. Efforts will focus on establishing the rule of law through assisting the Afghans in rebuilding justice system infrastructure; supplying courthouses with judicial supply packages; training justice sector personnel; and assisting with the development and implementation of professional standards and courthouse procedures.

Training centers and courthouses will be co-located with regional police training centers in the provinces. Curricula will be developed with an emphasis on human rights, modern law enforcement, criminal procedure, and basic legal and administrative skills. INL will assist in providing the judicial sector with secure habitable courthouses and continue to work with international partners on developing strategies to enhance the criminal justice system, promote institutional coordination, and promote public access to justice.

FY 2005 programs will also support the establishment of legal aid clinics and assistance to the Kabul University Law School. In addition, INL will maintain support to the Ministry of Justice and the work of the judicial commission in its efforts to reform the justice sector, streamline laws, and development institutionally.

Counternarcotics

INL funding for counternarcotics (CN) in FY 2005 will continue to support the international efforts on CN activities in Afghanistan lead by the UK. With a strong emphasis on building the Afghan government's capacity to manage drug control programs, INL programs will consist of crop control through eradication and rural livelihood programs, drug enforcement and drug control institution building, including public affairs and demand reduction. These funds will be dedicated to the evolving containment theory of stopping heroin from transiting across the borders of Afghanistan. These monies will be expended in a way that promotes greater coordination between counternarcotics and counterterrorism activities.

Crop Control/Eradication:This program is aimed at reducing large-scale poppy cultivation through a central government controlled national manual eradication program begun in FY 2004. Funds will support an expansion of the program by establishing additional eradication teams and sustaining their activities throughout the growing/harvest season. Funds will be provided for salaries for eradicators and force protection teams, supplies, equipment, transportation, training and support evaluation and monitoring of the program.

Sustainable Alternative Development: The INL alternative development program in FY 2005 will continue to support eradication efforts by providing high priority assistance in major poppy growing areas experiencing eradication in order to provide sustainable, alternative crops and income opportunities. These programs will be conducted in conjunction with drug enforcement programs and will include agricultural inputs and training for farmers, marketing support for legal produce, and vocational training to generate income for other vulnerable populations such as women and itinerant labor, who are usually employed to harvest poppy. The success of these programs will be evaluated based on the level of poppy cultivation in areas where these alternative livelihoods programs exist.

Drug Enforcement:This program is aimed at disrupting drug trafficking and associated criminal activity within Afghanistan and along its border with an eye towards containment - stopping heroin from transiting across the borders of Afghanistan. This program will support programs to enable enforcement of drug laws and prosecution of drug offenders. INL will support the expansion of specialized training and equipping of drug enforcement forces at the provincial level to enforce the poppy ban, take down drug processing labs and bazaars, interdict drug caches and shipments, pursue drug traffickers and dismantle drug trafficking organizations outside of Kabul. Programs will also expand and improve the Ministry of Interior's Counternarcotics Department. Part of the FY 2005 program will include a program to reform the penal code to enable law enforcement to investigate and pursue drug offenders. Assistance will be provided through training and educational exchange programs, equipment and some infrastructure and use of international advisors.These efforts will reduce poppy cultivation and increase arrest and prosecution of poppy producers and traffickers.

Drug Control Capacity Building: In less than two years, the Afghan government made great strides in building institutional infrastructure to support a national drug control policy. This program will strengthen these efforts by providing primary support to the Afghan national drug control office, the CND and the MOI in the areas of institutional capacity-building, public affairs and demand reduction programs. The capacity-building program will provide technical advisors to various agencies including the CND and MOI to help build a national drug control tracking system. Using statistical data collected by law enforcement, drug interdiction and intelligence units and the CND satellite offices, the system would track the extent of poppy cultivation, eradication and areas where alternative development assistance is available. A similar system would track CN operations including drug seizures and arrests to evaluate and improve drug enforcement efforts. Funds will continue to support the CND in Kabul, and help establish satellite offices in the provinces. These offices will promote the central government's anti-drug policies with a comprehensive public affairs program to discourage cultivation, trafficking and use. INL funds would cover provision of technical advisors and financial assistance to publicize these messages through print media, radio, television, and public events. Funds will also support establishment of a national drug use survey and public opinion sampling surveys. INL will also help fund community-based demand reduction programs aimed at rehabilitation, and anti-drug education programs for youth and rural communities through school curriculum and other community activities.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, ICASS costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Afghanistan
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Counternarcotics Support
Crop Control/Eradication - - - 40,000 10,000
Sustainable Alternative Development - - - 5,000 4,000
Drug Enforcement - - - 3,500 7,000
Drug Control capacity Building - - - 1,500 1,000
Sub Total (A) - - - 50,000 22,000
Civilian Law Enforcement
Training of Afghan Police - - - 74,675 38,000
Equipment, Communications
Support - - - 85,325 27,000
Sub Total (B) - - - 160,000 65,000
Administration of Justice
Justice Sector Training Program - - - 2,500 1,000
Justice Sector Reform &
Infrasrtructure - - - 7,500 1,000
Sub Total (B) - - - 10,000 2,000
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - - - 500
Non-U.S. Personnel - - - - 100
ICASS Costs - - - - 150
Program Support - - - - 250
Sub-Total - - - - 1,000
Total - - - 220,000 90,000
A - $50 million of ERF funds transferred to the INCLE account from the Department of Defence pursuant to PL 107-38.
B - $170.0 million provided by the Emergency Supplemantal Appropriations Act for Defence and for the reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan, 2004.


Indonesia

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

10,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The transformation of the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) into an effective, democratic, civilian-led police force that is based on principles of community policing and respects the rule of law and human rights will be advanced.

Progress towards professionalization of POLRI through institutionalization of anti-corruption practices and an internal disciplinary system; progress towards strengthened police enforcement and investigative skills through a series of basic and advanced training activities and technical forensic assistance that lead to successful prosecutions; functioning forensic and investigative facilities to support criminal investigations will be established and equipped; citizen confidence in POLRI's ability to uphold the law in service to the public will increase.

The POLRI Marine Police Directorate will be modernized.

Appropriate training, technical assistance, and equipment will be effectively utilized to enable the organization to fulfill its mission of patrolling ports and waterways and combating a range of domestic and transnational criminal activities.

Combating corruption and undertaking reform within the criminal justice sectors will advance professionalism and case management among prosecutors and judges.

An assessment and follow-on program targeting corruption within the criminal justice system and prosecutorial and judicial skill development will result in effective case management, successful prosecutions, and timely and fair trials; public confidence in the criminal justice system will be strengthened.

The skills and professional conduct of the Indonesian National Police Drug Enforcement Unit and the National Narcotics Board will be strengthened to combat domestic production of illicit narcotics and transnational drug trafficking.

Training and technical assistance will enable counternarcotics officers to investigate and prosecute drug production and trafficking; new technology and equipment will enhance the investigators' abilities to advance cases by applying forensic techniques to drug investigations.

Program Justification

Indonesia is the largest Muslim country in the world. It is an emerging democracy practicing a pragmatic form of Islam, making Indonesia a key nation in providing leadership to the Islamic world. Indonesia is also a center of transnational criminal activity, such as cyber crime, illegal migration and piracy, and home to terrorist groups, including Jemaah Islamiyah. In its transition to democracy, the Government of Indonesia has recognized the need for institutional reform of its police organizations and within its criminal justice system.

For thirty-three years during the reign of authoritarian President Suharto and for two years under the leadership of President Habibie, the Indonesian National Police was a part of the armed forces of Indonesia. During those thirty-five years, the police definition of domestic security was, "Protection for the State (elite) from its citizens." Until the democratic election of President Abdurahman Wahid in 2000, all but the most routine domestic security/public safety tasks were conducted by the Indonesian military (TNI) or the police paramilitary Mobile Brigade (Brimob), which is trained to use military tactics to preserve law and order.

In 2000, President Wahid sought assistance from several international donors, among them the United States, Britain, Japan, Australia and the Netherlands, to support Justice Sector reform, including police reform. The USG was willing to participate and provide substantial resources, but not until the police were formally separated from the Indonesian Armed Forces. After receiving formal overtures from the Wahid government that the separation would take place, the USG deployed a Program Manager from the Department of Justice, International Criminal Justice Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) to begin program design and development for an assistance initiative that would help POLRI transition from a military to a civilian-led law enforcement agency. On July 1, 2000, President Wahid signed Presidential Decree 02/00, formally separating POLRI from the TNI. USG assistance to support the decree commenced in August 2000.

Reorganizing and reorienting POLRI is a substantial undertaking, requiring a change in the structure, culture, management style, and training of the entire 250,000 member national police force. The Police Assistance Program began by implementing programs to address management issues at the highest level. In FY 2003 and FY 2004, INL worked with the POLRI Chief and officials at national and regional levels to develop and implement management plans that incorporate principles of leadership and management into the operation and administration of POLRI throughout the country. Further, the program is developing managerial skills for mid-level officers. The program includes a media outreach project to share information with the public and build confidence in the police within the populace.

Corruption is endemic in Indonesia, including within POLRI. The Police Assistance program seeks to establish mechanisms to root out corruption by developing a code of conduct and internal disciplinary system.

