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Regional and Global Programs


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2006 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2005
Report
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Interregional Aviation Support

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

70,000

66,620

70,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Colombia (with INL/A aviation services support and assistance) will conduct an aggressive aerial eradication program to reduce coca and opium poppy cultivation in Colombia to minimum levels.

All known areas of coca and opium poppy in Colombia will be sprayed with herbicide, and cocaine and heroin production will be reduced as a result of this eradication.

Successful missions will be conducted against narco-terrorists and their infrastructure.

The Governments of Peru and Bolivia (with INL/A provided air transportation support to move people and materials) will expand manual eradication efforts in outlying areas of their respective countries.

In Bolivia, coca cultivation will be reduced and new plantings will be prevented in the Chapare region (subject to the cooperation of the host government).

In Peru, coca cultivation will be reduced as evidenced by the eradication /abandonment of the remaining coca fields (subject to the cooperation of the host government). Opium poppy field surveillance will be increased.

INL/A will support missions to transport host government law enforcement or counter-narcotics military personnel by air in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, and other countries for the purpose of destroying cocaine and heroin processing laboratories and interdicting drug trafficking activities to the extent possible using current assets.

The number of interdiction missions flown in Peru will increase in 2005.

Aerial reconnaissance missions will be conducted to locate drug crops, production facilities, and verify eradication program results.

Drug production areas and facilities will be successfully identified and mapped year- around in Colombia and on an as-needed basis in other countries.

Border security reconnaissance and interdiction operations in Pakistan will be effective against trafficking of narcotics and weapons, illegal border crossings, and terrorism.

Operations, training, and logistical support provided to the Pakistani border security aviation program will result in more frequent and more effective surveillance and interdiction missions.

The aerial eradication and interdiction programs will be performed to the highest standards of safety and efficiency with due regard for increased security risks.

Technological innovations will be developed and implemented to improve the effectiveness and safety of aerial eradication and interdiction efforts.

Afghanistan illicit poppy cultivation increased 239 percent in the last year; the numbers are daunting, in 2003 the poppy crop measured 61,000 hectares, and in 2004 the crop totaled 206,700 hectares. Afghanistan now tops the world in opium production. The Administration has proposed to provide aerial support to Afghan manual eradication and interdiction efforts in FY 2005, which likely would continue in FY 2006.

Program Justification

The INL/A aviation program is the backbone of our counter-narcotics objectives in the key source countries of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. INL/A assists these governments and others in their efforts to locate and eradicate drug crops, interdict drug production and trafficking activities, protect borders, and develop internal institutional counter-narcotics aviation capabilities. FY 2006 funding will be sufficient to provide only continuation of core activities with the existing fleet. Potential losses and upgrades of aircraft are not included.

The aviation program provides eradication, mobility, interdiction, and logistical support that augment and facilitate ground operations and in many cases perform functions that would not be possible by any other means. In Colombia, the program conducts aerial eradication in hostile, remote and increasingly scattered regions. In Peru and Bolivia, the program supports transportation for manual eradication. Airplanes and helicopters transport law enforcement personnel, critical supplies, and equipment to remote, underdeveloped, and unsecured regions that would otherwise be inaccessible, as well as provide medical evacuation capability for eradicators and law enforcement personnel when needed. Air reconnaissance assets are essential in locating, identifying, and targeting drug activities and verifying operational results.

In all assisted countries, the assets are also employed for interdiction efforts. In Colombia they are also used to conduct operations against narco-terrorists under expanded authorities. In Pakistan, the assets are used for the monitoring and interception of terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas.

By working closely with host government personnel to instill aviation technical and management skills and technology transfer, INL/A supports the operational goal of enhancing political determination to combat illegal drug production and trafficking. This builds long-lasting institutions that have the trained personnel and demonstrated abilities to assume increased responsibility for counter-narcotics air activities.

Program Accomplishments

In 2004, INL-owned aircraft flew 49,905 flight hours; airplanes flew 14,529 and helicopters flew 35,376 flight hours. This is about 1,000 flight hours per week.

Colombia - Eradication. The Interregional Aviation Support program has made possible the tremendous expansion of aerial eradication in Colombia that, along with alternative development, is the backbone of that country's counter-narcotics strategy. INL/A and the Colombian National Police (CNP) have collaborated in the mounting of an effective campaign using T-65 Thrush, OV-10D Bronco, and AT-802 Air Tractor spray planes to eradicate coca and opium poppy cultivation. In 2004, 131,824 hectares of coca were sprayed - another record setting year. In the last four years over 465,800 hectares of coca have been sprayed that would have produced about 1.863M metric tons of cocaine with an estimated street value of $27.9 billion. INL/A has assisted the CNP with training, maintenance, logistics, and operational support to make this effort possible. The program also provided logistical and operational support in the form of C-27 cargo airplanes and a Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS) mounted on a Cessna C-208 Caravan for identification and mapping of coca. In 2004, INL/A Air Wing aircraft supporting the aerial eradication and Colombian Army (COLAR) helicopter program sustained 205 hits from hostile ground fire - down from 383 hits in 2003 - but which still caused the loss of several aircraft and downtime due to extensive maintenance repairs.

Colombia - COLAR. Besides supporting Colombian National Police aerial eradication activities, the Interregional Aviation Support program initiated and helps sustain the Colombian Army (COLAR) UH-1N and UH-60 helicopter program that provides air mobility to the counterdrug battalions. This project included training, personnel, and preparing, configuring, deploying, and supporting the operation and maintenance of 27 UH-1N and 14 UH-60 helicopters. The result of this effort, a fully trained COLAR aviation unit capable of conducting air mobile operations, is yielding results in terms of interdiction and ground support to aerial eradication. That unit has flown over 55,900 hours since its inception, with only two serious accidents. The COLAR alone destroyed 50 drug labs and the COLAR and Colombian National Police (CNP) combined to seize 178 metric tons of cocaine in 2004. The COLAR was also instrumental in the takedown of a number of major narco-terrorist targets.

Peru and Bolivia. INL/A aviation support to Peru and Bolivia has been instrumental in continued coca reduction operations. In Peru, INL/A owned helicopters continue to transport manual eradication teams and Peruvian counter-narcotics police in order to implement far-reaching counter-narcotics operations using a mobile-basing strategy. In Bolivia, INL/A helicopters enabled the government to project authority over vast areas where drug traffickers previously operated with impunity and establish mobile, forward operating bases. During times of violent attacks against eradicators and law enforcement personnel, the air assets conducted life-saving medical evacuations. The significant eradication of coca in the Chapare region of Bolivia would not have been possible without the helicopter support provided through the INL/A aviation program. INL/A provided aviation technical, training, and logistical support was an essential ingredient of the success enjoyed by host nation personnel operating these helicopters. The aviation program has also continued to make progress in establishing self-sufficiency in host nation counter-narcotics aviation organizations.

Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) Program. INL/A provided support to other Latin American countries in identifying and curtailing drug cultivation through its RARE program. On a semi-annual basis, we conduct reconnaissance of illicit poppy cultivation in Guatemala, and provide the host nation with photography and GPS mapping of poppy field locations. In FY 2005, we are scheduled to conduct the reconnaissance portion of a RARE operation in Peru for poppy.

Pakistan. In 2002, INL/A established and now supports a project in Pakistan to assist the host government in securing its border with Afghanistan. This project provides ten Huey-II helicopters (five in 2003, three in 2004, and two in 2005) and three C-208 Cessna Caravan airplanes to the Ministry of the Interior in order to provide law enforcement personnel with the operational capability to interdict drug trafficking and other illegal activities. Due to the receptiveness of the host nation team towards the operational and mechanic's training program, we were able to reduce aviation mechanic contractor presence in 2003. During the past year, these aviation assets assisted the GOP in accomplishing of many objectives, including aerial surveillance of opium poppy fields with mounted cameras and GPS capabilities, medevac and rescue operations, and counter-terrorism activities. In the past two years, nationwide heroin seizures increased 224 percent and opium seizures by 125 percent. These aircraft provide Pakistan with an Air Wing capability for integrated helicopter, fixed-wing, and ground forces operations in day, at night, or at night using night vision goggles (NVG). These aircraft make up the only NVG aviation interdiction force in Pakistan, and due to its unique capability and past performance, are the premier interdiction force. The aircraft provide surveillance along the porous, 1500-mile Afghan-Pakistan border area. The unit participates in the interdiction of trafficking in persons, narcotics, arms, and other contraband, as well as to assist in monitoring areas where opium poppy is cultivated to permit eradication efforts.

Technology. INL/A has put into place many technological innovations to enhance the safety and effectiveness of the programs. INL/A has continued to modify its OV-10D aircraft to provide appropriate armoring and night vision goggle capability in addition to state-of-the-art, satellite-guided spray systems. This has provided more protection and safety for crews while delivering herbicide in a precise manner. Many of these same features were incorporated in the more recently acquired AT-802 spray planes. The aviation program continues to improve and expand the usage of a technologically advanced system for identifying, plotting, and targeting coca cultivation, known as the Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS).

Self-sufficiency. INL/A will continue to support helicopter operations in Peru, Bolivia, and Pakistan. Training and institution building efforts will allow us to continue to reduce the number of American contractor personnel at those locations. At the same time, we will continue to pursue technological innovations to improve aircraft performance and explore the use of new variations of aircraft to enhance eradication capabilities at a reasonable cost.

FY 2006 Program

Overview. In FY 2006, the Interregional Aviation Support budget will continue to provide core level services necessary to operate the current fleet of 182 fixed and rotary wing aircraft supporting counter-narcotics aviation activities in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru, border security operations in Pakistan; and, as needed, programs at other temporary deployment locations. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL/A air assets. This budget will be augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local NAS and cooperating host government missions.

Colombia: A primary concern will be the continued aggressive aerial eradication of Colombian coca and poppy. Further successes in the coca and poppy campaigns are expected to reduce the target population of the illicit crops. The program is expected to be conducted in a hostile environment as narco-terrorists fight back against our spray and support aircraft. Funding in FY 2006 does not cover replacement of destroyed assets.

Bolivia, Peru, and Pakistan: In Bolivia, INL/A will continue to support the Red Devil Task Force (RDTF) efforts to eliminate residual coca and prevent new plantings in the Chapare region. INL/A aviation assets will also support interdiction operations along Bolivia's borders. In Peru, we will continue to support the reduction of coca cultivation, seek to aerially verify the extent of opium poppy cultivation, and support interdiction missions. In Pakistan, INL/A will continue to refine operational procedures and provide logistical support for the helicopters and fixed wing, sensor-equipped aircraft.

Afghanistan: The Administration has proposed to provide aerial support to Afghan manual eradication and interdiction efforts in FY 2005, which likely would continue in FY 2006. The Government of Afghanistan has not asked our support for an aerial eradication program.

Self-sufficiency: The establishment of host country self-sufficiency in counter-narcotics and border security aviation programs will continue to be a priority. In 2005, we are operating with a minimum number of contractor and INL Air Wing staff in Bolivia and Peru required to effectively monitor, and assist as necessary, the daily operations and maintenance activities of the RDTF and the Peruvian National Police. In Colombia, we expect to begin to see results in this area with the COLAR aviation program, as personnel we have trained gain experience and maturity, allowing the gradual reduction of contractor presence. We expect that these advances will begin to permit greater host country management of the assets. We will continue to emphasize technological improvements to maximize productivity and safety of spray platforms while maintaining cost effectiveness.

The Interregional Aviation Support program, augmented by country program funds for location-specific requirements, will continue to provide safe, professional aviation support to counter-narcotics and border security programs worldwide.

Interregional Aviation Support
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Aviation Support Services Contract 58,775 - 54,695 - 56,075
DOD-Source Parts
Maintenance and Overhaul 5,000 - 5,000 - 5,000
Operations Support
Salaries and Benefits 3,300 - 4,000 - 6,000
Field Travel 235 - 235 - 235
Administrative Services and Program - - - - -
Support 2,000 - 2,000 - 2,000
Base Support at Patrick AFB 690 - 690 - 690
Sub Total 6,225 - 6,925 - 8,925
TOTAL 70,000 - 66,620 - 70,000

International Organizations

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

13,200

5,496

10,000

This account encompasses support to two principal international organizations engaged in counternarcotics: the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Organization of American States' Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). U.S. support to multilateral organizations complements our bilateral programs and allows us to leverage our funds. It also generates increased buy-in and support from other countries for our overall anti-narcotics efforts. Through these multilateral programs, INL is able to address problems on a regional basis and reach areas where it is difficult for the U.S. to operate bilaterally. In addition, these organizations assist the USG in moving the global community toward our strategic CN goals, and measuring that progress. This has been particularly useful in meeting our PART requirements.

UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Drug and Crime Program

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Mobilize resources from a wide range of donors to enable the UN Office on Drugs and Crime to develop and implement counternarcotics and crime-control projects in countries where ongoing criminal activities and the production and transit of illicit narcotics, and illegally-diverted precursor chemicals, threaten U.S. interests. These projects are aimed at:

  • Improving law enforcement capabilities to investigate major drug traffickers and their organizations;
  • Eradicating illicit drug crops;
  • Developing alternative livelihoods; 
  • Combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism;
  • Enhancing chemical diversion control capabilities;
  • Providing states with the legal tools and expertise to combat and prevent terrorism;
  • Promoting the ratification and implementation of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its supplementary protocols.

Through delivery and implementation of training segments and modern equipment, enhance law enforcement investigative capabilities to disrupt the activities of crime and drug trafficking syndicates, increase the number of arrests and seizures, and enhance the capabilities of law enforcement agencies to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals;

Assist states to pass or strengthen legislation to prohibit and penalize illicit drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorist financing, and other ancillary crimes; and to improve mutual legal assistance, extradition, and asset forfeiture cooperation, in compliance with UN drug-control treaties;

Provide technical advice to states on how to improve mutual legal assistance, extradition and asset forfeiture cooperation, with a special focus on countries in Latin America and the Caribbean; upgrade national legislation regarding all aspects of narcotics control in line with international best practices; develop financial intelligence units and tutor financial institutions to prevent money laundering and related financial crimes through placement of international experts to select high-risk countries;

Provide assistance for the development of legal frameworks for chemical diversion control as required by the international drug control conventions, and for the training and equipping of appropriate personnel in order to implement chemical control regimes;

Enhance through alternative development strategies the capabilities of national authorities to prevent, reduce, and eliminate the cultivation of illicit drug crops in countries where ongoing illicit narcotics production threatens U.S. interests;

Reduce cultivation of illicit crops in target areas through increased community-based alternative livelihood programs to former cultivators of illicit narcotic crops in drug cultivation areas in Southeast Asia. This effort will include (where appropriate) the provision of: basic communication and transportation infrastructures; alternative industries appropriate to various communities; credit for alternative income producing projects; and remote sensory and ground-survey data for the purpose of monitoring eradication efforts;

Inhibit international organized crime and its resulting damage to society and individuals through the increased adoption and implementation of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and its supplemental protocols against human trafficking and migrant smuggling:

Strengthen the legal framework and the operational capacity to investigate prosecute and adjudicate organized crime cases; in-country expert mentors will be placed in select high-risk countries in Latin America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia and the Pacific to aid in implementing the TOC's component previsions, including modern investigative and analytical practices for law enforcement practitioners, extradition, and the provision of mutual legal assistance;

Help provide states with the legal tools and expertise necessary to combat and prevent terrorism through utilizing criminal justice measures and international cooperation, particularly through the adoption of the 12 universal legal instruments against terrorism;

Supported by technical mentoring from UNODC's Terrorism Prevention Branch, additional states will ratify and implement all universal legal instruments against terrorism.

Program Justification

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is the major multilateral organization providing assistance to combat drugs and crime. It is supported by many countries unable to develop and finance bilateral programs. U.S. support to UNODC complements INL bilateral programs and leverages U.S. funds by promoting increased buy-in and support from a broader array of donor countries. As the only multilateral institution providing technical assistance on a global basis for the development of modern law enforcement, financial regulatory and judicial institutions and practices, UNODC has a unique role in supporting the development of modern national legislation corresponding to obligations set forth by the three UN anti-drug conventions, the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, the UN Convention Against Corruption, and the 12 universal legal instruments against terrorism. It is the only multilateral organization that possesses both this global reach and the credibility to deliver technical assistance to states seeking to ratify and implement these important instruments.

We will remain consistent advocates of these important international documents in bilateral dialogues and offer direct USG assistance to promote implementation where appropriate, but to reach states where bilateral assistance is either politically inexpedient or practically inefficient, UNODC offers an invaluable multilateral option through which to pursue U.S. objectives. The organization is a steadfast ally in support of strict enforcement efforts against illicit drugs, organized crime, and terrorism, as required under international law.

Program Accomplishments

INL funding supports a wide range of technical assistance and legal reform projects undertaken by UNODC.

UNODC has utilized INL funds to help reduce illicit opium production in traditional growing areas in Southeast Asia. In Laos and Burma --countries of origin for substantial amounts of illicit drugs to the U.S., but where direct USG counternarcotics assistance is either impractical or prohibited due to broader political circumstances -UNODC has provided alternative development assistance that has encouraged thousands of former opium farmers to abandon their illicit crops and engage in legitimate economic activities. These activities have contributed to the sustained decrease in illicit opium cultivation in Southeast Asia over recent years. In 2004, Burmese opium production, for example, witnessed a decline of 54% with respect to 2002, and in Laos, cultivation has declined by 45% in comparison to 2003.

INL has supported UNODC's efforts to ratify and implement the three UN drug control conventions and their requisite obligations, including through relevant judicial and legislative reforms and direct on-site operational support to prosecution and judicial services in ongoing prosecution and asset forfeiture casework. Specific examples include helping the Commonwealth of Independent States to harmonize relevant national legislation of its 12 member states, in compliance with the UN conventions; assisting the governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia to elaborate legislative work plans for adopting necessary counternarcotics legislation; mentoring South African authorities on the establishment of an Asset Forfeiture Unit; and providing other legislative assistance to over two dozen countries.

UNODC performed a crucial role in promoting the rapid entry into force of the TOC, which took place in September 2003, as well as its supplemental protocols to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling, which entered into force in December 2003 and January 2004, respectively. Ratification and subsequent implementation efforts have including the development of legislative implementation guides, the review of applicable legislation for the development of amendments and revisions to ensure compliance with the TOC, the provision of technical assistance to specialized investigators working in the area of organized crime, and the organization of legislative training and roundtable events for policymakers and other relevant government officials.

Efforts by UNODC to promote the universal ratification and implementation of the 12 legal instruments against terrorism were also significant in 2004. The Terrorism Prevention Branch has provided assistance to over 90 requesting countries, either through country-specific "direct" assistance, which it delivered to 49 countries, or through the organization of sub-regional workshops that reached an additional 45 countries. In addition, more than 500 lawmakers, law enforcement, and other officials were familiarized with the requirements of the international legal instruments against terrorism in these missions.

UNODC has undertaken important chemical control projects in Latin America, and Southeast and Central Asia, major drug producing regions or transit regions for precursor chemicals intended for illicit drug production.

With INL support, UNODC's Global Program Against Money Laundering provided technical assistance on combating money laundering and terrorist financing to more than 40 countries and jurisdictions throughout the world in 2004. On-the-ground mentors stationed in regional centers across the globe have helped governments draft modern anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist finance legislation, train prosecutors and financial investigators, and develop financial intelligence units.

FY 2006 Program

INL support to UNODC programs in FY 2006 will build on ongoing initiatives outlined above.

Global Legal Advisory Program: Funds will support this ongoing program that provides assistance to ensure that parties to the international drug conventions have adequate laws and capacities to enforce treaties. Priorities include establishing the legal framework for drug control in countries recently emerging from conflict; improving mutual legal assistance, extradition and asset forfeiture cooperation; and upgrading model legislation.

Opium Eradication Through Alternative Development in Southeast Asia: These funds will support the further implementation and monitoring of alternative development projects in opium-producing regions in Laos.

Precursor Chemical Control: Funds will be used to continue support to several UNODC regional projects to track the flow of precursor chemicals used to manufacture cocaine, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, to train law enforcement officials, and to support the International Narcotics Control Board's global database of precursor chemical shipments and legitimate industrial needs.

Ratification and Implementation of the TOC: INL funds would be obligated to support the extension of TOC mentors into several countries within Western Africa, South East Asia, as well as Latin America to provide intensive training to law enforcement and judicial officials on the criminalization and investigatory standards inscribed in the Convention, as well as its mutual legal assistance provisions.

Global Program Against Money Laundering: It is impossible to effectively stem the flow of illicit drugs without attacking the profitability of the industry. Towards that objective, INL will continue to support UNODC's continuing global efforts to enhance effective legal and regulatory regimes against money laundering and terrorist financing. These funds will be used to support the placement of resident mentors in selected countries to assist in bringing their money laundering and counter-terrorist finance laws and regulations up to international financial standards, for the development of financial intelligence units (FIUs), and for training for prosecutors, regulators, investigators, and judges in the implementation of the legislation. Funding will also be provided to expand the computer based anti-money laundering training program as well as to participate in the development of an "FIU in a box" initiative that enable small jurisdictions to cooperate with more than 100 other FIUs in the global combat against transnational crime and terrorism.

Ratification and Implementation of 12 Legal Instruments Against Terrorism: Funds would be used to support the extension of assistance to additional countries, possibly including Bahamas, Ukraine, and Sierra Leone. Additional concrete measures to be undertaken include the development of national action plans for recipient countries implementing the conventions and the production of an updated legislative guide to assist policymakers responsible for incorporating the conventions into practice.

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (OAS/CICAD)

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Improve counternarcotics performance by OAS Member States.

CICAD provides training and technical assistance to most of the (34) OAS Member States. Much of this assistance is designed to address performance or systemic weaknesses identified by the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) - a peer review system that permits the OAS to measure progress by individual countries and collectively within the Americas in areas such as: 1) national coordination efforts, policies and strategies, 2) legislative frameworks, 3) drug abuse prevention, demand reduction, treatment and 4) supply reduction (anti-smuggling, chemical control, money laundering control). Measure: The MEM tracks progress on fulfilling recommendations; a decrease in the number of reiterated recommendations and completion of recommendations measures progress - the rate of reiterated recommendations will indicate the level of progress being made towards long-term goals.

Increase counternarcotics cooperation in the Western Hemisphere.

Drug trafficking and organized crime are transnational threats requiring close cooperation and information sharing among neighboring states. CICAD promotes active and practical cooperation among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. CICAD promotes practical cooperation against drug production, trafficking (particularly cross-border and maritime smuggling), money laundering (including terrorist financing), arms trafficking, chemical diversion, and youth gangs. To ensure that Member States are equipped with appropriate modern legal tools to confront organized crime and to provide a common legal framework to support mutual legal assistance, CICAD has produced - and periodically updates - model regulations. Measures: Increase in number of countries participating in regional cooperation mechanisms, conventions, and programs. In FY 2006, CICAD should have produced new regulations on special investigative techniques for combating organized crime.

Make progress in the inter-American region to curb money laundering and chemical diversion.

CICAD has updated its model legislation on money laundering and chemical control, and will move forward in FY 2005 and 2006 to promote their adoption hemisphere-wide. INCLE funds will be used to provide training and technical support to governments, legislators, regulators and judicial authorities. Measure: Increase in number of countries with updated legislation/regulations. Decrease in number of countries designated by FATF as non-cooperating jurisdictions (NCCT) within the region.

Program Justification

The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission, the drug control arm of the Organization of American States (OAS), is the premier counterdrug forum for the Western Hemisphere. It is also one of the most effective entities within the OAS. The Commission meets semi-annually to review policies and cooperative efforts. CICAD's Executive Secretariat supports the Commission and uses INCLE funding to operate the MEM and to provide technical advice, program support and training to the Member States. INCLE funds also support governmental experts groups that exchange information and experiences, and that develop action plans on money laundering, firearms trafficking, chemical diversion, maritime drug trafficking, and demand reduction. The Secretariat also provides a central resource and coordination point for hemispheric statistics and information, legal standards, and research.

The MEM provides each country with an objective diagnostic of the weaknesses in its anti-drug strategies, programs and laws, and identifies ways in which the countries can improve regional and international cooperation. These assessments validate individual country requirements for technical and material support, allowing INL and other international donors to better prioritize assistance. The MEM system also keeps pressure on individual governments by reporting publicly on progress (or lack thereof).

