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International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2006 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2005
Report
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Liberia

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2004 Supp.

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Request

-

A*

5,000

2,000

 
 
______________

*In FY2004, $8.5 million was provided to fund the US contribution of police officers to the UNMIL CIVPOL operation in Liberia.  This amount was funded by the IRRF supplemental ($7.438 million) and by reprogramming FY 2001, FY2002 and FY2003 INCLE funds ($1.062 million).  CN 04 0049 and CN 04 0248 provided notification to obligate $16.2 million in FY 2004 International Disaster and Famine Assistance (IDFA) funds from the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense and for the Reconstructions of Iraq and Afghanistan, 2004 (P.L. 108-106) for law enforcement assistance activities.
 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

International Civilian Police (CIVPOL) continue deployment to Liberia under the auspices of the UN Peacekeeping Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), helping to maintain law and order; and continue training, vetting, restructuring, and monitoring the new Liberian Police Service.

UN International Civilian Police continue to monitor, advise and train the new Liberian force. Citizen-police relations will improve as measured by increased reporting of crime. The number of civilian police deployed will decrease as the numbers of Liberian police officers trained and vetted increase. US police will be reduced from 20 officers to a maximum of 10 officers in FY 2006.

Program Justification

After more than two decades of conflict and instability, Liberia has only the barest law enforcement infrastructure and little capacity to control its borders or enforce its laws. Its diamond fields and forests have attracted significant illicit commercial activity. Protracted conflict has created an environment where crime replaces combat. Enhancing the ability of the Liberian government to deal with these and other law enforcement concerns is a key priority for INL.

Security will contribute to lasting peace in Liberia, which will help stabilize the entire sub-region. To this end, INL will continue to support peacekeeping operations by providing US civilian police (CIVPOL) to the International Police Service (IPS) in UNMIL. After almost two years of vetting and training Liberian National Police to take on more responsibility for law enforcement, ongoing activities for the IPS will include advising, monitoring, and more on-the-job advanced training of the new Liberian Police Service.

Program Accomplishments

10 US civilian police (CIVPOL) were deployed to the UNMIL mission in December 2003, joining police from 35 other nations forming the International Police Service (IPS). Another 66 US CIVPOL joined UNMIL in February 2004 for a total of 76 US officers. In January 2005 we began to draw down the US contingent. By February 2005 a total of 20 US CIVPOL remained in the mission.

Vetting and training of the Liberian police is ongoing. A three-month training program covering basic policing skills and human rights, followed by a six-month field-training program and one month of specialized training have been established at the Police Services Training Academy in Monrovia. Six classes of approximately 150 each have been commissioned and are now completing their six-month field training.

Essential equipment including boots, uniform pants and shirts, computers, typewriters, printers, cameras, crime scene kits, and drug test kits were procured and donated by INL to the LNP in January 2005. An assessment of the communications needs of the Liberian police was concluded in December 2004. The report will serve as the basis for establishing badly needed communications capability for the LNP.

A team of justice sector professionals, including a federal court judge, two prosecutors, and one court administrator, traveled to Liberia in January 2005 to evaluate the state of the judiciary, courts, and prosecution services. Recommendations from the assessment will advise INL of how to most effectively utilize prior year funds set aside for justice assistance.

FY 2006 Program

The FY 2006 program will continue support focusing on crime control assistance by providing US police officers to the UNMIL peacekeeping mission. US CIVPOL will continue to ramp down, from 20 to 10 US officers. In FY 2006 US CIVPOL will promote a more proactive role in, and greater responsibility for day-to-day policing functions by the LNP. US CIVPOL will continue mentoring, advising and monitoring the LNP to encourage better police-community relations and discourage human rights violations. US CIVPOL will continue to co-locate with Liberian officers in their stations and engage in joint patrols.

PD&S funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

 Liberia   
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2004

FY 2004
Supp

FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Crime Control
Civilian Police - A 3,400 - 1,800
Police Development and Reform - - 1,000 - -
Criminal Justice Development
Judicial Reform - - 300 - -
Anti-Corruption 100 - -
Sub-Total - - 4,800 - 1,800
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - 120 - 120
Non-U.S. Personnel - - - - -
ICASS Costs - - 70 - 70
Program Support - - 10 - 10
Sub-Total - - 200 - 200
Total - - 5,000 - 2,000
A - See Liberia footnote A.          

Nigeria

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

2,250

2,232

1,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Nigerian law enforcement's capacity to deter, prevent and investigate trafficking in narcotics continues to be strengthened. Nigerian drug enforcement authorities become effective and reliable partners with U.S. and other West African law enforcement agencies.