While undergoing structural reform, POLRI must fulfill its law enforcement functions. Indonesia experiences a wide range of domestic and transnational crimes that must be addressed. Indonesia is a center of cyber crime, and its social development is hindered by the prevalence of gang-related violence. Low confidence in police responsiveness and skill level has spurred citizens to take the law in their own hands, creating a major problem with vigilantism. International narcotics' trafficking is a serious and growing problem in Indonesia. Syndicated drug traffickers from countries in and beyond the region have targeted operations in Indonesia. Domestic availability and use of illicit narcotics are escalating. In addition, Indonesia is home to terrorist groups and has been the target of several deadly terrorist bombings. The skill level of POLRI must be enhanced to address effectively both criminal and terrorist activities and demonstrate its abilities to the public. In conjunction with the State Department Bureau of Diplomatic Security's Anti-terrorism Training Assistance Program, the ICITAP Police Assistance Program includes training and technical assistance projects to give POLRI officers and units the technical and investigative capabilities needed to address specialized crimes and terrorist activities. It also provides forensics training and equipment, enabling both enhanced investigations and successful prosecutions. Drug enforcement training and drug forensic training and equipment are also contained within the program to ensure counternarcotics units can recognize illicit narcotics and discover and dismantle illicit drug labs.

Compounding the difficulties faced by POLRI is the fact that Indonesia's maritime borders, which stretch across 17,000 islands, are largely unprotected and undefended, leaving the country vulnerable to a range of criminal activities from narcotics smuggling to terrorist infiltration. The POLRI Marine Police Directorate is in desperate need of organizational and technical assistance and equipment to adequately perform its mission.

In addition, criminal justice sector reform is crucial to effective democratic reform and goes hand-in-hand with police reform. Creating an effective, well-trained police force based on democratic principles, community policing, and respect for rule of law and individual rights must be complemented by prosecutorial and judicial reform. Effective law enforcement efforts must culminate in bringing criminals to justice. When cases are developed, prosecutors must be skilled in using evidence to try cases successfully, defense attorneys must know how to protect the rights of the accused, and judges must be personally above reproach and ensure a fair trial. Corruption must be rooted out at all levels of the system. If the judicial system is not reformed, police soon become demoralized, and the public loses confidence in the system.

To ensure that Indonesia's transition to democracy is meaningful and takes root within its institutions, the democratization and professionalization of all levels and units of POLRI as well as the prosecutorial and judicial sectors must be realized. The Police Assistance Program, Marine Police development program, counternarcotics assistance, and criminal justice sector reform programs are designed to achieve those objectives.

Program Accomplishments

The police/military separation and POLRI's transition to a civilian-controlled, democratic police force is a work-in-progress; yet, since the implementation of the Police Assistance Program in mid-2000, significant successes have been realized.

A key initial component of the program targeted developing and implementing an entirely new curriculum for use in POLRI Police Training Academies. The new curriculum incorporates democratic and community-policing principles combined with basic police skills training. The program developed a cadre of highly skilled POLRI trainers to implement the new curriculum throughout Indonesia. By November 2003 there were 15,050 Field Training Officers (FTO) trained with FY 2002 Supplemental funds. Following the training, the U.S. instructors will fan out across Indonesia and monitor the performance of the newly minted FTOs. A new curriculum is being completed for the FTO program, new leaders are being assigned, and the training establishment is receiving much needed attention after being neglected for years.

The Civil Disturbance Management training program, which ended in October 2003, has been a major success. The program taught POLRI personnel techniques of crowd control to maintain order and prevent violence. As a result of the training, POLRI personnel have effectively controlled large demonstrations and defused emotional situations to resolve conflicts peacefully. The Indonesian government, the general public, and the NGO community have recognized the success of the program. The program has made a major impact on POLRI leaders and police in improving their relations with the public. Prior to the training, POLRI had limited understanding of the concept of conflict avoidance or the continuum of force options.

The structural reform efforts have been conducted largely through seminars at the national and regional levels, with senior officers writing a plan for change and an action plan to implement the plan. Delegation of authority to police officers and problem solving has been emphasized.

POLRI reform and training have enhanced police investigative skills. Police counternarcotics training and technical assistance has resulted in several seizures of illicit narcotics and the closing of two synthetic-drug production labs within Indonesia.

FY 2005 Program

The FY 2005 Police Assistance Program for Indonesia has three components—transformation of the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) as an institution, support for modernizing the Marine Police, and assistance to POLRI's drug enforcement units. These are ongoing programs designed to create effective, democratic, and skilled law enforcement institutions in Indonesia. A new Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program will be implemented in FY 2005 to address the prosecutorial and judicial side of law enforcement democratization and reform.

Police Assistance Program

Indonesian National Police Assistance Program: Currently in its third year, the Indonesian National Police Assistance Program advances the transformation of POLRI from a military-controlled to a civilian-led police agency built on the principles of democratic policing and protection of human rights. Earlier phases of the program focused on developing leadership skills among high-ranking police officials, developing curricula for application in POLRI training academies, training instructors, and providing specialized law-enforcement training. Continuation of the program will ensure the expansion and intensification of structural reform by supporting training and technical assistance for POLRI mid-level managers to build a professional leadership cadre. FY 2005 program funds will advance and institutionalize an ongoing anti-corruption project and police disciplinary system and improve core police skills and expertise in specialized investigative areas through targeted training courses. The program will assess ongoing police survival skills training and expand remedial training in this important area. The program will expand a modest Cyber Crimes Investigations Project begun in 2003 to assist POLRI's Special Investigations Units and the High-Tech Crime Unit combat computer-based crimes. The program will also continue building POLRI's capacity to combat gang-related crimes and vigilantism, both of which are serious problems throughout Indonesia, as well as advance the Police Media Relations Project, which supports community policing, operational transparency, and public awareness of police activities. It will also expand a pilot Forensic Assistance Project begun in Surabaya in 2004 to ensure that Indonesia's five forensic labs are sufficiently equipped and their staffs are fully trained to enable an effective response to local criminal activities.

Marine Police Development Program: This project will continue a program begun with ESF funding to modernize the Marine Police Directorate to create an efficient and effective organization capable of combating a wide range of criminal activities. Indonesia's maritime borders, which stretch across 17,000 islands, are largely unprotected and undefended, leaving the country vulnerable to a range of criminal activities from narcotics smuggling to terrorist infiltration. Since POLRI was separated from the TNI in mid-2000, the Marine Police Directorate has lacked the training, equipment, and leadership to perform enforcement duties efficiently. The Marine Police will need to be modernized over the next several years. The Marine Police need a new strategic plan and modernization of current operational units. Marine Police personnel will require training as well as equipment and technical assistance to patrol ports and waterways effectively and to combat numerous forms of local and transnational crimes. Using $1 million in FY 2002 ESF funds, a comprehensive assessment of Marine Police capabilities and needs will be conducted in January 2004. Training, technical assistance, and equipment programs developed from the assessment will begin in 2004 using ESF funding and continue until the Directorate has the capacity to effectively fulfill its mission.

Counternarcotics Assistance Program: This program complements and expands counternarcotics training and assistance offered in past years to halt the flow of illegal drugs into Indonesia and to prevent the manufacture of synthetic drugs within Indonesia. The POLRI Drug Enforcement Unit (Narkoba) and the National Narcotics Board (BNN) lack training and equipment and are beset by corruption, preventing them from effectively interdicting illicit narcotics, investigating drug cases, and prosecuting narcotics traffickers. Assistance provided in the past three years has laid the foundation for more effective counternarcotics enforcement efforts. The FY 2005 program will continue to provide counternarcotics training and technical assistance so that the Narkoba and the BNN can effectively investigate and prosecute crimes involving illicit narcotics trafficking and production. The program will also provide new technology and equipment to enhance Narkoba's ability to advance cases by applying forensic techniques to drug investigations.

Criminal Justice Reform

Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program: Indonesia's criminal justice system is rife with corruption and in need of reform to promote democratization by strengthening the rule of law, advancing respect for democratic principles and human rights, and eliminating corruption. The Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program will advance those objectives and complement the ongoing Police Assistance Program by focusing on the prosecutorial and court systems and their ability to prosecute criminal cases. The Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program targets institutional development with a focus on structural and procedural aspects of the Indonesian criminal justice system. It will begin with an assessment of the criminal justice system followed by programs to instill integrity and professionalism within the prosecutorial and judicial sectors. Once the foundations have been laid, the program will expand in future years to include a Resident Legal Advisor to provide assistance and expertise to Indonesian judicial officers and parliamentarians initiating and instituting legal reform. To enhance public trust in the courts and the judiciary, the program will also provide technical assistance and training to combat corruption. This new program is the first phase of what is expected to be a multiphase program.

Indonesia
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Police Assistance Programs - - - - 7,000
Marine Police Program - - - - 1,500
Criminal Justice Reform Program - - - - 1,000
Drug Law Enforcement - - - - 500
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - - - -
Non-U.S. Personnel - - - - -
ICASS Costs - - - - -
Program Support - - - - -
Sub-Total - - - - -
Total - - - - 10,000

Laos

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

2,500

2,000

2,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Alternative development, crop eradication and demand reduction programs will be strengthened.

Road construction in Luang Prabang province will continue; access to markets, government services, food production and alternative income activities will be expanded; eradication efforts in Phongsali, Luang Prabang and other poppy-growing provinces will increase.

Drug addiction and abuse levels will be reduced.

Treatment centers will be constructed and staffed; demand reduction education and treatment programs at national- and municipal-level drug counseling centers will increase; drug use rates will decline and drug users receiving treatment will increase.

Counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities and effective interaction between Lao law enforcement agencies and the international community will be strengthened.

Training delivered; and effective utilization of donated equipment by the INL-supported counternarcotics units (CNUs), Customs Department and Commission for Drug Control and Supervision will result in increased arrest and seizure rates in target areas; and improved cooperation with U.S. and international narcotics law enforcement agencies as measured by access to investigators, reports, suspects and samples, will become evident.