Much of CICAD's success has been due to sustained U.S. foreign policy efforts to promote a strong anti-drug coalition and sense of shared responsibility among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. Active participation by the U.S. interagency community in specialized CICAD activities has been critical to achieving high standards of performance as well as keeping CICAD's efforts relevant to U.S. counterdrug agencies. CICAD has been instrumental in developing hemispheric solidarity on the drug issue and to putting an end to finger pointing between "supplier" and "consumer" nations. Hemispheric efforts are guided by the Summit of the Americas-mandated "Anti-Drug Strategy in the Americas."

INCLE funding will be used for projects, training and technical assistance that advance the goals of the hemispheric drug strategy, including: development of sound national anti-drug policies and programs, promulgation of modern laws and regulations, elimination of drug production and drug abuse, and control of chemical diversion, arms trafficking, and money laundering. CICAD programs complement INL's bilateral programs and fill gaps in multinational support efforts (e.g., on alternative development projects in the Andes). INL has encouraged close collaboration between CICAD technical staff and U.S. Embassy program managers.

While the OAS has become more engaged in counterterrorism and other security-related matters since 2001, drug trafficking remains a major preoccupation for all 34 OAS Member States. Because of its recognized expertise in areas such as money laundering and arms trafficking control, CICAD has emerged as an important player in the hemispheric response to terrorism, partnering with the OAS' Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE) to confront terrorist financing. Under the OAS reorganization to take place in CY 2005, CICAD will be a major arm of a new "Department of Multidimensional Security," and will likely take on new functions.

Program Accomplishments

INL funding has permitted CICAD to:

  • Design and implement the MEM, which included a template for a comprehensive national drug program;

  • Develop model regulations for chemical and weapons diversion and money laundering;

  • Assist 25 countries to draft National Drug Plans and establish national drug councils and establish drug information systems in 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries; 

  • Develop a standardized drug use prevalence evaluation tool (now applied in 19 countries); design a methodology for estimating the social and economic costs of the drug problem;

  • Establish an Andean counter-drug intelligence training center in Lima, Peru;

  • Introduce hundreds of judges, prosecutors, bankers and regulators to financial crimes identification, investigation, and prosecution; train thousands of customs, police, coast guard, port officials, and maritime officers;

  • Conduct a study on port and maritime trafficking patterns, laws, agreements, and interdiction;

  • Produce a manual on chemicals used in illicit drug production, including guidance on safety and prepare a guide that defines the key elements of a pharmaceutical control system;

  • Implement a new model for alternative development in the Andes and the Caribbean including, e.g., introduction of high-yielding disease resistant varieties of cacao and banana;

  • Apply a satellite-based mapping tool (GLEAM) to evaluation of land use in areas of illicit cultivation and design of alternative development interventions;

  • Develop standards of care for treating drug dependence (applied now in 15 member states); establish guidelines for building a comprehensive national drug treatment system; incorporate drug prevention and treatment into nursing curricula of 15 universities; launch an on-line graduate degree program in drug addiction studies;

  • Provide drug training for youth counselors, gang intervention workers, criminal justice and prison officials, family prevention workers and healthcare professionals;

CICAD's work has been highlighted in the Summit of the Americas process, where Heads of State entrusted CICAD to develop and implement the Anti-Drug Strategy of the Americas and the MEM. Through CICAD efforts, all OAS Member States are now party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. As documented in the MEM process, CICAD has been successful in moving the 34 OAS Member States forward in developing strong national anti-drug programs, policies, and laws.

FY 2006 Program

In FY 2006, sustained funding is needed to continue to support the implementation of the hemispheric drug strategy, including the operation of the MEM. Much of the funding will be devoted to providing technical support and training to address shortcomings in country anti-drug programs identified by the MEM. It will also support expansion of CICAD's practical demand-side, supply-side and legal development programs. INL funding will be used to support programs in the following priority areas:

Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM): funding will be used for analysts, travel of experts, processing costs and follow-on training and technical support to OAS Member States. In 2005, the Commission will examine ways to make the MEM even more effective and to reduce costs of the mechanism to permit more funding to be directed towards implementing recommendations.

Strengthening national drug control commissions: Funds will be used for activities aimed at assisting governments to develop drug strategies, national coordinating bodies, national analytical centers and systems.

Legal development: Funds will be used to support the experts group charged with updating model legislation - including a new model on special investigative techniques to combat organized crime. Funds will also support orientation programs for legislators and judges on the model laws.

Supply Reduction Efforts: Funds will be used by the Secretariat to build on preliminary work in the areas of maritime and port security, customs controls, and cooperation/communication among law enforcement entities throughout the Americas, including best practices guidelines, such as the International Port Security System (IPSS), and exploration of new technologies and public-private partnerships. In eradication, CICAD will continue its spray-monitoring program to establish the safety and effectiveness of aerial application of herbicides. Funding will also support ongoing alternative development projects.

Demand reduction and youth programs: Funds will be used to build effective national drug awareness/education programs, conduct epidemiological surveillance (according to hemispheric standards), train nurses and other health professionals in drug treatment, and support development of an English-language version of the on-line Masters Program in drug abuse prevention. Includes demand reduction training, adoption of minimum standards of treatment, and policy and program development for at-risk populations, e.g. street children and youth gang members.

Maintenance of a hemispheric data collection system: Funds will support continued operation of the Hemispheric Observatory on Drugs that maintains a centralized, dependable source of demand and supply statistics to track progress in the Hemisphere; also, complete work on the standardized methodology for estimating social and economic costs of the drug problem.

International Organizations
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
UNODC 8,600 - 3,996 - 6,000
OAS/CICAD 4,600 - 1,500 - 4,000
Total 13,200 - 5,496 - 10,000

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

Budget Summary (000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

5,000

9,920

3,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Select foreign countries will be able to apply "best practices" and new prevention and treatment technologies that are scientifically sound and effective at the national and community levels.

Training and technical assistance delivered and effectively utilized by public/private sector demand reduction organizations in Central/South America and Southeast Asia, resulting in new or enhanced programs that significantly reduce drug use and delay onset of first use in target populations.

Regional institutions that foster dissemination and utilization of "best practices" and scientific knowledge about effective prevention and treatment technologies will be established to better enable foreign countries to improve demand reduction services.

Technology transfer centers established or enhanced in Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East/Southwest Asia; delivery and implementation of core training curriculum, utilization of new prevention and treatment technologies will result in significant reductions of drug use in target populations.

The international community will be better educated about U.S. policies, programs, and successes in combating drug abuse.

Provision of one regional-level seminar each in Latin America and Southwest Asia for U.S. embassy officials and key foreign government and NGO leaders resulting in increased understanding of, and support for, U.S. international anti-drug policies and programs.

Multilateral alliances will be established to build public support and political will to combat drug trafficking and abuse, develop support for U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and initiatives, and improve America's image overseas.

Training, technical assistance, web sites, newsletters, and knowledge exchange forums delivered and effectively utilized in Southwest/Southeast Asian and Andean region countries by public/private sector agencies, civil society, and grassroots organizations resulting in reduced drug use and delayed onset of first use.

International program accomplishments and lessons learned will be utilized to benefit both U.S. and foreign demand reduction services.

A research-based demonstration program on community/anti-drug coalitions will be successfully replicated in Peru. Evaluations of this program will document effective approaches, strategies, policies and technologies as "best practices" that can be used to improve service delivery in demand reduction programs worldwide.

Two long-term, outcome-based evaluations of INL demand reduction training programs (Mexico, Thailand) will be conducted and disseminated.

Program Justification

Demand reduction efforts aim to reduce the use and abuse of illicit drugs worldwide. The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health, welfare, security, and economic stability of all countries. Recognizing this threat, a key objective of the National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD # 25) on International Drug Control Policy urges the Secretary of State to "expand U.S. international demand reduction assistance and information sharing programs in key source and transit countries." As opposed to drug production and trafficking, the NSPD addresses rising global demand for drugs as the principal narcotics-related threat to the U.S. As outlined in the NSPD, drug trafficking organizations and their linkages to international terrorist groups also constitute a serious threat to U.S. national security by generating money that that increasingly threatens global peace and stability. Demand reduction assistance has subsequently evolved as a key foreign policy tool to address the inter-connected threats of drugs, crime and terrorism.

In addition, President's National Strategy for Combating Terrorism directs us to "work with moderate and modern governments in the Muslim world to reverse the spread of extremist ideology and those who seek to impose totalitarian ideologies on our Muslim allies and friends." Collaboration in Afghanistan and Asia with our network of 400 Muslim-based, anti-drug programs enables us to provide alternatives to radical schools that recruit young terrorists and to reduce drug consumption that fuels the coffers of terrorist groups. This network has provided us with rare access to mosques and madrassahs in volatile regions thereby enabling us to establish a prevention component to the "War on Terror."

Finally, foreign countries recognize the vast U.S. experience and efforts in reducing drug demand. In return for cooperation with supply reduction efforts, many drug producing and transit countries request U.S. assistance with demand reduction technology, since drug consumption also has debilitating effects on their society and children. Demand reduction assistance thereby helps secure foreign country support for U.S.-driven supply reduction efforts, while at the same time reducing drug consumption in that country and thereby cutting-off a major source of terrorist financing.

Program Accomplishments

An outcome-based evaluation of the long-range impact of INL-funded training for over 200 treatment programs in Peru revealed that the training reduced any drug use from 90% to 34% among clients in the participating treatment programs. Similar significant reductions were reported for cocaine use (30% to 8%), cannabis use (37% to 13%), and coca paste use (62% to 22%). Following publication and dissemination of an INL-funded, research-based demonstration program for high-risk youth in Peru, the Italian government contributed $850,000 to the project, while the Government of Luxembourg contributed nearly $500,000 to extend the project to adolescent girls. Foreign governments continue to engage their own national institutions, communities, and resources to address demand for illicit drugs as a result of INL-funded training and technical assistance. This technical assistance enabled Chile and Brazil to extend school-based prevention programs to over 1 million students, while Thailand's prevention program increased its reach to 500,000 students. INL-funded two regional demand reduction symposiums in Malaysia that resulted in the commitment of 500 Afghanistan mullahs to cooperate with the United States on providing mosque-based, drug prevention and intervention services. Likewise, leading Indonesian mullahs developed plans to collaborate with the United States on providing drug prevention and outreach services through mosques and madrassahs. INL-funded assistance has provided new updated curricula to 24 existing Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) programs around the globe. This retraining initiative allows the new D.A.R.E. curricula to reach over 3 million children and their parents.

FY 2006 Program

INL assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, address the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, and address the heroin threat from Asia, Afghanistan and Colombia. An expanded area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network. The role of demand reduction in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic has become more readily apparent as the recent worldwide increases in this epidemic are primarily concentrated in at-risk populations such as intravenous (IV) drug users. The role of drug treatment in decreasing rates of drug use and relapse now takes on critical importance to U.S. foreign assistance efforts because of its proven ability to decrease IV drug use. INL will strengthen Vietnamese, Africa and Russian drug abuse treatment capabilities to address the dual threats of drug addiction and HIV/AIDS through the establishment of model treatment networks based on best practices identified through INL-funded research.

The FY 2006 program is divided into three general categories. Two projects, instituted in 2003, comprise the coalition and network building program. These projects have a three-year time limit. The training and technical assistance program, begun in 1990, will impose a four-year limit on all countries for receiving such assistance. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The research and demonstration programs initiative that began in 2000 have a three/four-year time limit in order to allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect "best practices" that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome).

Coalition and Network Building

Drug-Free Community Coalitions: Funding will support the formation and enhancement of effective drug-free community coalition programs in key drug producing countries that assist civil society/grassroots organizations in fighting illegal drugs. These public/private sector coalitions work towards reducing substance abuse among youth, enhancing intergovernmental collaboration, and strengthening collaboration among organizations and agencies in both the private and public sectors. Funds will provide for 4 technical assistance sessions each in 2 Andean region countries identified in the INCSR by the President as major drug producing countries. The planned life of this initiative is three years, after which the coalitions will be effective vehicles for reducing drug consumption and related violence in their respective countries. A new cycle of assistance for other Latin American countries and regions around the globe will commence in 2008.

Muslim-based Anti-Drug Network: Funding will be utilized to continue the creation of anti-drug outreach and aftercare centers in volatile Muslim regions where the U.S. needs to increase access to civil society such as Afghanistan, Iraq, southern Philippines and Thailand, Indonesia, and remote sections of Pakistan. These centers will be established in mosques and madrassahs in collaboration with the INL/Colombo Plan network of Muslim-based anti-drug programs/civil society organizations in the Middle East and South/Southeast Asia, which includes the participation of 500 Afghan mullahs.