Counternarcotics training facilities upgraded and expanded; joint training delivered; training delivered leading to improved investigative and interdiction skills, and resulting in an increased ability to stop the flow of drugs through international airports, seaports and border entry points; new channels for communication and cooperation result in increased transnational collaboration on investigations and prosecutions of cases with West African and other countries.

Cooperation among prosecutors, judges and the police, especially in the prosecution of financial fraud and corruption cases, is strengthened.

Assessment conducted and strategy for improving cooperation developed; evidence collection and preservation techniques improved; joint training of law enforcement and criminal justice personnel leads to improved collaboration on corruption cases; increased investigations, arrests and prosecutions of money laundering and other financial crime cases.

Program Justification

INL programs in Nigeria are designed to achieve key United States foreign policy objectives of strengthening democratic institutions and protecting the U.S. against international crime by improving the performance of the criminal justice sector.

Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade, transporting narcotics to markets in the United States, Europe, Asia and Africa. Some of these criminal organizations are engaged in advance-fee fraud and other forms of financial crime that defraud U.S. citizens and businesses. Years of military rule and economic decline contributed to the expansion of narcotics trafficking and criminality in Nigeria. Severe unemployment and widespread corruption provided both an incentive and the means for Nigerian criminal organizations to make Nigeria a major transit point in the international narcotics trade. Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin smuggled through Nigeria amounts to a significant portion of the heroin smuggled into the United States, resulting in Nigeria being placed on the U.S. list of major drug producing and drug-transit countries.

Since the end of military rule in 1999, the importance of adopting modern and effective techniques appropriate for policing in a democracy is evident. As the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) becomes more professional, it is crucial to build bridges between the police and the judiciary in order to improve the rate of criminal convictions. Success in this effort is critical to strengthening democratic institutions in Nigeria.

Program Accomplishments

Since its return to democratic government, Nigeria has demonstrated its commitment to cooperating with the U.S. in combating international crime emanating from Nigeria, including narcotics trafficking and financial fraud. With the continued assistance of the U.S., the GON is also focusing on combating public corruption. In January 2003, the instruments of ratification of the U.S.-Nigerian Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty were exchanged and the Treaty entered formally into force. Nigeria earned full certification the past four years for its counternarcotics efforts, including successful prosecutions of 98 percent of the 3,067 drug traffickers (mostly low-level couriers) arrested. The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), established in 2002 and fully constituted in April 2003, has been credited with the recovery or seizure of more than $500,000,000 in assets obtained through fraudulent means. In addition, the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), which has received U.S. assistance, conducted investigations involving 14 governors, several National Assembly members and at least three current and former cabinet ministers. Of the more than 1,200 petitions filed since ICPC's inception, 608 have been referred to the Investigations Department. Forty criminal cases have been referred to the courts, involving more than 80 persons. ICPC opened two field offices in Lagos and Kaduna, and is currently in the process of opening two more in the northeast and the southeast sections of the country.

Counternarcotics: Counternarcotics assistance has been focused on the Nigerian National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), which has sole responsibility for combating narcotics trafficking and abuse and which cooperates with U.S. counterpart law enforcement agencies. INL has supported the NDLEA with technical assistance and training since 1999, and the results are notable. During 2003, NDLEA created "State Commands" to ensure a comprehensive nationwide presence of the Agency. NDLEA now has 37 State Commands in addition to its National Headquarters and ten Special Area Commands. In the past year, NDLEA seized 534 kilograms of heroin, 92 kilograms of cocaine, 51,000 kilograms of cannabis, and 198 kilograms of psychotropic substances. In the past year, there have been 3,067 drug traffickers arrested with 98 percent of them-mostly low-level couriers-successfully prosecuted. In addition, in 2003 the Agency located and destroyed 159,202 hectares of cannabis throughout the country.

U.S.-provided equipment and training have assisted the NDLEA in detecting and deterring narcotics trafficking from Lagos' Murtala Mohammed International Airport (MMIA). In September 2003, INL provided a modern, digital x-ray machine for the NDLEA at MMIA. The old x-ray equipment was moved to the international airport in Abuja where the NDLEA has had great success in interdicting couriers destined for Europe and the UnitedStates. NDLEA also acquired three sniffer dogs from the South African Police Service, which complements the equipment at MMIA. Traffickers are increasingly avoiding MMIA, illustrating both NDLEA's effectiveness and the need to increase interdiction capacities elsewhere in Nigeria and West Africa.

NDLEA has been included in all INL-funded training courses dealing with cyber crime and computer forensics that have been offered by the USSS and FBI. NDLEA also participated in a three-part ATF/Customs training program dealing with small arms trafficking through the ports and landborders. NDLEA's inclusion in this training with its Customs and Immigration counterparts contributed to successful collaborations in the inspection of containers and also in identifying contraband other than drugs.

