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Regional and Global Programs


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2005 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2004
Report
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Interregional Aviation Support

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

65,000

70,000

70,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The INL aviation program supports counternarcotics programs in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Pakistan.

Colombia

With INL support, the Government of Colombia (GOC) will continue to conduct an aggressive aerial eradication program under the "Andean Counterdrug Initiative" to reduce coca and opium poppy cultivation to minimum levels. U.S. Government 2003 coca cultivation indicated a second consecutive year of net reduction by 21%. On poppy cultivation, the 2003 cultivation indicates another consecutive year net reduction by 10%.

FY 2004 current target amounts are 130,000 hectares of coca and 5,000 hectares of poppy. INL currently expects to aim for similar targets in FY 2005, depending on crop estimates.

USG funded COLAR helicopter program will provide dedicated security to spray eradication operations, conduct operations to disrupt narco-terrorist leadership, and support operations dismantling narco-terrorist infrastructure and ability to attack the Colombian state. We will continue to progress towards self-sufficiency training more Colombian Army aviation by producing more Colombian Army pilots and mechanics and help the GOC establish a centralized helicopter maintenance center.

With INL-provided air transportation support to move people and materials, the Governments of Peru and Bolivia will continue expansion of manual eradication efforts in the outlying areas of their respective countries.

In Bolivia, coca cultivation will be contained at or below FY 20 2004 levels and new plantings will be prevented in the Chapare region through forced eradication. The C-130s and UH-1H helicopters will continue to be an integral component of forced eradication as well as interdiction operations. Illegal coca in the Yungas region will be controlled primarily by voluntary reduction initiatives while also working with Peruvian authorities that will focus on stopping the diversion of coca to illegal cocaine processing through enhanced controls of the legal market. Modernization of the UH-1H to Huey-II's is planned for FY 2005 by cutting funds from other key Bolivian CN program areas.

In Peru, coca cultivation will be reduced through forced eradication by an additional 8,000 hectares in CY 2005. In all three countries (and on occasion in others if requested), INL will continue support missions to transport host government law enforcement or counternarcotics military personnel by air for the purpose of destroying cocaine and heroin processing laboratories and interdicting drug trafficking using current assets. Aerial reconnaissance missions will be conducted to locate drug crops and production facilities and verify eradication program results.

Operations, training, and logistical support provided to the Pakistan border security aviation program will result in more surveillance and interdiction missions.

Border security reconnaissance and interdiction operations in Pakistan will be effective against trafficking of narcotics and weapons, illegal border crossings, and terrorism. Building on the success of the joint training in early 2004, as the aviation portion of the Border Security program matures INL will have increasingly effective operations interdicting the flow of arms, narcotics, and terrorists into Pakistan. INL will see a significant increase in GOP control of the border in Baluchistan. With the maturing of this aviation element, and increased capability to conduct both interdiction and logistical support missions in support of Frontier Corps border posts; the GOP will have the ability to enforce the rule of law in this remote area.

Border security INL support for institution building of cooperating host government counternarcotics aviation programs in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, and Pakistan will result in more professional, capable and effective forces.

The aerial eradication and interdiction programs will be conducted to the highest standards of safety and efficiency with due regard for increased security risks particularly in Colombia.

Technological innovations will be developed and implemented to improve the effectiveness and safety of aerial eradication and interdiction efforts.

Program Justification

The INL aviation program is the backbone of our counternarcotics objectives in the key source countries of Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. INL assists these governments and others in their efforts to locate and eradicate drug crops, interdict drug production and trafficking activities, protect their borders and develop internal institutional counternarcotics aviation capabilities. FY 2005 funding will be sufficient to provide only continuation of core activities with the existing fleet.

The aviation program provides eradication, mobility, interdiction, and logistical support capabilities that augment and facilitate ground operations and in many cases perform functions that would not be possible by any other means. In Colombia, the program conducts aerial eradication in increasingly scattered, hostile and remote regions. In Peru and Bolivia, the program supports the transportation for manual eradication. Airplanes and helicopters transport law enforcement personnel, critical supplies, and equipment to remote, underdeveloped, unsecured regions that would otherwise be inaccessible. Air reconnaissance assets are an essential element in locating, identifying and targeting drug activities and verifying operational results.

In all four countries the assets are also employed for interdiction efforts. In Colombia they are used to conduct operations against narco-terrorists under expanded authorities. In Pakistan, the assets are used for the monitoring and interceptions of terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas.

By working closely with host government personnel to instill aviation technical and management skills and to transfer technology, INL is supporting the goal of enhancing host nation capability to manage programs against illegal drug production and trafficking.

Program Accomplishments

Colombia - Eradication. The Interregional Aviation Support program has made possible the tremendous expansion of aerial eradication in Colombia. INL and the Colombian National Police have collaborated in the mounting of an effective aerial spray campaign using T-65 Thrush, OV-10D Bronco, and AT-802 Air Tractor spray planes to eradicate the illicit coca and opium poppy cultivation in the various regions. In CY03, over 127,000 hectares of coca were sprayed - a record setting year. In addition over 3,000 hectares of poppy were eradicated. INL has assisted the Colombian National Police with training, maintenance, logistics, and operational support to make this effort possible. The program also has provided logistical and operational support in the form of C-27 cargo airplanes and a Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS) mounted on a Cessna Caravan for identification and mapping of coca. In 2003, INL Air Wing aircraft supporting the aerial eradication and COLAR helicopter program sustained some 383 hits from hostile ground fire - causing the loss of several aircraft and extensive downtime due to extensive maintenance repairs.

Colombia - COLAR. Besides supporting Colombian National Police aerial eradication activities, the Interregional Aviation Support program initiated and sustained the Colombian Army (COLAR) UH-1N helicopter program that provides air mobility to the counterdrug battalions. This project includes establishing infrastructure, training personnel, and preparing, configuring, deploying, and supporting the operation and maintenance of twenty-seven UH-1N helicopters. The result of this effort is a fully trained COLAR aviation unit capable of conducting air-mobile operations and it is yielding results in terms of interdiction and ground support to aerial eradication. More recently, forty-four additional INL-owned helicopters (14 UH-60, 25 Huey-II and 5 K-Max helicopters) were integrated into the COLAR counternarcotics aviation program, allowing it to expand on the success of the initial group of UH-1N aircraft. That unit has flown over 55,900 hours since its inception with only one serious accident. Furthermore, in support of a Department of State approved mission to support DOD with their Search and Rescue of five hostages in Colombia, these INL-owned helicopters and crews flew over 2,000 flight hours and expended over $2.6M in this humanitarian effort that occurred during February-March 2003.

Peru and Bolivia. INL aviation support to Peru and Bolivia has also been instrumental in continued coca reduction operations. In Peru, INL-owned helicopters transported manual eradication teams and Peruvian counternarcotics police - thus allowing that country's government to forcibly eradicate over 6,700 hectares of coca. In Bolivia, INL helicopters enabled the government to eradicate over 10,000 hectares of Chapare coca - a 15% reduction in that region (although increased cultivation in the Yungas, where forced eradication cannot be conducted due to the volatile political situation and unforgiving terrain resulted in a net increase for Bolivia of 17% in overall cultivation). INL air assets also contributed to a banner year in cocaine interdiction, with 12.9 metric tons of cocaine seized. The aviation program has also continued to make progress in establishing self-sufficiency in host nation counternarcotics aviation organizations.

Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) Program. INL has provided support to other Latin American countries in identifying and curtailing drug cultivation through its RARE program. In addition to keeping drug crop cultivation in check in Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, Belize, and several other countries, this program has provided a capability to intercept drug smuggling aircraft, day or night, on a short-notice temporary deployment basis.

Pakistan. In 2002, INL established and supported a project in Pakistan to assist the host government in securing its border with Afghanistan. This project provided five Huey-II helicopters and three C-208 Cessna Caravan airplanes to the Ministry of the Interior in order to provide law enforcement with the operational capability to interdict drug trafficking and other illegal activities. Due to the receptiveness of the host nation team toward the operational and mechanic training program, INL was able to reduce aviation mechanic contractor presence in 2003. In 2004, another five Huey-II helicopters will be added to establish a second operating base in Pakistan along the Northwest Frontier Province.

Technology. INL has put into place many technological innovations to enhance the safety and effectiveness of operations. INL has continued to modify its OV-10 aircraft to provide appropriate armoring and night vision goggle capability in addition to state-of-the-art, satellite-guided spray systems. This has provided more protection and safety for crews, while delivering herbicide in an effective manner. Many of these same features were incorporated in the more recently acquired Air Tractor spray planes. The aviation program also established a technologically advanced system for identifying, plotting, and targeting coca cultivation using multi-spectral digital imaging.

2004 Operations: In FY 2004, the Interregional Aviation Support program will continue successful eradication efforts in Putumayo, Caqueta, Guaviare, and other coca growing regions in Colombia. INL will continue to provide flight operations and instruction, maintenance quality control, and repair parts support to the CNP to make possible a high sortie rate against illicit crops. Simultaneously, INL will train police and military counternarcotics elements to allow them to assume increased responsibility in these areas. INL will continue to support helicopter operations in Peru, Bolivia, and Pakistan. Training and institution building efforts will allow INL to continue to reduce the number of American contractor personnel at those locations. At the same time, INL will continue to pursue technological innovations to improve aircraft performance and explore the use of new variations of aircraft to enhance eradication capabilities at a reasonable cost.

FY 2005 Program

Overview. In FY 2005, the Interregional Aviation Support budget will continue to provide core level services necessary to operate the current fleet of over 160 fixed and rotary wing aircraft supporting counternarcotics aviation activities in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru, border security operations in Pakistan and, as needed, programs at other temporary deployment locations. This base of support is essential to logistically sustain depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. This budget will be augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local NAS and cooperating host government missions. However, the requested funds do not cover possible losses of additional air assets.

Colombia. The historic successes of 2003 and 2004 will face major challenges in 2005. Aerial eradication and interdiction costs will increase as drug cultivation is dispensed into smaller, more isolated fields. A sustained, aggressive aerial eradication of Colombian coca and poppy is critical to maintain our counternarcotics tempo and to fulfill INL's core mission. Further successes in the coca campaign are expected to reduce the target population of coca fields, allowing for some aircraft to be shifted toward the task of eliminating opium poppy in Colombia and increasing surveillance and eradication activities in other countries to prevent resurgence. The aerial eradication program can expect increasingly hostile environments as narco-terrrorists fight back with increased hostile fire at pilots, crewmembers, and aircraft.

Bolivia, Peru, and Pakistan. The Yungas is now the largest coca growing area in Bolivia, where topography and history argue against replicating the successful Chapare forced eradication strategy. INL will, however, continue to support efforts to eliminate residual coca in this region and to prevent new plantings, as well as implementation of interdiction mechanisms to reduce illegal coca in the Yungas region. INL will also support increased interdiction operations along Bolivia's borders and in the Yungas. In Peru, INL will continue to support the reduction of coca cultivation, seek to aerially verify the extent of opium poppy cultivation, and increase the number of interdiction missions. In Pakistan, INL will continue to refine operational procedures and provide logistical support, including the integration of fixed wing, sensor-equipped aircraft.

Self-sufficiency. The establishment of host country self-sufficiency in counternarcotics and border security aviation programs will continue to be a priority in Bolivia, Peru, Pakistan, and Colombia. INL expects SIGNIFICANT results in this area with the COLAR aviation program as personnel INL has trained gain experience and maturity, allowing the reduction of contractor support requirements. We expect that these advances, together with the implementation of a joint maintenance center for helicopters in country, will begin to permit greater host country management of the assets. The maintenance center to be funded by the GOC and DoD assets will begin to increase the O/R rate for Colombian owned and operated helicopters. Once effective, INL plans to determine the pace of integration of INL maintained COLAR assets. We will continue to emphasize technological improvements to maximize productivity and safety of spray platforms while maintaining cost effectiveness.

The Interregional Aviation Support program budget, as augmented by country program funds for location-specific requirements, will continue to provide safe, professional aviation support to counternarcotics and border security programs worldwide.

Interregional Aviation Support
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Aviation Support Services Contract 57,128 - 60,432 - 58,775
DOD-Source Parts, Maintenance
and Overhaul 4,000 - 5,000 - 5,000
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 1,549 - 2,422 - 3,300
Non-U.S. Personnel 192 - 172 - 235
ICASS Costs 1,569 - 1,468 - 2,000
Program Support 562 - 506 - 690
Sub-Total 3,872 - 4,568 - 6,225
Total 65,000 - 70,000 - 70,000


Systems Support and Upgrades

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

4,000

5,000

4,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The number of detections of narco-trafficking events will increase significantly in the Eastern Caribbean with the C-26 aircraft in Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. Effective Colombian National Police (CNP) signal collection in Colombia will continue to provide valuable intelligence while surveillance missions in Mexico will begin paying dividends to that nation's counternarcotics effort.

The C-26 Support project will provide more effective surveillance aircraft and better-trained personnel to accomplish counternarcotics detection and monitoring missions within each host nation area of operation.

The effectiveness of host-nation C-26 programs will continue to be improved as measured by the number of successful law enforcement agency (LEA) end games that result in the capture of drug traffickers, drugs seized or destroyed and assets seized.

The Airborne Surveillance Initiative project will support upgrades of aviation performance characteristics while promoting program cost savings through standardization of services and using economy-of-scale procurement.