This initiative is designed to reduce drug consumption that fuels the coffers of terrorist organizations, cut into the recruitment base of terrorist organizations, enhance America's image in Muslim countries, and provide youth in at-risk areas with alternatives to radical or terrorist indoctrination centers. It addresses a key priority in the President's National Strategy for Combating Terrorism that directs us to "work with moderate and modern governments in the Muslim world to reverse the spread of extremist ideology and those who seek to impose totalitarian ideologies on our Muslim allies and friends." Funding will cease after three years, at which time the centers will become firmly established in volatile regions, helping to reduce the high rates of drug use, relapse, and drug-related violence in their target populations.

Training and Technical Assistance

Regional Training Centers: INL funding will provide support for its strategically located, sub-regional demand reduction training centers in Brazil, Colombia, the Czech Republic, and Thailand with the aim of better disseminating the President's new goals and priorities for demand reduction, in addition to the use of "best practices" and science-based prevention and treatment methods to reduce drug consumption and related violence. Short-term success will be measured by replication of the training in their home countries by 700 demand reduction providers who will receive training in 2006. It is anticipated that these centers will receive diminishing resources over the next two years and be fully self-sufficient by 2008, at which time participating countries will have utilized training technology to establish demand reduction programs that achieve sustained reductions in drug use and related violence in targeted areas. These centers (co-funded by other international organizations and donor countries) are an economical way to provide comprehensive assistance to several countries in a region that suffer and share similar drug abuse problems.

Drug Policy Training: At the policy level, INL will devote funding for year-two of a three-year seminar series to educate the international community about U.S. policies, programs and successes in combating drug use. Two, regional seminars in major drug producing/trafficking Asian countries will be conducted by INL and White House/ONDCP for U.S. embassy officials and government/non-government officials who are recipients of INL/NAS funding. The seminars are also designed to ensure that U.S. Embassies and other foreign recipients of INL assistance design their programs in accordance with the President's goals and priorities for demand reduction and science-based principles. The planned life cycle of this seminar series is three years, at the end of which participating countries will have a deeper appreciation/understanding of, and support for, U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and programs.

Knowledge Exchange Forums: Funding will be devoted to recurring regional and international drug prevention and treatment conferences (attended by the key leaders and decision-makers from the public and private sectors) to mobilize international opinion and cooperation against the drug trade, encourage governments to develop and implement strong anti-drug policies and programs, strengthen support for USG anti-drug policies/programs and existing UN conventions, and disseminate the latest science-based information on effective methods to reduce drug consumption and prevent onset of use. Funding will support one international (Mexico) and one regional forum (Asia). These events will include funding from other donor countries and international organizations to reflect an emphasis on increased multilateral collaboration.

Bilateral Training: FY 2006 funds will provide targeted training and technical assistance for major drug producing and transit countries in Central/South America, Asia, Eastern Europe, Russia, and Africa on science-based demand reduction methods to reduce drug use and related violence. Training topics will cover model programs such as national anti-drug media campaigns, parent support groups, relapse prevention/aftercare methods, school and peer-based prevention programs, and correctional-based treatment services. Bilateral training and technical assistance initiatives are funded for 4 years per country to allow for short-term transfer and long-term retention of knowledge, implementation of training concepts and technology with fidelity, establishment of self-sustained programs, and sufficient time to allow for achievement of long-range outcomes such as reduction in drug use in a given target country or population.

Research and Demonstration Programs

Model Program Development and Dissemination: This initiative will support the development and evaluation of research-based prevention and treatment programs whose accomplishments can be used to improve treatment and prevention services in the U.S. and abroad. Funding will be used to create and evaluate research-based demonstration programs in key drug producing/trafficking countries and disseminate the most promising results within the U.S. and overseas to improve demand reduction service delivery worldwide. For FY 2006, support for year-two of a three-year community/anti-drug coalition demonstration program will be continued in Peru. Likewise, continued funding will be provided for a community-based treatment intervention program for drug-abusing, high-risk youth in Peru. This later program includes co-funding from Italy and Luxembourg. It is anticipated that each demonstration program will require funding through 2007, at which time the program will be self-sufficient and information on each program's promising practices will be disseminated worldwide.

Outcome-based Evaluations: Additional funding will be devoted to the third year of outcome-based evaluations of the long-range impact (reduced drug use and recidivism) of INL-funded training in Mexico (school-based prevention) and Thailand (community- and corrections-based treatment). Each evaluation will last three years (until 2006) to allow for reliable and valid assessments of sustained, long-term impact.

Demand Reduction
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Coalitions and Networks 1,300 - 2,000 - 500
Research & Demonstration Programs 1,200 - 1,500 - 935
Training & Technical Assistance 2,500 - 6,420 - 1,565
Total 5,000 - 9,920 - 3,000

Trafficking in Persons

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

12,000

4,960

5,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Five countries strengthen and enforce their new or existing anti-trafficking laws.

Three anti-trafficking task forces established and/or equipped to carry out investigations and prosecutions.

Three police academies incorporate anti-trafficking curriculum into their basic and mid-level training program.

Two national trafficking in persons hotlines established.

Three countries establish adequate protection facilities for trafficked victims.

Program Justification

Trafficking in persons is a rapidly growing transnational crime that preys mainly on the poor, uneducated, and powerless. This modern-day form of slavery involves both sexual and labor exploitation, adopting such forms as indentured servitude, debt bondage, chattel slavery and peonage. Estimates vary, but at least 600,000 people, primarily women and children, are annually trafficked across borders worldwide, of which tens of thousands are brought into the United States.

Profits from trafficking in persons fund the expansion of international crime syndicates, foster government corruption, and undermine rule of law. In addition to the individual misery wrought by this human rights abuse we believe there is a connection to organized crime and the grave security threats such as drug and weapons trafficking. Trafficking in persons is one of the most lucrative criminal enterprises and is closely connected with money laundering, drug trafficking, document forgery and human smuggling. The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons gives foreign assistance grants to increase the capacity of governments and non-governmental organizations to improve law enforcement's investigation and prosecution of this crime as well as to protect the victims.

Program Accomplishments

Below are some highlights of programs with prior year funding from the Trafficking in Persons Office.

In El Salvador, two TIP Office anti-trafficking projects with the Salvadoran Institute for the Protection of Minors (ISNA) resulted in increased victim rescues and trafficking-related arrests. The ISNA trained operators of an existing smuggling hotline to distinguish trafficking so they could assist potential trafficking victims and gather information about trafficking networks. In addition, the ISNA produced and aired radio advertisements to educate listeners about trafficking and the hotline. The ISNA assisted the El Salvador Border Police in its first ever sting operation. A total of 13 traffickers were arrested and 15 minors rescued from commercial sexual exploitation.

In Bangladesh, an international organization, with TIP Office funding, provided training to 250 members of the Bangladesh Rifles, 250 members of the Bangladesh Police and 625 members of the Ansar and Village Defense Party to improve capacity of the criminal justice system. Training sessions focused on working with trafficking survivors, developing victim-centered interview techniques, intercepting traffickers, and enhancing community mobilization. To ensure sustainability, the training sessions included "train- the-trainer" components and provided law enforcement institutions with equipment.

After receiving training by the Department of Justice/ICITAP and the International Organization for Migration with funding from the TIP Office, Indonesian courts in three provinces convicted 15 traffickers during the first nine months of 2004 using the Child Protection Act. These courts also imposed tougher sentences, including one 13-year jail term for a trafficker. These cases were brought to court as a result of training for local law enforcement

For Fiscal year 2004, the Trafficking Office used INCLE funds to support over 42 programs benefiting approximately 35 countries around the world.

FY 2006 Program

INCLE assistance will primarily target countries in Tiers 2 (especially the Watchlist countries) and 3 of the 2005 Trafficking in Persons Report as well as less developed countries in Tier 1 and countries not listed in the report but which have a growing problem or a demonstrable need for resources. As the ESF Global TIP fund will focus on prevention, protection, and reintegration, priorities for INCLE funds will focus exclusively on building capacity of criminal justice sectors to investigate, prosecute, and convict traffickers as well as promote cooperation between law enforcement and civil society for victim protection. In the context of witness protection, INCLE will complement MRA funds that support voluntary repatriation of victims to their country or city of origin. Project proposals will be coordinated with the relevant bureaus and then vetted through the Senior Policy Operating Group on Trafficking in Persons' (SPOG) review process to ensure compliance with USG policy, and avoid redundancy in USG agency anti-trafficking programming.

The Trafficking Office proposes to allocate approximately $3.7 million in INCLE funds towards investigative and prosecutorial capacity-building initiatives which may include: providing technical training for police, prosecutors, judges, and immigration officials; developing and implementing anti-trafficking curriculum at national academies; providing equipment (computers, other communication technologies, audio/visual equipment, vehicles, crime lab instruments, and forensic evidence collection or rape kits) to support specialized units, and establishing national TIP hotlines. Priority countries based primarily on Tier ratings in the 2004 TIP Report include: Argentina (2), Belize (2WL), Brazil (2), Dominican Republic (2 WL), Ecuador (3), Guyana (3), Panama (2), Peru (2 WL), Uruguay (No tier), Thailand (2 WL), Philippines (2 WL), Vietnam (2 WL), Laos (2 WL), Afghanistan (2), Bangladesh (3), India (2 WL), Pakistan (2 WL), Chad (No Tier), Ethiopia (2 WL), Kenya (2WL), Malawi (2 WL), Mauritania (2 WL), Mozambique (2), Niger (2), Nigeria (2 WL), Senegal (2 WL), South Africa (2), Tanzania (2 WL), Uganda (2), Zambia (2 WL), Sri Lanka (2), Egypt (2), and Morocco (1). The TIP Office will select ten priority countries based on level of commitment of governments to improve their efforts.

The Trafficking Office proposes to allocate approximately $500,000 towards strengthening criminal justice and civil society collaboration such as training NGOs to be victim-witness advocates in courts; creating victim assistance offices or spaces within a police station staffed by a local service provider organization; and supporting pilot programs to reduce demand for sex trafficking victims. Another area of interest is to pilot programs that train medical personnel about trafficking as well as how to gather forensic evidence. Depending on the quality of proposals, five countries will be selected from the following list of countries: Argentina (2), Panama (2), Paraguay (2 WL), Peru (2 WL), Venezuela (3), Bangladesh (3), India (2 WL), Nepal (2), Pakistan (2 WL), Kenya (2WL), Tanzania (2 WL), and Uganda (2).

The Trafficking Office proposes allocating approximately $500,000 to support special initiatives in the prevention area which may include a mapping project for a particular region that looks at trafficking hot spots compared to available services to combat trafficking. This will allow a better allocation of USG resources. Another possible initiative is to support training of Foreign Service National staff in two regions who carry the institutional knowledge of anti-trafficking policy and programming efforts of US embassies to ensure proper compliance with USG anti-trafficking policies with regard to reports and programs.

The remaining $300,000 will go towards INL's administrative support costs.

Trafficking in Persons
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Prosecution Program 7,000 - 2,500 - 4,000
Protection Program  4,000 - 2,000 - 500
Prevention Program  1,000 - 460 - 500
Total 12,000 - 4,960 - 5,000

Anti Crime Programs

Fighting Corruption

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Request

3,000

6,746

5,000[1]

________________

[1] Includes $3 million for Anticorruption Compacts in FY 2006.

Program Objectives and Performance IndicatorsINL has in recent years pursued a mix of diplomatic, policy, and programmatic efforts designed to achieve the following anticorruption objectives: increasing the number of governments committed to implementing comprehensive regimes to address their corruption problems; increasing international cooperation among governments in the fight against corruption; increasing the number of countries where political will exists to pursue high-level corrupt actors and problems; and developing innovative methods to tackle corruption that show measurable effect.

INL advances these objectives through a four-pillar approach. These four pillars, articulated in various Department reports to Congress over the past few years pursuant to the International Anticorruption and Good Governance Act, include the following:

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitments : The USG opens the door to enhanced cooperation through the creation of global anticorruption goals and standards. This, in turn, encourages the sharing of best practices, builds trust and relationships between cooperating countries, and ultimately increases the effectiveness of USG government and other aid programs that assist these efforts.