In 2004, NDLEA agents participated in several regional search and seizure operations resulting in the seizure of several hundred kilograms of cocaine in Ghana and Benin Republic. In the case of Ghana, although the cocaine--over 675 kilograms--was located in that country, through regional cooperation, NDLEA was able to seize the vessel that the drugs was transported on and arrest the vessel owner on drug-trafficking charges. In Benin, agents from NDLEA's Joint Task Force recently participated in the seizure of more than 93 kilograms of cocaine.

Financial Fraud: U.S. intervention was instrumental in pushing through legislation on money laundering, and the creation of an Anti-Terrorism, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) that responded to Financial Action Task Force (FATF) standards.

Since May 2003, the EFCC-established Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) has recovered or seized assets of financial crime valued over $219 million from various fraudsters inside and outside of Nigeria, and more than $7 million from a syndicate that included highly placed government officials defrauding the Federal Inland Revenue Service. NDLEA, in collaboration with the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigations, helped intercept over $3 million worth of fraudulent checks and in cooperation with Federal Express, recovered over $200,000 in merchandise that was purchased with stolen credit cards.

Initially, the NDLEA's anti-money laundering activities were limited to general investigations. Recently, the NDLEA's financial investigation capacity has been improved by upgrading the financial investigative unit to a full-fledged Directorate. Other concrete steps include establishing an inter-ministerial committee headed by the Permanent Secretary to the President and engaging in constructive dialogue and correspondence with FATF on how to meet FATF goals. Recently, Nigeria passed the 2004 Money Laundering Act, which more closely adheres to FATF standards with regards to threshold levels.

Police Modernization: A DOJ/ICITAP Police Advisor/Program Manager was assigned in August 2002 to assist the NPF with modernization and reform efforts. More than 100 instructors have been trained to teach several different disciplines, including civil disorder management, election security and community policing. The first class of 500 recruits using the new curriculum graduated in December 2003 and was assigned to the Kaduna metropolitan area. In April 2004, a community policing project focusing on linking the NPF with the Inter-Faith Forum was implemented in Kaduna. Bicycle patrol training was also offered and by August, more than one hundred officers from the Rigasa region had been trained.

In April 2004, an INL-funded technical advisor continued to provide assistance working with the civilian oversight body, the Police Service Commission (PSC), in Abuja to enforce its mandate to oversee the recruitment, promotion, and discipline of members of the NPF. The advisor assisted the PSC in drafting standard operating procedures and advised them on developing a working relationship with the NPF. By June, the advisor had assisted the Commission in developing a code of conduct, mission statement, a code of ethics, civilian complaint forms, a system for classifying complaints, guidelines for investigative staff, rules of evidence collection and storage, and procedures for filing complaints. In May 2004, a two-week Basic Criminal Investigation Course was offered in Abuja to selected members of the PSC's Department of Investigations, representatives from all other departments within the PSC, and the Commissioner and chairman of the PSC.

FY 2006 Program

Nigerian criminal organizations are international in scope and have a direct impact on the UnitedStates. FY 2006 funds will be used to continue to build strong counterpart agencies for U.S. law enforcement in two critical areas: counternarcotics and financial fraud.

Counternarcotics Support. FY 2006 funds will provide training and technical assistance to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) to support a drug interdiction program. Training will be conducted at the NDLEA Academy in Jos.

Financial Fraud: To ensure that financial regulatory organizations have the capacity to pursue investigations and prosecution of financial crimes, FY 2006 funds will be used to provide training and technical assistance to the newly created Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), as well as INTERPOL and the Special Fraud Unit of the NPF. The overall goals are increased GON investigations and prosecution of financial crimes and public corruption, and increased cooperation with partner nations on money laundering cases.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): These funds will provide resources for salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, travel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the narcotics and law enforcement affairs programs.

Nigeria
INL Budget
(
$000) 

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Law Enforcement Support
Counternarcotics Support 741 - 550 - 250
Police Modernization 210 - 682 - -
Illegal Migration 150 - - - -
Financial Fraud 250 - 200 - 150
Judicial Sector Reform/Anti-Corruption - - 220 - -
Sub-Total 1,351 - 1,652 - 400
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 534 - 177 - 177
Non-U.S. Personnel 2 - 65 - 65
ICASS Costs 363 - 188 - 208
Program Support - - 150 - 150
Sub-Total 899 - 580 - 600
Total 2,250 - 2,232 - 1,000

South Africa

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

1,770

1,756

600

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

South African police trained and effectively operating against national and transnational crime.

Effective implementation by the Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department (JMPD) of U.S. operational, management and training recommendations; JMPD training facility upgraded; increased number of JMPD and other South African police trained at the JMPD academy; improved communication and coordination between the JMPD and other police forces enhances regional efforts against transnational criminal organizations; decrease in the number of murders.