Program Justification

Despite continued progress toward the goal of becoming opium-free by 2006, Laos remained the world's third largest producer of illicit opium in 2003. According to U.S. estimates, total area under poppy cultivation decreased 20 percent to 18,900 hectares. However, due to improved climatic conditions and consequent higher yield per hectare, potential opium production increased ten percent, to around 200 metric tons. Laos is landlocked and about 80 percent mountainous. Opium poppy is generally grown in remote, mountainous areas largely populated by ethnic minority groups that have traditionally resisted the imposition of central authority. Laos is one of the world's least developed countries, with an almost total lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail that isolates rural villages from the market economy and most government services and influence. The few government services available in market centers are rudimentary by any standard. Human resource capacity is severely limited in all fields, including law enforcement. In recent years, the Government of Laos (GOL) has demonstrated a newfound seriousness toward the threat of illegal drugs. Laos has the second highest opium addiction rate in the world and much of the opium poppy grown is consumed in Laos. Previously, the GOL had taken a relatively lax attitude toward opium cultivation and production, as it affected mostly hill-tribe minorities in remote regions. Increasingly sensitive to the stigma of being a global leader in opium production, and deeply concerned by the regional explosion of amphetamine-type stimulants in recent years that affects all segments of Lao society, the GOL declared counternarcotics to be a national priority in 2000. Since then, it has adopted stricter drug control policies, including tough new measures for eliminating opium production, imposing the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes, and organizing a national campaign to address the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse among Lao youth. In 2001 the GOL pledged to eliminate opium production altogether after the 2005 growing season.

Laos is also a transit route for Burmese drugs going to China, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, and beyond, and is increasingly coming under siege by drug traffickers who can easily exploit the countries' vulnerabilities. Law enforcement capabilities in Laos are both sub-standard and under-funded: more training and better coordination - as well as increased GOL support and international cooperation - are required to be effective against the major trafficking organizations active in Laos. The addict population supports the Lao opium production and increases the difficulties of eradication and crop substitution. There is still little conception in Lao society of the complexity and pathology of drug addiction.

INL development projects are aimed at stemming production and trafficking of illicit opium, providing market-based income alternatives for opium poppy farmers, and raising awareness of and treatment for drug addiction.

The alternative development and crop substitution project will support a wide range of activities aimed at providing former poppy farmers with alternative crops and access to markets to replace income from opium cultivation. The crop substitution areas funded by the U.S. Government consistently show lower levels of opium cultivation.

The law enforcement project will support specialized counternarcotics units with training and equipment. It will also support Lao Customs and the Commission for Drug Control and Supervision. The project has suspended plans to expand to all 18 provinces in Laos in order to concentrate on strengthening the effectiveness of those already in place.

The demand reduction project will support Lao demand reduction and drug abuse education efforts through the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and several NGOs in cooperation with the GOL.

Program Accomplishments

The U.S. conducted its own opium yield survey in 2003 and supported UNODC's field-based opium survey, which covered 460 villages and interviewed over 1000 farmers and GOL officials. Widening discrepancies in the results of the two surveys led the U.S. to propose changes in the format of the UN survey, which beginning in 2004 will supplement the interview process with commercially available satellite imagery. The GOL claimed 4000 hectares of opium poppy were eradicated and six districts became "opium-free." While the scale of eradication could not be confirmed, 2003 marks the first time the GOL engaged in a comprehensive, sustained eradication campaign.

A major part of the Phongsaly Province portion of the alternative development project successfully concluded in 2003 with the official completion and handover of the last, seventy-two (72) kilometer segment of road to the GOL. Two clinics were constructed, along with water supplies and schools benefiting hundreds of villagers in this poppy-growing area. The Luang Prabang portion of the project advanced in 2003 with the start of a new phase of road construction and introduction of substitute crops. With U.S. support, new detoxification and drug treatment centers were opened in Vientiane, Udomxai and Champassak.

Also in 2003, U.S.-funded drug detection X-ray machines were installed at the main post office and international airport in Vientiane and had an immediate deterrent effect: DEA sources report that at the main postal facility in Oakland, California, which handles all inbound packages from Laos, there have been almost no drug seizures from parcels originating in Laos in the months immediately following installation.

Results from the INL-supported counternarcotics units (CNUs), now in ten provinces, were modest, and included one significant buy-bust operation in Champassak province, as well as "improved" information and sample sharing with DEA. Counternarcotics police have improved data collection and entry for arrests and other relevant information, and several CNUs have contributed to effective interdiction efforts. Overall, however, results have been less than expected, and plans to expand the project to all 18 provinces are on hold until performance in existing CNUs improves. Opium and heroin seizures increased significantly in 2003, but drug arrests declined. In the first ten months of 2003, CNUs reported 141 cases resulting in the arrests of 273 suspects. Drugs, vehicles, weapons and cash were confiscated in some cases. Despite some improvements, CNU cooperation with U.S. law enforcement remains hampered by restricted access and cumbersome regulations on contacts and training. DEA reports improved cooperation with Lao Customs, which made several significant seizures in 2003 and promptly shared information with U.S. agencies. Almost 400 officials from the CNUs, Customs, and other agencies have received basic officer training and specialized training at ILEA Bangkok.

FY 2005 Program

The FY 2005 program has three major components that build on efforts undertaken in previous years.

Alternative Development/Crop Control: FY 2005 funds will be used to continue the alternative development project begun in FY 2002 in Luang Prabang province, one of the major poppy-growing provinces. Funds will be used to construct roads to provide access to markets and government services; improve food production through provision of agricultural inputs and training; deliver medical and educational programs that target villages in poppy-growing provinces; and maintain advisors in the field to manage and oversee the project. Funds will also be used to develop and market alternative crops and for general community development projects, such as building schools and clinics. This project is expected to last three years, during which time opium poppy production will be reduced in target areas by at least 20 percent per year.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction: FY 2005 funds will be used for construction of treatment clinics for drug abusers and support for drug abuse and awareness programs aimed at increasing education and treatment. The treatment center to be constructed in Savannakhet will complement a similar center being built by the Royal Thai Government in a neighboring province. Financial support will be provided to the Demand Reduction Training Center operated by the NGO Consortium. Funds will also be provided to assist the National Center for Demand Reduction in Vientiane and drug counseling centers. This project is expected to continue through at least 2008. Clinics will be constructed and will treat increasing numbers of addicts while reducing the rate of recidivism; drug abuse awareness programs will reduce the number of Lao drug addicts as measured by UN surveys. The new Lao-American Project in Luang Prabang will provide opium detoxification services to 23 target villages on a community-based basis. In addition the project will establish two centers within district hospitals to treat opium addicts who also have other diseases.

Narcotics Law Enforcement: FY 2005 funds will be used to improve Lao counternarcotics law enforcement capabilities and promote effective interaction with law enforcement agencies in the international community. This project will fund training and executive observation trips for GOL counternarcotics law enforcement personnel, and provide equipment and commodities such as radios, motorcycles and x-ray machines for Lao Customs and the GOL narcotics police. Funding for provincial counternarcotics units (CNUs) - including training, equipment and office refurbishing - will be limited to those that have demonstrated good performance. Assistance will also continue to the Lao Customs Department and National Commission for Drug Control and Supervision, which oversees all Government of Laos counternarcotics activities. Depending on results, this project is expected to continue for four years, during which time CNU's will arrest at least one significant drug trafficker annually; CNU's will annually increase the number of cases in which information, leads and samples are shared with DEA.

Program Development and Support (PD&S). PD&S funds will cover the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Laos
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement 50 - 100 - 50
Crop Control/Alternative Development 1,624 - 1,261 - 1,187
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 300 - 200 - 150
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 210 - 206 - 300
Non-U.S. Personnel 23 - 22 - 30
ICASS Costs 87 - 82 - 112
Program Support 206 - 129 - 171
Sub-Total 526 - 439 - 613
Total 2,500 - 2,000 - 2,000

Morocco

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

6,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Morocco's control over its borders will be strengthened.

A strategic plan for improving Morocco's controls its borders developed; training and technical assistance provided; donated border control equipment and new skills and techniques, including risk analysis and targeting systems, used effectively; cooperation and intelligence sharing among law enforcement agencies (police, customs, port, and immigration authorities) improved; accountability measures instituted, corruption reduced, government customs revenue increased; seizures of narcotics and other contraband increased; number of illegal migrants leaving Morocco decreased; processing time for travelers and international shipments reduced; cadre of instructors developed; revised curricula and adult teaching methodologies adopted and replicated throughout the border control agencies at entry and in-service levels.

Public confidence in law enforcement institutions increases.

Concept of community-policing accepted by Moroccan official and community leaders, strategic plan for introducing a community oriented police service developed, roadmap for necessary policy and procedural changes set forth; training and technical assistance delivered; community policing concepts and procedures introduced into police training programs; mechanism for gathering and responding to citizen complaints implemented; incidents of police abuse declined; police response time improved as measured by official records and case reviews.

The Government of Morocco's capacity to manage civil disorder improved.

Police civil disorder unit demonstrates commitment to preserving human life; order preserved and restored through a process of adequate planning, prompt response, and sound decision making, including the concept of "continuum of force"; vital locations, basic public services, and property adequately protected; criminal violators arrested, using minimum necessary force.

Program Justification

The Government of Morocco (GOM) continues to advance its political and economic reform agenda as it moves towards becoming a market-oriented democracy. During the past year, Morocco held free and fair Parliamentary elections and was negotiating a Free Trade Agreement with the U.S. Morocco also distinguished itself as a solid partner in the fight against global terrorism. U.S. support for Morocco's political and economic transition and its continued development as a moderate, Muslim state is consistent with our National Security Strategy, strikes at the root causes of terrorism, and improves America's image with the Moroccan street and the general public.