Related objectives:

Increased number of reports issued annually by mutual evaluation mechanisms.

Increased number of countries have signed and ratified the United Nations Convention Against Corruption.

Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments : The fight against corruption begins at the national and local levels. Where pockets of political and/or popular will exist, the USG can assist governments in taking effective action against corruption. This includes, inter alia, helping governments take a wide range of actions to address corruption, such as enforcing anticorruption laws and instituting preventive measures within the public administration. The U.S. is also beginning through the G8 Anticorruption Compacts, the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), and other multilateral initiatives to reward those countries that are committed to effectively rooting out corruption.

Related objectives:

Increased number of countries publicly adheres to and enforces No Safe Haven policies.

Launch innovative regional initiatives in APEC and the Middle East to strengthen the political commitment of governments to fight corruption.

Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action : Popular will is the best expediter of political will against corruption. The USG can help enhance popular will in other countries by helping encourage civil society, the media, and the private sector to be active in the fight against corruption, increase transparency in governments, and increase integrity in the private sector.

Related objective:

Targeted countries have improved scores in anticorruption and transparency indices.

Leading By Example : The USG has been a leader in the fight against corruption by promoting integrity within our own country and making our actions an example for the world. The international community can benefit from our examples, particularly regarding efforts to deny safe haven in the U.S. to corrupt officials, prevent U.S. multinational business from bribing overseas, enforce corruption laws, promote good public/corporate governance, and build tools and institutions to prevent corruption.

Related objectives:

Implementation and balanced use of the new presidential proclamation to deny entry into the United States by corrupt officials, those who corrupt them, and their dependents.

Participating as an evaluated party in two (OAS, COE) multilateral anticorruption monitoring mechanisms.

Program Justification

The Administration has made the international fight against corruption one of its top foreign policy priorities. The USG has clear foreign policy and national security interests in seeing corruption addressed on an international scale. Corrupt interests continually hamper global economic activity of American firms, interfere with the accomplishments of USG foreign assistance goals and programs, facilitate the continuing growth of transnational crime and international criminal organizations, and threaten democracy. Terrorists thrive on corruption, using it to facilitate the laundering of funds and the illicit trade of weapons, passports, drugs, and persons; obtain sensitive information from government sources; and move money and themselves across borders to find safe havens.

Program Accomplishments

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitments: Over the past several years, INL has helped negotiate and develop several significant regional multilateral anticorruption commitments, including the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC), Council of Europe conventions, Stability Pact compact, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Initiative to Fight Corruption and Ensure Transparency, and, presently, the OECD/UNDP Middle East and North Africa (MENA) "Good Governance for Development for Arab States" Initiative. INL continues to make it a top priority to encourage other governments to sign, accede to, or ratify the UNCAC, which was opened for signature in December 2003 and currently signed or ratified by over 120 nations, including the U.S. From a diplomatic perspective, the biennial ministerial Global Forum on Fighting Corruption (GF) process is by far the most high-level existing intergovernmental forum for promoting the fight against corruption, and INL continues to lead U.S. efforts to develop and define that process. Former Attorney General John Ashcroft and Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans led senior delegations to GF Ministerials in 2001 and 2003. President Bush provided a statement of support to Governments participating in previous GF Ministerials.

Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments: INL has focused its attention and resources on promoting implementation of multilateral anticorruption commitments (e.g., monitoring mechanisms) and helping develop effective governmental approaches to preventing corruption (e.g., addressing corruption within the criminal justice system through the legal profession and private bars). INL has provided or led USG experts and assistance to help over sixty countries implement anticorruption commitments through mechanisms within the Organization of American States (OAS), Council of Europe, Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative for Southeast Europe, APEC, the OECD/UNDP "Good Governance for Development for Arab States" Initiative, and the ADB/OECD Asian Anticorruption Initiative. INL has also targeted anticorruption advisors and technical assistance to help governments address weaknesses discovered during these evaluation processes. INL continues to lead U.S. law enforcement-related anticorruption assistance, particularly to help countries build their capacities to investigate and prosecute corruption cases. Over the past three years, INL further developed the capability to react rapidly to unexpected Embassy requests for anticorruption assistance to new governments or governments exhibiting strong and unusual political will to address corruption.

INL has recently led efforts with State regional bureaus and USAID to develop a coordinated and holistic anticorruption pilot assistance program that can be targeted to countries that exhibit strong political will to address corruption problems, a program called the anticorruption assistance Compacts. With INCLE and other U.S. funding sources, the Department expects that Compact will be operational soon in Georgia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, and Peru.

Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action: INL has developed and funded innovative technical assistance programs that help build the popular will against corruption and promote integrity within the private sector. Recent examples include the development of a Culture of Lawfulness educational program in several countries targeted at middle-school students and support to develop a corporate governance blueprint for Russian businesses.

Leading By Example: INL has led recent USG interagency participation, including the Department of Justice, Department of the Treasury, Department of Commerce, Office of Government Ethics, and others, in key multilateral mechanisms to observe U.S. anticorruption , and has helped effectively showcase our efforts as a model for other countries INL also led efforts to advance the "No Safe Haven" policy through implementation of a Presidential Proclamation to deny entry to the corrupt, those who corrupt them, and their dependents, signed in early 2004. The G-8 member countries, in the 2003 Evian Declaration and reinforced in the 2004 Sea Island Declarations, committed to the "No Safe Haven" policy, designed to deny safe haven to the corrupt, those who corrupt them, and their assets. World leaders at the Special Summit of the Americas and APEC made a similar commitment in January and November 2004, respectively.

FY 2006 Program

Anticorruption Compacts

The G-8 anticorruption assistance Compacts are a new initiative that helps to fight corruption in a way that strengthens political will, rewards performance, and yields demonstrable results. By attacking corruption on multiple fronts with the strong commitment of the highest levels of government, rather than one sector at a time, the Compacts seek to raise the bar across government institutions and make transparency efforts in different sectors mutually reinforcing. The Compacts will require governments to commit in writing to reform in key areas that promote transparency and help prevent corruption, including management of public finances, public procurement, and engaging civil society. In exchange, countries will receive assistance targeted to these areas. The Compacts will include metrics to monitor achievement of these goals. The U.S. continues to work within the G-8 and with all four G-8 Compact countries to develop operational action plans and coordinate technical support for these pilots.The $3,000,000 requested will fund the second year's effort in at least four countries: Georgia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, and Peru. Assistance for each pilot country will likely focus on training, equipment and technology (including e-systems) needed to establish and maintain fiscal transparency and accountability systems, rules-based public procurement systems, effective enforcement and oversight institutions, and free and active civil society anticorruption efforts.

Other Programs

In addition to the Compacts, FY 2006 funds will be used to expand the Middle East Governance for Development (GfD) Network, an Arab-led effort which was recently launched in the Dead Sea, Jordan in February 2005, with the G-8, UNDP, OECD and World Bank, to create an intergovernmental anticorruption forum. The forum would work towards developing capacity, tools, and systems -- such as national action plans, stronger laws, codes of conduct, and better trained investigators, prosecutors, and judges -- to detect, prosecute and enforce corruption cases. As part of the GfD Initiative, President Bush pledged to help Arab nations that embrace clear standards of economic, political, and social reform. FY 2006 funds will also be used to help APEC developing economies implement their commitments related to the APEC Leaders' Santiago Commitment and Anticorruption Course of Action. The "Santiago Commitment and APEC Course of Action" requires member countries to: deny safe haven to officials and individuals guilty of public corruption, those who corrupt them, and their assets; implement anticorruption policies and practices consistent with the UN Convention Against Corruption; implement the APEC Transparency Standards, with particular emphasis on government procurement and customs procedures; encourage collaboration to fight corruption and ensure transparency, including through cooperation with other multilateral and regional intergovernmental institutions; and develop innovative training and technical assistance programs to fight corruption and ensure transparency.

FY 2006 funds would additionally be used to pay contributions/dues to support two multilateral monitoring mechanisms - the Council of Europe's Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO) and the OAS Follow-up Mechanism -- that promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in dozens of countries. FY 2006 funds will further be used through the United Nations or regional organizations to help countries that have ratified the new United Nations Convention Against Corruption to implement the convention's prevention and criminalization chapters.

Alien Smuggling

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

400

1,000

1,600

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will work with our international partners to interdict and halt alien smuggling as far from our borders as possible. Our efforts will focus on attacking criminal smuggling organizations at all points of their organizational structure. INL will also help coordinate the activities of the interagency anti-smuggling community in their efforts to disrupt major alien smuggling rings which operate both domestically and overseas. The capacity to identify and respond to threats posed by alien smugglers and traffickers will be strengthened by the establishment in the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Section 7202) of the interagency Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center. Intelligence information will be collected, analyzed, and disseminated on alien smuggling and human trafficking.

Strategic assessments and other products will be produced, target folders will be developed on the top alien smuggling organizations, and investigations will be opened against major smuggling and trafficking organizations with a nexus to the United States.

Program Justification

The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. Identifying, disrupting and dismantling criminal networks, especially those that can be used by extremist groups, has become a high priority for U.S. authorities. The creation of the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center reflects the U.S. Government's concerns about the separate but related problems of alien smuggling, human trafficking and terrorist mobility, and the increasing sophistication of criminal networks with global reach.

The U.S. government has adopted a strategy for deterring and preventing the flow of illegal aliens into the United States that places great emphasis on disrupting alien smuggling organizations as far from our shores as possible. This means that the fight against alien smuggling must begin in foreign lands where our influence and law enforcement authorities are more limited. Weak foreign law enforcement institutions, corrupt public officials, and inadequately trained police make it imperative that guidance and technical assistance be provided to illegal alien source and transit countries. Without adequate technical assistance many of these countries will continue to contribute to the stream of illegal aliens entering the United States. This stream, if uncontrolled, will allow foreign nationals with terrorist links to slip into the United States undetected.

Program Accomplishments

INL has provided law enforcement training on combating alien smuggling to over three hundred foreign officials in the past three years. The Bureau provided funding to conduct a training course for mid-level managers in developing countries on ways to combat international migrant smuggling and illegal migration. The course was designed to provide technical, legal, and managerial training to enhance the participating foreign officials' ability to implement border security professionally and effectively. INL also provided funding to deliver a training course designed to provide senior instructors and training managers with the skills to develop and manage basic immigration law enforcement training.

In response to the migrant smuggling, trafficking and terrorist mobility challenges and to further our anti-alien smuggling objectives, INL helped create the inter-agency Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC). This initiative brings together federal agency representatives from the policy, law enforcement, intelligence, and diplomatic arenas to work together on a full-time basis to achieve increased progress in addressing human smuggling, human trafficking, and smuggler support of clandestine terrorist travel, particularly in terms of converting intelligence into effective enforcement, diplomatic and assistance actions. The Center fosters greater integration and overall effectiveness in U.S. government enforcement and other response efforts and can promote intensified efforts by foreign governments and international organizations to combat migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons. The Center Charter has been signed, the facility has been built and agencies are starting to assign personnel. The HSTC has already produced a number of strategic assessments and other intelligence products, and has contributed to the dismantling of several major smuggling organizations, including networks that smuggled special interest aliens. It hosts the NSC Interagency Working Group on Alien Smuggling and Trafficking and chairs two of its sub-groups. The HSTC has also established a classified website to help disseminate intelligence.

INL purchased computers for the Government of Ecuador to use at the international airport in Quito. Funding was also provided to detail a team of attorneys to Ecuador to provide guidance on strengthening alien smuggling legislation. INL also funded an alien smuggling conference for Caribbean immigration and police officials as part of our effort to focus more attention on our "third border." Lastly, INL coordinated and helped fund a program on border controls at an OAS (CICTE) conference in El Salvador where the participants explored the links between alien smuggling and terrorism.

The first alien smuggling vetted unit ever funded by the USG was established in Quito, Ecuador. This unit was established in Ecuador because of the large number of aliens smuggled into the United States from and through Ecuador. The maritime movement of illegal aliens, including third country national special interest aliens, from Ecuador to Guatemala and then through Mexico into the United States was of particular concern. Shortly after the establishment of the vetted unit, it arrested and helped prosecute seven alien smugglers responsible for the smuggling of 112 migrants in a fishing trawler. More recently, the unit was instrumental in the apprehension of several major alien smugglers of national interest and the disruption of their organizations. It continues to make significant inroads in the criminal smuggling networks that dominate Ecuador and contribute to official corruption.