Program Justification

South Africa is an anchor for stability and prosperity in the Southern African region. It plays a key leadership role in the region by encouraging other countries to address crime, terrorism and immigration threats, under the umbrellas of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and the Southern African Regional Police Chiefs Cooperation Organization (SARPCCO). Assisting South Africa on law enforcement and judicial issues directly addresses INL's twin goals of international crime and drugs while serving as a platform for the broader U.S. goals of supporting a stable and prosperous South Africa, fighting transnational security threats and creating a favorable climate for investment in the region.

Organized and complex crimes continue to vex the South African police, which face widespread street crime and very high rates of murder and rape. When the walls of apartheid crumbled, transnational organized crime syndicates entered South Africa and set up business, taking advantage of established smuggling routes, a world-class transportation system and sophisticated financial institutions. Providing technical assistance, training and select material to the South African law enforcement sector for detecting, investigating, and prosecuting complex and organized crime--including transnational crime--has helped address a key impediment to economic development, support South Africa's still-fragile democracy, and enhance security and stability in the region.

Democracy and the rule of law cannot flourish without a well functioning judicial sector. South Africa recognizes that its criminal justice system is not performing at its optimal capacity. In 2003, approximately 2.5 million (36.24%) crimes were reported. Of the total number of reported crimes, approximately 24.1% went to court. The court disposal rate of all the cases brought before it was 86.69%. Since 1994, the total number of serious crimes increased slightly, by 30%. Although the number of murders decreased by 17% during the 10-year period, robbery with aggravating circumstances increased by 49.7% and attempted murders by 38.8%. The conviction rate remains at about the same level as last year, about 10% with 13% for murder and 4.5% in rape cases.

In order to provide better security for its citizens, to increase police responsibility for distinct geographic areas, and to improve the capacity of the South African Police Service (SAPS) to deter crime, the South African Government has begun to establish municipal police forces. These forces have limited powers, and are meant to assist the SAPS through more visible policing and by spearheading the initial investigations of many less complex and serious crimes. In assisting the municipal police force in South Africa, INL is also providing much-needed stability in areas where established businesses are fleeing and new investors fear to tread due to rampant crime. The Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department has existed for about four years and needs continued technical support, direction and management advice. The JMPD also needs an upgraded training facility to train its personnel and other South African police forces. The relationships developed at the facility will enhance channels of communication and improve coordination across jurisdictional grounds. The first Metro Police Academy is being built with USG funding, and should be completed by March 2005.

Improved South African policing has had the negative effect of creating backlogs in the courts and packing the prisons. Prisons in South Africa are overcrowded, under-resourced, and have become training grounds in illegal activities for young criminals. Numbers of prisoners awaiting trial in South Africa rank among the highest in the world according to the Office of the Inspecting Judge of Prison; 41% of such prisoners remain incarcerated because they cannot pay minimal fines and/or bail. The recidivism rate in South Africa stands at approximately 80%, according to South Africa's Institute for Security Studies, and prison personnel are unable to conduct programs that will both reduce the numbers of criminals in prison and rehabilitate those who are open to changing their lives. Working with the Department of Correctional Services (DCS) in pilot projects has paid large dividends in rehabilitating and reintegrating juvenile offenders into the community and turning them into productive members of society. These programs have also assisted in decreasing the numbers of juveniles in prison through diversion programs, and have reduced sentences for prisoners completing rehabilitation programs. These programs will need to continue in the near term before the problem of overcrowding can be addressed.

South Africa's porous land and sea borders make it extremely difficult for South African authorities to identify and track illegal immigration and trafficking of drugs, contraband and persons-including potential terrorists. There is no effective system in place that links immigration, customs, and border control functions at this time. The Immigration Act of 2002 vested all responsibility for border control with the Department of Home Affairs (DHA), which has requested U.S. assistance.

Program Accomplishments

Law enforcement training programs for South Africa have traditionally focused on the SAPS as the premier law enforcement agency in the country. In recent years, the program has expanded to include the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) and their investigative wing the Directorate for Special Operations (DSO), the South African Revenue Service, the Special Investigating Unit and the Johannesburg Municipal Police Department (JMPD). Past programs have assisted the SAPS, DSO, and other law enforcement officers through specialized training in a wide range of courses including financial crimes, computer crimes, counterfeiting detection, interviewing techniques, border and port control, drug detection, counter-terrorism and street safety, trafficking in persons. Relevant parts of these courses have been integrated into the SAPS's, DSO's and JMPD's training curriculum. An additional benefit of the training courses has been the enhanced cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies stemming from personal relationships formed with their South African counterparts.

