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Diplomacy in Action

Program Overview and Budget Summary


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2007 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2006
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Program Overview

Program Objectives

The primary mission of the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs is the development of policies and management of programs to combat international narcotics production and trafficking, combat international crime and terrorism, and strengthen law enforcement and other rule of law institutional capabilities outside the United States.

The Bureau does this through a comprehensive range of bilateral, regional, and global initiatives and assistance programs to set international counterdrug and anti-crime standards, foster cooperation among states, and build up the law enforcement capacity of foreign governments. The programs enable foreign governments to act directly against traffickers and other crime groups and cooperate more effectively with U.S. law enforcement agencies. In carrying out its mission, INL works closely with a broad range of other USG agencies, including ONDCP, Justice, Defense, Homeland Security, DEA, USAID, FBI, IRS, CIA, Treasury, and Commerce.

In addition to the core counterdrug and anti-crime missions, INL policies and programs also support several other key U.S. objectives. INL programs support U.S. counterterrorism, regional stability, rule of law and democracy efforts in countries as diverse as Colombia, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Closer to home, INL border assistance to Mexico, Panama, and the transit zone strengthen homeland security. The Bureau's programs to combat money laundering, terrorist financing, corruption, IPR theft, cybercrime, and human smuggling, help defend against terrorism and support democracy and economic development.

Over the past decade, and particularly since 9/11, INL has also played an increasingly important role in stabilizing post-conflict societies, primarily by supporting civilian police programs as part of international peacekeeping missions in such areas Iraq, Afghanistan, Haiti and Kosovo.

INL strategic goals are:

Strengthen Criminal Justice Systems: Establish and facilitate stable criminal justice systems to strengthen international law enforcement and judicial effectiveness, bolster cooperation in legal affairs, and support the rule of law, while supporting human rights.

Counternarcotics: Disrupt the overseas production and trafficking of illicit drugs by means of counter-drug and anti-crime assistance and coordination with foreign nations and international organizations.

Minimize Transnational Crime: Minimize the adverse effects transnational crime and activities have on the United States through international cooperation and coordination, and foreign assistance.

INL strategies are:

Establish governmental control and rule of law in conflict and post-conflict areas; safeguarding human rights and increasing freedom-of-movement.

Strengthen law enforcement and the judicial systems to deter, investigate, and prosecute domestic crimes within identified nation-states.

Reduce the cultivation and production of drugs.

Restrict and remove trafficking options and capabilities of criminal organizations.

Prevent the resurgence of drug production and limit the collateral effects of the drug trade through international drug control and demand reduction projects

Protect the homeland by enhancing the physical and procedural security at designated international sites.

Build institutional capacity for international cooperation in combating transnational crimes while correcting weaknesses in international and regional multilateral institutions, international financial markets and transnational law enforcement regimes.

INL programs produce:

Fewer illegal and dangerous drugs on America's streets;

Greater host nation law enforcement capabilities to work jointly with U.S. agencies on counterdrug, countercrime and counterterrorism operations;

Improved security and political stability in post-conflict situations;

Enhanced host nation capabilities to stem money laundering and interdict sources of terrorist financing, fight corruption, protect intellectual property rights, deter cybercrime, secure borders, and counter alien smuggling; and

Greater host nation capacity to directly combat corruption and organized crime;

INL counterdrug and law enforcement country programs are the primary vehicles for the provision of bilateral assistance. Country programs:

Are developed on the basis of country strategies coordinated at post by the Country Teams and/or Law Enforcement Working Groups and host nation officials;

Are formalized through bilateral Letters of Agreement that set out key objectives, program priorities, performance targets, and funding levels;

Strengthen relationships with various host country ministries and law enforcement authorities;

Support operational law enforcement cooperation between the host governments and the FBI, DEA, and others by providing valuable training/equipment/technical assistance platforms;

Are coordinated at post by Narcotics/Law Enforcement Section Officers directly linked to INL;

Are supported in Washington by INL subject and country experts and policy apparatus;

Are implemented by a wide variety of U.S. law enforcement and regulatory agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and international assistance agencies.