Due to its long and poorly controlled borders with Algeria, Mauritania, and the Spanish enclaves, its extensive coastline, and its proximity to Europe, Morocco has significant problems with illegal migration and human smuggling, narcotics production and trafficking, the movement of transnational terrorists through its territory, and commercial smuggling. Hundreds of thousands of illegal migrants from the Near East and Sub-Sahara Africa routinely transit Morocco on their way to Europe. Most are simply seeking a better life, but some harbor criminal and terrorist intentions. Morocco also consistently ranks among the world's largest producers and exporters of cannabis. The value of this illegal trade is estimated at $1 billion per year. These criminal activities, which are made possible by weak border controls, serve to undermine the rule of law in Morocco, foster public corruption and weaken the Moroccan institutions that assist the U.S. in the war against terrorism.

The 2003 terrorist bombings—carried out by an indigenous group—and the arrests and prosecutions of a number of al-Qa'ida terrorists and their Moroccan accomplices in 2002 are indicative of underlying social tensions throughout the region. These tensions have the potential to overwhelm ill prepared law enforcement institutions whose mismanagement of civil unrest could deepen the chasm between Moroccans and their government, and underscore the need for programs - such as community policing - to improve relations between the government and civil society.

Program Accomplishments

Country-specific funding is requested for the first time FY 2005. To addresses Morocco's immediate needs following the terrorist bombings in 2003, INL used $900, 000 in FY 2003 funds to begin a program to improve border controls and to initiate a community policing pilot project. Program implementation will begin in 2004.

FY 2005 Program

This is the first year of funding for this program. The FY 2005 program will focus on three areas: border control, police-community relations and civil disorder management.

Border Control: FY 2005 funds will be used to improve Morocco's capacity to control its borders. This program will complement the PISCES computerized immigration system developed by the State Department's Office of Counterterrorism and installed under the Terrorist Interdiction Program funded by the Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining and Related programs (NADR) account. A resident Program Manager will assist in developing a strategic plan for improving border controls that addresses systemic problems, including corruption and poor coordination among the law enforcement agencies responsible for border security. Short-term technical advisors will instruct in risk analyses and targeting systems to meet dual objectives of effective law enforcement and international trade facilitation. Additional advisors will work to modernize entry-level and in-service training curricula and teaching methodologies for the border control agencies, and to develop a cadre of instructors that will continue these programs into the future. Funds will also provide for communications equipment, binoculars, metal-detection machines, inspection tools, and computers. Infrastructure upgrades and cargo inspection systems will also be provided. The project goals are to reduce illegal migrants and contraband leaving Morocco, increased seizures of narcotics and other contraband, increased customs revenue and collections, and reduced processing time for international travelers and commercial shipments.

Community Policing: FY 2005 funding will used to foster institutional changes that improve community-police relations. Funds will be used to assess attitudes and expectations and to identify model communities conducive to development and the implementation of community policing projects. INL funds will used to sponsor the participation of Moroccan officials and community leaders on study tours of community policing programs in the United States. A resident Program Manager will coordinate community-policing activities, complemented by short-term technical advisors and trainers. The program will include a train-the-trainer component and the introduction of community policing concepts into academy and in-service training programs. Specific activities may include developing citizen complaint hotlines, bike patrols, police athletic leagues, school resource officers, and other activities designed to maximize positive police-community relations, increase the number of investigations of corruption, reduce citizen complaints of abuse, improve police response to disasters and social unrest, and improve police and community response to juvenile delinquency and domestic violence.

Civil Disorder Management: FY 2005 funds will be used to develop the capacity of Moroccan law enforcement authorities to properly manage potentially dangerous demonstrations and civil disorders. Civil Disorder Management training will be provided to approximately one hundred and fifty (150) line, mid-level and senior-level officers through practical exercises, tabletop scenarios, group discussions and field training exercises. Funds will also be used to provide relevant equipment such as shield, helmets, gas masks, batons, gas grenades, chemical agent dispensers, pepper aerosol units, rubber impact projectiles, and communications equipment. The project seeks to reduce the number of incidents of civil disorder and to develop a continuum of force strategy for the Moroccan police that will protect vital locations and essential services and lead to the arrest of criminal violators using the minimum force necessary while respecting civil liberties. This project is expected to last one year, after which time Moroccan trainers will be replicating the training.

Morocco
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Border Control - - - - 4,000
Community Policing - - - - 1,500
Civil Disorder management - - - - 500
Total - - - - 6,000

Pakistan

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

6,000

25,000

31,500

40,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Pakistan's control over the western border with Afghanistan will be strengthened.

Access to previously inaccessible territory increased and security forces' presence expanded through infrastructure development (roads, guard outposts, checkpoints, border crossings) in the border areas; air support facilitates GOP border security agencies' surveillance and interdiction operations in the border areas; increased skill levels, mobility, intelligence sharing and communications improves the GOP's ability to control cross border movements of people and goods.

The Pakistani capability to detect and investigate major criminal and terrorist activity is improved.

Technical assistance, training, and equipment delivered and utilized effectively by GOP law enforcement authorities; modern forensic and fingerprint identification methodologies instituted as part of standard procedure in criminal investigations; institutional police reform program emphasizes executive management skills, improved police training, infrastructure development, strategic planning, and internal controls to prevent corruption, provide model policing projects, and support a national dialogue between law enforcement agencies.

The Government of Pakistan's ability to combat resurgent opium poppy cultivation improves.

Alternative crop program expanded into non-traditional growing areas; poppy growing in non-traditional areas is reduced while crops in accessible areas are eradicated voluntarily or by force; GOP issues statement that opium poppy cultivation will not be tolerated and punishment will be levied on communities that cultivate.

Program Justification

Pakistan is a key ally in the war on terrorism and transnational crime. The GOP has demonstrated a firm commitment to combat these menaces, which threaten Americans and Pakistanis alike, and has taken into custody roughly 550 suspected al-Qa'ida/Taliban members since 9/11.

Pakistan's border with Afghanistan runs approximately 2,500 kilometers through rough mountainous and desert terrain that is hard to access, providing a potential safe haven for drug traffickers, terrorists, and other criminals. Controlling this border has long been a problem for the poorly equipped and trained Pakistani law enforcement agencies. The challenge has never been greater given massive poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, concerns about al-Qa'ida and the Taliban moving into Pakistan to regroup and plan and mount operations (including against U.S. troops), and trafficking of weapons that can be used in these efforts.

Large areas of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) along the border with Afghanistan are inaccessible to law enforcement and the outside world, creating space which terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals, as well as extremists, can exploit. Road construction programs begun by INL in the FATA in poppy growing areas ten years ago succeeded in facilitating law enforcement access for eradication, but also facilitated legitimate commerce and opened the area for development, government influence, and vital health and education programs. The INL-built roads are accompanied by small infrastructure projects that improve the lives of the people and help gain their support for the entry of law enforcement into these areas. This program now is expanding into the areas along the Afghan border where al-Qa'ida and the Taliban may otherwise find safe haven.

Law enforcement institutions in Pakistan have been neglected for decades, resulting in very weak capacities to investigate even basic crimes like stolen vehicles, much less the far more serious threats posed by terrorists and extremists. GOP capacity to combat terrorism and other serious forms of criminality successfully will require not just an infusion of resources, but also comprehensive reform and improvements to law enforcement institutions country wide. These reforms include better cooperation and coordination among law enforcement organizations, more focus on service to the community, and overall enhancement of technical skills. In October 2002, Pakistan promulgated Police Order 2002, a roadmap for reform. Two boards, the National Police Management Board and the National Police Training Management Board, have been convened to oversee reform efforts and to facilitate coordination and standardization of law enforcement training, policies, and procedures across the country. Pakistan will need outside expert help and resources to fully implement these reforms. In support of this effort, INL assistance will provide leadership and management training at the senior levels in addition to furnishing training in basic and advanced criminal investigation techniques. Emphasis will be placed on promotion of organizational change and the development of high standards of accountability and public awareness.

The Federal Investigative Agency (FIA) and National Police Bureau (NPB) are spearheading the nationwide conversion to the international standard 10-print fingerprint card; 80,000 cards have been compiled to date, reaching a quantity that will allow the sharing of information with U.S. law enforcement agencies. The INL program will also provide an Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) to make expeditious identifications of suspects and criminals.

In 1990, Pakistan was a major producer of opium poppy. With U.S. help, Pakistan embarked on a 10-year plan to become poppy free. It essentially achieved that goal by 2000 but, due in part to massive cultivation in Afghanistan, saw a resurgence of poppy cultivation and, more disturbingly, an expansion of cultivation into non-traditional areas along the western border in both the FATA and Baluchistan last year; both occurrences were not detected by the GOP's early warning system. It is essential that opium poppy cultivation be eradicated as early as possible, before its economic impact becomes too deeply rooted. Crop control efforts, as well as enhanced poppy monitoring, will decrease narcotics production and trafficking. The GOP is committed to this effort, but does not have the resources to implement anti-poppy efforts. GOP seizures of narcotics, primarily heroin and hashish, remain significant, but undoubtedly represent only a small fraction of what actually is transiting the country. Arrests of traffickers in the forbidding border terrain are difficult, as traffickers generally are far better equipped than police. The provision of vehicles, radios, and surveillance equipment as part of the border security program has begun to mitigate this problem.