Equipment donated to the police over the past three years has also proved invaluable to the SAPS. U.S.-donated Analyst Notebook software helped the SAPS organized crime units better coordinate their work, detect overlaps in different cases, and follow complex evidence chains. The software has been used in numerous investigations on narcotics, criminal gangs, and the South African terrorist group, People Against Gangsterism and Drugs and the right-wing Boermag. Equipment purchased for the SAPS' forensics lab has helped the SAPS and U.S. Secret Service agents detect several million dollars worth of counterfeit U.S. currency and fraudulent documents originating in South Africa and other African countries. Computer forensics reference material purchased for the commercial crimes section of the SAPS has complemented training provided by U.S. law enforcement agencies, resulting in increased and better investigations and court cases. The DNA analyzer provided to SAPS, only the second one in the country, is used in forensic analysis in South Africa and by other countries in the region as well. INL-provided air-wing equipment used by the SAPS has contributed to the SAG anti-drug programs' efforts to eradicate marijuana in South Africa and Swaziland.

The South African Government recognizes that one of the biggest threats to its democracy is the criminal capacity to undermine the economy and financial sector. South African law enforcement and prosecutorial sectors lack enough trained and experienced officials who can follow the path of illicitly gained profits although progress is being made on this front. These skills are needed for a wide array of investigations such as public corruption, drug trafficking and human smuggling and to identify profits in asset forfeiture cases, which are increasing in importance in South Africa. In 2004, the U.S. conducted numerous training seminars for both prosecutors and investigators on financial crimes, money laundering and procedures to be used in preparing the cases; conducted an exchange program with U.S. attorneys to give greater exposure to South Africa attorneys working on financial crime cases; and provided hands-on mentoring for prosecutors developing financial crime cases. By May 2004, approximately 400 prosecutors and investigators received formal racketeering training. Twenty-two investigations were identified as worthy of racketeering prosecution; seven are currently pending trial. A pilot project for gang prosecutions was implemented, culminating in the filing of seven separate gang cases. The U.S. is also supporting the Special Investigating Unit develop financial investigation skills and investigate corruption throughout South Africa.

For the past four years, the U.S. has employed an Assistant United States Attorney through the Overseas Prosecutor Development, Assistance and Training (OPDAT) program as a Resident Legal Advisor (RLA) to work inside the NPA with senior management of the organization. The RLA has acted as legal consultants, giving advice on specific cases, spearheading the effort to educate and prosecute money laundering and financial crimes, designing strategies to combat specialized crimes, especially organized crime, and introducing the South Africans to innovative law enforcement techniques. A U.S. prosecutor specializing in the U.S. Organized Crime (RICO) statute assisted with the establishment of a national organized crime desk function, conducted training courses for South African prosecutors on South Africa's organized crime act, and provided mentoring on specific cases. A result of this program is a national desk clearing process for organized crime cases that currently includes approximately 15 additional organized crime cases in development. Until FY 2004, the U.S. Agency for International Development was funding and managing the costs associated with the RLA program with Economic Support Funds (ESF), while INL provided funding for training and technical assistance activities. ESF for Africa was severely cut in FY 2003 and USAID can no longer afford the RLA position costs. INL assumed funding for this position in FY 2004 because of its centrality to effective criminal justice and law enforcement reform programs. In 2004, the RLA returned to South Africa, at the request of the NPA, for a three-week period to provide assistance with the prosecution of specific cases he was working on during his previous stay. Another TDY is planned for 2005. In FY 2003, INL began to support the Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department (JMPD), one of the largest and newest municipal forces in South Africa, by providing an advisor from the Los Angeles Police Department to work on management, organization and training issues, among other topics. The advisor has been instrumental in assisting the department develop a strategic plan for implementing recommendations made during a 2001 assessment. In 2004, with the assistance of the U.S. advisor, a policy manual, along with some other basic documents, was prepared. During the year, the advisor also assisted the Johannesburg City Council in their dealings with police and criminal matters, and helped organize an anti-crime campaign. The advisor is teaching courses for the new police officers and at the sergeants' level as well. Funding was provided to upgrade the infrastructure of the JMPD Metro Police Academy.

In FY 2003 INL funded a rehabilitation project for inmates who are preparing for release back into South African society. The rehabilitation sessions include training in crucial life skills designed to keep ex-offenders from returning to a life of crime and lowering the recidivism rate in South Africa. Training sessions also included a train-the-trainer component for correctional services personnel. Inmates who participate in these rehabilitation sessions will be more likely to effectively integrate into and become productive, law-abiding members of South African society. The program grew in 2004 to include more inmates and correctional officers, and expanded to many prisons around the country. With the assistance of an NGO that receives INL funding, the trained inmates organized courses in many prisons. Despite the success of the correctional systems development program, due to limited funding, the program will not continue in FY06.