Program Justification

The program aims to provide the host nations in the Caribbean, Central America, Colombia and Peru the capability to conduct their own detection and monitoring of suspect drug trafficking activities within their countries and territories. The program covers both source countries and key transit areas through which drugs flow to the United States. Historically, the program has included the C-26 Support project, the Airborne Surveillance Initiative project, OV-10 Broncos refurbishments, and UH-1H helicopter upgrades in Colombia. Through this funding, specialized systems that were previously not available were provided to meet counternarcotics mission requirements in support of surveillance, detection, eradication, interdiction and logistics. This project allowed INL to improve the performance characteristics of existing systems to better utilize their capability, extend their useful life, and increase effectiveness.

INL has contracted for engineering and modification services to modify C-26 aircraft (owned by the host governments of Barbados, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago) with a suite of surveillance sensors. To ensure effective utilization of these powerful resources, host country personnel will be trained in the appropriate tactics, techniques, and related doctrine that will lead to a systems approach in their counternarcotics surveillance and interdiction efforts. With appropriate information management protocols in place, these host nation operations will generate valuable surveillance information for the U.S. and other donor nations.

Program Accomplishments

C-26 Support: The C-26 Support project has given host nations (Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Colombia) their own capability to conduct surveillance, detection and monitoring missions. In addition, Joint Interagency Task Force South (JIATF-S) has been able to schedule the use of the two aircraft from Barbados (used by the Regional Security System) in other parts of the Caribbean as a force multiplier to detect the traffic of drugs to the U.S. As a result, JIATF-S has been able to shifted meager USG detection and monitoring assets to critical areas throughout the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific. The program in Barbados also supports the U.S. Coast Guard GANTSEC and cooperative British, Dutch and French counternarcotics operations in the Caribbean. For the Barbados program, the following statistics are available for CY 2003:

Total number of C-26 counterdrug missions: 320

Total number of C-26 Mission Hours: 1,264

Average Mission Time: 3.26 hrs.

Total number of counterdrug events involving suspect vessels detected and monitored with other law enforcement agencies that lead to an end game: 43

Estimated amount of marijuana seized or shipments disrupted: 11,009 lbs.

Estimated amount of cocaine seized or shipments disrupted: 3,420 lbs.

The program in Trinidad and Tobago was started more recently and is completing its training phase. Two aircraft have been modified and delivered to the Trinidad and Tobago Coast Guard Air Service. Extensive training for the pilots, sensor operators and mechanics is being provided. Counternarcotics surveillance operations will begin in CY 2004.

The C-26 program in Mexico, operated by the Mexican Air Force, is now beginning to conduct operations after extensive training in both the United States and in Mexico. We have trained over 60 sensor operators, and 12 pilots.

The CNP C-26 signal collection aircraft continue to perform successful missions in support of the Colombian National Police (CNP) the Colombian Armed Forces, DEA and other USG Embassy agencies. These aircraft are continually being flown is support or eradication missions, and hostage/rescue situations. These aircraft continue to be the aircraft of choice for host nation aerial surveillance/collection missions without the need to ask for USG for assistance.

Airborne Surveillance Initiative: To date, we have completed sensor upgrades for two C-26 aircraft each in Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Colombia. The programs in Barbados and Colombia are already providing valuable information and results. The aircraft in Trinidad and Tobago will also be conducting operations throughout the Caribbean in support of JIATF-S. In Colombia, the C-26 program continued to provide valuable signal communications information that the CNP and military forces have used in drug laboratory seizure and aerial eradication missions.

FY 2005 Program

C-26 Support: In FY 2005, the System Support and Upgrades budget will continue to support C-26 Support programs in Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia and Mexico. Contractor Logistical Support (CLS), including spare parts, and training will continue to be provided to the programs in Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. Training and sensor spare parts for the program in Colombia will also be maintained. The program in Mexico will be feature continued training support for sensor operators, pilots and analysis center personnel.

Our primary emphasis will be to continue training pilots and sensor operators for the C-26 aircraft and to ensure that the aircraft are maintained properly while support fully operational counternarcotics missions. Host nation self sufficiency of the C-26 programs remains an important goal and INL will continue to explore ways to increase the level of host nation funding and involvement in order to decrease USG contributions.

Airborne Surveillance Initiative: One of the critical shortfalls in the current counternarcotics operational structure overseas is the lack of host government surveillance, detection, and monitoring capability. Traffickers operate with near impunity as they violate border integrity while transporting a variety of forms of contraband. INL will continue to upgrade C-26 aircraft and surveillance systems and train host nation forces to utilize emerging technology in a manner that host nation and U.S. counternarcotics objectives. Additional training will be provided in data management and analysis and the development and implementation of information sharing protocols across host nation interagency and regional counternarcotics communities will be promoted. A systems approach to maritime and land-based surveillance operations will emphasize the requirement for effective coordination between strategic and tactical airborne surveillance units as well as those directly involved in ground-based interdiction activities. INL will take advantage of contractor, U.S. military, and other law enforcement expertise to provide the international C-26 community with the tools to effectively prosecute their drug law enforcement missions.


International Organizations

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Est.

FY 2004 Sup.

FY 2005 Request

2,8705

14,000

-----6    

13,000

This account encompasses support to two principal international organizations, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Organization of American States' Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). U.S. support to multilateral organizations complements our bilateral programs and allows us to leverage our funds. It also generates increased buy-in and support from other countries for our overall anti-narcotics efforts. Through these multilateral programs, INL is able to address problems on a regional basis and reach areas where it is difficult for the U.S. to operate bilaterally.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)7:

5$9.3 million from the FY 2003 appropriation was transferred out to support the efforts in Iraq in FY 2003.
6$8.9 in FY 2004 IRRF Supplemental Appropriation funds was returned in FY 2004.
7Formerly known as the United Nations Drug and Crime Program.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Improve law enforcement capabilities to investigate and prosecute major traffickers and their organizations in countries where ongoing transit of illicit narcotics and illegally diverted precursor chemicals threaten U.S. interests.

Through delivery and implementation of training segments and modern equipment, increase number of seizures and arrests, disrupt the activities of trafficking syndicates, and enhance the capabilities of law enforcement agencies to track the movement of precursor chemicals.

Strengthen regional cooperation and information exchanges between relevant governments regarding cross-border trafficking, particularly among governments most impacted by the trafficking of illicit drugs originating in Afghanistan.

Broker contacts between relevant national law enforcement institutions to encourage and permit the exchange of information and evidence related to drug trafficking; where appropriate, provide training and necessary equipment for handling law enforcement sensitive information.

Enhance through alternative development strategies the capabilities of national authorities to prevent, reduce, and eliminate the production of illicit drug crops in countries where ongoing illicit narcotics production threatens U.S. interests.

Reduce cultivation of illicit crops in target areas through increased community-based alternative livelihood programs to former cultivators of illicit narcotic crops in drug cultivation areas in Southeast and Southwest Asia. This effort will include (where appropriate) the provision of: basic communication and transportation infrastructures; alternative industries appropriate to various communities; credit for alternative income producing projects; and remote sensory and ground-survey data for the purpose of monitoring eradication efforts.

Help states to pass or strengthen legislation to prohibit and penalize illicit drug trafficking, money laundering and other ancillary crimes, and to improve mutual legal assistance, extradition and asset forfeiture cooperation, in compliance with UN drug-control treaties.

Provide technical advice to states on how to improve mutual legal assistance, extradition and asset forfeiture cooperation, with a special focus on countries in Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean; upgrade national legislation regarding all aspects of narcotics control in line with international best practices; develop financial intelligence units and tutor financial institutions to prevent money laundering and related financial crimes through placement of international experts to select high-risk countries.

Inhibit international organized crime and its resulting damage to society and individuals through the increased adoption and implementation of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and its supplemental protocols against human trafficking and migrant smuggling.

With UNODC technical mentoring, additional countries will formally ratify and accede to the TOC and its supplementary protocols; on-site expert mentors will be placed in select high-risk countries to aid in implementing the TOC's component provisions, including modern investigative and analytical practices for law enforcement practitioners, extradition and the provision of mutual legal assistance in organized criminal cases.

Reduce and inhibit official and commercial corruption internationally through the adoption and implementation of the UN Convention Against Corruption.

A sufficient number of states will ratify and accede to the Convention so that it enters into legal force, abetted by the provision of UNODC technical advise to states on measures necessary to harmonize their domestic laws and practices with the requirements of the Convention.

Strengthen the international legal regime to prevent and repress terrorist acts, particularly through the universal adoption of the 12 universal legal instruments against terrorism.

Supported by technical mentoring from UNODC's Terrorism Prevention Branch, additional states will ratify and implement all universal legal instruments against terrorism.

Program Justification

U.S. assistance to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime complements INL bilateral programs and allows us to leverage U.S. funds to gain increased buy-in and support from a broader array of donor countries. In Central Asia and Afghanistan, for example, UNODC is the coordinating mechanism for bringing together support from other donors who would probably not contribute otherwise. UNODC is the only multilateral institution that provides technical assistance on a global basis towards the development of modern law enforcement, financial regulatory and judicial institutions and practices. UNODC also plays a unique global role by supporting development of modern national legislation corresponding to obligations set forth by the three UN anti-drug conventions. These multilateral programs act as force multipliers in support of key U.S. objectives, and allow us to better reach areas where it is difficult for the U.S. to operate bilaterally. UNODC goals and objectives closely support those of INL, and the organization is a steadfast ally in support of strict enforcement efforts against illicit drugs, as required under international law.

Many countries still lack adequate legal frameworks to prevent and combat organized crime and corruption, a weakness that undermines such U.S. objectives as reducing the influence of transnational criminal syndicates and promoting the rule of law. Exposure to international "best practices," often based on U.S. models and expertise, is urgently needed. The UN Transnational Organized Crime Convention (TOC) and the Corruption Convention, in particular, have the potential to have a positive legal impact on developing countries that are searching for legislative blueprints to address corruption and organized crime.

UN Office on Drugs and Crime is the only multilateral organization that possesses both a global reach and the credibility to deliver technical assistance to states seeking to ratify and implement these important new instruments, and has in fact played a critical role to date in promoting the ratification of the TOC, which entered into force in September 2003. The U.S. is a signatory to both conventions and played a key role in negotiating their creation. INL will remain consistent advocates of these important international documents in bilateral dialogues and offer direct USG assistance to promote implementation where appropriate, but to reach states where bilateral assistance is either politically inexpedient or practically inefficient, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime offers an invaluable multilateral option through which to pursue U.S. objectives.

Working in close collaboration with the UN Security Council's Counter-Terrorism Committee and relevant regional organizations, UNODC has also assumed a unique global role in providing technical assistance to states seeking to ratify and implement the 12 universal counter-terrorism legal instruments. This mission supports the implementation of international law as mandated in UN Security Council Resolution 1373, and helps to promote positive progress on preventing and combating terrorism in states where direct U.S. engagement is constrained either by manpower constraints or political circumstances.

Program Accomplishments

INL funding provides a wide range of technical assistance and legal reform activities through the services of UNODC. Our partnership with the UN has been most visible in recent years in Afghanistan and neighboring Central Asian states, where the post-Taliban resurgence in opium production and trafficking requires urgent international intervention. With INL funds, UNODC has mentored the Afghan government in establishing national legislation to combat illicit drugs and a Counter-Narcotics Directorate within the National Security Council to coordinate all drug-control activities, including opium eradication, alternative development, and domestic demand reduction. UNODC has also established a field office in Kabul to coordinate ongoing international efforts to reduce the influence of the illicit opium economy and construct viable judicial and law enforcement institutions. INL has provided UNODC with funds to establish a specialized police unit to interdict illicit narcotics in and around Kabul. This unit will be staffed entirely by Afghans and serve as a building block for additional specialized units across the country as resources permit, and is scheduled to begin field operations in early 2005.

The vast bulk of illicit narcotics produced in Afghanistan are destined for Western markets, and the contiguous republics of Central Asia have emerged as key transit routes. These newly independent countries lack judicial and law enforcement institutions adequate to the task of combating the drug threat, and with INL funds, UNODC has accordingly expanded its technical assistance activities in the region to bolster national capabilities and regional cooperation. In Tajikistan, INL funds are continuing to support UNODC efforts to assist a National Drug Control Agency (DCA) to coordinate all counter-drug activities within the country; the success of that venture has convinced INL to help UNODC establish a similar DCA in the neighboring Kyrgyz Republic. Equipment and training for interdiction operations and intelligence collection, analysis and exchange, and improvement of border control systems are also being provided to law enforcement agencies in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. INL funds are also supporting UNODC efforts to improve the control of precursor chemicals in the region, particularly by establishing adequate legal and regulatory structures and providing specialized training and equipment to law enforcement personnel in the region.

UNODC has utilized INL funds to help reduce illicit opium production in traditional growing areas in Southeast Asia. In Laos, Burma and Vietnam--countries of origin for substantial amounts of illicit drugs to the U.S., but where direct USG counternarcotics assistance is either impractical or prohibited due to broader political circumstances —UNODC has provided alternative development assistance that has encouraged thousands of former opium farmers to abandon their illicit crops and engage in legitimate economic activities. These activities have contributed to the sustained decrease in illicit opium cultivation in Southeast Asia over recent years, to a seven-year low in overall hectarage in 2003.