INL's regional and global programs complement country programs in key areas:

Anticorruption programs strengthen the political will to reduce corruption and implement international standards in transparency and good governance;

Regional law enforcement training brings together professionals from neighboring countries and builds them into a network for future cooperation;

Demand reduction programs reach out to grass-roots constituencies with education and support, improving American's own image in the process;

Anti-money laundering/terrorist financing programs identify vulnerabilities in key countries and provide speedy assistance to create sound financial institutions;

Anti-alien smuggling and border security programs help extend our first line of defense against all forms of transnational crime;

Cybercrime, cybersecurity and intellectual property crime programs address the growing impact of criminal misuse of information technology.

International crime and terrorism remain serious threats to the United States and many close friends and allies. Both follow the path of least resistance; where laws and law enforcement are weak or compromised, those who thrive by preying on others move in.

Global recognition of the dangers of drugs and crime -- and the need for stronger international cooperation to fight those threats -- has steadily increased. The one-time divide between "producer" and "consumer" countries of illicit narcotics has vanished, replaced by understanding that all countries are vulnerable and that domestic drug problems are on the increase in drug producing and trafficking states around the world. Similarly, nations on all continents have begun to accept that corruption and money laundering associated with trafficking relentlessly undermine governments and national economies. U.S. leadership has galvanized support for new multilateral instruments, such as conventions against organized crime and corruption. Meanwhile, the international community continues to support strongly the ambitious antidrug commitments embodied in the three U.N. drug conventions.

Policy Goals

To meet these challenges, the President has placed the fight against terrorism, international narcotics, and transnational organized crime high on our national security and foreign policy agendas. The State Department and the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) play a key role in carrying out the President's agenda by coordinating U.S. international drug polices with the Office of National Drug Control Policy and by leading in the development and coordination of U.S. international drug and crime programs. To deal with the increasing linkage and overlap among drug, crime, and terrorist groups, INL has shifted from separate programs for counternarcotics and anticrime to a broader and more integrated law enforcement effort to combat the full range of criminal, drug, and terrorist threats. INL does this through a range of bilateral, regional, and global initiatives to build up the law enforcement capabilities of foreign governments so they can help stop these threats before they reach U.S. soil. This includes extending our first line of defense by strengthening border controls of other countries in addition to our own, ensuring that global criminals have no place to hide, attacking international financial and trade crimes, and responding to emerging crime challenges.

INL efforts center on two Department performance goals:

International trafficking in drugs, persons, and other illicit goods are disrupted and criminal organizations dismantled: For counternarcotics, this includes reducing drug crop cultivation through a combination of law enforcement, eradication, and alternative development programs in key source countries as well improving the capacity of host nation police and military forces to dismantle narcotics production and trafficking centers. It also includes strengthening the ability of both source and transit countries to investigate and prosecute major drug trafficking organizations and their leaders and to block and seize their assets.

Strengthen laws, law enforcement institutions, and judicial systems: States cooperate internationally to set and implement antidrug and anticrime standards, share financial and political burdens, and close off safe-havens through justice systems and related institution building. International cooperation is key for combating drugs and crime. The job is simply too large for one nation to handle alone. Such cooperation includes working directly with other governments on a bilateral basis as well as multilateral cooperation at the global, regional, and even sub-regional levels in order to set standards, monitor and assist in their implementation, and coordinate on collective actions. Since drug and crime groups tend to thrive best in developing nations where justice sector institutions are weak, institution building is a core ingredient of INL programs. To carry out our institutional development programs, INL works closely with, and draws on, the expertise of sixteen other USG agencies, including USAID, Justice, Treasury, Commerce, Homeland Security, Defense, DEA, FBI and the Coast Guard.

Program Performance

Although the FY 2005 INL counternarcotics budget represents only a small part of the federal drug control budget, INL bilateral and multilateral programs and diplomatic initiatives are currently strengthening counternarcotics and law enforcement efforts in more than 150 countries around the world in support of the President's 2005 National Drug Control Strategy and other strategies aimed at fighting crime and protecting our national security interests. INL's counternarcotics and criminal justice sector capacity building programs are focused on Afghanistan and on the countries of the Andean Region in South America, the world's primary source of the heroin and cocaine, respectively. INL is also targeting major transit states in South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. INL is also giving increased attention the entry of synthetic drugs via the Western Hemisphere into the United States, particularly Mexico, which is a source country for methamphetamines as well as heroin and marijuana.