FY 2006 Program

The FY 2006 program will build upon efforts undertaken in previous years to professionalize the police department.

Johannesburg Metropolitan Police: FY 2003 funds were used to begin a technical police advisory program for the Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department (JMPD). FY 2006 funds will be used to continue this program and to assist with the expansion of JMPD training programs to other municipal police services in South Africa and the South African Police Service (SAPS). FY 2006 funds will be used to fund an independent evaluation of the JMPD training facility and the implementation of USG recommendations. Funds will also provide for limited equipment donations. The overall goal of the project to professionalize the JMPD service will be measured by an established model training facility for municipal police forces.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): These funds will provide resources for salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

  South Africa
INL Budget
($000)
  

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Administration of Justice
Intermittent Legal Advisor/Financial Advisor/RLA 465 - 400 - -
Financial Crimes 265 - 197 - -
Immigration/Border Control 193 - 197 - -
Judicial Administration - - 197 - -
Johannesburg Metropolitan Police 300 - 297 - 200
Correctional Systems Development 242 - 118 - -
Sub-Total 1,465 - 1,406 - 200
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 244 - 183 - 190
Non-U.S. Personnel - - 34 - 50
ICASS Costs 61 - 72 - 80
Program Support - - 61 - 80
Sub-Total 305 - 350 - 400
Total 1,770 - 1,756 - 600

Africa Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

2,830

1,512

600

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The capacity of the criminal justice sector within targeted Sub-Saharan African nations to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes of concern to the U.S. (including illegal immigration and terrorism) will continue to be strengthened.

Skills-based training will continue to be emphasized; technical assistance, training and equipment delivered to and effectively utilized by recipients; improved inspection routines at select ports-of-entry; increased numbers of criminal investigations conducted by police; improved quality of evidence used in criminal court cases; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation and information sharing.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in select Sub-Saharan African countries will continue through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement groups within the region.

Increased numbers trained at select police training facilities; development and implementation of modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select police training facilities; development and implementation of strategic plans for improving law enforcement training; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation result in more effective law enforcement.

Program Justification

Criminal activities throughout the African continent corrupt and weaken governments, undermine progress towards the establishment of democratic institutions, hinder economic growth and foreign investment, and create an attractive environment for terrorism and other transnational crime. Police professionalization and institutional development of the criminal justice sectors are keys to supporting democracy.

East and Southern Africa (Tanzania, Uganda, and Mozambique) comprise a transit route for African and Asian criminal activities including trafficking in narcotics, persons, and other contraband; alien smuggling; money laundering; financial crime; and terrorist attacks.

West Africa is a major transit hub for narcotics trafficking, trafficking of persons, small arms, financial fraud, and fraudulent documents directly affecting U.S. citizens. Weak criminal justice institutions across Africa have made the continent a safe haven for organized crime groups, including terrorist cells. Since September 11, 2001, and the crackdown on traditional transshipment routes for drugs and arms, Africa has become a convenient alternative route for illegal contraband heading for the U.S. and Europe.

INL crime and drug programs in African countries support the development of professional and sustainable law enforcement institutions capable of detecting and deterring criminals operating in their territories. By making African countries less attractive to criminal elements, INL programs foster the rule of law that forms the bedrock upon which the USG's broader goals of democracy and prosperity goals are established.

Program Accomplishments

Programs aimed at institutional law enforcement development in Sub-Saharan Africa have met with success despite limited funding and brief histories. Notable among these successes has been the investment by governments in Uganda, Ghana and Tanzania to maximize INL assistance by replicating USG training and methods, and funding laboratory upgrades beyond that provided by INL.

During the past couple of years, the Tanzanian Police Force (TPF) has received civil disorder management training, including the development of a riot deployment strategy designed by command-level officers with the assistance of a U.S. advisor. In March 2004, at an illegal demonstration, a crowd of approximately 200 people-some armed-confronted the police. The demonstrators were comprised of men, women and children, with the children placed at the front as shields. Using civil disorder management techniques learned in class, police dispersed the crowd and made 32 arrests, without any fatalities. In April 2004, there was widespread reporting on an illegal demonstration at the University of Dares Salaam and reports that police had used brutal tactics. Despite these news reports, many of which were blatantly anti-police and lacked facts, there were few, if any, injuries. Police credited the civil disorder management training for their success in dealing with these demonstrations. INL-funded training gave the officers and their senior commanders the confidence, skills, and equipment needed to control civil disorder in a professional and constructive manner.