With INL support, UNODC's Global Program Against Money Laundering provided technical assistance on combating money laundering and terrorist financing to 59 countries and jurisdictions throughout the world in 2003. A computer-based training initiative produced 32 computer modules for instructing financial regulators, and 8 on-the-ground mentors stationed in regional centers across the globe have helped governments establish financial intelligence units, draft modern anti-money laundering legislation, and train prosecutors and financial investigators.

INL has supported UNODC's efforts to ratify and implement the three UN drug control conventions and their requisite obligations, including through relevant judicial and legislative reforms and direct on-site operational support to prosecution and judicial services in ongoing prosecution and asset forfeiture casework. Specific examples include helping the Commonwealth of Independent States to harmonize relevant national legislation of its 12 member states, in compliance with the UN conventions; assisting the governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia to elaborate legislative work plans for adopting necessary counternarcotics legislation; mentoring South African authorities on the establishment of an Asset Forfeiture Unit; and providing other legislative assistance to over two dozen countries.

UNODC performed a crucial role in promoting the rapid entry into force of the TOC, which took place in September 2003, as well as of the Convention's supplemental protocols to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling (which entered into force in December 2003 and January 2004, respectively). These efforts included the production and delivery of legislative implementation guides and organizing tutorial workshops for officials and law-enforcement and judicial practitioners of over 30 countries.

UNODC also played a key role in providing for the secretarial needs of the Ad-Hoc Committee that successfully negotiated the UN Convention against Corruption. Over 90 countries--including the U.S.--signed this landmark agreement in December 2003, less than two years after the initiation of the work of the Committee. The speed of this process owes much to the coordinating efforts of UNODC, which received funds towards this endeavor from INL.

Efforts by UNODC to promote the universal ratification and implementation of the 12 legal instruments against terrorism were also significant in 2003. A legislative guide was prepared and disseminated to serve as a reference tool for national legislators on how to ensure harmonization of domestic legislation with the international instruments. UNODC also responded to requests from over 30 countries to provide technical assistance on ratifying and implementing the instruments, through reviewing domestic legislation and advising on required enabling laws, as well as by facilitating and providing training to national administrations with regard to new legislation. UNODC also developed a roster of international expert-mentors to service Latin America, Africa and the Middle East to supplement specific expertise where required.

FY 2005 Program

INL support to UNODC programs in FY 2005 will build on ongoing initiatives outlined above, and extend efforts (as resources permit) to enhance container-port security measures in select high-volume ports; promote enhanced law enforcement capabilities in Western Africa; and help establish modern law enforcement institutions in Iraq.

Global Legal Advisory Program: FY 2005 funds will continue to support this cornerstone UNODC program to provide assistance to ensure that parties to the international drug conventions have adequate laws and capacity to enforce their treaty obligations. Priorities will include improving mutual legal assistance, extradition and asset forfeiture cooperation focused on countries in Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean; upgrading model legislation; and possibly establishing the legal framework for drug control in Iraq.

Precursor Chemical Control: Funds will be used to continue support to several UNODC regional projects to track the flow of precursor chemicals used to manufacture cocaine, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, and to train law enforcement officials.

Judicial, Law Enforcement and Port Security Training in Sub-Saharan Africa: These projects will provide expert services, training and equipment for the development of specialized law enforcement units to identify and interdict illicit drugs and other contraband through ports, and to cooperate with national and foreign law enforcement agencies to reduce the vulnerability of these trade hubs. Contingent upon funding, Nigerian law enforcement training facilities and curriculum may also be enhanced to allow for participation by regional law enforcement agencies.

Law Enforcement Institutional Support in Central Asia and Afghanistan: INL will continue to support UNODC efforts to develop security and criminal justice systems in the world's most prolific region for opiate production and trafficking. Funds will support efforts to help the six governments of the region to upgrade their capacities for intelligence collection and analysis, investigation, interdiction and prosecution of drug-related illicit activities.

Opium Eradication Through Alternative Development in Southeast Asia: Funds will support the further implementation and monitoring of alternative development projects in opium-producing regions in Laos and Burma's autonomous Shan state.

Global Program Against Money Laundering: It is impossible to effectively stem the flow of illicit drugs without attacking the profitability of the industry. Towards that objective, INL will continue to support UNODC's continuing global efforts to enhance effective legal and regulatory regimes against money laundering and terrorist financing. INL anticipates that its funds will support both ongoing programs and expanded UNODC engagement in areas such as the Middle East, Central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, where additional on-site mentors are urgently needed to support the development of effective financial regulatory institutions.

Law Enforcement Institutional Support in Iraq: Pending the availability of sufficient resources and other considerations, INL may support UNODC programs to provide modern law enforcement training to Iraqi police agencies, as well as assistance in drafting and implementing modern law enforcement legislation necessary for the ratification of the three UN counter-drug treaties.

FY 2005 funds will also support ongoing UNODC efforts to implement the TOC, particularly through the provision of on-site mentors to selected countries to provide intensive training to law enforcement and judicial officials on the criminalization and investigatory standards inscribed in the Convention, as well as its mutual legal assistance provisions. In the near future, UNODC also anticipates initiating a program to promote the ratification and implementation of the UN Convention Against Corruption. This is similar in many respects to the project that has promoted the ratification of the TOC. INL will look to support these activities from FY 2005 funds, pending the development of specific UNODC program activities.

The remainder of INL's FY 2005 contribution will assist UNODC's ongoing project to promote the ratification and implementation of the 12 international legal instruments to combat and prevent terrorism.

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (OAS/CICAD)

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Improve counternarcotics performance by OAS Member States.

Technical assistance extended to at least a third of the (34) OAS Member States to address weaknesses identified by the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM), resulting in measurable progress in strengthening national drug commissions and/or strategies, modernizing legislation, or improving performance of demand- or supply-side program agencies.

Increase effectiveness of counternarcotics cooperation in the Western Hemisphere.

Through regional and sub-regional cooperative activities, promote active cooperation among hemispheric countries on shared criminal threats, such as cross-border or maritime smuggling, money laundering (including terrorist financing), arms trafficking, chemical diversion, drug abuse, and youth gangs. Increase in regional information exchange. Update at least one of the Commission's hemispheric model laws.

Makes progress in the inter-American region to curb money laundering and chemical diversion.

CICAD moves forward with implementation of updated model legislation on money laundering and chemical control, providing training and technical support to governments, legislators and regulators. Increase in number of countries with updated legislation/regulations. Countries designated by FATF as non-cooperating jurisdictions (NCCT) are provided assistance needed to satisfy international requirements.

Program Justification

The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission, the drug control arm of the Organization of American States (OAS), has become an increasingly important player in the Western Hemisphere over the past 17 years. Much of this success is due to a sustained U.S. foreign policy push to promote a strong anti-drug coalition and sense of shared responsibility among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. CICAD has been instrumental in developing this solidarity and in moving the 34 OAS Member States forward in developing strong national anti-drug programs and policies. For example, due to CICAD's efforts, all OAS Member States are parties to the 1988 UN Drug Convention and full partners in the Anti-Drug Strategy in the Americas. While the Organization of American States (OAS) has become much more interested in counterterrorism and other security-related matters in the past two years, drug trafficking remains one of the most pressing, shared concerns of the 34 OAS Member States. Because of its recognized expertise in areas such as money laundering and arms trafficking control, CICAD has emerged as an important player in the hemispheric response to terrorism, partnering with the OAS' Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE) to confront terrorist financing.

Funding will be used for CICAD projects, training and technical assistance that advance the goals of the Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere, including: development of sound national anti-drug policies and programs, promulgation of modern laws and regulations, elimination of drug production and drug abuse, and control of chemical diversion, arms trafficking, and money laundering. INL has used CICAD programs to complement bilateral programs or to fill gaps in multinational support efforts (e.g., on alternative development projects in the Andes). INL has encouraged close collaboration between CICAD technical staff and U.S. Embassy program managers.

Accomplishments

CICAD combines a policy-level Commission - that meets two-three times a year - with a technical Executive Secretariat that supports the Commission and conducts programs and training throughout the year. The Commission serves as the strategic platform for anti-drug coordination in the Americas. CICAD's technical sub-groups facilitate valuable exchanges of information and experience among national experts on topics ranging from money laundering to drug abuse treatment and prevention and lay the basis for action plans. The Secretariat provides a central resource and coordination point for hemispheric statistics and information, training and technical support, legal standards, national experiences and research. The Secretariat, using funds from INL and other donors, provide a wide array of technical assistance to Member States, some on an individual basis (e.g., national drug strategies) but most often in sub-regional groupings (e.g., Central America, the English-speaking Caribbean, the Andes).

CICAD's work has been highlighted in the Summit of the Americas process, where Heads of State have entrusted CICAD to develop and implement the Anti-Drug Strategy of the Americas and the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) - an innovative peer review system for evaluating national anti-drug efforts. The MEM provides each country with an objective diagnostic of the weaknesses in its anti-drug strategies, programs and laws, and identifies ways in which the countries can improve regional and international cooperation. These assessments validate individual country requirements for technical and material support, allowing INL and other international donors to better prioritize assistance. The MEM system also keeps pressure on individual governments by reporting publicly on progress (or lack thereof) in addressing problems.

FY 2005 Program

In FY 2005, increased funding is needed to support the implementation of the Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere, including the effective operation of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM). Much of the increase will be devoted to providing technical support and training to address shortcomings in country anti-drug programs identified by the MEM. It will also support expansion of CICAD's increasingly sophisticated demand-side, supply-side and legal development programs. INL funding will be used to support programs in the following priority areas:

Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM): A peer review system that provides governments with recommendations on how to strengthen their anti-drug efforts - staff costs, travel, and processing costs - and for follow-on training and technical support to OAS Member States. In 2003, the Commission agreed to expand the mechanism to include new categories of measurement, including trends relating to decriminalization and efforts to combat organized crime.

Strengthening national drug control commissions: Develops anti-drug strategies, and provides support to countries in developing national observatories; helps develop and maintain data banks to track chemical precursors.

Legal development: Includes updating regional model legislation (firearms, money laundering, chemicals), orientation for legislators and judges; communications systems to facilitate regional exchange of information and cooperation; and programs relating to the control of money laundering, chemical diversion, and arms trafficking; training for regulators (bank, chemical, weapons) and investigators; expansion of port security projects to counter smuggling.

Supply Reduction Efforts: Intensify/expand work in promoting maritime and port security, customs controls, and cooperation/communication among law enforcement entities throughout the Americas through training, technical assistance, best practices guidelines, building public-private partnerships. Continue ongoing alternative development projects, including exploration of new technologies, such as the Generalized Land-Use Evaluation and Management Tool (GLEAM), used to map land use, both legal and illegal, for use in supporting national supply reduction efforts.

Demand reduction and youth programs: Assist Member States build effective national drug awareness/education programs, conduct epidemiological surveillance (according to hemispheric standards), train nurses and other health professionals in drug treatment, and sustain the on-line Masters Program in drug treatment. Includes regional demand reduction training, adoption of minimum standards of drug treatment, and policy and program development for at-risk populations, e.g. street children and youth gang members.

Maintenance of a hemispheric data collection system: Continued support for CICAD's Hemispheric Observatory on Drugs and the participating national observatories, the hemispheric statistical systems (demand and supply side) and the regional telecommunications system (RETCOD), including national links.

International Organizations
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003

FY 2003
Supp

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
UNODC 2,870* 9,000 7,500
OAS/CICAD 0** 5,000 5,500
Total 2,870 - 14,000 - 13,000
* The original amount appropriated was $7,800. $ 4,530 of this was transferred to support the Iraq program on a temporary basis. $4,131 was replaced with IRRF funds.
** The original amount appropriated was $5,200. The entire amount was transferred to support the Iraq program on a temporary basis. $ 4,800 was replaced with IRRF funds.


Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

5,000

4,200

4,200

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The overall Demand Reduction program seeks to reduce the worldwide demand for illicit drugs by motivating foreign governments and institutions to give increased attention to the negative effects of drug abuse on society. In addition, it seeks to show our commitment to helping those nations impacted by drugs and to cement a strong international recognition of the seriousness of this problem and the need for coordinated, international action.

Select foreign countries will be able to apply "best practices" and new prevention and treatment technologies that are scientifically sound and effective at the national and community levels.

Training and technical assistance delivered and effectively utilized by public/private sector demand reduction organizations in Central/South America and Southeast Asia, resulting in new or enhanced programs that significantly reduce drug use and delay onset of:

First use in target populations.

Regional institutions that foster dissemination and utilization of "best practices" and scientific knowledge about effective prevention and treatment technologies will be established to better enable foreign countries to improve demand reduction services.

Technology transfer centers established or enhanced in Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and Latin America; delivery and implementation of core training curriculum, utilization of new prevention and treatment technologies will result in significant reductions of drug use in target populations.

The international community will be better educated about U.S. policies, programs, and successes in combating drug abuse.

Provision of two regional-level seminars in Latin America for U.S. embassy officials and key foreign government and NGO leaders resulting in increased understanding of, and support for U.S. international anti-drug policies and programs.

Multilateral alliances will be established to build public support and political will to combat drug trafficking and abuse, develop support for U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and initiatives, and improve America's image overseas.

Training, technical assistance, web sites, newsletters, and exchange forums delivered and effectively utilized in Southwest/Southeast Asian and Andean region countries by public/private sector agencies, civil society, and grassroots organizations resulting in reduced drug use and delayed onset of first use.