CY 2005 posed many new challenges as INL focused on criminal justice sector capacity building in many partner countries. INL continued law enforcement advisory operations in Haiti, Iraq, and Liberia as the U.S. and its allies work to build stability, democracy, and economic progress in difficult post-conflict environments. Highlights of INL programmatic and diplomatic accomplishments over the year include the following:

ACI: Promoting peaceful stability by combating narcoterrorism.

In 2005, the seven ACI countries made good progress in interdicting drugs and eradicating coca and opium poppy cultivations. The governments of Bolivia and Peru faced growing resistance from drug-cultivating farmers, which slowed eradication efforts and contributed to an increase in coca cultivation estimates. In Peru, police reinforcements were added and the eradication goal was surpassed, but eradication could not keep up with spreading cultivation. Although 2005 Colombia drug cultivation estimates were not available at time of publication, an aggressive aerial spray program may have minimized a reported trend of increased coca replanting rates in some areas. The major transit countries surrounding the drug producing countries made record drug seizures.

Colombia: Police and military forces captured or shared in the capture of 223 metric tons of cocaine and cocaine base. The U.S.-supported Anti-Narcotics Police Directorate (DIRAN) sprayed 138,775 hectares of coca during the year and 1,624 hectares of poppy. The Government of Colombia (GOC) reports that manual eradication accounted for the destruction of an additional 31,285 hectares of coca and 497 hectares of poppy. According to preliminary reports, these efforts may have led to an increase in the U.S. street price of cocaine and heroin and a reduction in purity for both. In 2005, USG programs supported the cultivation of over 73,000 hectares of legal crops and completed more than 1,000 social and productive infrastructure projects in the last five years. More than 73,000 families in 17 departments have benefited. The USG has improved the delivery of public services in 156 municipalities, including the delivery of potable water and sewage treatment. To date, the USG has provided non-emergency support for over two million Colombians internally displaced by narcotics terrorism, including aid for over 2,800 former child ex-combatants.

Peru: Eradicated almost 9,000 hectares of coca and over 3,000 hectares more in voluntary eradication linked to alternative development. Although the Government of Peru exceeded its eradication goals, estimated cultivation increased from 27,500 hectares in 2004 to 38,000 hectares in 2005. Approximately 4,000 hectares of the increase were in areas not surveyed previously. Port programs directed at interdicting maritime drug shipments contributed to the seizure of over 11 metric tons of cocaine in 2005. The U.S. supported alternative development program accelerated the implementation of infrastructure and productive activities in communities participating in voluntary eradication in 2005, resulting in the completion of 231 infrastructure projects and the delivery of technical assistance to 26,469 family farmers on over 31,000 hectares of licit crops. Assistance in increasing licit business activity in alternative development areas resulted in $4.4 M of additional sales in districts where voluntary eradication is taking place. Over 9,000 more families joined the Peruvian alternative development/voluntary eradication program in 2005.

Bolivia: Estimated coca cultivation rose 8 percent in 2005 to 26,500 hectares and the GOB eradicated just over 6,000 hectares. The GOB continued a strong interdiction performance in 2005, seizing over 11 metric tons of cocaine, destroying 2,583 cocaine base labs and making some 4,300 arrests in 6,713 operations. Alternative development efforts contributed to licit family income increases, with average licit gross farm gate family income in the Chapare reaching $2,667 in 2005 (compared with $2,390 in 2004). Chapare and Yungas high value licit crop exports - such as bananas, coffee, pineapple, cocoa, and palm heart - increased from $25.3 million in FY 2004 to $35 million in FY 2005.