FY 2006 Program

INL will continue to support the development of the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center. Properly resourced, the Center will be the focal point for interagency efforts to address terrorist travel, and serve as a clearinghouse for all information from all Federal agencies in support of the U.S. strategy to prevent the facilitation of clandestine terrorist mobility, human smuggling and human trafficking. It will provide strategic assessments, broadly disseminate information, identify issues that would benefit from enhanced interagency attention, coordinate or support interagency and international initiatives, and be a central U.S. Government point-of-contact for foreign allies. The HSTC will also support the anti-terrorist mobility efforts of the National Counter-terrorism Center. Funds for this program will be used for administrative and operational needs, and to hire support staff to provide the framework for a team of detailed foreign affairs, law enforcement and intelligence officers who will turn intelligence into action. These funds will also be used to help prepare the annual report to Congress regarding vulnerabilities in the U.S. and foreign travel systems.

During FY 2006, the HSTC will grow to its full capacity staffing level. It will produce strategic assessments to better inform and target law enforcement, diplomacy and foreign assistance efforts. It plans to further develop its classified website and create unclassified but secure intranet websites to effectively disseminate information. It will promote and facilitate intelligence driven operations, investigations and prosecutions against smugglers and traffickers, resulting in disruption of smuggling organizations, networks and pipelines. This will also adversely affect criminal support for terrorist travel. The HSTC also plans to facilitate a national alien smuggling conference to enhance interagency information sharing.

Border Security

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

767

533

650

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will continue to assist selected countries to strengthen their border control regimes so as to make it more difficult for criminals and terrorists who threaten the interests of the United States to pass through without being detected and apprehended. INL will help priority countries to improve their port and airport security practices, through education initiatives, training, and technical assistance. The strengthening of security at ports and airports will help to prevent criminal and terrorist acts that could have an adverse impact on trade and transportation with the United States. INL has set goals for border security to include: conducting training to improve the proficiency of customs, immigration, and other border control officials; installing entry/exit systems at selected airports and seaports; assisting in the development of passport issuance systems with biometric capabilities; the purchase of computers and software for immigration authorities at the international airports; providing funding to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) for capacity building programs; and providing funding to the Organization of American States (OAS) counter-terrorism subcommittee to improve port security practices through a program of technical assistance. INL will also help improve integration and coordination among various law enforcement entities at the borders.

INL will help priority countries to modernize and improve their customs and immigration controls so that they can more tightly regulate the movement of cargo and people. Border security improvements will enhance law enforcement cooperation, reduce corruption, increase revenue collections, and strengthen rule of law in developing countries.

Performance measures will include better law enforcement controls and intelligence; increased identification and apprehension of criminals; reduced threat to the supply chain; and less illegal movement of aliens destined for the United States.

Program Justification

Porous borders are a threat to developing countries, as well as to the United States. Lax border controls greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid these controls, suborn them through corruption, negate them with falsified documentation, or overwhelm them. In many countries, effective control of the movement of persons, vehicles, and cargo across national borders is non-existent. Border control officials are poorly trained and equipped and inspections facilities are substandard.

As the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls provide substantial deterrence to smugglers and other criminals. They can force them into other, less attractive, routes, provoke traffickers into taking measures that raise their operational costs, and make traffickers more vulnerable to law enforcement countermeasures. Borders are also the points at which to collect important intelligence. Information gleaned from seizures, arrests, and documents can provide leads useful to making even bigger cases that help dismantle major international criminal syndicates. Successful enforcement at the border is also a powerful instrument for generating greater public support for fighting transnational crime.

Program Accomplishments

Program accomplishments have been numerous. Our goal is to strategically utilize funding to ensure the most impact in this critical area. These are but a few of the critical program accomplishments:

  • Jamaica - Installation of an entry/exit system at selected airports and seaports. 
  • Belize - Development of a passport issuance system with biometric capabilities. 
  • Honduras - Development of a passport issuance system. 
  • Ecuador - Purchase of computers and software for immigration authorities at the international airport in Quito. 
  • Latin America - Funding provided to the OAS to sponsor border visits to the United States for selected law enforcement officials from Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. 
  • Bahamas - Funding provided to the IOM to provide technical assistance to the Government of the Bahamas to improve their migration management practices. 
  • Latin America - Funding provided to the OAS for port security training in the Western Hemisphere.
  • East Africa - Funding provided to the IOM for a capacity building program to control irregular migration in Kenya and Tanzania. 
  • Latin America - Funding provided to the OAS counter terrorism subcommittee to improve port security practices through a program of technical assistance. 
  • Asia - Funding provided to the Asian Development Bank to assist developing countries in Southeast Asia with their efforts to improve port security and to comply with the requirements of the International Ship and Port Facility Code.

FY 2006 Program

INL will continue to support the OAS counter terrorism committee in its efforts to improve law enforcement training and border controls in the Western Hemisphere. This will be done through a series of different initiatives to include airport and seaport security training, law enforcement workshops, border and port security vulnerability assessments, and document security programs. Strengthening entry-exit controls at selected foreign airports, land border points, and seaports will also be a priority. Programs designed to improve document security will also receive attention. These programs may focus on identity documents and passport issuance systems.

Effective border control programs depend on having adequate training, visa regimes, and equipment, including automated systems to track the movement of cargo and people through ports of entry. Through our border assessments, INL will identify vulnerable countries and will work with them to upgrade their border control systems, including assisting them to improve travel document issuance systems and customs controls. Funds will also support conferences and organizations working to improve and enhance border security.

Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property Rights and Critical Infrastructure Protection

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

2,650

3,300

2,750

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL training and technical assistance programs facilitate USG assistance and cooperation with key foreign nations on matters involving cybercrime, critical information infrastructure protection (CIIP), and IP violations. Increased assistance and cooperation between USG and foreign governments and agencies has been accomplished through INL's training and technical assistance programs that assist foreign nations draft effective laws and build strong enforcement capacities. INL will continue to participate in a range of USG diplomatic initiatives aimed at strengthening international standards and cooperation in combating crime.

In the area of cybercrime, INL continues to build the capacity of foreign law enforcement partners through training and technical assistance programs targeted at identifying, investigating, prosecuting, and preventing crimes committed through the criminal misuse of IT. Improved foreign cooperation between USG and foreign law enforcement officials and increased successful domestic and foreign prosecutions of criminals misusing IT has demonstrated the program's success. In the area of international CIIP, INL will continue to expand outreach beyond the circle of allies, measured by an increase in the number of nations and multilateral and multinational organizations embracing enhanced cybersecurity policies and practices. These outreach programs assist foreign nations secure critical information infrastructures and therefore fill gaps that can be exploited by transnational criminals and other entities that threaten our national security

Finally, in the area of IP crimes, INL's training and technical assistance programs combat IP violations by building capacity among border and customs officials, investigators, law enforcement officials, prosecutors, and judges whom are confronted with IP violations.

Program Justification

IP crime - IP crime presents a growing threat to innovative sectors of the US economy. Losses to the US copyright, patent, and trademark industries, in areas such as hard goods, optical media, and pharmaceuticals have been staggering. One particularly troubling phenomenon is the growing involvement of transnational crime groups, and potentially terrorist groups, in IP crime. These groups have the potential to outstrip the capabilities of hard-pressed law enforcement to counter them. As a signatory to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, the USG is committed to a global enforcement effort to eliminate safe havens for online pirates and other IP criminals. Although INL has long been engaged on issues related to protection of IP, the explosion in IP crime and the growing sophistication of IP criminals has led INL to ramp up its resources dedicated to this issue. As co-chair of the inter-agency training coordination group (TCG), which includes both government and industry participation, INL promotes foreign training and technical assistance projects targeted to foreign nations where IP violations are most severe. INL's assistance includes seminars on developing TRIPS compliant laws, and also on training police officers, investigators, prosecutors, and judges to combat IP crime. Since much of the growth of violations of IP rights is fueled by the criminal misuse of IT (e.g., online piracy) there is a significant overlap with INL's mission to fight cybercrime.

Cybercrime - the criminal misuse of IT has increased exponentially in the last several years. Cybercrimes can include activities such as fraud, child pornography, and extortion, through which IT is a means for carrying out the elements of the crime, and also activities such as hacking, intrusion, and denial of service attacks, in which information networks are themselves targeted. As one of the first nations to sign the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime - the first multilateral treaty dedicated to cybercrime - the USG is one of the international leaders in promoting mutual cooperation, effective laws, and strong enforcement institutions. INL provides training and technical assistance to foreign law enforcement personnel to identify, investigate, prosecute, and prevent high-tech crimes. Given the nascence of cybercrime in many developing nations, INL's assistance includes enabling USG subject matter experts to give key nations legislative drafting advice. INL also participates in developing USG policy positions on cybercrime in organizations such as the G-8, the Council of Europe, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization of American States (OAS), and the United Nations.

In the realm of cybersecurity, the vast expansion of the Internet and the spread of IT have created new challenges for the USG in the areas of law enforcement, national security, and national economic security. Hacking, denial of service attacks, and viruses disseminated through information networks are increasing exponentially. The President has responded to this challenge by directing the issuance of the first National Cyberspace Strategy. The Strategy recognizes that the interdependence of infrastructures across communications, energy, finance, trade, and transportation sectors means that a physical or cyber attack on the critical information infrastructures of one nation will likely impact other nations. Consequently, U.S. national security depends not only on U.S. CIIP efforts within U.S. borders, but also on the capabilities and cooperation of foreign nations whose infrastructure the U.S. government and industry interact with. The National Strategy contains a strong international outreach component, focusing on the promotion of watch-and-warning networks and a global culture of cybersecurity. Within the Department of State, INL has responsibility for law enforcement related CIIP issues. INL has already stepped up to support CIIP outreach by providing training and technical assistance to key partner nations. INL expects an increase in the demand for training to combat cybercrime with the expansion of USG outreach to developing nations. INL will continue to target our resources in consultation with US agencies such as Commerce, Treasury, Justice and Homeland Security, which have strong and evolving responsibilities in the areas of cybercrime and cybersecurity.

Program Accomplishments

As the State Department's designated coordinator for federal law enforcement overseas assistance, INL is the funding source for almost all USG "cop-to-cop" law enforcement training and has the State Department lead on law enforcement with respect to IP rights. With respect to intellectual property rights, INL funds training and technical assistance programs to investigators, law enforcement personnel, prosecutors, judges, and other foreign officials and policy makers who investigate, prosecute, punish, and prevent violations of intellectual property rights. These training and technical assistance programs are funded through a congressional appropriation to INL's Foreign Operations budget. The amount of this appropriation was $2.5 million in FY2004 and increased to $3 million in FY2005.

INL selects the training and technical assistance programs through criteria and metrics designed to identify countries/regions where inadequate laws or weak enforcement fail to protect the intellectual property rights of American rights holders. Additionally, consideration is given to whether training and technical assistance programs will lead to actual reductions in intellectual property violations and the overall needs necessary to reduce intellectual property violations and develop a strategy to fill in the identified gaps. Finally, under the terms of the appropriation, the INL reports to Congress on the use of the appropriated funds and details the results achieved through these expenditures.

The training and technical assistance programs are selected by INL through the consideration of criteria and metrics designed to identify gaps in countries/regions that threaten intellectual property rights. More particularly, INL determines the needs necessary to reduce intellectual property violations and identifies a strategy to fill in the gaps through training and technical assistance programs. In making funding decisions, INL considers input from the TCG, USTR's Special 301 Report, U.S. industry, and U.S. missions to ensure the assistance is targeted to fit long-range planning goals.

Similarly, in the field of cybercrime, INL was able to support stepped-up activities by the Department of Justice in advising key nations in the APEC and OAS regions in designing effective laws, in training foreign police and prosecutors in cyber investigations, and in related CIIP activities. INL has also continued to help advance our diplomatic objectives through participation in bilateral discussions with close allies, and with multilateral organizations like the OAS, the Council of Europe, APEC, the G-8, and the United Nations.

FY 2006 Program

INL will continue to fight IP crime through increased funding for foreign law enforcement training and technical assistance. INL will be consulting closely with industry groups to ensure that INL's assistance does not duplicate or overshadow industry efforts. These industry groups have urged INL to provide additional law enforcement training to fill critical gaps in their own efforts to assist foreign countries in fighting IP crime. As such, INL seeks not only to increase the numbers of such programs, but also to better integrate input and participation from private industry into our long term IP assistance plans. The countries INL is particularly likely to work with to build institutions to address IPR challenges include Brazil, Hungary, Mexico, Paraguay, Poland, and Ukraine.