International program accomplishments and lessons learned will be utilized to benefit both U.S. and foreign demand reduction services.

A research-based demonstration program on community/anti-drug coalitions will be successfully replicated in Bolivia. Evaluations of this program will document effective approaches, strategies, policies and technologies as "best practices" that can be used to improve service delivery in demand reduction programs worldwide.

Two long-term, outcome-based evaluations of INL demand reduction training programs (Mexico, Philippines) will be conducted and disseminated.

Program Justification

The Demand Reduction program seeks to reduce the worldwide demand for illicit drugs by motivating foreign governments and institutions into giving increased attention to the negative effects of drug abuse on society. The program is also critical to showing our commitment to helping other nations impacted by the scourge of drugs and building a shared sense of mission and solid international alliance to confront this threat.

Demand reduction efforts aim to reduce the use and abuse of illicit drugs worldwide. The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health, welfare, security, and economic stability of all countries. Recognizing this threat, a key objective of the National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD # 25) on International Drug Control Policy urges the Secretary of State to "expand U.S. international demand reduction assistance and information sharing programs in key source and transit countries." As opposed to drug production and trafficking, the NSPD addresses rising global demand for drugs as the principal narcotics-related threat to the U.S. As outlined in the NSPD, drug trafficking organizations and their linkages to international terrorist groups also constitute a serious threat to U.S. national security by generating money that that increasingly threatens global peace and stability. Demand reduction assistance has subsequently evolved as a key foreign policy tool to address the inter-connected threats of drugs, crime and terrorism.

Foreign countries recognize the vast U.S. experience and efforts in reducing drug demand. In return for cooperation with supply reduction efforts, many drug producing and transit countries request U.S. assistance with demand reduction technology, since drug consumption also has debilitating effects on their society and children. Demand reduction assistance thereby helps secure foreign country support for U.S.-driven supply reduction efforts, while at the same time reducing drug consumption in that country and thereby cutting-off a major source of terrorist financing.

Program Accomplishments

As a result of INL-funded training and technical assistance, foreign governments are engaging their own national institutions, communities, and resources to address demand for illicit drugs. In Thailand, with INL-funded training, the Department of Health established over two hundred additional outpatient treatment centers to address the growing epidemic of amphetamine type stimulant (ATS) abuse. The Philippines Bureau of Corrections instituted drug intervention programs in over 50 correctional institutions in the Mindanao region. Countries in South America continued to implement their own national-level, counternarcotics media campaigns: local media advertisers and businesses in Uruguay and Peru contributed over $7 million to anti-drug media advertisements last year. INL technical assistance resulted in the creation of an Eastern European Institute for Substance Abuse Prevention that spearheaded the science-based "life skills" drug prevention curriculum in the Czech Republic school system. Likewise, Chile and Brazil (Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro) developed school-based prevention programs last year serving over 40,000 students. The Global Drug Prevention Network, an international coalition of public/private sector demand reduction organizations, increased its membership base from 70 to 84 countries. Finally, five INL-funded drug treatment/prevention workshops for Afghanistan demand reduction professionals were conducted in 2003, including first-ever training for Afghani woman counselors. These trainings significantly increased human resources devoted to drug-addicted women and enhanced the capacity of the Afghan drug control program to provide services to at-risk populations.

FY 2005 Program

INL assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, address the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, and address the heroin threat from Asia and Colombia. An expanded area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of the global INL drug prevention network.

The FY 2005 program is divided into three general categories. Two projects, instituted in 2003, comprise the coalition and network building program. These projects have a three-year time limit. The training and technical assistance program, begun in 1990, will impose a four-year limit on all countries for receiving such assistance. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The research and demonstration programs initiative that began in 2000 have a three/four-year time limit in order to allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect "best practices" that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome).

Coalition and Network Building:

International Community Anti-Drug Institute: FY 2005 funds will support the enhancement of the International Community Anti-Drug Institute to provide technical assistance for Latin American community groups on forming and sustaining effective community/anti-drug coalitions. The INL-supported Global Drug Prevention Network, consisting of 7,000 programs in over 70 countries, will form the leadership base and provide trainers for the Institute (co-located in Bolivia and the United States) that will conduct 12 technical assistance sessions each year covering 3 Andean region countries identified in the INCSR by the President as major drug producing or transit countries. The planned life of this initiative is three years, after which the coalitions will be effective vehicles for reducing drug consumption in their respective countries, strengthening collaboration among organizations in the public and private sectors, and enhancing intergovernmental cooperation. A new cycle of assistance for other Latin American countries and regions around the globe will commence in 2008.

Muslim-based Anti-Drug Network: FY 2005 funding will be utilized to enhance the INL/Colombo Plan network of Muslim-based anti-drug programs/civil society organizations in the Middle East and South/Southeast Asia to significantly enhance America's image in Muslim countries, reduce drug consumption that fuels the coffers of terrorist organizations, and cut into the recruitment base of terrorist organizations. This initiative includes collaboration with Muslim faith-based organizations to augment prevention, intervention, aftercare, and violence reduction services through the provision of technical assistance in volatile regions where the U.S. has little to no access to civil society such as Afghanistan, Iraq, southern Philippines, Indonesia, and remote sections of Pakistan. This initiative also addresses a key priority in the President's National Strategy for Combating Terrorism through support of Muslim organizations "ensuring them that American values are not at odds with Islam." Funding will cease after three years, at which time local and national networks will become firmly established in volatile regions, helping to reduce the high rates of drug use, relapse, and drug-related violence in their target populations.

Training and Technical Assistance

Regional Training Centers: INL funding will maintain support in 2005 for its strategically located, sub-regional demand reduction training centers in Brazil, Colombia, the Czech Republic, and Thailand with the aim of better disseminating the President's new goals and priorities for demand reduction, in addition to the use of "best practices" and science-based prevention and treatment methods to reduce drug consumption and related violence. Short-term success will be measured by replication of the training in their home countries by 700 demand reduction providers who will receive training in 2005. It is anticipated that these centers will receive diminishing resources over the next three years and be fully self-sufficient by 2008, at which time participating countries will have utilized training technology to establish demand reduction programs that achieve sustained reductions in drug use and related violence in targeted areas. These centers (co-funded by other international organizations and donor countries) are an economical way to provide comprehensive assistance to several countries in a region that suffer and share similar drug abuse problems.

Drug Policy Training: At the policy level, INL will devote funding for a seminar series to educate the international community about U.S. policies, programs and successes in combating drug use. Two, regional seminars in major drug producing/trafficking Latin American countries will be conducted by INL and White House/ONDCP for U.S. embassy officials and government/non-government officials who are recipients of INL/NAS funding. The seminars are also designed to ensure that U.S. Embassies and other foreign recipients of INL assistance design their programs in accordance with the President's new goals and priorities for demand reduction and science-based principles. The planned life cycle of this seminar series is three years, at the end of which participating countries will have a deeper appreciation/understanding of, and support for, U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and programs.

Knowledge Exchange Forums: Funding will be devoted to recurring regional and international drug prevention and treatment exchange forums (attended by the key leaders and decision-makers from the public and private sectors) to mobilize international opinion and cooperation against the drug trade, encourage governments to develop and implement strong anti-drug policies and programs, strengthen support for USG anti-drug policies/programs and existing UN conventions, and disseminate the latest science-based information on effective methods to reduce drug consumption and prevent onset of use. Funding will support one international and two regional summits at strategic locations around the globe. These events will include funding from other donor countries and international organizations to reflect an emphasis on increased multilateral collaboration.

Bilateral Training: FY 2005 funds for this project will provide targeted training for major drug producing and transit countries in Central/South America, South Asia, and Africa on science-based principles of demand reduction. Training topics will cover model programs such as national anti-drug media campaigns, parent support groups, school and peer-based prevention programs, and correctional-based treatment services. Bilateral training and technical assistance initiatives are funded for 4 years per country to allow for short-term transfer of knowledge, long-term retention of knowledge, implementation of training technology with fidelity, establishment of self-sustained programs, and enough time to allow for achievement of long-range outcomes such as reduction in drug use in a given target country or population.

Research and Demonstration Programs

Model Program Development and Dissemination: This initiative will support the development and evaluation of research-based prevention and treatment programs whose accomplishments can be used to improve treatment and prevention services in the U.S. and abroad. Funding will be used to create and evaluate research-based demonstration programs in key drug producing/trafficking countries and disseminate the most promising results within the U.S. and overseas to improve demand reduction service delivery worldwide. For FY 2005, a community/anti-drug coalition demonstration program will be established in Bolivia. It is anticipated that each demonstration program will require funding through 2007, at which time all programs will be self-sufficient and information on each program's promising practices will be disseminated worldwide.

Outcome-based Evaluations: Additional funding will be devoted to the second year of outcome-based evaluations of the long-range impact (reduced drug use and recidivism) of INL-funded training in Mexico (school-based prevention) and the southern Philippines (corrections-based treatment). Each evaluation will last three years (until 2006) to allow for reliable and valid assessments of sustained, long-term impact.

Drug Awareness and Demand Reduction
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Training & Technical Assistance 2,500 - 2,000 - 2,100
Research & Demonstration Programs 1,200 - 1,000 - 1,000
Coalitions and Networks 1,300 1,200 1,100
Total 5,000 - 4,200 - 4,200

Trafficking in Persons

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

$10,000

   ----

$12,000

$5,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Number of countries meeting minimum standards in the elimination of trafficking in persons has increased.

Select countries in the annual Trafficking in Persons report will see increased numbers of investigations, arrests and prosecutions initiated against traffickers.

Number of new partnerships initiated between law enforcement and civil society in the rescue of and assistance to victims.

Enhanced law enforcement data collection by local governments.

Program Justification

Trafficking in persons is a rapidly growing transnational crime that preys mainly on the poor, uneducated, and powerless. This modern-day form of slavery involves both sexual and labor exploitation, adopting such forms as indentured servitude, debt bondage, chattel slavery and peonage. Estimates vary, but at least one million people, primarily women and children, are annually trafficked worldwide, of which tens of thousands are brought into the United States each year.

In his speech before the UN General Assembly, the President made clear his commitment to fighting the trade in humans and urged other nations to join us in protecting vulnerable women and children. The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons gives foreign assistance grants to increase the capacity of governments and non-governmental organizations to improve law enforcement of this crime and protect the victims.

Program Accomplishments

In Brazil, a small sustainable project was created in partnership with the government of Sao Paulo state and the Brazilian Bar Association to help female victims of violence - a population at high risk for trafficking - to file a claim and assist in the prosecution of the aggressors. Since its inception, it has gotten much positive press and police precincts from all over the country have expressed interest in setting up similar programs.

In Lebanon, two highly respected NGOs established a safe house for victims of trafficking that provides medical care, legal aid, and counseling to victims. The NGO representatives work with the victims to build cases against traffickers or abusive employers and to assist the victim in finding alternative employment or safe repatriation. Lebanese government ministries, law enforcement, and other civil society organizations regularly refer victims to the safe house.

In Nigeria, DOJ trained police and federal prosecutors to improve the capacity of the Nigerian Criminal Justice System to investigate and prosecute trafficking in persons crimes. Specific training on witness and victim interview techniques, trafficking and sex crimes investigations, and prosecution techniques were conducted around the country. This project resulted in police rescuing increasing numbers of trafficked children police and arresting traffickers.

The 15-member Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) fulfilled important components of their Regional Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons with a TIP Office grant. The project focused on harmonizing or successfully passing legislation and coordinating policies in the region. The project resulted in three countries passing comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation and improved law enforcement coordination.

For Fiscal year 2003, the Trafficking Office used INCLE funds to support over 65 programs benefiting approximately 50 countries around the world.

FY 2005 Program

INCLE funds will be used to support the second year of activities of FY 2004 U.S. grant recipients. U.S. NGOs will conduct programs designed to address the priorities of the Trafficking in Persons Office to include: raising awareness of law enforcement on the negative impact of trafficking and the importance of prosecuting traffickers and protecting victims; developing and enforcing new or existing laws; promoting multi-disciplinary (police, prosecutors, NGO service providers, for example) and coordinated approaches to addressing trafficking; collecting law enforcement data in a consistent and standardized manner; enhancing cross-border collaboration; building the capacity of foreign NGO partners; and rescuing and assisting victims. The proposed countries are India, Mexico, Ecuador, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Ethiopia, Mauritania, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Thailand and Burma. East Asia and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries are proposed targets for regional programs.

The Trafficking Office proposes to continue to support specialized anti-trafficking programs conducted at the International Law Enforcement Academies in Bangkok, Botswana and Budapest. Specifically, INL proposes to target local law enforcement officials and prosecutors working with U.S. grant recipients and their local NGO partners in East Asia, SADC countries, Estonia and Slovenia. These officials and prosecutors will receive technical training on investigative and prosecutorial techniques to combat trafficking in persons. The U.S. Department of Justice, Department of Homeland Security or an organization will be contracted to provide the training at the ILEAs.