Other ACI Successes: The U.S. denied narcotics certification to the Government of Venezuela due to the Venezuelan government's refusal to cooperate and its obstructionist behavior throughout much of 2005. Nevertheless, DEA estimated total cocaine seizures at approximately 30 metric tons, well ahead of 2004 seizures. Ecuador seized over 44 metric tons of cocaine in 2005, a large increase over previous years. The Brazilian government seized 15.8 metric tons of cocaine HCL (double the amount seized in 2004) and 126 kilograms of crack cocaine. Marijuana seizures totaled 146.6 metric tons in 2005. In Panama, statistics through mid-November 2005 indicated seizures of 10,284.5 kg of cocaine, 37.6 kg of heroin, 9,547.9 kg of cannabis and $10,316,148 in currency seizures.

Eradicating Opium Poppy in Asia: Quiet Success Stories

Thailand: Through U.S. assistance and consistent domestic effort, Thailand has fallen from the ranks of Major Producers of illicit opium. Thailand, once a major source of heroin into the U.S. and elsewhere, is now a net importer of heroin. Thailand's production has remained below the statutory level for inclusion in the Majors List (1,000 hectares) for six consecutive years.

Pakistan: Once a major producer of opium poppy, Pakistan essentially became poppy-free by 2000. Massive cultivation in Afghanistan, however, spilled over into Pakistan more recently, with a resurgence of opium poppy cultivation occurring, including in non-traditional growing areas. Crop control efforts, as well as enhanced opium poppy monitoring and support for economic alternatives, are decreasing narcotics production and trafficking.

Laos: Laos no longer produces commercially significant amounts of illicit opium largely as a result of INL alternative livelihood and detoxification programs.

Other Key Successes

Mexico: Protecting our Border and Partnering Against International Threats: In 2005, Mexico was the principal transit country for cocaine entering the United States, with 70 to 90 percent of the cocaine destined for the U.S. passing through the Mexican mainland or the country's periphery. Most cocaine smuggled into Mexico from Colombia for distribution in the United States arrived via Eastern Pacific and Western Caribbean maritime routes in ocean vessels or go-fast boats. Traffickers also used air cargo, couriers, and mail parcels through Mexico and Central America, particularly for Colombian heroin. Geographic proximity contributed to Mexico's 30 percent share of the U.S. heroin market, despite Mexico's relatively small percentage of worldwide production. Mexican marijuana cultivators provided the largest foreign source of marijuana for the U.S. market. Mexico is the largest foreign source of methamphetamine distributed in the United States. While there are no reliable estimates, the annual increase in methamphetamine seizures along the U.S. southwest border since 2001 suggest that Mexican trafficking organizations have significantly increased methamphetamine production in Mexico for distribution into the United States. Trafficking organizations established clandestine methamphetamine laboratories in western and northwestern Mexico. Methamphetamine is smuggled along the entire southwest border. U.S. and Mexican authorities worked closely to dismantle these operations on both sides of the border. Violence erupted in various border cities, particularly Nuevo Laredo, as rival cartels fought for control of smuggling routes. In response, Mexican authorities initiated Operation "Secure Mexico" and deployed federal police units to Nuevo Laredo to counter such violence, while U.S. law enforcement entities shared information with Mexican counterparts on drug groups operating near the border.

During 2005, Mexican authorities arrested numerous drug traffickers in an attempt to dismantle major drug cartels operating in Mexico. According to the Government of Mexico (GOM), law enforcement authorities seized over 30 metric tons of cocaine, 330 kg of heroin, 887 kg of methamphetamines, 1,760 metric tons of marijuana, and 280 kg of opium gum. The Office of the Attorney General (PGR) and the Secretariat of National Defense (SEDENA) acted against personnel who engaged in corrupt practices and eradicated poppy and marijuana crops. According to the GOM, 30,885 hectares for cannabis and 20,803 hectares for opium poppy - a 30 percent increase over 2004 - were eradicated in 2005.