Program Accomplishments

The Ministry of Interior Air Wing was established in 2002 using FY 2001 ERF funds. So far, five Huey-II helicopters and three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft have been delivered and become operational. Key training is being completed for aircrews, rending them capable of conducting day/night/night vision goggle missions. Missions to date include support for counter-terrorism activities. The aircraft also conducted medical evacuations and rescue operations, and facilitated travel to remote border areas where frontier roads and border outposts are under construction.

More than 1,100 vehicles and hundreds of pieces of communications equipment were delivered to the Frontier Corps in Baluchistan and the NWFP and other agencies operating on the border and 14 border outposts were constructed. These resources provided border security and law enforcement personnel better access to rugged areas of the western border and improved coordination and communication among those agencies. Training was provided to 130 officers in basic border officer skills, small unit tactics, and port of entry operations. Indicators have been positive, reflecting a 60 percent increase in operations in 2003 from 2002 for Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) Baluchistan alone. Based on quantity, nationwide heroin seizures rose 224 percent in 2003 from 2002; opium seizures increased by 125 percent; and hashish seizures grew 6 percent. Sixty-three percent of the total seizures were made by the Frontier Corps and ANF personnel operating in Baluchistan, which cover the major trafficking routes from Afghanistan and which have been primary beneficiaries of INL assistance. The ANF attributes its greater capacity on the border to the Border Security Program. Additional outposts are being constructed to support the placement of Frontier Corps personnel at remote border sites, with 30 border outposts to be completed in FY 2004.

To date, 431 kilometers of roads have been completed in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber agencies with an additional 73 kilometers planned or underway for the Khyber. In addition, construction of the first tranche of 17 new roads along the Afghan border in the FATA will begin in 2004, and negotiations for the second tranche are underway, for a total of 390 kilometers of additional border roads.

Training courses involving personnel from fourteen different agencies have begun to improve skills in basic criminal investigations, small unit tactics, port of entry operations, first response at crime scenes, use of continuum of force, building organizational capacity, instructor development, and executive management. More than 800 participants have received training to date in basic skills that will serve as a foundation for more specialized training that is currently scheduled and designed to yield measurable improvements. Punjab Police College (one of the premier police training institutions in Pakistan) has agreed to add 80 hours of INL basic criminal investigations curriculum to its standard course that trains thousands of police. An additional 150 officers from border agencies will be trained in FY 2004 and 150 officers will receive training in FY 2005, when INL also hopes to initiate joint training with Afghan counterparts. This will further advance the USG interest for fostering confidence-building measure between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

GOP law enforcement agencies began using the international standard 10-print fingerprint card nationwide in 2003, and over 80,000 acceptable 10-print cards were received. A central fingerprint repository, a key requirement for such fingerprint database systems, was established in the Federal Investigative Agency. Requirements for a nationwide AFIS system have been identified and procurement is about to begin. U.S.-trained officers have deployed to assist with fingerprints and other crime scene investigative methods at two major crime scenes: one of an assassination attempt on President Musharraf, another where a prominent member of the National Assembly had been murdered. Discussions began to build national consensus on reform of crime data reporting; the federal agency responsible for spearheading reform has agreed to support a supplementary attachment to the crime report - this same agency has agreed to work on standard operating procedures for operating the AFIS system.

The GOP has promulgated Police Order 2002, a broad framework for reform. Public safety commissions, designed to promote community involvement in policing and police accountability to the public, were established throughout Pakistan, consistent with Police Order 2002. Discussions began with GOP officials on furthering reform efforts, including through strategic planning. The Interior Ministry invited INL to present ideas to a meeting of all the heads of major Pakistani law enforcement organizations. In support of the reform effort, training was provided to 126 police personnel from throughout Pakistan on leadership and management, building organizational capacity, continuum of force, instructor development, and training management. A model police station was established in Islamabad to serve as a testing/proving ground for innovative projects to enhance police effectiveness, accountability, and community relations.

Crop control programs during the 1990s succeeded in reducing opium poppy production to a virtually zero- level by 2000, with ongoing U.S. assistance in facilitating law enforcement access to poppy growing areas through road construction and crop substitution programs. Although poppy cultivation expanded in 2002 and 2003, the GOP is committed to eliminating it and has taken several positive steps toward that end. In addition, the Anti-Narcotics Force, the Frontier Corps, Customs, the Maritime Security Agency, and Pakistan Coast Guard, with operational and material support from the United States under the Border Security and Law Enforcement Support Programs, seized more than 28 metric tons of heroin and 75 metric tons of hashish in 2003. In 2003, GOP forces, with support from INL destroyed some 4,200 hectares (over 10,000 acres) of opium poppies. Crop substitution programs, begun over a decade ago, have led to a number of alternative economic opportunities. Initial reports suggest there has been a dramatic increase in the number of operations conducted against drug traffickers; for example, the Anti-Narcotics Force in Baluchistan conducted 128 operations in 2003, as compared to 78 in 2002. There have been several prominent prosecutions of major drug traffickers although the appellate process is ongoing.

FY 2005 Program

The FY 2005 program has four major components that build on efforts undertaken in previous years, particularly since 9/11.

Border Security Program: FY 2005 funds will be used to build on the successful implementation of commodity support, training, and technical assistance that was started with FY 2001 ERF Supplemental funding. The Border Security Program supports and expands law enforcement capacity to secure the western frontier against terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and other criminal elements. Beneficiaries include the Ministry of Interior, Anti-Narcotics Force, Frontier Corps - Baluchistan and NWFP, Federal Investigation Agency, Intelligence Bureau, Coast Guard, Maritime Security Agency, Home Departments, and provincial police forces.

Funds will be used to construct border security roads in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), a program begun with FY 2002 and FY 2003 Supplemental funds. Resources will also support the construction of additional checkpoints at key roadway intersections to permit efficient monitoring by security officials. These checkpoints will facilitate law enforcement access to remote areas to discourage their use as safe havens.

Funds will be used to provide ongoing maintenance, support, and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing, which includes three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft and five Huey-II helicopters that are based at Quetta, Baluchistan province. They permit monitoring and interception of terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas. Funds will also extend air mobility for rapid response platoons and other law enforcement personnel into the North West Frontier Province through the establishment of a new forward operating location in Peshawar, which will be outfitted with five helicopters as requested in FY 2004.

Funds will also be used to provide additional vehicles, communications equipment, and long-range optical devices to support civilian border agencies. Training will also be provided for Pakistani forces operating on the western border, including the provision of joint training courses that bring Afghani border control personnel to Pakistan, enhancing border security cooperation.

Law Enforcement and Judicial Development Program: Funds will be used to enhance law enforcement capacities and to encourage more effective law enforcement cooperation within the Government of Pakistan, and with the United States and other countries.

Funds will be used to provide training, technical assistance, and equipment to expand investigative skills and forensics capacities, build accountability and internal control structures, enhance police training institutions, develop community policing programs, and improve managerial and leadership expertise. Funds will expand implementation of the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) and develop criminal information databases that link federal and provincial law enforcement agencies and improve investigative skills and cooperation.

Funds will also be used to provide training, vehicles, fuel, repairs, office equipment, communications devices, supplies, and other operational support for law enforcement and border security agencies to enhance their capabilities and performance. They will provide support for opium poppy monitoring and eradication efforts.

Counternarcotics Program: These funds will be used for programs to eliminate opium production, which has expanded recently to non-traditional areas. Funding will be used to support crop control operations in areas of new or expanded opium poppy cultivation, support the cultivation of alternative crops, and finance demand reduction efforts through public awareness campaigns.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): These funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Pakistan
INL Budget
($000)
 

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Border Security Program
Khyber/Mohmand/Bajaur FATA
Road Projects - 10,000 - - 8,000
Helicopter & Fixed Wing
Operational Support 3,668 5,000 9,000 - 10,255
Peshawar Forward Operating
Base - - 14,500 - 6,500
Infrastructure/Commodities - 5,000 - 4,300
Training/Training Materials - - - - 1,000
- 1,000 - - -
Sub Total 3,668 21,000 23,500 - 30,055
Law Enforcement/Judicial System
Support to the Law Enforcement
Agencies 1,492 - 1,500 - 1,000
National Criminal Data - - - - 2,000
Base/AFIS Law Enforcement
Reform - 4,000 5,619 - 4,000
Sub Total 1,492 4,000 7,119 - 7,000
Counternarcotics Program 100 - - - 1,700
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 222 - 268 - 380
Non-U.S. Personnel 81 - 98 - 140
ICASS Costs 163 - 154 - 215
Program Support 274 - 360 - 510
Sub-Total 740 - 881 - 1,245
Total 6,000 25,000 31,500 - 40,000

Philippines

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

2,000

2,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) will develop an effective civilian police force in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and elsewhere in the Philippines.

The program will continue to support a series of basic and advanced training activities, integrating police and prosecutors where possible, and later replicated by Philippine trainers. The Philippines Drug Enforcement Agency will be provided with organizational support and training that will enable it to undertake its mandate effectively.

The criminal justice institutions, including law enforcement, judicial, and prosecutorial bodies, will be developed and modernized.

A Resident Legal Advisor will provide technical assistance on reforming the Philippine law and criminal justice system to successfully prosecute transnational organized crime; a functioning forensic document laboratory and forensic document historical library to track terrorists, combat alien smuggling and prevent document fraud will be established and equipped; efforts to implement an effective national automated fingerprint identification system and criminal database will continue; and there will be continued improvement in police-prosecutorial working relationships leading to increases in successful prosecutions.