Trafficking in Persons
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Prosecution Program 4,500 7,000 2,500
Protection Program 3,000 4,000 2,000
Prevention Program 2,500 1,000 500
Total 10,000 - 12,000 - 5,000

Anti Crime Programs

Fighting Corruption

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

2,300

3,000

11,3008

8Includes approximately $9.0 million for Anticorruption Compacts in FY 2005.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

USG anticorruption goals advance important national security and foreign policy objectives. In pursuing our anticorruption goals, INL has in recent years pursued a mix of diplomatic, policy, and programmatic efforts, including: increasing the number of governments committed to implementing comprehensive regimes to address their corruption problems; increasing international cooperation among governments in the fight against corruption; increasing the number of countries where political will exists to pursue high-level corrupt actors and problems; and developing innovative methods to tackle corruption that show measurable effect. INL advances these goals through a four-pillar approach. These four pillars, articulated in Secretary Powell's first two reports to Congress pursuant to the International Anticorruption and Good Governance Act in 2001 and 2002, include the following:

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitments (Multilateral Pillar): The USG opens the door to enhanced cooperation through the creation of global anticorruption goals and standards. This, in turn, encourages the sharing of best practices, builds trust and relationships between cooperating countries, and ultimately increases the effectiveness of USG government and other aid programs that assist these efforts.

Increased number of reports issued annually by mutual evaluation mechanisms.

Increased number of countries have signed and ratified the United Nations Convention Against Corruption.

Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments (Bilateral Pillar). The fight against corruption begins at the national and local levels. Where pockets of political and/or popular will exist, the USG can assist governments in taking effective action against corruption. This includes, inter alia, helping governments take a wide range of actions to address corruption, such as enforcing anticorruption laws and instituting preventive measures within the public administration. The U.S. is also beginning through the Anticorruption Compacts, the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), and other initiatives to reward those countries that are committed to effectively rooting out corruption.

Increased number of countries publicly adheres to and enforces No Safe Haven policies.

Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action (Public Diplomacy Pillar): Popular will is the best expediter of political will against corruption. The USG can help enhance popular will in other countries by helping encourage civil society, the media, and the private sector to be active in the fight against corruption, increase transparency in governments, and increase integrity in the private sector.

Targeted countries have improved scores in anticorruption and transparency indices.

Leading By Example (Mutual/Unilateral Pillar): The USG has been a leader in the fight against corruption by promoting integrity within our own country and making our actions an example for the world. The international community can benefit from our examples, particularly regarding efforts to prevent U.S. multinational business from bribing overseas, enforce corruption laws, promote good public/corporate governance, and build tools and institutions to prevent corruption. INL also works closely with other nations to combat the international aspects of corruption, such as money laundering and transnational flight, through policy and mutual legal assistance, to bring the corrupt to justice. The USG is also advancing important anticorruption and accountability elements in its foreign assistance programs including, for example, the President's Millennium Challenge Account and within the G-8 process.

Full implementation and balanced use of the new presidential proclamation to deny entry into the United States by corrupt officials, those who corrupt them, and their dependents.

Program Justification

The Administration has made the international fight against corruption one of its key foreign policy priorities. The USG has clear foreign policy and national security interests in seeing corruption addressed on an international scale. Corrupt interests continually hamper global economic activity of American firms, interfere with the accomplishments of USG foreign assistance goals and programs, facilitate the continuing growth of transnational crime and international criminal organizations, and threaten democracy. Terrorists thrive on corruption, using it to facilitate the laundering of funds and the illicit trade of weapons, passports, drugs, and persons; obtain sensitive information from government sources; and move money and themselves across borders to find safe havens.

Program Accomplishments

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitments: Over the past several years, INL has helped negotiate and develop several significant regional multilateral anticorruption commitments, including the United Nations Convention, the Inter-American Convention and Special Summit of the Americas, Council of Europe conventions, Stability Pact compact, the ADB-OECD Asia Initiative, and, presently, the UNDP/OECD Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Initiative. A recent INL top priority has been to lead USG efforts to complete the first global convention against corruption at the United Nations, which was opened for signature in December 2003 and signed by nearly 100 nations, including the U.S. From a diplomatic perspective, the biennial ministerial Global Forum process is by far the most high-level existing intergovernmental forum for promoting the fight against corruption, and INL continues to lead USG efforts to develop and define that process.

Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments: INL has focused its attention and resources on promoting implementation of multilateral anticorruption commitments (e.g., monitoring mechanisms) and helping develop effective governmental approaches to preventing corruption (e.g., addressing corruption within the criminal justice system through the legal profession and private bars). INL has provided or led USG experts and assistance to help over sixty countries implement anticorruption commitments through mechanisms within the Organization of American States, Council of Europe, Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative for Southeast Europe, and the ADB/OECD Asian Anticorruption Initiative. INL has also targeted anticorruption advisors and technical assistance to help governments address weaknesses discovered during these evaluation processes. INL continues to lead USG law enforcement-related anticorruption assistance, particularly to help countries build their capacities to investigate and prosecute corruption cases. Over the past two years, INL further developed the capability to react rapidly to unexpected Embassy requests for anticorruption assistance to new governments or governments exhibiting strong and unusual political will to address corruption.

INL has recently led efforts with State regional bureaus and USAID to develop a coordinated and holistic anticorruption pilot assistance program that can be targeted to countries that exhibit strong political will to address corruption problems, a program called the Anticorruption Compact. The pilot Anticorruption Compact, in Nicaragua, should be in place shortly.

Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action: INL has developed and funded innovative technical assistance programs that help build the popular will against corruption and promote integrity within the private sector. Recent examples include the development of a Culture of Lawfulness educational program in several countries targeted at middle-school students and support to develop a corporate governance blueprint for Russian businesses. INL also has led USG input and assistance to the World Bank Corporate Governance Forum, which has sponsored numerous efforts to promote corporate integrity internationally.

Leading By Example: INL has led recent USG interagency participation, including the Department of Justice, Office of Government Ethics, and others, in key multilateral efforts to observe USG anticorruption efforts, and has helped effectively showcase our efforts as a model for other countries. INL is developing the first one-stop website where anyone can get comprehensive information on USG governmental and non-governmental activities to combat corruption within our own country and overseas. The G-8, in the Evian Declaration, committed to the No Safe Haven policy, designed to deny safe haven to the corrupt, those who corrupt them, and their assets. The Special Summit of the Americas made a similar commitment in January 2004. INL also led efforts to advance No Safe Haven through the development of a Presidential Proclamation to deny entry to the corrupt, those who corrupt them, and their dependents, signed in early 2004.

FY 2005 Program

Anticorruption Compacts

The Anticorruption Compacts are a new initiative that helps to fight corruption in a way that strengthens political will, rewards performance, and yields demonstrable results. By attacking corruption on multiple fronts with the strong commitment of the highest levels of government, rather than one sector at a time, the Compacts seek to raise the bar across government institutions and make transparency efforts in different sectors mutually reinforcing. The Compacts will require governments to commit in writing to reform in key areas that promote transparency and help prevent corruption, including management of public finances, public procurement, and engaging civil society. In exchange, countries will receive assistance targeted to these areas. The Compacts will include metrics to monitor achievement of these goals. The $9,000,000 requested will fund the first year's effort in at least three countries. Assistance for each pilot country will likely focus on training, equipment and technology (including e-systems) needed to establish and maintain fiscal transparency and accountability systems, rules-based public procurement systems, effective enforcement and oversight institutions, and free and active civil society anti-corruption efforts.

Other Programs

INL will continue to spearhead USG involvement in ongoing multilateral monitoring efforts in Europe and the Western Hemisphere and to help transform the Global Forum process into a body to promote intergovernmental standards. INL will continue to support law enforcement-related anticorruption assistance worldwide and develop innovative methods to combat corruption within the public and private sectors in select countries. INL's focus on developing policy goals and promoting operational international cooperation will increase as INL implements the 'No Safe Haven' commitments and emerging global standards.

In addition to the compacts, FY 2005 funds will assist in implementing a comprehensive National Anticorruption Strategy in Iraq. This funding would advance efforts INL is already developing through the Coalition Provisional Authority in order to establish an Iraqi independent anticorruption commission and develop key oversight and integrity mechanisms throughout government ministries. Funds will also be used to expand the Middle East Governance Network, an OECD-led effort, with the UNDP and World Bank, to create an intergovernmental anticorruption forum. The forum would work towards developing capacity, tools, and systems -- such as anticorruption commissions, stronger laws, codes of conduct, and better trained police and prosecutors -- to detect and fight corruption. Partner countries would include Morocco, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Bahrain.

FY 2005 funds would also be used to pay contributions/dues to support three multilateral monitoring mechanisms -- Europe's Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), the OAS, and the Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative (SPAI) -- that promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in dozens of countries. Funding will also include the U.S. contribution to the World Bank and OECD Global Corporate Governance Forum, which supports efforts by countries in Asia, Eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas to strengthen their legal and regulatory framework on corporate governance. Funds will also be provided bilaterally or through regional organizations to help countries that have ratified the new United Nations Convention Against Corruption to implement the convention's prevention and criminalization chapters.

Alien Smuggling

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

600

400

500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will work with our international partners to interdict and halt alien smuggling as far from our borders as possible. Our efforts will focus on attacking criminal smuggling organizations at all points of their organizational structure. INL will provide technical assistance and training to foreign immigration officers, border guards, and police officials. INL will also help coordinate the activities of the interagency anti-smuggling community in their efforts to disrupt major alien smuggling rings operating both domestically and overseas.

Intelligence information will be collected, analyzed, and disseminated on alien smuggling and human trafficking. The capacity to identify and respond to threats posed by alien smugglers and traffickers will be strengthened by the creation of the interagency Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center.

Quarterly intelligence reports will be prepared, targeting folders will be developed on the top alien smuggling organizations, and investigations will be opened against major traffickers with a nexus to the United States.

Vetted units of skilled anti-smuggling police will be created in selected countries to disrupt and deter criminal networks involved in the transportation of illegal aliens into the United States.

The vetted units will arrest and prosecute major alien smugglers and traffickers. They will also train law enforcement officers in alien smuggling techniques and practices.

Program Justification

The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. The identification and tracking of special interest aliens has become a high priority for U.S. law enforcement authorities. The creation of the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement reflects the U.S. Government's concerns about the growing problem of alien smuggling and the increasing sophistication of criminal networks with global reach.

The U.S. government has adopted a strategy for deterring and preventing the flow of illegal aliens into the United States that places great emphasis on disrupting alien smuggling organizations as far from our shores as possible. This means that the fight against alien smuggling must begin in foreign lands where our influence and law enforcement authorities are more limited. Weak foreign law enforcement institutions, corrupt public officials, and inadequately trained police make it imperative that guidance and technical assistance be provided to illegal alien source and transit countries. Without adequate technical assistance many of these countries will continue to contribute to the stream of illegal aliens entering the United States. This stream, if uncontrolled, may allow foreign nationals with terrorist links to slip into the United States undetected.

Program Accomplishments

INL has provided law enforcement training on combating alien smuggling to over three hundred foreign officials in the past three years. The Bureau provided funding to conduct a training course for mid-level managers in developing countries on ways to combat international migrant smuggling and illegal migration. The course was designed to provide technical, legal, and managerial training to enhance the participating foreign officials' ability to implement border security professionally and effectively. INL also provided funding to deliver a training course designed to provide senior instructors and training managers with the skills to develop and manage basic immigration law enforcement training.

INL anticipates providing support to foreign governments that have chosen to ratify and implement the UN Transnational Organized Crime Convention and its protocol on migrant smuggling. To date, over 100 countries have signed the protocol. The main themes of the protocol are to criminalize smuggling, strengthen law enforcement cooperation, enhance border controls, including document security training, and ensure the prompt return of the smuggled migrant.

In response to the migrant smuggling challenge and to further our anti-alien smuggling objectives, INL will help establish a fully operational inter-agency Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC). This initiative will bring together federal agency representatives from the policy, law enforcement, intelligence, and diplomatic arenas to work together on a full-time basis to achieve increased progress in addressing these problems, particularly in terms of converting intelligence into effective enforcement actions. The Center will provide a mechanism to foster greater integration and overall effectiveness in U.S. government enforcement and other response efforts and would promote similar intensified efforts by foreign governments and international organizations to combat migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons.

INL purchased computers for the Government of Ecuador to use at the international airport in Quito. Funding was also provided to detail a team of attorneys to Ecuador to provide guidance on strengthening alien smuggling legislation. INL also funded an alien smuggling conference for Caribbean immigration and police officials as part of our effort to focus more attention on our "third border". Lastly, INL coordinated and helped fund a program on border controls at an OAS (CICTE) conference in El Salvador where the participants explored the links between alien smuggling and terrorism.

The first alien smuggling vetted unit ever funded by the USG was established in Quito, Ecuador. This unit was established in Ecuador because of the large number of aliens smuggled into the United States from Ecuador. The maritime movement of illegal aliens from Ecuador to Guatemala and then through Mexico into the United States was of particular concern. Shortly after the establishment of the vetted unit a team of police and prosecutors traveled to Guatemala from Ecuador to assist in the prosecution of alien smugglers responsible for the smuggling of 112 migrants in a fishing trawler. Because of the assistance provided by the vetted unit from Quito, seven crewmembers should be prosecuted in Ecuador shortly.

FY 2005 Program

INL will continue to support the development of the HSTC. The Center's initial efforts will be fundamentally supportive rather than directive in nature. The Center will provide strategic assessments, identify issues that might benefit from enhanced interagency coordination and attention, and coordinate or otherwise support agency or interagency efforts in particular cases. Funds for this program will be used to hire staff to support the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center. This support staff will provide the framework for a team of law enforcement and intelligence officers who will be detailed to the Center to turn intelligence into action. Operational and administrative needs of the Center will also be provide through these funds.