In August 2004, two instructors delivered two iterations of a Basic Skills Training Development Course in Tanzania. The consultants worked with police to institutionalize a skills-based training curriculum adapted for the Tanzanian context. Approximately 40 student-trainers from regions throughout the country attended the training. At the conclusion of the program the equipment used, valued at approximately $10,000, was donated to Tanzanian law enforcement. The instructors noted marked improvement in crime scene management and forensic evidence collection. Previously, upon arriving at a crime scene, officers would step all over the evidence and not search for possible assailants in the area surrounding the crime scene. Following training, officers are better educated at actively managing crime scenes and collecting evidence. Officer safety and proper first responder tactics have improved as well.

In Mozambique, INL funded a technical advisor at the National Police Sciences Academy (ACIPOL), to develop a strategic plan with an implementation strategy to optimize ACIPOL's effectiveness. The strategic plan, designed in coordination with Spanish and Portuguese police assigned to ACIPOL, capitalized on the expertise and investment of other donors and prevented duplication of efforts. Implementation of the strategic plan began in 2003 and included Police First Responder Courses (FPR) and Basic Criminal Investigation (BCI) courses for 340 police cadets and 8 prosecutors. The BCI training included seven days of classroom work with practical exercises and three days of a comprehensive criminal investigation simulation culminating in a mock trial. The participation of Mozambican prosecutors highlighted the need for greater cooperation between police and prosecutors in winning a conviction. Additional training offered in 2003 included a Sex Crimes Investigation Course and a Criminal Intelligence Management Course for 53 cadets. From January through March 2004, a consultant assigned to the ACIPOL programs continued to provide technical assistance in Maputo. Implementation of the strategic plan continued during 2004, with renovations made to classrooms and the police academy conference room.

Furniture was provided for the conference room as well. A Community Policing Program in 2005 will expand upon previous INL-funded activities, incorporating additional actors in the law enforcement community in Mozambique. A well-executed community-policing program will serve to increase the gathering of criminal intelligence and will help assuage the mistrust felt between the police and the communities in which they serve.

In September 2004, a Community Policing (CP) project was initiated in Zinguinchor, Senegal. A Technical Advisor traveled to Zinguinchor for four weeks to introduce the CP concept to senior police officials, train police supervisors, and train trainers. In November 2004, a one-week training session in bicycle assembly and maintenance and a one-week training session on bicycle patrol techniques were offered to members of the Senegalese police in Zinguinchor. Five mechanics and 25 officers received training. Instructors noted significant progress in the students' ability to manage bicycle patrols and to maintain the bicycles following their respective training sessions.

INL funded the establishment of a bicycle patrol program in Accra, Ghana to advance the concept of community policing. Since the program's launch in 2002, the Accra patrol team has inspired a new initiative to duplicate the bicycle patrol concept in Kumasi, a regional capital in the southern part of Ghana. In August 2004, 40 patrol bicycles were donated to the Ghana Police Service to create a new community policing patrol unit in Kumasi. The Ghanaians are coordinating the training of the new officers, applying the "train the trainers" concept.

The Ugandan government optimized U.S. Government training to fund the replication of successful programs at its own expense. A law enforcement development project for the Criminal Investigation Division (CID) of the Ugandan Police Force (UPF) initiated in November 2003 provided practical training to approximately 550 members of the UPF in instructor and curriculum development, and a forensic overview. The USG-funded training included a criminal investigation simulation and mock trial. An INL-funded advisor assisted the Government of Uganda in the development and purchase of equipment for a criminal information database that has the potential to link with similar systems in Kenya and Tanzania. The Ugandan government supplemented this project by purchasing additional computer equipment.

In 2004, the Ugandan government began applying the U.S.-developed training curriculum to train over 500 UPF recruits. Overall, more than 900 Ugandan police recruits received some USG sponsored training in 2004. In February 2004, instructors taught a 16-week Basic Skills Development Program using a "train-the-trainer" curriculum with 24 instructors from the UPF: twelve officer and twelve basic recruit instructors. In Kampala, these instructors worked with UPF student-trainers to develop their instruction of skills-based training. In Masindi, trainers mentored the student-trainers as they delivered the newly acquired learning techniques to several hundred UPF basic recruits. Since training began, the annual conviction rates of cases taken to court have increased from 31.5% to 36.9%. In the span of a month, between February and March 2004, there were 39 criminal cases in Mbale; 26 resulted in convictions, 6 in acquittals, 4 in discharges, and 1 in adjournment. In addition, UPF members, across the board, have displayed greater confidence. The UPF has created a training video library, covering issues as diverse as handcuffing and human rights. The Inspector General of the Police hopes to develop a training program that can be of benefit to other regional countries.