INL will continue to participate as part of the Department of State Inter-Agency Working Group on CIIP international outreach activities. This will include working with our closest allies to facilitate sector-to-sector relationships and connectivity between law enforcement, as well as expanding our circle of contacts to selected countries and multilateral organizations. INL expects to fully coordinate its activities with the Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies. INL expects an increase in demand for training and technical assistance to combat the criminal misuse of IT to increase throughout the range of existing INL programs. INL will provide assistance either by training to fight cybercrime itself, or by assistance in fighting substantive crimes such as money laundering and child pornography that are furthered through use of IT. In particular, INL expects demands for assistance from developing nations to increase in response to the success of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime as a global model. INL will also work to meet the demand from OAS member states as they advance their regional strategy to fight criminal misuse of information technology. INL expects to work closely with DHS and DOJ in assessing existing cybercrime training offerings for their effectiveness, and with DS/ATA in determining how our crime fighting and anti-terrorist cyber training can complement each other.

INL believes that its efforts, as outlined above, are making a significant contribution the United States' fight against cybercrime, IP violations, and breaches of information infrastructures. In each of the areas cited, INL has increased its efforts in recognition of the growing importance of these issues to U.S. interests.

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering

Budget Summary ($ 000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

1,000

3,500

3,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Denying funds to terrorist organizations is a national security priority. Thwarting terrorist financing requires the development of robust anti-money laundering regimes that contain the legislative, enforcement and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. INL will continue to promote and develop activities and programs that will strengthen global cooperation against financial crime and terrorist financing. We will work with foreign governments to establish or update enforcement and regulatory tools and to implement international anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing standards. INL will encourage and assist in the formation of financial intelligence units (FIUs), and enhance their ability to share critical financial intelligence by providing technical assistance to those countries that have adequate and appropriate anti-money laundering laws and regulations in place and by encouraging them to become members of the Egmont Group of FIUs. INL also will continue to support the expansion of Trade Transparency Units, modeled on FIUs, and strengthen nascent regional technical assistance/training programs in the Pacific and Central America to provide efficient use of scarce resources.

The numbers of successful investigations and prosecutions abroad of important terrorist financing and money laundering cases will increase. There will be an increase in the number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards, including the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Special Nine Recommendations on Terrorist Financing, as reflected by mutual and other evaluations conducted by FATF and other international standard-setting and peer review bodies.

There will be an increase in the number of countries that have criminalized terrorist financing. There will be an increase in the number of effective FIUs. There will be an expanded network of Trade Transparency Units in operation in countries of most concern. The network will combat the misuse of trade in money laundering and terrorist financing. There will be additional long-term mentors provided to the Pacific Island and Central America regional programs, based on the Caribbean Anti-money Laundering Program (CALP) model, and initiated in FY05.

Program Justification

Financial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat not only to the United States but also globally. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, skew currency markets, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes, such as trade-based money laundering, that until very recently has frequently eluded law enforcement. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds $1 trillion per year and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Terrorists, on the other hand, have essentially stopped using the formal financial sector globally and have turned to alternative remittance systems, such as hawala and cash couriers, systems that pose significant challenges to law enforcement. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free markets.

Program Accomplishments

In the past several years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime and money laundering, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. Between FY 2002 and FY2004, INL provided approximately $10 million in training and technical assistance programs that delivered courses to bank regulators, bankers, law enforcement, prosecutorial and judicial personnel, and financial intelligence unit personnel from 123 governments. A multi-agency team of experts representing the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice, and Homeland Security, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), and the Federal Reserve Board of Governors delivered the training and technical assistance. INL provided $ 2 million to support the President's East Africa Counter-Terrorism Initiative. In addition, INL provided contributions to multilateral organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG), the Council of Europe (MONEYVAL), the Eastern and Southern African Anti-Money Laundering Group ( ESAAMLG), the South American Financial Action Task Force (GAFISUD), the Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD) and other regional bodies such as the Pacific Island Forum, to support anti-money laundering efforts. The members of these bodies have made a commitment to meet international anti-money laundering standards and undergo mutual evaluations by their peers. Our contributions assist in supporting the ongoing operations of these bodies, as well as funding for special programs, such as mutual evaluation training seminars.

During 2000-2005, INL also participated in the development of the FATF's Non-Cooperating Countries and Territories (NCCT) program to identify jurisdictions not cooperating in the fight against money laundering. All 23 jurisdictions that FATF identified as NCCTs were the subject of U.S. Treasury Department advisories, warning all U.S. financial institutions to exercise enhanced scrutiny of financial transactions with the listed NCCTs. INL provided training and technical assistance to nearly all these jurisdictions to help them correct the deficiencies identified by the FATF. With the help of this assistance, FATF removed four of them from the list in 2001, eight in 2002, an additional two in 2003, three in 2004, and three in February 2005. Only three countries remain on the FATF NCCT list.

In addition, INL participated in the FATF Extraordinary Plenary on the Financing of Terrorism held in Washington, D.C. on October 29-30, 2001. As a result of this meeting, FATF expanded its mission beyond money laundering and now also focuses on a worldwide effort to combat terrorist financing. INL and SCT chair an interagency process to identify the countries most vulnerable to terrorist financing activities around the world. The Bureau is a central contributor to assessing the anti-terrorist financing needs of these countries, developing implementation plans for them, and funding anti-terrorist financing technical assistance programs so they can combat this threat. INL also participates in many of the training programs.

FY 2006 Program

With the Department of Homeland Security, INL will continue to support the nascent innovative concept of Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) to respond to the increasing propensity of criminals and terrorists to move funds outside of formal financial sectors through use of alternative remittance systems and falsified trade data. The concept borrows from the international network of FIUs that examine financial intelligence. A similar TTU network is envisioned that will analyze countries' trade data, searching for anomalies indicating trade fraud, money laundering and/or terrorist financing. In 2006, INL will continue to provide training and equipment to set up TTUs in strategic countries. The first countries to have expressed an interest in participating in this initiative are those in Latin America that are combating the Black Market Peso Exchange and those in South Asia that are susceptible to trade-based money laundering and terrorist financing. Funds have been approved in the FY05 budget to support the creation of at least three TTUs and the training of their personnel. The intent is to garner an internationally agreed upon framework for coordinating information-sharing between TTUs and a timeline for the system's implementation worldwide; establish several countries with fully equipped TTUs with the legal and regulatory authority to share information internationally; reduce the use of trade and alternative remittance systems as a means to finance terrorism and launder crime proceeds; and, increase arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of those involved in terrorist financing and money laundering.

In 2006, INL will strengthen the new regional technical assistance/training programs in Central America and the Pacific Island region. These programs, modeled on the Caribbean Anti-money Laundering Program (CALP), are an economical way to provide comprehensive training and technical assistance to several countries in a region that share similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. The programs will include installing resident advisors and support staff to work in key areas needed to bring the anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes in the regions up to international standards by assisting in drafting laws and regulations, and by training regulators and law enforcement officials, including prosecutors and judges.

INL is committed to assisting countries that want to establish new Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs), particularly countries that have the requisite legal framework but lack the fiscal resources to purchase the necessary, but expensive, software and hardware. In FY06, INL will fund an innovative "FIU in a Box" initiative that will develop scaled-down software that will enable small FIUs to collect, analyze and disseminate financial intelligence to domestic law enforcement and to other FIUs globally. These "FIUs in a Box" will enable jurisdictions that lack fiscal and human resources to become active players in the global effort to thwart money laundering and terrorist financing at a fraction of the current cost to develop a full-scale FIU.

In FY 2006, INL will aim its training and technical assistance programs toward regions and countries that need to improve their ability to combat terrorist financing, financial crimes, and money laundering. Training will focus on: tracking, freezing, and seizing terrorist assets; developing anti-terrorist financing and anti-money laundering laws and regulations that meet international standards; training bank supervisors to ensure compliance with regulations; developing anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing examination procedures; providing law enforcement with financial investigative skills; and, training prosecutors to develop terrorist finance and money laundering cases.

INL will also fund the placement of intermittent and long-term advisors in countries to assist in the development of legislative frameworks, regulatory schemes and FIUs. INL will continue to work closely with other USG agencies to provide this assistance, including the FBI, Justice, Treasury, Secret Service, FinCEN, Customs Service, Internal Revenue Service, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, and the OCC. It is expected that training will focus on the countries considered to be most vulnerable to terrorist financing and any remaining NCCT jurisdictions. In addition, assistance will be provided to many emerging jurisdictions that are in need of technical assistance to develop anti-money laundering laws to protect their economy and financial services sector against financial crime and terrorism.

INL will continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the FATF, other anti-money laundering bodies, such as the APG, MONEYVAL, CFATF, the Financial Action Task Force Against Money Laundering in South America (GAFISUD), the Eastern and Southern African Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), OAS/CICAD, and the UN Global Program Against Money Laundering, as well as the new FATF-style regional bodies (FSRB) in Central Asia and the Middle East. In particular, INL wants its assistance to ensure that the FATF-style regional bodies incorporate anti-terrorist financing training into their anti-money laundering criteria, that they conduct a steady stream of mutual evaluations of their members, and that they train a core of evaluators to conduct these evaluations.

INL Anticrime Programs
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Fighting Corruption 3,000 - 3,046 - 2,000
Anti-Corruption Compacts - - 3,700 - 3,000
Sub Total 3,000 - 6,746 - 5,000
Alien Smuggling 400 - 1,000 - 1,600
Border Security 767 - 533 - 650
Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property Rights and Critical Infrastructure Protection 2,650 - 3,300 - 2,750
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering 1,000 - 3,500 - 3,000
G-8 and Lyon Group 500 - - - -
Law Enforcement and Police Science 2,200 - - - -
Rule of Law - - - - -
Program Development and Support 807 - - - -
Total 11,324 - 15,079 - 13,000

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEA)

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

14,500

12,734

13,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

National law enforcement capabilities will be strengthened and stronger linkages between U.S. law enforcement entities, foreign law enforcement authorities, and future criminal justice leaders will be established thereby resulting in greater cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement authorities and more successful investigation and prosecution of more important cases abroad.

ILEA curriculum will encourage graduates to interact with other alumni regionally and internationally to address law enforcement issues.

ILEA graduates will adopt methods and technologies learned at the academies to conduct successful criminal investigations.

ILEA curriculum will continue to be modified to respond to emerging transnational criminal trends in terrorism, corruption and trafficking in persons.

ILEA alumni will be actively engaged in training others, either at their national academies or on-the-job.

Specific areas of growing international criminal activity will continue to be addressed by presenting training on counterterrorism, corruption, and trafficking in persons to combat these trends.

Modified Core curriculum designed to counter international criminal trends - with no fewer than 35 hours (from 20 hours in FY 2004) of training on counterterrorism, corruption, trafficking in persons, and related topics - will be implemented in FY 2005.

Ten high-level specialized courses (from 6 courses in FY 2004) will be introduced to address the same international criminal trends as the core curriculum at the regional academies.

The total number of students' trained at all four academies will be approximately 2,400.

Areas for future expansion of the ILEA program to cover regions that are not currently addressed such as South America will continue to be explored.

Program Justification

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) help advance U.S. interests through international cooperation while promoting social, political, and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEAs provide high-quality training and technical assistance, support institution building and enforcement capability, and foster relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts in the regions they serve. The ILEAs encourage strong partnerships among regional countries to address common problems associated with criminal activity. The ILEAs also develop an extensive network of alumni--who will become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective countries--to exchange information with their U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations.

The Department of State works with the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Treasury, and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA program. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs: the Core program, specialized training courses, and regional seminars, all targeted at mid-level officials in the police and criminal justice services of strategic countries throughout the world. State's primary roles are to provide foreign policy guidance to the ILEA Directors, ensure availability of adequate funding to support ILEA operations, and provide oversight that will ensure that U.S. foreign policy objectives are achieved.

The ILEAs will continue to be a dynamic training program, providing relevant, timely, and quality training against the backdrop of diverse and often shifting regional economic, social and political environments and in anticipation of and response to constantly changing international crime-related challenges such as terrorism, corruption, financial fraud and money laundering, alien smuggling, trafficking in persons, and organized crime.