INL plans to help create one or more additional alien smuggling vetted units in Guatemala, Mexico or the Dominican Republic. The vetted units will be trained in the areas of investigative techniques, consensual monitoring, anti-corruption, and anti-smuggling. After the initial training, the host country vetted units will work in conjunction with trained prosecutors to dismantle international smuggling organizations. This team concept will serve to strengthen the law enforcement and prosecutorial branches of the host country government and will provide a reliable and effective means for United States law enforcement and host country law enforcement cooperation.

INL will provide training and technical assistance aimed at developing countries to improve their capacity to combat alien smuggling. Assessments will be done and equipment and advisors will be provided. INL will also continue to support international organizations that work to deter alien smuggling. Some funding may be used to obtain the help of international organizations or experts in the field of migration and alien smuggling.

Border Security

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

800
767
500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will continue to assist selected countries to strengthen their border control regimes so as to make it more difficult for criminals and terrorists who threaten the interests of the United States to pass through without being detected and apprehended. INL will help priority countries to improve their port and airport security practices, through education initiatives, training, and technical assistance. The strengthening of security at ports and airports will help to prevent criminal and terrorist acts that could have an adverse impact on trade and transportation with the United States. INL will conduct training to improve the proficiency of customs, immigration, and other border control officials. INL shall provide equipment such as computers, vehicle search tools, and narcotic test kits for controls at inspection points. INL will work to recommend physical improvements at selected ports of entry, and improvement of visa processes, travel and identity documents, and immigration policies, so as to facilitate travel while at the same time enhancing border controls. INL will also help improve integration and coordination among various law enforcement entities at the borders.

Performance indicators will include new laws and regulations; training provided; policies and procedures changed; technology introduced; and heightened security at ports and airports.

INL will help priority countries to modernize and improve their customs and immigration controls so that they can more tightly regulate the movement of cargo and people. Border security improvements will enhance law enforcement cooperation, reduce corruption, increase revenue collections, and strengthen rule of law in developing countries.

Performance measures will include better law enforcement controls and intelligence; increased identification and apprehension of criminals; reduced threat to the supply chain; and less illegal movement of aliens destined for the United States.

Program Justification

Porous borders are a threat to developing countries, as well as to the United States. Lax border controls greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid these controls, suborn them through corruption, negate them with falsified documentation, or overwhelm them. In many countries, effective control of the movement of persons, vehicles, and cargo across national borders is non-existent. Border control officials are poorly trained and equipped and inspections facilities are substandard.

As the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls provide substantial deterrence to smugglers and other criminals. They can force them into other, less attractive, routes, provoke traffickers into taking measures that raise their operational costs, and make traffickers more vulnerable to law enforcement countermeasures. Borders are also the points at which to collect important intelligence. Information gleaned from seizures, arrests, and documents can provide leads useful to making even bigger cases that help dismantle major international criminal syndicates. Successful enforcement at the border is also a powerful instrument for generating greater public support for fighting transnational crime.

Program Accomplishments

A letter of agreement has been signed and work has begun to modernize immigration controls at airports and seaports in Jamaica. A modern entry/exit system to control the movement of people will be installed in the near future. Effective border control programs depend on having adequate training, visa regimes, and equipment, including automated systems like the one in Jamaica to track the movement of people through ports of entry.

INL provided funding and reached an agreement with the Organization of American States (OAS) to provide port security training to selected countries in Latin America. This training is needed because of new U.S. regulations and requirements related to port security that were inspired by terrorism's growing threat to world trade. Funding has also been provided to the OAS counterterrorism-working group to support the development of a model port project. This initiative will focus on providing technical assistance to the police and port authority officials responsible for improving security at ports in the Western Hemisphere.

FY 2005 Program

Building on our FY 2002 terrorist supplemental request and in support of our border security efforts, INL funds will focus on: improving the ability of governments to control the irregular movement of persons into and through their country, facilitating regular movements, instituting secure travel document issuance systems, and strengthening immigration management systems. Effective border control programs depend on having adequate training, visa regimes, and equipment, including automated systems to track the movement of cargo and people through ports of entry. Through our border assessments, INL will identify vulnerable countries and will work with them to upgrade their border control systems, including assisting them to improve travel document issuance systems and customs controls. Paraguay may be one of the countries receiving technical assistance in the coming year.

Funds will also be used to support conferences and organizations working to improve border security. Proposals from the OAS, the Bali Group, the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center, the NSC IWG on alien smuggling, the G-8 law enforcement working groups, the Inter-governmental Consultations on Asylum, Refugee, and Migration Policies in Europe, North America and Australia, the Southeast Europe Cooperative Initiative, the International Organization for Migration, and other organizations will be considered for funding.

Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property Rights and Critical Infrastructure Protection

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

300

2,650

2,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL programs will expand U.S. government international cooperation and assistance with key foreign nations on cyber crime, intellectual property rights (IPR) crime and critical infrastructure protection (CIP). This will be accomplished primarily through INL technical assistance and training to assist foreign nations in drafting effective laws and building strong enforcement capacities. INL will also continue to participate in a range of USG diplomatic initiatives aimed at strengthening international standards and cooperation in fighting information technology (IT) enabled crime.

With the approaching 2005 deadline for developing nations to comply with the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) Agreement, INL will help the US meet its treaty obligations by increasing the number of IPR training projects delivered to developing nations while ensuring our assistance complements that of other USG agencies, fits with long-term Mission planning, enables the involvement of the private sector to the maximum extent possible, improves the responsiveness of foreign law enforcement to US requests for assistance and cooperation, and increases the numbers of successful US and foreign prosecutions of IPR crime.

The US will continue to build the capacity of foreign law enforcement partners through training and technical assistance programs targeted at cyber crime and related criminal misuse of IT. Improved foreign cooperation with US enforcement goals and increased numbers of successful US and foreign prosecutions of high tech crime will determine program success.

International CIP outreach will continue to be expanded beyond the circle of our closest allies, measured by an increase in the number of nations and multilateral and multinational organizations embracing enhanced cyber security policies and practices.

Program Justification

IPR crime presents a growing threat to the most cutting-edge sectors of the US economy. Losses to the US copyright and patent industries, in areas such as optical media and pharmaceuticals, have been staggering. One particularly troubling phenomenon is the growing involvement of transnational crime groups, and potentially terrorist groups, in IPR crime. These groups have the potential to outstrip the capabilities of hard-pressed law enforcement to counter them. As a signatory to the TRIPS Agreement, the USG is committed to a global enforcement effort to eliminate safe havens for online pirates and other IPR criminals. In particular, the USG has a responsibility, under TRIPS, to provide training and technical assistance to developing nations to ensure TRIPS compliance by 2005. Although INL has long been engaged on issues related to protection of IPR, the explosion in IPR crime and the growing sophistication of IPR criminals has led INL to ramp up its resources dedicated to this issue. As co-chair of the State Department's inter-agency training coordination group (TCG), which includes both government and industry participation, INL promotes IPR foreign training and technical assistance projects targeted to foreign nations where the problems are most severe. Our assistance includes seminars on developing TRIPS compliant laws, and also on training police and prosecutors on fighting IPR crime. Since much of the growth in IPR copyright crime is fueled by the criminal misuse of information technology (e.g. online piracy) there is a significant overlap with INL's mission to fight cybercrime.

Cyber crime - the criminal misuse of IT - has increased exponentially in the last several years. Cyber crimes can include activities such as fraud, child pornography, and extortion, in which IT is a means for carrying out the elements of the crime, and also activities such as hacking, intrusion, and denial of service attacks, in which information networks are themselves targeted. As one of the first nations to sign the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention - the first multilateral treaty dedicated to cyber crime - the USG is one of the international leaders in promoting mutual cooperation, effective laws and strong enforcement institutions. INL provides technical assistance and training to foreign law enforcement in detection, prevention, and prosecution of high-tech crimes. Given the nascence of cyber crime in many developing nations, our assistance includes enabling U.S. prosecutors to travel abroad to give key nations legislative drafting advice. INL also participates in developing U.S. policy positions on cyber crime in organizations such as the G-8, the Council of Europe, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization of American States (OAS) and the United Nations.

In the realm of cyber security, the vast expansion of the Internet and the spread of information technology have created new challenges for the USG in the areas of law enforcement, national security, and national economic security. Hacking, denial of service, viruses and harmful attacks on information networks are increasing exponentially. The President has responded to this challenge by directing the issuance of the first National Cyberspace Strategy. The Strategy recognizes that the interdependence of infrastructures across various sectors, such as finance, trade, transportation, energy and communications, means a physical or cyber attack on the critical infrastructures of one nation will likely impact others. Consequently, U.S. national security depends not only on our own domestic CIP efforts, but also on the capabilities and cooperation of the foreign partners upon whose infrastructures INL relies. The National Strategy contains a strong international outreach component, focusing on promotion of watch-and-warning networks and a global culture of cyber security and is also informed by cyber crime and cyber security principles encompassed in United Nations General Assembly Resolutions 55/63 and 57/239 sponsored by the United States, by the G-8 Principles on Information Security, and resolutions and declarations in forums such as APEC and the OAS. Within the Department of State, INL has particular responsibility for law enforcement related CIP issues. INL has already stepped up to support CIP outreach by providing training and technical assistance to key partner nations such as India, Argentina and Brazil. INL expects an increase in the demand for training to combat cybercrime with the expansion of USG outreach to developing nations. INL will continue to target our resources in consultation with US agencies such as Commerce, Treasury, Justice and Homeland Security, which have strong and evolving responsibilities in the areas of cyber crime and cyber security.

Program Accomplishments

In the last two years, INL has more than doubled its funding dedicated to fighting IPR crime, from $250,000 to $600,000. This has enabled the USG to meet demand for law enforcement training and technical assistance from a growing number of nations identified as priorities by the TCG, such as Brazil, Egypt and the Philippines. These priorities reflect not only the ranking of nations on the Special 301 Report compiled by the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), but take into consideration the recommendations of US Missions as to which nations have the political will and determination to fight IPR crime.

Similarly, in the field of cyber crime, INL was able to support stepped-up activities by the Department of Justice in advising key nations like Brazil and Argentina in designing effective laws, in training foreign police and prosecutors in cyber investigations, and in related CIP activities like the OAS Conference on Cyber Security. INL has also continued to help advance our diplomatic objectives through participation in bilateral discussions with close allies, and with multilateral organizations like the OAS, the Council of Europe, APEC, the G-8 and the United Nations.

FY 2005 Program

INL will continue to fight IPR crime through increased funding for foreign law enforcement training and technical assistance. INL will be consulting closely with industry groups like the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association of America (PhARMA) to ensure our assistance dovetails with industry efforts. These groups have urged INL to provide additional law enforcement training to fill a critical "gap" in their own efforts to assist foreign countries in fighting IPR crime. INL will closely weigh input from the TCG to determine the best candidates for such assistance, with particular guidance from the USTR Special 301 process, much the same as in the two previous years. INL will also consider the needs of nations that have a 2005 deadline of compliance with their TRIPS obligations. INL seeks not only to increase the numbers of such programs, but also to better integrate input and participation from private industry into our long term IPR assistance plans. The countries INL is particularly likely to work with to build institutions to address IPR challenges include the Philippines, Egypt, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, India, Hong Kong-China, Paraguay, Lebanon, Russia and Mexico. INL also plan to create regional training opportunities for other key nations in the Caribbean, Central America, Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe.

INL will continue to participate as part of the Department of State Inter-Agency Working Group on CIP international outreach activities. This will include working with our closest allies to facilitate sector-to-sector relationships and connectivity between law enforcement, as well as expanding our circle of contacts to selected countries and multilateral organizations. INL expects to fully coordinate its activities with the Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies. INL expects an increase in demand for training and technical assistance to combat the criminal misuse of IT to increase throughout the range of existing INL programs. INL will provide assistance either by training to fight cyber crime itself, or by assistance in fighting substantive crimes such as money laundering and child pornography that are furthered through use of IT. In particular, INL expects demands for assistance from developing nations to increase in response to the success of the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention as a global model. INL will also work to meet the demand from OAS member states as they advance their regional strategy to fight criminal misuse of information technology. INL expects to work closely with DOJ and Homeland Security in assessing existing cyber crime training offerings for their effectiveness, and with DS/ATA in determining how our crime fighting and anti-terrorist cyber training can complement each other.

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

5,903

__

1,0009

3,500

9The total commitment is $3.5 million, of which $2.5 million will come from carryover balances.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will promote the use of legislative, enforcement and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. Activities and programs will strengthen cooperation against financial crime and terrorist financing by working with foreign governments to establish or update enforcement and regulatory tools and to implement international anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing standards. INL will encourage the formation of Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) and enhance their ability to share critical financial intelligence by providing technical assistance to those countries that have adequate and appropriate anti-money laundering laws and regulations in place and by encouraging them to become members of the Egmont Group of FIUs. INL also will initiate new projects to develop Trade Transparency Units, modeled on FIUs, and regional technical assistance/training programs to provide efficient use of scarce resources in areas trying to establish comprehensive anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes.

The numbers of successful investigations and prosecutions abroad of important terrorist financing and money laundering cases will increase.

There will be an increase in the number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards, including the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Special Eight Recommendations on Terrorist Financing, as reflected by mutual and other evaluations conducted by FATF and other international standard-setting and peer review bodies.