Program Justification

The Philippines lies at the crossroads of the global wars on terror and drugs. The successful U.S. - Philippine joint military effort against Islamic militants and terrorists from the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) in 2002 demonstrated the effectiveness of the Philippine military, but exposed a serious gap between the military and civilian law enforcement community, which has been manifestly ineffective in combating most forms of crime, including transnational organized crime networks based in the Philippines. This gap threatens national security by leaving the Philippines vulnerable to domestic criminals, international narcotraffickers, and terrorist organizations.

A strategic ally and one of the region's strongest supporters of the Global War on Terror, the Philippines has reached out to the U.S. for assistance with building capacity on the civilian side as well. Having vowed in 2002 to build a strong republic by enhancing peace and order, and citing the drug menace as "public enemy No. 1," President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (GMA) signed a comprehensive anti-drug law and established a new counternarcotics organization modeled after the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. During reciprocal State Visits in 2003, both President Bush and President Arroyo reiterated their mutual commitment to strengthening law enforcement cooperation. The GRP's capabilities do not match its commitment, however. Enhancing the capacities of the law enforcement and criminal justice systems remains a top GRP priority and is central to the U.S. strengthening mutual security.

Systemic problems in the criminal justice system, including inadequate funding, that hamper the GRP's ability to combat terrorism and other transnational crime are especially acute in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), but to a great extent apply throughout the Philippines. In the ARMM, a lack of resources and professionalism, ineffectiveness, corruption, and widespread behavior inconsistent with the rule of law plague both the police and the rest of the criminal justice system - the courts, prosecutors, and penal personnel. The result is a criminal justice system with minimal political legitimacy that paves the way for the excesses of local political strongmen, former separatists turned bandits, traditional warlords, and militias. This, in turn, provides fertile ground for ASG and other Islamic terrorists to operate and expand their influence.

Problems in the broader Philippine criminal justice system that provide fertile ground for transnational criminal activity and terrorism need to be addressed by a long-term, comprehensive program of training and technical assistance in areas such as drafting laws, rules and regulations concerning criminal law and procedure; developing sustainable training programs; facilitating interagency and police-prosecutor cooperation; devising judicial administration and case management systems; and developing task force capability.

Program Accomplishments

Following an INL-led interagency assessment of the Philippine criminal justice system in FY 2003, this program began with the arrival of a senior U.S. police-training advisor (SPTA) in Manila in September 2003. By December 2003, the SPTA had set up offices in Philippine National Police (PNP) headquarters, and organized and conducted several training courses for over 100 police officials, majorities of whom come from the ARMM. Participants included Philippine police training instructors, who will lead future training courses to ensure sustainability and thorough penetration of course principles throughout the PNP.

In 2003, INL assistance funded an FBI assessment of the Philippine fingerprint collection and processing system, as part of its worldwide effort to develop an international database of known and suspected terrorists. The FBI team evaluated the process of record keeping, fingerprint card processing, classification sequencing, search and quality controls, storage capacity, latent labs and evidence collection. The FBI team returned to the U.S. with fingerprint records of 160 ASG members to add to its global database. ASG is on the State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Groups, and is based in the southern Philippines. The team also determined that the Philippines is an excellent candidate for implementing an Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS). This system will be compatible with the FBI's International AFIS system and conform to U.S. technological standards, ensuring interoperability and real-time access by U.S. law enforcement personnel.

FY 2005 Program

The FY 2005 program is primarily an expansion and continuation of the law enforcement and judicial institutional development program begun in FY 2004. The two major components to the FY 2005 program are Law Enforcement Support and Administration of Justice. New initiatives include assignment of a Department of Justice Resident Legal Advisor (RLA), and funding for the AFIS project and forensic document facilities. The combination of hands-on skills enhancement training combined with targeted efforts to strengthen institutional capacity and introduce fundamental organizational change will result in measurable and sustainable improvements in the law enforcement and criminal justice sectors.

Law Enforcement Support: FY 2005 funds will provide a series of basic and advanced training activities, integrating police and prosecutors where possible, (investigative techniques, police management, community relations), technical assistance and limited commodities (communications equipment, motorcycles, protective gear), and infrastructure upgrades (police offices and boxes, training facilities) to build effective civilian law enforcement capacity, starting with the ARMM and extending elsewhere. An important element will be a train-the-trainers component enabling the Philippine National Police (PNP) to deliver training where and when needed. FY 2005 resources will also be used to upgrade the skills of new PNP and Philippines Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) officers, provide mid-level management development training, provide equipment and supplies, and promote respect for the rule of law. Support will also be provided to non-governmental organizations that have ongoing programs to strengthen the rule of law in the ARMM and elsewhere. This project is expected to last five years, after which time Philippine trainers will be replicating the training. During this period, one or more significant criminals organizations annually will be substantially disrupted by arrests, prosecutions, seizures of drugs or assets, or related measures by GRP authorities.

Administration of Justice: FY 2005 funding will support a Department of Justice Resident Legal Advisor (RLA), who will provide legislative drafting assistance, and design and implement efforts to improve police-prosecutor cooperation, establish and support corruption-fighting institutions, and direct a program to begin improvements in judicial administration and criminal case management. Legislative, technical, and advisory support will be provided to government efforts to make the newly established PDEA an effective drug enforcement agency. Technical and material support will also be provided to build forensic document laboratory and forensic document historical library in the Bureau of Immigration, to enhance GRP capabilities to track terrorists, combat alien smuggling and prevent document fraud. The planned life of this project is four years, after which the most significant necessary new substantive and procedural criminal law reforms will have been approved; prosecutors and other responsible officials will be trained in their use, resulting in increased rates of arrests and convictions; and forensic document facilities will be established and effectively utilized, resulting in increased arrests of illegal immigrants and suspected terrorists.

FY 2005 funds will implement the first phase of an Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) compatible with the FBI's global database. The system will conform to U.S. technological standards, ensuring interoperability and real-time access by U.S. law enforcement personnel. The project will include limited provision of commodities, including fingerprint booking stations, fingerprint kits, digital cameras, a scanner for conversion to FBI-standard cards, and training materials. It will also include provision of "Terror Watch" identification systems - combining a "cross-match" live-scan device and a digital scanner with proprietary software developed by Lockheed-Martin that allows conversion of several different fingerprint card formats into a digital format record capable of being automatically searched by the FBI. Training will consist of two cycles of six weeks each. Each cycle will provide basic training and equipment for the NBI and the Philippines National Police (PNP), as well as expert technical assistance in instituting procedures and practices to FBI standards. All training will include train-the-trainer segments to ensure sustainability. This project will last three years. During this period, the AFIS system will be implemented and 10 million fingerprint records will be transferred initially, with 2.5 million per year subsequently. These records should lead to arrests of several international terrorist suspects.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): These funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Philippines
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Law Enforcement Support - - 1,127 - 600
Administration of Justice - - 800 - 1,300
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - - - -
Non-U.S. Personnel - - 55 - 75
ICASS Costs - - 15 - 20
Program Support - - 4 - 5
Sub-Total - - 73 - 100
Total - - 2,000 - 2,000


Thailand

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

3,700

2,000

2,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The criminal justice system will be strengthened and reformed, thereby improving the capacity for investigating and prosecuting transnational and organized crime (including drug trafficking, terrorism, money laundering and other crime) emanating from Thailand that threatens U.S. interests.

New or amended criminal laws passed; delivery and implementation of key training segments; new prosecutorial and investigative techniques implemented and utilized will produce an increased number of cases successfully prosecuted.

Institutions for promoting public ethics and internal oversight will be established to enable government institutions to investigate and prosecute public corruption cases.

A comprehensive regime of laws, procedures and practices to prevent, or identify and punish, public corruption, and to promote integrity among public officials, particularly those who maintain the rule of law and enforce criminal laws, are developed and implemented.

Royal Thai Government (RTG) capabilities to investigate and prosecute major drug traffickers and their organizations will be improved.

Technical assistance, training, and equipment delivered and effectively utilized by law enforcement agencies will result in one or more significant drug trafficking organizations being substantially disrupted by arrests, prosecutions, seizures of drugs or assets, or related measures.

Opium poppy cultivation will be reduced through eradication and small-scale alternative development projects; drug addiction will be reduced and public drug awareness campaigns will be expanded.

There will be a reduced area under poppy cultivation, lower potential production of heroin, and an increased number of farmers provided with viable economic alternatives. RTG and NGO drug abuse prevention and treatment training programs, community outreach, and epidemiological and prevention studies will increase the effectiveness of drug awareness and demand reduction efforts.

Program Justification

Thailand is at the center of a wide variety of transnational crime, including trafficking in narcotics, weapons and persons, and money laundering by terrorist and other criminal organizations. Thailand has achieved significant success in its comprehensive, long-term strategy against illegal drug abuse, trafficking and production. However, its criminal laws, criminal justice institutions, and regulatory and investigative capabilities are inadequate to respond effectively to transnational and organized crime in the 21st century, and the corrosive problem of public corruption further seriously impairs those institutions.

Thailand has the world's highest per capita rate of methamphetamine abuse. The Royal Thai Government (RTG) recognizes illegal drugs as the nation's major national security problem. The sharp increase in local use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) poses serious public health and social problems, and requires modification and expansion of demand reduction programs that were originally tailored for heroin abuse. A national campaign in 2003 to suppress the drug trade had some success, but was also criticized for human rights abuses, and its long-term impact remains unclear. Thailand is a leader in programs for prevention and treatment of drug abuse. Its effort to reduce and eliminate opium poppy cultivation and heroin production is one of the most successful in the world. U.S. drug control assistance to Thailand dates to the 1970's, but recognizing success against opium production and evolving patterns of international drug smuggling, it is now expected that most U.S. drug control assistance will be terminated by 2006.