INL assistance in forensic lab development has continued with excellent results. Government of Tanzania cooperation has been exceptional, resulting in host government-funded upgrades to existing lab space completed ahead of schedule. In 2003, INL-funded a senior forensic technical advisor to the Tanzania Police Force (TPF) to develop a forensic laboratory. In 2004, fingerprint training and computer training on Microsoft Access was provided at the TPF laboratory. A 3-week firearms training course was also given during the year. Equipment, including a superglue chamber, computer equipment for a computerized fingerprint database, firearms equipment, and a comparison microscope with a 35mm camera, was donated.

Efforts continue to expand the national drug lab in Senegal into a regional lab for use by other Francophone countries in West Africa. In 2003, an advanced Drug Standards Training course for the 3 technicians at the drug laboratory was conducted in Dakar by a DEA chemist. Portable drug analysis kits were donated to the Senegalese at the conclusion of the course. A gas chromatograph shipped to Senegal in 2004 will be installed by spring 2005. At that time, a senior forensic advisor and a forensic chemist will perform in-user training on the gas chromatograph and conduct a 2-week drug analysis course for the drug chemists at the laboratory.

Forensic training for the Uganda Police Force began in October 2004. Forty participants received crime scene training. Using collection kits and documentation kits, participants sketched, recorded and collected evidence at a mock crime scene. Preservation equipment and supplies were donated to the UPF at the conclusion of the course.

INL funding contributed to the largest drug seizure in Ghanaian history when the Ghana Narcotics Control Board (GNCB) and Ghana Police Service (GPS) Drug Enforcement intercepted 588 kilograms of cocaine in January 2004. Effective use of INL-provided surveillance equipment may have contributed to the success of the operation. The case was successfully prosecuted by the Ghanaian government, which delivered strict penalties to the smugglers in October 2004.

Following this success story, in October and November 2004, INL funded a month-long counternarcotics training program in Ghana for officers from the GNCB, GPS, Ghana Immigration Service, the Customs and Excise Protective Service, and the Ghana Civil Aviation Authority. The funding for this training also included the purchase and donation of two narcotics screening itemizers, valued at $80,000, which were donated in June 2004.

Assistance for judicial reform and the fight against corruption has produced notable success for a relatively young program. In August 2004, INL-funded trainers from the Department of Homeland Security conducted an anti-corruption and integrity awareness training with officers from Ghana's Customs and Excise Protective Service (CEPS). Using classroom-based and practical exercises, 35 mid- to senior-level CEPS officers enhanced their ability to monitor and control corruption within their own agency. The training was the second in a three-phase effort to create an effective and institutionalized Internal Affairs Unit within CEPS. The third phase of this program will begin in 2005.

In 2003, an Intermittent Legal Advisor (ILA) assisted the Government of Mozambique prepare a complete curriculum for an in-service training program targeting provincial prosecutors and judges in the areas of anti-corruption, money laundering and organized crime. ILA-recommended changes to the anti-corruption law designed to strengthen prosecutorial authorities was passed by parliament in October 2003. A case management system for the Anti-Corruption Unit (ACU) within the Attorney General's Office was developed to assist the ACU with case tracking. In June 2003, a team of FBI and Treasury trainers conducted a financial crimes course for prosecutors specializing in these crimes. Attendees included the small group of anti-corruption prosecutors assigned to Maputo and a chief prosecutor.

FY 2006 Program

INL funds will be used to continue sustainable improvements in the capacity of select African law enforcement institutions in the area of police professionalization. Funding will continue to target states in the region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing, and a record of having used prior-year U.S. assistance effectively.

Kenya: Police reform FY2006 funds will continue to support a basic skills training program for the Kenyan Police Service (KPS) that began in CY2004. FY2006 funds will provide living expenses, in-country transportation, and salary for an in-country police advisor who will work with the KPS on modernizing and professionalizing the force. The advisor will provide technical assistance to police command as well as training officers at the three training facilities in Kenya.

Mozambique: Border Security FY2006 funds will be used to continue support for a U.S. advisor from the Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection Bureau to work with Mozambican Customs officials on improving safety and security procedures at the mainland, air and seaports of entry. Funds will provide for travel, in-country transportation and living expenses for the USG advisor to mentor the Mozambicans who received training in CY2005. Program goals for Mozambique include improved border controls as measured by an increase in revenues collected at the points of entry.

Tanzania: FY2006 funds will be used to develop a basic training curriculum for the criminal investigations department (CID) of the Tanzanian Police Force (TPF). Courses will include human rights and dignity, defensive tactics, basic investigation skills, interview techniques, and crime scene preservation. Funding will also be used for a technical advisor to work with senior TPF officials to develop a plan for improving the existing internal affairs unit within the TPF CID.

Africa Regional 
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Law Enforcement Development 1,290 - 466 - 400
Forensic Laboratory Development 540 - 830 -
Border Security 500 - 216 - 200
Judicial Reform/Anti-Corruption 500 - - - -
Total 2,830 - 1,512 - 600



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