Two additional FATF-style regional bodies will be established in Central Asia and the Middle East.

There will be an increase in the number of effective FIUs.

There will be an initial network of Trade Transparency Units in operation in countries of most concern. The network will combat the misuse of trade in money laundering and terrorist financing.

New regional training/technical assistance programs will be established in the Pacific Island region and in Central America based on the Caribbean Anti-money Laundering Program (CALP) model.

Program Justification

Financial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat to the United States and other countries around the world. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, skew currency markets, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals and terrorists seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, terrorism, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds $750 billion per year and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free-markets.

Program Accomplishments

In the past two years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime and money laundering, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. In FY 2002, INL provided $2.7 million in training and technical assistance programs that delivered over 40 courses to bank regulators, bankers, law enforcement, prosecutorial, and judicial personnel from 34 governments. A multi-agency team of experts representing the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice, and Homeland Security; the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC); the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the Federal Reserve Board of Governors delivered the training courses. The FY 2003 statistics include $1.8 million for 40 training courses presented in 35 countries. In addition, INL provided contributions to multilateral organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG), the Council of Europe, the Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD) and other regional bodies to support anti-money laundering efforts. The members of these bodies have made a commitment to meet international anti-money laundering standards and undergo mutual evaluations by their peers. Our contributions assist in supporting the ongoing operations of these bodies, as well as funding for special programs, such as mutual evaluation training seminars.

During 2001-2002, INL also participated in the development of the FATF's Non-Cooperating Countries and Territories (NCCT) program to identify jurisdictions not cooperating in the fight against money laundering. All 23 jurisdictions that FATF identified as NCCTs were the subject of U.S. Treasury Department advisories, warning all U.S. financial institutions to exercise enhanced scrutiny of financial transactions with the listed NCCTs. INL provided training and technical assistance to many of these jurisdictions to help them correct the deficiencies identified by the FATF. With the help of this assistance, FATF removed four of them from the list in 2001, eight in 2002, and an additional 2 in 2003.

In addition, INL participated in the FATF Extraordinary Plenary on the Financing of Terrorism held in Washington, D.C. on October 29-30, 2001. As a result of this meeting, FATF expanded its mission beyond money laundering and now also focuses on a worldwide effort to combat terrorist financing. INL is co-chairing an interagency process to identify the countries most vulnerable to terrorist financing activities around the world. The Bureau is a central contributor to assessing the anti-terrorist financing needs of these countries and developing implementation plans for them, and funding anti-terrorist financing technical assistance programs so they can combat this threat.

FY 2005 Program

INL is developing the innovative concept of Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) with the Department of Homeland Security to respond to the increasing propensity of criminals and terrorists to move funds outside of formal financial sectors through use of alternative remittance systems and falsified trade data. The concept borrows from the international network of FIUs that examine financial intelligence. A similar TTU network is envisioned that will analyze countries' trade data, searching for anomalies indicating trade fraud, money laundering and/or terrorist financing. In 2005, INL plans to initiate training and equipment to set up TTUs in strategic countries. The first countries will be those in Latin America that are combating the Black Market Peso Exchange and those in South Asia that are susceptible to trade-based money laundering and terrorist financing. The intent is to garner an internationally agreed upon framework for coordinating information-sharing between TTUs and a timeline for the system's implementation worldwide; establish several countries with fully equipped TTUs with the legal and regulatory authority to share information internationally; reduced use of trade and alternative remittance systems as a means to finance terrorism and launder crime proceeds; and, increase arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of those involved in terrorist financing and money laundering.

In 2005, INL will develop new regional technical assistance/training programs in Central America and the Pacific Island region. These programs, modeled on the Caribbean Anti-money Laundering Program (CALP), are an economical way to provide comprehensive training and technical assistance to several countries in a region that share similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. The programs will include installing resident advisors and support staff to work in key areas needed to bring the anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes in the regions up to international standards through assisting in drafting laws and regulations; training regulators and law enforcement officials, including prosecutors and judges; and establishing Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs).

In FY 2005, INL will aim its training and technical assistance programs toward regions and countries that need to improve their ability to combat terrorist financing, financial crimes, and money laundering. Training will focus on: tracking, freezing, and seizing terrorist assets; developing anti-terrorist financing and anti-money laundering laws and regulations that meet international standards; training bank supervisors to ensure compliance with regulations; developing anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing examination procedures; providing law enforcement with financial investigative skills; and training prosecutors to develop terrorist finance and money laundering cases.

INL will also fund the placement of intermittent and long-term advisors in countries to assist in the development of FIUs to analyze suspicious transaction reports and share information with allies. INL will continue to work closely with other USG agencies to provide this assistance, including the FBI, Secret Service, Customs Service, Internal Revenue Service, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, and the OCC. It is expected that training will focus on the countries considered to be most vulnerable to terrorist financing and many of the NCCT jurisdictions, including Egypt, Indonesia, Philippines, and Ukraine. In addition, assistance will be provided to many emerging jurisdictions that are in need of technical assistance to develop anti-money laundering laws to protect their economy and financial services sector against financial crime and terrorism.

INL will continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the FATF, other anti-money laundering bodies, such as the APG, Council of Europe, CFATF, the Financial Action Task Force Against Money Laundering in South America (GAFISUD), the Eastern and Southern African Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), OAS/CICAD, and the U.N. Global Program Against Money Laundering as well as the proposed new FATF-styled regional bodies (FSRB) in Central Asia and the Middle East. In particular, INL wants its assistance to ensure that the FATF-style regional bodies incorporate anti-terrorist financing training into their anti-money laundering criteria, that they conduct a steady stream of mutual evaluations of their members, and that they train a core of evaluators to conduct these evaluations.

Law Enforcement Institutional Support

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

6,500

__

2,200

700

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will contribute to the basic infrastructure needed to carry out law enforcement activities in cooperating countries. We will improve the technical and investigative skills of law enforcement personnel in key countries and increase cooperation and coordination between U.S. and foreign law enforcement officials.

Foreign law enforcement agencies will become more self-sufficient, and the investigative skills of their law enforcement officers will improve so that they will be able to successfully investigate and prosecute increasingly more sophisticated cases.

Communication and cooperation of law enforcement officers within and between countries, regions and U.S. law enforcement will be improved.

An increased number of criminals will be successfully prosecuted.

Program Justification

The Law Enforcement Institutional Support Program (LEISP) is designed to strengthen the ability of foreign governments' law enforcement and judicial institutions to combat international organized crime, terrorism, drug trafficking, and other international crime threats. Institutional support programs are primarily carried out by agencies of the Departments of Justice, Homeland Security, and Treasury. The types of programs offered include comprehensive law enforcement development projects, short-term specialized skills and techniques training, short- and long-term technical assistance to draft anticrime and anti-drug legislation, development of specialized law enforcement units such as money laundering and organized crime units, and regional training programs in regions not covered by the International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs).

Support for foreign law enforcement institutions is an objective of both the President's February 2003 National Strategy for Combating Terrorism and the President's National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD) on International Drug Control Policy. Further, the Department's FY 2004 Strategic Plan for International Crime and Drugs places a heavy emphasis on professionalizing foreign law enforcement organizations through institutional support programs and specialized training.

During the past year, the process for delivering INL-funded international law enforcement training was significantly enhanced. All LEIS programs were targeted to objectives outlined in each U.S. Embassy Mission Performance Plan (MPP) to increase the ability of each recipient country to develop self-sufficient law enforcement institutions. To help make these programs self-sufficient, INL seeks to provide comprehensive, project-based assistance, tailored to the particular needs of individual countries. This type of program addresses all the necessary elements for building a law enforcement regime, including drafting sound and essential laws; training investigators, prosecutors and judges to carry them out; and creating data bases to help identify and track suspects, and collect, store, and retrieve evidence. In so doing, the program integrates multiple and sequenced training courses covering multiple disciplines where necessary, technical assistance in the form of long term and intermittent advisors, and modest equipment donations.

Program Accomplishments

Between fiscal years 1998 and 2003, INL-managed LEIS funding resulted in training for over 50,000 foreign officials from more than one hundred countries. It should be noted that some of these programs were implemented with funding from other line items within the INL budget and from other State Department Bureaus. These programs were carried out by U.S. law enforcement agencies including DEA, FBI, and agencies of the Departments of Justice, Homeland Security, and Treasury.

In FY 2003, LEIS programs were offered in more than forty countries. These programs included law enforcement development projects, specialized bilateral law enforcement and counternarcotics training programs, and regional law enforcement training seminars.

INL sponsored ten comprehensive law enforcement and prosecutorial development projects carried out by the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) and Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training of the Department of Justice. The projects are long-term and usually involve long and short-term advisors, training courses, and modest equipment donations.

ICITAP initiated law enforcement development and professionalization projects in Bangladesh, Nepal, the Philippines, and Poland, while OPDAT offered prosecutorial assistance programs to China, the Czech Republic, Nepal, and Thailand. Additionally, the U.S. Customs Service initiated a comprehensive border security project in Morocco.

INL funded more than forty specialized law enforcement and counternarcotics training courses to twenty-five countries, training approximately 1,800 foreign law enforcement personnel. All specialized training programs were components of existing INL-managed law enforcement development projects managed at U.S. Embassies.

In the Caribbean, training was provided to Barbados, Belize, the Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. INL continued to fund the billets of Coast Guard trainers at Camp Blizzard, Antigua. Belize received anti-corruption training from U.S. Customs, as well as drug enforcement training from the DEA. The Dominican Republic was trained by the DEA in basic drug enforcement, airport operations, and intelligence collection and analysis. Guyana received boarding officer and maritime law enforcement training from the Coast Guard. The ATF provided firearms and explosives identification training to Jamaica. Suriname received training from U.S. Customs and the FBI in internal controls. Finally, Trinidad and Tobago received Coast Guard training in interdiction planning and boarding officer skills.

In Central America, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama were recipients of specialized law enforcement training. The DEA provided training to Costa Rica in basic and advanced drug enforcement techniques, while U.S. Customs provided overseas enforcement training. El Salvador received criminal intelligence analysis training from the FBI. Honduras was trained by the DEA in basic drug enforcement techniques and intelligence collection and analysis methods. Nicaragua received training in land border interdiction techniques and basic drug enforcement skills. Finally, Panama received overseas enforcement training from U.S. Customs.

In Eastern Europe, specialized training programs were provided to the Czech Republic and Hungary. Both countries received training in combating public corruption and money laundering from the FBI, IRS, and OPDAT.

In South Asia, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka received specialized law enforcement training. Training in combating cyber crimes and child exploitation were provided to India. Nepal received training in combating public corruption. Finally, the DEA provided training in airport operations to Sri Lanka.

In Southeast Asia, training was provided to Laos and Thailand. The DEA offered basic drug enforcement and airport operations training to Laos. Thailand received training in asset forfeiture, task force management, and prosecutorial management.

INL also sponsored several regional law enforcement training seminars. These programs are designed to bring neighboring countries together to address transnational crime threats and promote sharing of information and techniques. Two Baltic Regional programs were offered addressing surveillance techniques and professional responsibility and ethics. The U.S. Customs Service provided a regional overseas enforcement training seminar to the countries of Central America. Also, the DEA offered a three-week international narcotics enforcement managers seminar to executive-level narcotics officials from the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and Asia.

FY 2005 Program

Refining INL law enforcement institutional support programs to meet the needs of recipient countries constitutes one of the best means of implementing the USG anticrime objectives for institution building and host nation self-sufficiency. INL will continue to furnish programs only to those countries considered high priority for U.S. anticrime interests. Major emphasis will be placed on coordination with other donors (e.g., the OAS and the EU) to urge them to shoulder greater responsibility for training that serves their particular strategic interests. This coordination will help avoid wasteful duplication of efforts.

In FY 2005, INL will maintain its role of coordinating the activities of Washington agencies in response to assistance requests from U.S. embassies. This will ensure that programs reflect the full range of U.S. policy priorities. Continued funding will allow us to accommodate the growing emphasis on law enforcement training as a vehicle for achieving many of the basic objectives of USG anticrime policy.

We anticipate funding one comprehensive law enforcement development program carried out by DOJ/ICITAP in the Middle East or South Asia. In addition, we plan to sponsor at least ten specialized narcotics interdiction and law enforcement training programs for priority countries of the Caribbean, Central and South America, the Middle East and Asia. In addition, an International Narcotics Enforcement Managers Seminar will be offered to narcotics executives from Latin America.

INL Anticrime Programs
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Fighting Corruption 2,300 - 3,000 - 2,300
Anti-Corruption Compacts - - - - 9,000
Sub Total 2,300 - 3,000 - 11,300
Alien Smuggling 600 - 400 - 500
Border Security 800 - 767 - 500
Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property
Rights and Critical Infrastructure
Protection 300 - 2,650 - 2,500
Financial Crimes and Money
Laundering 5,903 - 1,000 - 3,500
G-8 and Lyon Group 500 - 500 - -
Law Enforcement and Police Science 500 - 2,200 - 700
Rule of Law 500 - - - -
Program Development and Support 897 - 807 - -
Total 12,300 - 11,324 - 19,000

International Law Enforcement Academy

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2003 Supp

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2005 Request

14,500

----

14,500

14,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

National law enforcement capabilities will be strengthened and stronger linkages between U.S. law enforcement entities, foreign law enforcement authorities, and future criminal justice leaders will be established thereby resulting in greater cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement authorities and more successful investigation and prosecution of more important cases abroad.