Thailand's criminal justice sector is inadequate to deter or effectively prosecute traffickers in drugs, people and weapons, or dismantle criminal organizations whose activities adversely affect regional security and other U.S. interests.

The RTG is making a systematic effort to review its criminal justice system, and to develop and implement new or modified substantive and procedural criminal laws, procedures and practices that respond appropriately to organized and transnational crime, and implement obligations of the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Drug Trafficking, the 2000 Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC), and the 2003 Convention Against Corruption.

Thailand has actively sought and employed U.S. technical and professional advice, consultation and assistance in these efforts. An internationally recognized Anti-Money Laundering Act became effective in 1999, and the RTG is working to improve its capabilities to prevent or detect and combat terrorist financial activities. INL-funded Resident Legal and Financial Crime Advisors play key roles in providing the RTG the expertise to address these issues through a comprehensive legal and regulatory framework. RTG efforts to fight public corruption - identified by the U.S. Department of Justice as the major impediment to effective criminal justice operations - enjoy widespread popular support, but measures to prevent, detect and punish corruption remain inadequate. Increasing U.S. crime control assistance since 2000 has been complemented by a variety of special projects in fields such as Trafficking in Persons.

Thailand is a leader in international cooperation against drugs and transnational crime. It has agreements for cooperation with the U.S., most of its neighbors and many others, and takes a positive role in regional and multilateral drug and crime control organizations. Under a bilateral agreement concluded in 1998, the RTG and USG jointly operate the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Bangkok, which has provided training to over 3000 law enforcement officials from Southeast Asia and China.

As traditional forms of U.S. counternarcotics assistance are reduced and phased out, "value-added" assistance in crime control, corruption and other areas will continue to be crucial elements in Thailand's efforts to reform and modernize criminal justice institutions, enabling it to address serious issues of 21st-century transnational organized crime.

Program Accomplishments

INL-funded technical advice and assistance programs support a wide range of activities and resulted in tangible accomplishments. For the fifth consecutive year, the U.S. estimate that the opium poppy crop in 2003 remained below 1,000 hectares. Thailand's evolution from a major source country for opium to a net importer of heroin constitutes a significant strategic success.

At U.S. urging and with U.S. assistance, Thailand is in the process of amending virtually all of its basic narcotics and all other substantive and procedural criminal laws. During 2003, Thailand employed new legal authorities authorizing use of wiretap evidence in drug investigations and allowing reduction of sentences for convicted drug offenders who cooperate with prosecutors. Parliament continued to consider a more general law on plea- bargaining in criminal cases, controlled deliveries, establishment of a witness protection program and other improvements in substantive and procedural criminal law. Thailand signed the UN Convention Against Corruption, and the Thai Criminal Law Institute expanded its ongoing review of criminal laws to include that Convention. The RTG implemented new anti-terrorism decrees that improve authorities' ability to monitor, investigate and freeze terrorist-related financial assets. And the RTG passed legislation defining the authorities and organization of the Special Investigation Department in the Ministry of Justice, to investigate non-narcotics related transnational organized crime.

Law enforcement investigations using INL assistance have led to significant arrests, seizures, and prosecutions of Thai and non-Thai traffickers. Enhanced law enforcement measures to suppress illicit drug trafficking and retail sales, particularly during February-April 2003, led to arrests of more than 90,000 suspects and seizure of over 40 million methamphetamine pills. However, in response to reports of police involvement in unexplained killings of suspected drug suspects during the government's February-April anti-drug campaign, INL suspended most forms of counternarcotics assistance to the Thai Provincial Police. That suspension remains in place pending a full and transparent investigation the killings, including prosecution of anyone found responsible for extra-judicial killings. (No FY 2005 funds will be provided to Provincial Police absent such investigations and prosecutions; reduced levels of drug law enforcement funding will support counternarcotics efforts by other Thai agencies). Efforts to target influential patrons of leading criminal figures and their organizations netted 1,257 arrests of public officials for drug offenses or drug-related corruption. The Supreme Court's special political corruption chamber convicted a politically prominent former official of accepting bribes while he was Minister of Health in the late 1990's - the first time a former minister has been convicted on corruption charges.

During 2003, the ILEA curriculum included drug and other law enforcement training, with many courses now addressing law enforcement measures relating to terrorism. On June 29, the U.S. Ambassador and the Foreign Minister of Thailand jointly presided at a groundbreaking ceremony for the permanent ILEA instructional/office building on land made available by the Thai government. Completion of the new facility is estimated in April 2004.

Thailand continues to play a leading regional role in counternarcotics and fighting other transnational threats. The RTG has cooperated with China, Burma, and others on significant drug investigations, resulting in numerous seizures of significant quantities of heroin and methamphetamine tablets. Thailand participated in the first regional conference on the suppression of precursor chemicals in 2003. Thailand has encouraged China and India to take stronger action to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals used to manufacture methamphetamine. Thailand increased counternarcotics cooperation with Burma, and continued its pilot alternative development projects in Burma, based on Thailand's successful experience. Thailand also plays a leading role in the UN-sponsored ACCORD plan of action designed to promote regional cooperation on drug and crime control efforts. Thailand also funded regional drug law enforcement training courses in 2003.

The enhanced campaign against drug trafficking and sale during 2003 was accompanied by an intensified RTG effort to disseminate public awareness and prevention messages, and to expand substance abuse treatment availability to addicts or abusers who need it.

FY 2005 Program

The FY 2005 program is divided in three general categories. Three projects, all new since 2001, make up the crime control and criminal justice assistance program. Four projects make up the drug control assistance program that began in the 1970's and will be substantially completed by 2006. The "Measures against corruption project," begun in 2003, addresses an issue underlying all INL efforts in Thailand. All projects build on longstanding counternarcotics cooperation projects while emphasizing institutional development and reform. All projects are thoroughly coordinated with relevant RTG agencies and the Mission's Law Enforcement Working Group.

Crime Control and Criminal Justice Assistance: Criminal Justice Sector Development: FY 2005 funds for this project will provide technical assistance, training and related support primarily to the Thailand Criminal Law Institute (TCLI) and to other RTG institutions involved with developing and implementing new or amended substantive and procedural criminal laws, as well as prosecutorial and investigative techniques to improve the effectiveness of prosecution of drug trafficking, money laundering, trafficking in persons, intellectual property crime, environmental crime, public corruption and all forms of serious transnational and organized crime. A Resident Legal Adviser advises the TCLI and other Thai authorities on draft criminal laws, procedures and practices, coordinates technical assistance and training to implement this project, and coordinates this project with other INCLE criminal justice sector and anticorruption activities in Thailand. It is anticipated that the RLA will be required at least through 2006. The planned life of this project is four years, after which the most significant necessary new substantive and procedural criminal law reforms will have been approved by the parliament, prosecutors and other responsible officials will be trained in their use, and the TCLI will be prepared to continue initial entry and in-service professional development training thereafter.

Measures Against Money Laundering. This project provides technical assistance, training and related support primarily to the AMLO, and to other RTG institutions involved with regulatory or law enforcement measures to prevent, or to identify, investigate and prosecute, money laundering, including tracing, freezing, seizure and forfeiture of assets that are the instrumentalities or proceeds of major crime. A major element of this project is to assist AMLO to develop and implement an effective internal system for the management, custody, documentation and disposition of seized assets. The planned life of this project is three years, by the end of which Thailand's regime of regulatory and investigative measures to prevent or respond to money laundering will have been evaluated as effective by the standards of the FATF.

Special Investigation Department: In November 2003, the Thai parliament approved a law defining the authorities and organization of a new Special Investigation Department (SID in the Ministry of Justice. The SID is responsible for the criminal offense of money laundering (as distinct from civil seizure and forfeiture of assets by AMLO), and for most existing predicate offenses under the money laundering act, including terrorism. This new project provides training, technical assistance, expert advisory assistance, limited commodities and related support to assist the SID with initial internal organization, including initial entry and in-service training and professional development activities, and development and implementation of operating procedures and practices. A financial crime investigation adviser assigned and funded by the Treasury Department coordinates and complements this project. The following outputs are expected to be in place at the end of this five-year project: (i) all essential SID operating procedures developed and documented; (ii) SID will be able to provide initial entry and in-service training to SID personnel without external support; and, (iii) information provided by SID staff will form the basis for successful prosecution of the most significant forms of transnational and organized crime.

Drug Control Assistance

Drug Law Enforcement: FY 2005 funds for this project will provide technical assistance, training, equipment and operational support to RTG institutions responsible for enforcement of laws against the production, smuggling, trafficking and sale of illicit drugs. It includes support for the RTG Special Investigative Units (SIUs), which cooperate directly with DEA and are funded by monies transferred to State/INL by DEA. With the possible exception of SIU support, it is anticipated that this project will receive diminishing resources and be phased out by 2006. During this period, one or more significant drug trafficking organizations annually will be substantially disrupted by arrests, prosecutions, seizures of drugs or assets, or related measures by RTG authorities.

Alternative Development/Crop Control: Crop control funding will provide resources to RTG agencies that implement the annual opium poppy crop reconnaissance and eradication programs, and limited assistance to agencies that promote adoption by rural populations of legal means of livelihood as alternatives to poppy. This project will provide diminishing resources to phase out this effort over the next two years. During this period, opium production will be reduced each year, and increasing numbers of former opium farmers will be provided alternative livelihood options.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction: FY 2005 funding will provide resources to RTG agencies and NGO's to support drug abuse prevention and treatment programs, community outreach activities, and epidemiological and drug abuse prevention and treatment studies and research. Given the continued extent and severity of Thailand's domestic methamphetamine abuse problem, some elements of this project may continue beyond the phase-out of other drug control assistance expected by 2006. During this period, community-based treatment programs for methamphetamine users developed from the Matrix model programs in the U.S. will be deployed and participants will display acceptably low levels of relapse to drug abuse; a Narcotics Control Technology Center (modeled on the U.S. Addiction Technology Transfer Center network) will provide support to Thai treatment programs; studies and surveys will reflect stabilization or reduction of active substance abuse in Thailand.