Program Accomplishments

The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) has established ILEAs in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, and New Mexico. To date, these ILEAs have trained over 15,350 officials from over 68 countries.

The ILEA in Budapest, Hungary, opened in 1995 and has trained over 9,224 officials from Central, Southern European countries as well as Russia and the former Soviet Union. ILEA Bangkok in Thailand opened in 1999 and has trained over 3,485 officials from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). The permanent facility for ILEA Bangkok was completed in May 2004. ILEA Gaborone in Botswana opened in FY 2001 and has since trained over 1,390 officials from the Southern African Development Community (SADC). It now operates from its permanent facility, which was completed in early FY 2003. INL opened a graduate style ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico in late FY 2001 and has trained over 1,265 international criminal justice officials who had graduated from the regional academies.

With Costa Rica's failure to ratify the agreement to establish an ILEA there, INL will focus negotiation efforts in strategic Central/South American countries - such as El Salvador, Ecuador and Peru - to establish an ILEA for this region. In FY 2004, a training Needs Assessment conference was held in Quito for countries that would attend ILEA Latin America. A follow-up Key Leaders conference will be held in Panama early FY 2005 to validate the training needs assessment findings. These steps are essential for ILEA curriculum development and run parallel with the negotiation efforts to determine a location for the new ILEA in Latin America.

FY 2006 Programs

INL will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, and Roswell. INL will also continue to encourage ILEA alumni to be actively engaged in training other instructors and mentors in methods and technologies learned at the academies, either at their national academies or on-the-job. This in turn will open and strengthen lines of communications to conduct joint investigations, and to share information with US counterparts.

INL will continue negotiations to establish a new ILEA in Latin America. If established, the Latin American ILEA is expected to deliver its full training program in FY 2006. Similar to the other regional ILEAs curricula, the ILEA will offer a mid-level management core program for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. The training program will concentrate on attacking the most salient crime threats in the region, including drug trafficking; alien smuggling; trafficking in persons; money laundering, terrorist financing, and financial crimes; and accountability in government, as well as enhancing the ability of law enforcement to anticipate and respond to terrorist threats. These courses will be upgraded to adjust to the nuances of these criminal activities as identified by ILEA needs assessments.

International Law Enforcement Academies
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Bangkok, Thailand 2,900 - 2,795 - 2,995
Budapest, Hungary 600 - 709 - 750
Gaborone, Botswana 2,700 - 3,755 - 3,855
Roswell, New Mexico 7,105 - 5,000 - 5,000
Latin America 1,195 - 475 - 900
Total 14,500 - 12,734 - 13,500

Civilian Police and Justice Program

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

2,700

2,678

2,700

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The overall program objectives are to continue developing and enhancing the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations; and to assist in strengthening the capabilities of the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and other regional organizations and countries to address police, justice, and prison development issues in areas emerging from conflict.

The FY 2006 program will sustain INL's capacity to manage and oversee the recruitment, selection, training, equipping, deployment and support for uniformed and non-uniformed U.S. civilian police, trainers and advisors overseas participating in and supporting peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. The program will also:

  • Maintain a capacity to deploy U.S. police, law enforcement advisors, justice and corrections experts.

  • Sustain certification of the basic U.S. training program across the U.S. and further develop relationships with federal, state and local law enforcement associations, organizations and unions.

  • Promote high quality, standardized civilian police peacekeeping training and inter-operability between U.S. and other civilian police by inviting police from selected countries to participate in the basic U.S. training program.

  • Continue to strengthen INL management and oversight capabilities by further developing options to address complex security operations, including well-defined response and support timetables and capacities.

  • Ensure USG-funded goods and services are obtained through full, open and timely procurement that provides maximum efficiency and benefit to U.S. taxpayers.

Program Justification

U.S. participation in complex security operations and international civilian police missions overseas is expected to continue in FY 2006. INL will sustain a capacity to deploy and support experienced U.S. police, justice and corrections personnel assigned to Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Haiti, Afghanistan and Iraq. The support contracts awarded in 2004 will provide a mechanism to conduct rapid competition and deployment of experienced members or former members of the U.S. law enforcement, justice and corrections community to support U.S. foreign policy interests in post-conflict regions around the world. Each contractor maintains databases of 2,000 interested and qualified individuals for this purpose. The FY 2006 program will maintain the program as an important component of the INL mission and will include:

  • World-wide logistical and support systems for the rapid deployment of U.S. police to complex, international security operations;

  • Capacity to provide timely and qualitative construction services and support activities, including technical aspects of construction assessment, design and oversight in difficult, hazardous, and hostile environments; 

  • Enhanced relationships with U.S. law enforcement associations, organizations, and unions to increase participation of active-duty law enforcement personnel in CIVPOL missions overseas.

Deployment of U.S. police and law enforcement and criminal justice advisors can range from short-term assessments, training and advisory activities requiring only a few weeks; to long-term secondments of a year or more to operational missions in dangerous and volatile environments that include authority to carry weapons and perform the full range of law enforcement functions. To prepare for such operations, U.S. law enforcement personnel are given a standard course of training applicable to all deployments. Special equipment and materials, briefings, training and medical precautions needed to accommodate a particular operating environment are provided immediately prior to an actual deployment. Such equipment may include communications equipment, uniforms and other clothing, medical supplies and protective gear to meet conditions in the particular area of operation, and camping gear in the event lodging accommodations are not available. While this program may fund short-term and urgent requirements for law enforcement expertise and field activities, the long-term operational support needed to maintain U.S. police in actual operations continues to be provided from other regional or special accounts, line-item appropriations, or funds made available from supplemental budgets.

The FY 2006 program sustains logistical capabilities to ensure a rapid and timely U.S. response to requests from the UN or other international organizations to contribute American police and/or advisors to address a special circumstance or participate in an international effort to assist a country emerging from a crisis situation. Key elements of this capacity are maintained by existing services contractors and include transporting U.S. personnel and equipment; pre-positioning field support items for rapid deployment; providing security, emergency medical support and evacuation services; providing operational transportation and communications capabilities; and administrative and logistical support in the field.

FY 2006 funds will also sustain outreach efforts to U.S. local, state, and federal law enforcement, agencies and professional associations for the purpose of attracting and encouraging more law enforcement interest and participation in international police missions. Oversight and management efforts will continue to strengthen capacities to assess, conceptualize, plan, prepare, implement, manage, and evaluate U.S. participation in complex security operations and international peacekeeping missions.

Program Accomplishments

  • INL manages three contractors to support program implementation, each with a database of 2,000 police, law enforcement advisors and justice experts to support requirements in ten countries; and funds a liaison position at the U.S. Mission to the UN in New York, a police training advisor, and agreements with other U.S. agencies to provide training and justice sector expertise overseas.

  • INL implements programs that support international efforts to establish, train and equip the 6,350-member Kosovo Police Service; provide training expertise to establish the approximately 3,000-member East Timor Police Service; and deliver training events for over 30,000 existing local police in Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and Haiti.

  •  INL provides 500 International Police Liaison Officers (IPLOs), 271 police trainers, 53 prison advisors, and 3 justice advisors to support the Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq (MNSTC-I) and international efforts to re-establish, re-organize and train approximately 135,000 Iraqi police, in addition to other supporting police and law enforcement organizations, to prepare the new government of Iraq to provide effective internal security. 

  • INL constructed and manages the Jordan International Police Training Center (JIPTC) being utilized to train 35,000 Iraqi police by the end of CY 2005; and is on track to train 50,000 Afghan National Police, 12,000 border police, and 2,600 highway patrol personnel in seven INL-constructed regional training centers and one central training center in Afghanistan by the end of CY 2005.

  • INL implements programs designed to train judges and prosecutors in Kosovo, Bosnia, Afghanistan and Iraq to assist with judicial reform and reconstruction in post conflict environments. 

  • INL provides the U.S. contribution of 25 U.S. police to the CIVPOL component of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, and provides training and technical assistance designed to enhance the Haitian government's efforts to re-establish Haitian National Police and criminal justice functions.

  • INL supports peacekeeping and justice reform in Liberia through the contribution of 20 U.S. police officers to the CIVPOL component of the United Nations Mission in Liberia, funding for police academy development, the donation of non-lethal equipment for the Liberian National Police, and bilateral technical assistance for the courts, judiciary and prosecution services.

FY 2006 Program

Building on resources provided to support this program over the last four years, the FY 2006 budget sustains INL's capacity to identify, train, equip, pre-position, deploy and support law enforcement personnel who participate in an overseas mission for one year. Three companies provide the capabilities to support INL worldwide police, justice, and corrections programs as a result of full and open competition. The FY 2006 program will sustain standardized organizational structures, operating procedures, code of conduct, ethics standards, and systems needed to effectively manage this complex program. Through these efforts, U.S. police will have the opportunity to participate in specialized law enforcement training that is designed to meet U.S. Police Officer's Standards and Training (POST) in-service training requirements needed to keep their police credentials up to date. In addition, officers receive basic and advanced instruction that is unique to the organizational and operational challenges presented by international missions. The FY 2006 program sustains an INL training coordinator, and a position established at the U.S. mission in New York responsible for working with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The FY 2006 program maintains personnel and resources dedicated to supporting INL capabilities to address peacekeeping and complex security matters and provide management and oversight of police, justice and prison programs.

Program Development and Support

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2004 Actual

FY 2005 Estimate

FY 2006 Request

13,850

13,850

14,000

Program Justification

The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is charged with developing strategies and programs to achieve international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign-policy objectives. INL maintains a cadre of both domestic and overseas program and technical experts to carry out a wide range of initiatives. Washington personnel functions include, but are not limited to: international narcotics control and law enforcement policy formulation and implementation; coordination of policies and programs with other USG agencies and with other governments and international organizations; budget and financial management activities; program administration and analysis including development, implementation, oversight and evaluation of overseas programs; contract, procurement and information systems support; field assistance visits to Embassy Narcotics Affairs Sections and Law Enforcement Sections to review, analyze and make recommendations on programs, funds control and procurement; sponsoring regional policy and program management conferences and seminars; and, developing and providing training programs both domestically and overseas for embassy and INL personnel.

The Program Development and Support (PD&S) account funds the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL staff. Over three-quarters of the PD&S budget request is programmed for salaries and benefits of U.S. Direct Hire (USDH) employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel. Currently, INL funding supports a Washington-based staff of 112 U.S. direct hire positions, 21 personal-services and 18 non-personal services contractor personnel, and 20 employees on detail from, or assigned to, other USG agencies. Eleven additional domestic positions support the Interregional Aviation Support program, but are funded from the Interregional Aviation Support account. Ten positions in the INL Office of Anticrime Programs are funded from the Department of State D&CP account.

Field travel for the INL personnel based in Washington is funded from the PD&S account. This is an essential component of the bureau's program, needed for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are utilized to maintain a reliable and secure information resource management system and operating infrastructure to enable bureau employees to pursue policy objectives and complete work requirements effectively and efficiently. In addition, funding for the following expenses ensure an adequate level of administrative support to allow the bureau to function effectively: office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, miscellaneous contractual services (Information Management non-personal services contractor personnel, INL office renovation expenses, etc.), materials, supplies, furniture, furnishings and equipment.

FY 2006 Program

The PD&S budget request for FY 2006 is intended to cover the annual, government-wide cost of living increase, in-grade step increases and promotions that occur during that fiscal year. It is also intended to cover the annualized portion of wage increase for positions that INL plans to fill during FY 2006 to improve program oversight and expanded programs. In addition the PD&S budget covers costs for field travel and transportation costs; equipment rentals, communications and utility expenses; printing and reproduction; miscellaneous contractual services; and furniture, furnishings and equipment.

Program Development and Support
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2004 FY 2004
Supp
FY 2005 FY 2005
Supp
FY 2006
Personnel Compensation 8,830 - 8,830 - 7,000
Personnel Benefits 2,050 - 2,050 - 1,680
Field Travel and Transportation 560 - 560 - 1,051
Equipment Rentals, Communications
and Utility Expenses 205 - 205 - 114
Printing and Reproduction 185 - 185 - 49
Miscellaneous Contractual Services 1,915 - 1,915 - 3,729
Materials and Supplies 75 - 75 - 242
Furniture, Furnishings and Equipment 30 - 30 - 135
Total 13,850 - 13,850 - 14,000



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