ILEA curriculum will encourage graduates to interact with other alumni regionally and internationally to address law enforcement issues.

ILEA graduates will adopt methods and technologies learned at the academies to conduct successful criminal investigations.

ILEA curriculum will be modified to respond to emerging transnational criminal trends in terrorism, corruption and trafficking in persons.

ILEA alumni will be actively engaged in training others, either at their national academies or on-the-job.

Specific areas of growing international criminal activity will be addressed by presenting training on counterterrorism, corruption, and trafficking in persons to combat these trends.

A modified Core curriculum designed to counter international criminal trends - with no fewer than 20 hours (from 15 hours previously) of training on counterterrorism, corruption, trafficking in persons, and related topics - will be implemented in gradual phases.

Six higher-level specialized courses (from 4 courses previously) will be introduced to address the same international criminal trends as the core curriculum: implementation will begin with ILEA Budapest and Bangkok and continue to the other academies.

The present number of students trained at the existing ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, and Roswell will be maintained.

The total number of students' trained at all four academies will equal or exceed 2,200.

Areas for future expansion of the ILEA program to cover regions that are not currently addressed such as the Middle East, South Asia, and South America will be explored.

Another ILEA, to be established in San Jose, Costa Rica, is expected to begin operations and launch an initial program of Core and Specialized courses in FY 2005.

Program Justification

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) help advance U.S. interests through international cooperation while promoting social, political, and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEAs provide high-quality training and technical assistance, support institution building and enforcement capability, and foster relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts in the regions they serve. The ILEAs encourage strong partnerships among regional countries to address common problems associated with criminal activity. The ILEAs also develop an extensive network of alumni--who will become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective countries--to exchange information with their U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations.

The Department of State works with the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Treasury, and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA program. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs: the Core program, specialized training courses, and regional seminars, all targeted at mid-level officials in the police and criminal justice services of strategic countries throughout the world. State's primary roles are to provide foreign policy guidance to the ILEA Directors, ensure availability of adequate funding to support ILEA operations, and provide oversight that will ensure that U.S. foreign policy objectives are achieved.

The ILEAs will continue to be a dynamic training program, providing relevant, timely, and quality training against the backdrop of diverse and often shifting regional economic, social and political environments and in anticipation of and response to constantly changing international crime-related challenges such as terrorism, corruption, financial fraud and money laundering, alien smuggling, trafficking in persons, and organized crime.
Program Accomplishments

The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) has established ILEAs in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, and New Mexico. To date, these ILEAs have trained over 12,900 officials from over 50 countries.

The ILEA in Budapest, Hungary, opened in 1995 and has trained over 8,310 officials from Central, Southern European countries as well as Russia and the former Soviet Union. ILEA Bangkok in Thailand opened in 1999 and has trained over 2,915 officials from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). The permanent facility for ILEA Bangkok will be completed in April 2004. ILEA Gaborone in Botswana opened in FY 2001 and has since trained over 845 officials from the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It now operates from its permanent facility, which was completed in early FY 2003. INL opened a graduate style ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico in late FY 2001 and has trained over 835 international criminal justice officials who had graduated from the regional academies.

In FY 2002, INL signed a bilateral agreement with the government of Costa Rica to establish an ILEA in San Jose. The Costa Rican Legislature has not yet ratified this agreement. If and when it is established, participants of ILEA San Jose will be criminal justice officials from Central America, the Andean region, and the Caribbean. Expectations are to establish an ILEA in Latin America during calendar year 2004 and have a full training program underway shortly thereafter.

FY 2005 Programs

INL will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, and Roswell. INL will also continue to encourage ILEA alumni to be actively engaged in training other instructors and mentors in methods and technologies learned at the academies, either at their national academies or on-the-job. This in turn will open and strengthen lines of communications to conduct joint investigations, and to share information with US counterparts.

INL will continue negotiations to establish a new ILEA in San Jose, Costa Rica or elsewhere in Latin America. If established, the Latin American ILEA is expected to deliver its full training program in FY 2005. Similar to the other regional ILEAs curricula, the ILEA will offer a mid-level management core program for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. The training program will concentrate on attacking the most salient crime threats in the region, including drug trafficking; alien smuggling; trafficking in persons; money laundering, terrorist financing, and financial crimes; and accountability in government, as well as enhancing the ability of law enforcement to anticipate and respond to terrorist threats. These courses will be upgraded to adjust to the nuances of these criminal activities as identified by ILEA needs assessments.

International Law Enforcement Academy
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Bangkok, Thailand 3,155 - 2,900 - 3,100
Budapest, Hungary 539 - 600 - 850
Gaborone, Botswana 2,910 - 2,700 - 3,000
Roswell, New Mexico 5,000 - 7,105 - 5,000
Latin America 2,896 - 1,195 - 2,550
Total 14,500 - 14,500 - 14,500

Civilian Police and Justice Program

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Estimated

FY 2005 Request

------

2,700

2,700

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The overall program objectives are to continue developing and enhancing the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations; and to strengthen the capabilities of the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), other regional organizations and countries to address police, justice, and prison development issues in areas emerging from conflict.

The FY 2005 program will continue to enhance U.S. capacity to recruit, select, train, equip, deploy and support uniformed and non-uniformed police, trainers and advisors overseas to participate in and support peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. The program will also:

Establish and maintain cadres of up to 2,000 U.S. police, law enforcement advisors, and justice and corrections experts.

Expand and sustain certification of the basic U.S. training program in all of the United States and further develop relationships with federal, state and local law enforcement associations, organizations and unions.

Promote high quality, standardized civilian police peacekeeping training by inviting police from selected countries to participate in the basic U.S. training program.

Improve deployment capabilities to include quick response of assessment teams, advance teams, and technical advisors.

Strengthen INL management and oversight capabilities and further develop options to address complex security operations.

Program Justification

U.S. participation in international civilian police missions overseas is expected to continue in FY 2005 with up to 2,000 experienced members of the U.S. cadre assigned to Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Afghanistan and Iraq. The support contract awarded in 2004 will provide a mechanism to establish a personnel system to ensure experienced members or former members of the U.S. law enforcement, justice and corrections community are available to support U.S. foreign policy interests in post-conflict regions around the world. The FY 2005 program will firmly institutionalize the program as an important component of the INL mission and will include:

Completing the development of a logistical system for rapid deployment of U.S. police to international police and complex security operations.

Expanding relationships with nation-wide law enforcement associations, organizations, and unions.

Partnerships with selected countries for participation in the U.S. civilian police training programs and related activities.

Deployment of U.S. police and law enforcement and criminal justice advisors can range from short-term assessments, training and advisory activities requiring only a few weeks, or long-term secondments of a year or more to operational missions that may include authority to carry weapons and perform the full range of law enforcement functions. To be prepared for such operations, personnel included in the U.S. contingent are issued basic uniforms and personal equipment applicable to all deployments and given a standard course of training applicable to all deployments. Special equipment and materials, briefings, training and medical precautions needed to accommodate a particular operating environment are provided immediately prior to an actual deployment. Such equipment may include communications equipment, uniforms and other clothing, medical supplies and protective gear to meet conditions in the particular area of operation, and camping gear in the event lodging accommodations are not available. While this program may fund short-term and urgent requirements for law enforcement expertise and field activities, the long-term operational support needed to maintain U.S. police in actual operations continues to be provided from other regional or special accounts, line-item appropriations, or funds made available from supplemental budgets.

The FY 2005 program also sustains logistical capabilities to ensure timely U.S. response to requests from the UN or other organizations to contribute American police and advisors on an expedited basis to address a special circumstance or participate in an international effort to assist a country emerging from a crisis situation. Key elements of this capacity are contingencies for transporting U.S. personnel and equipment, providing emergency medical support and evacuation, operational communications, and administrative and logistical support in the field.

FY 2005 funds will also sustain outreach efforts to U.S. local, state, and federal law enforcement, agencies and professional associations for the purpose of attracting and encouraging law enforcement interest and participation in international police missions. In addition, INL will engage in efforts to assist police programs, planning, training, and operations of other countries, regional or international organizations. Administration of such a comprehensive program will continue to strengthen existing and developing capacities designed to assess, conceptualize, plan, prepare, implement, manage, and evaluate U.S. participation in international peacekeeping missions and complex security operations.

Program Accomplishments

INL manages program implementation involving up to 2,000 police, advisors and justice experts in nine countries, the secondment of a technical expert to OSCE Vienna, a liaison position at the U.S. Mission to the UN in New York, and agreements with other U.S. agencies to provide training and justice sector expertise overseas.

INL has implemented programs to establish, train and equip the nearly 6,000 members of the new Kosovo Police Service; provide training expertise to establish the approximately 3,000-member East Timor Police Service; and deliver training events for over 30,000 existing local police in Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Serbia and Montenegro.

INL is managing significant programs in Afghanistan to train an estimated 50,000 National Police, Border Police, and Highway Patrol, and to continue efforts to re-establish judicial capacities throughout Afghanistan.

INL is leading the international effort in Iraq to re-establish, re-organize and train approximately 80,000 National Police and border law enforcement organizations to prepare for the a new government of Iraq to provide effective internal security.

INL programs assist judicial reform and rebuilding in post conflict environments such as Kosovo, Bosnia, Afghanistan and Iraq, by training judges and prosecutors.

FY 2005 Program

Building on resources provided to support this program over the last three years, the FY 2005 budget sustains the voluntary reserve of law enforcement personnel who remain in their regular jobs until called for duty. The FY 2005 program will complete implementation of standardized organizational structures, operating procedures, code of conduct, ethics standards, and systems needed to effectively manage personnel identified for the roster. Through this program, U.S. police will have increased opportunities to participate in specialized law enforcement training that is designed to meet U.S. Police Officer's Standards and Training (POST) in-service training requirements needed to keep their police credentials up to date. In addition, officers receive basic and advanced instruction that is unique to the organizational and operational challenges presented by international missions. Selected foreign police will be invited to observe and participate in the U.S. training program. The FY 2005 program sustains an advisor to the OSCE, an INL training coordinator, and a position established at the U.S. mission in New York responsible for working with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. FY 2005 funds also complete expansion of INL capabilities to address peacekeeping and complex security matters and provides enhanced focus on management and oversight of police, justice and prison programs.

Program Development and Support

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2003 Actual

FY 2004 Estimate

FY 2004 Request

13,850

13,850

13,850

Program Justification

The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is charged with developing strategies and programs to achieve international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign-policy objectives. INL maintains a cadre of both domestic and overseas program and technical experts to carry out a wide range of initiatives. Washington personnel functions include, but are not limited to: international narcotics control and law enforcement policy formulation and implementation; coordination of policies and programs with other USG agencies and with other governments and international organizations; budget and financial management activities; program administration and analysis including development, implementation, oversight and evaluation of overseas programs; contract, procurement and information systems support; field assistance visits to Embassy Narcotics Affairs Sections and Law Enforcement Sections to review, analyze and make recommendations on programs, funds control and procurement; sponsoring regional policy and program management conferences and seminars; and, developing and providing training programs both domestically and overseas for embassy and INL personnel.

The Program Development and Support (PD&S) account funds the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL staff. Over three-quarters of the PD&S budget request is programmed for salaries and benefits of U.S. Direct Hire (USDH) employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel. Currently, INL funding supports a Washington-based staff of 112 U.S. direct hire positions, 21 personal-services and 18 non-personal services contractor personnel, and 20 employees on detail from, or assigned to, other USG agencies. Eleven additional domestic positions support the Interregional Aviation Support program, but are funded from the Interregional Aviation Support account. Ten positions in the INL Office of Anticrime Programs are funded from the Department of State D&CP account.

Field travel for the INL personnel based in Washington is funded from the PD&S account. This is an essential component of the bureau's program, needed for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are utilized to maintain a reliable and secure information resource management system and operating infrastructure to enable bureau employees to pursue policy objectives and complete work requirements effectively and efficiently. In addition, funding for the following expenses ensure an adequate level of administrative support to allow the bureau to function effectively: office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, miscellaneous contractual services (Information Management non-personal services contractor personnel, INL office renovation expenses, etc.), materials, supplies, furniture, furnishings and equipment.

FY 2005 Program

The PD&S budget request for FY 2005 will cover the annual, government-wide cost of living increase, in-grade step increases and promotions that occur during that fiscal year. It will also cover the annualized portion of wage increase for positions that INL plans to fill during FY 2005 to improve program oversight and expanded programs. Higher costs resulting from inflation for field travel and transportation costs; equipment rentals, communications and utility expenses; printing and reproduction; miscellaneous contractual services; and furniture, furnishings and equipment have been factored into the FY 2005 budget request.

Program Development and Support
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2003 FY 2003
Supp
FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005
Personnel Compensation 8,532 8,830 9,183
Personnel Benefits 1,901 2,050 2,132
Field Travel and Transportation 560 560 - 550
Equipment Rentals, Communications and
Utility Expenses 205 205 - 205
Printing and Reproduction 181 185 50
Miscellaneous Contractual Services 1,915 1,915 - 1,665
Materials and Supplies 72 75 - 60
Furniture, Furnishings and Equipment 484 - 30 - 5
Total 13,850 - 13,850 - 13,850



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