Regional Narcotics Control: FY 2005 funds will fund conferences and training in Thailand and elsewhere in the region in support of Thailand's increasing regional leadership role in counternarcotics and crime issues. Primary emphasis will shift from narcotics to all forms of transnational organized crime, and support for this project will continue at reduced levels until 2008 and beyond. During this period, there will be a demonstrable increase in the number of investigations and prosecutions of drug trafficking or other major crimes that have involved significant specific cooperation by authorities of one or more other countries in the region.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Thailand
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Crime Control and Criminal Justice
Criminal Justice Sector Development 400 - 125 - 350
Measures Against Money
Laundering 100 - 50 - 150
Special Investigation Department 150
Sub Total 500 - 175 - 650
Drug Control Assistance
Drug Law Enforcement 1,378 - 705 - 273
Crop Control/Alternative
Development 735 - 353 - 150
Regional Narcotics Control 158 - 59 - 50
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction 368 - 176 - 100
Sub Total 2,639 - 1,293 - 573
Measures Against Corruption - - - 100
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 250 - 237 - 275
Non-U.S. Personnel 69 - 66 - 90
ICASS Costs 138 - 131 - 178
Program Support 104 - 98 - 134
Sub-Total 561 - 532 - 677
Total 3,700 - 2,000 - 2,000


Asia/Middle East Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

4,500

1,000

1,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

In Burma, the cultivation and production of opium poppy will be reduced.

Increased number of hectares withdrawn from opium poppy cultivation; economic well being of villages participating in the project improves.

In Sri Lanka, anti-narcotics law enforcement capacity to stem the transit of illegal drugs will be strengthened.

Written, standardized directives adopted by the Police Narcotics Bureau (PNB); accountability measures that address the requirements of a law enforcement agency adopted; cooperation among law enforcement agencies (police, customs, immigration, prosecutors) improved; cadre of instructors developed; revised curricula and adult teaching methodologies adopted and replicated throughout the PNB at the entry and in-service levels.

Program Justification

In many parts of Asia and the Middle East, the transnational nature of narcotics trafficking and crime threatens regional stability by undermining democratic institutions, fostering conditions that support organized criminal and terrorist networks, corrupting governments, and subverting the rule of law. Drug trafficking continues to proliferate throughout South and East Asia, involving traffickers from the region and as far away as Africa and Europe. Successful local criminal groups rely on open borders, poorly trained law enforcement, and corrupt officials to build regional and transnational criminal networks. Trafficking networks that exploit weak law enforcement and criminal justice environments can also be used by terrorist organizations for financial and logistical support. The economic, social, and political impact of drug trafficking and the more recent explosion of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) have led governments throughout the region to declare the threat posed by illicit drugs their primary national security concern.

Asia/Middle East Regional funds are a critical source of support for counternarcotics and law-enforcement programs designed to assist countries in combating illicit narcotics in a number of ways. The funds support alternative-development projects to reduce opium poppy cultivation, police training, and legal reform. They support bilateral and regional initiatives, both critical to effective narcotics control. Often, availability and use of these funds are the crucial difference between a country's ability to confront drug-related problems or be overwhelmed by them.

Program Accomplishments

In previous years, a range of counternarcotics programs throughout Asia and the Middle East has been funded to help law enforcement institutions cope with narcotics production, narcotics trafficking, and related criminal activities. Greatly reduced funding over the past three fiscal years has limited the number of countries that benefit from these programs.

In Burma, Project Old Soldier, a cooperative effort between World War II veterans who served in the Burma theatre and Burmese living in the villages they served in, is working to provide alternatives to the cultivation of opium poppy in the Kachin area of the Shan State. The project began in five villages in 1997 and involved approximately 100 villagers. It has now expanded to 92 villages and has more than 2,400 participants. It receives strong support from the participants for providing economically viable alternatives to opium poppy cultivation. An independent monitor has confirmed that the project is effective and hampered only by a lack of funding. None of the funding has benefited the government of Burma.

In Thailand, support to the Anti-Money Laundering Office has funded a Regional Financial Advisor, training, and limited commodity assistance. The Financial Advisor has organized seminars on preventing, investigating, and prosecuting money laundering and other illicit financial activities and played a key role in organizing and shaping the agenda for the second Pacific Rim Money Laundering Conference in Bangkok in 2003. The Royal Thai Government (RTG) Police Money Laundering Unit has conducted numerous investigations and seized millions of dollars of assets, including those of public officials suspected of involvement in money laundering crimes. For example, a former minister of health was arrested on corruption charges stemming from his government service, and millions in assets were seized. Funding was also provided to assist the RTG in reforming its criminal code to better facilitate the investigation and prosecution of transnational criminals. Subjects addressed include wiretaps and use of electronic evidence, plea-bargaining and witness protection, and comparisons of inquisitorial and accusatorial systems of criminal justice.

In India, INL commodities and training assistance has contributed to substantial progress in the areas of narcotics interdiction, reduction of illicit opium poppy production, precursor chemical control, and domestic demand reduction. For example, the GOI reported that the Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN) destroyed 519 hectares of illicit cultivation in March 2002 with a potential yield of 6,468 kilograms. The Indian Narcotics Control Bureau has cooperated with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, the Indian Chemical Manufacturing Association, and the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to tighten controls on precursor chemicals. India participated in the first regional conference on the control of precursor chemicals in 2003. The Joint Licit Opium Poppy Survey has been expanded and extended, with American experts advising the Government of India in methodologies for measuring and preventing diversion of licit opium produced for the pharmaceutical industry to the illicit market.

In Nepal, INL has sponsored drug enforcement and policy integrity training as well as demand reduction programs. A police professionalism project and a judicial capacity building project will be undertaken in 2004.

In Sri Lanka, funds have been used to conduct an assessment of the Police Narcotics Bureau (PNB) leading to the implementation beginning in 2004 of a multi-year project to rebuild civilian police skills, beginning with the PNB, after the 20-year conflict with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. In China, a Resident Legal Advisor (RLA) works to advance reforms in criminal law and the professionalization of the criminal justice system. The RLA works with a variety of criminal justice and law enforcement officials to address China's needs and meet larger U.S. policy objectives of enhancing respect for the rule of law and protections for human and civil rights. In 2003 the RLA participated in numerous meetings and conferences with Chinese legal reformers in Beijing and in several provinces, including a major seminar on the role of the criminal defense attorney attended by over 300 Chinese legislators, attorneys, judges, and academics. The RLA contributed to the debate within China on several areas of legal reform, including the important issue of reeducation through labor. Because of the presence of the RLA, the U.S. was asked for the first time to provide information that may be incorporated into legal reform legislation being prepared by the Supreme People's Procuratorate.

Asia/Middle East Regional funds have been used to provide seed funding to ACCORD (ASEAN and China Cooperative Operations in Response to Dangerous Drugs), a major regional initiative aimed at joint actions in key areas: demand reduction, strengthening the rule of law, enhancing law enforcement, and ridding the region of all forms of illicit narcotics by 2015. The participating states have met and developed a regional action plan and mechanism to coordinate information. Task forces have been created for civic awareness, demand reduction, law enforcement cooperation, and alternative development, and a business plan has been approved. The Regional Cooperative Mechanism for executing the ACCORD Plan of Action was approved and staffed. In 2003 an ACCORD newsletter debuted, providing information on the activities of the various task forces.

FY 2005 Program

Alternative Development/Crop Control-Burma: INL will continue support to Project Old Soldier, the highly effective crop-substitution program in Burma. Funds will be used to provide opium farmers training in methods of alternative farming, as well as tools and inputs to grow a variety of alternative crops that supplement their daily diets and incomes. U.S. experts from Texas A&M University and elsewhere, and a small local staff including an agronomist familiar with local conditions, will provide agricultural advice and expertise to this project.

Narcotics Law Enforcement-Sri Lanka: Funds will be used for an in-country Program Manager for the Police Narcotics Bureau, who will coordinate the delivery of specialized courses in criminal investigation (for example: basic and advanced narcotics, crime scene investigations, surveillance techniques, street level narcotics interdiction); prosecution training (with the Sri Lankan Attorney General's office); and management (case management, personnel management, etc.). Courses will be provided on a train-the-trainer basis with training materials (lesson plans, overheads, etc., translated into Singhalese and Tamil) provided so Sri Lankan personnel can replicate the training. The Program Manager will also provide technical assistance to develop written policies for the organization, including measures to ensure professional responsibility. The Program Manager will oversee delivery of a prioritized list of commodities (computers, etc.) to support the changes being made in investigative techniques, management and policy. Finally, the Program Manager will work to improve coordination among Sri Lankan law enforcement agencies.

Program Development and Support-India: These funds will be used to cover salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation in the Narcotics Affairs Section in New Delhi.

Asia/Middle East Regional
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Narcotics Law Enforcement 1,559 - 250 - 250
Alternative Development/Crop Control 260 - 214 - 250
Administration of Justice 2,126 - - - -
Program Development and Support 555 - 536 - 500
Total 4,500 - 1,000 - 1,000



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