Afghanistan: Total poppy cultivation decreased by 48 percent in 2005, due largely to President Karzai's anti-narcotics campaign, pressure from key governors, and local market forces. Opium production, however, dropped only 10 percent, because weather conditions favored larger yields. To consolidate these gains, INL and the GOA, together with the UK narcotics lead, established new Poppy Elimination Program (PEP) teams in key provinces to assist governors in proactively discouraging poppy cultivation. In addition to leasing fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, INL also fielded 10 Huey II helicopters funded by the FY 2005 Supplemental to support both PEP's poppy elimination teams as well as ground-based poppy eradication conducted by the reinvigorated Afghan Eradication Force (AEF). The Huey II's will also reinforce DEA-led interdiction, as available. Working with Germany to help rebuild the national police force, the U.S. continued to provide training to more than 60,000 police including nearly 6,000 border police at our Central Training Center in Kabul and seven Regional Training Centers. In addition, we deployed approximately 100 experienced U.S. law enforcement professionals throughout Afghanistan to provide on the job training and mentoring to provincial and local Afghan police. We also began implementation on a major new Ministry of Interior reform project - the pay and rank reform initiative which completely reorders the organizational structure and payroll of the Afghan Police. INL has also helped reform and support the Afghan Attorney General's Office by supporting a team of legal reform advisors who are working with Afghan police, prosecutor, court, defense and prisons personnel to improve management and efficiency of the criminal justice system.

Pakistan: A Major Non-NATO Ally and key partner in the global war on terrorism and narcotics, Pakistan has taken into custody hundreds of suspected al-Qaida and Taliban militants. Sharing a rugged 1,500-mile border with Afghanistan, Pakistan is challenged by terrorists seeking safe haven and traffickers attempting to move arms, persons, and narcotics through poorly policed areas. INL assistance through the Border Security Program involves helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft to provide surveillance capability, border outpost and road construction, patrol vehicles, communications equipment and training to address this vulnerability. Assistance provides law enforcement agencies with training, equipment, and managerial reforms to strengthen capacity. Although counternarcotics cooperation has been excellent, and drug seizures have increased, assistance is necessary to continue to address opium poppy monitoring and eradication, economic alternatives, and demand reduction/drug awareness education programs.

Fighting Corruption and Setting International Standards Against Crime: Early in his Administration, President Bush identified the fight against corruption as a key foreign policy objective. In support of this objective, INL championed and helped deliver the first global and most comprehensive instrument against corruption - the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC). In 2005, the Department played a key role to promote international acceptance and implementation of the UNCAC. Efforts included helping to develop regional anticorruption mechanisms in the key regions of the Asia Pacific and Middle East that utilize UNCAC as a central pillar of focus, and working with the UN Office on Drugs and Crime and other countries to promote ratification and acceptance of UNCAC. At the 2004 G-8 Sea Island Summit, the U.S. and other G-8 governments announced the launching of comprehensive anticorruption assistance "Compacts" with Georgia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, and Peru to improve transparency in budget, procurement and concession-letting and to fight corruption. In 2005, the Department used INCLE and other money to fund work in all four Compact countries in areas such as strengthening procurement systems, increasing transparency in public processes, and building greater law enforcement and auditing capacity to detect corruption.The U.S. also worked in APEC, the Organization of American States, and other fora to promote acceptance of the "denial of safe haven" policy related to corrupt officials and their assets. The Department was also successful in developing a historic anticorruption initiative in the Middle East, which leaders endorsed at a Dead Sea, Jordan gathering hosted in February 2005 by the King of Jordan. The U.S. also used INCLE funding to support two multilateral monitoring mechanisms - the Council of Europe's Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), and the OAS Follow-up Mechanism - that promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in dozens of countries.

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering: Terrorist groups, drug traffickers, and traditional transnational crime organizations share many traits, but none so compelling as the need to launder, hide, or secretly move their profits and operating funds. Over the past several years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. In FY 2005, INL funding provided multi-agency training, bilaterally or through multilateral organizations, for more than 100 countries. To promote global cooperation on anti-money laundering, INL provides support to the multilateral Financial Action Task Force (FATF), which has added a special set of anti-terrorist financing recommendations to both its general anti-money laundering and recently revised recommendations, and to five FATF-style regional bodies. Our programs helped "graduate" eight countries from FATF's list of non-cooperating states and territories in 2002, four in 2003, three in 2004, and four in 2005 by improving their performance in combating money laundering. INL has also provided assistance to nearly half of the more than two dozen states identified by the USG and the FATF as most "at risk" for terrorist financing operations.

Establishing Rule of Law in Post Conflict Societies: To meet urgent needs in countries in the post-conflict period, INL is taking measures to enhance the USG capacity to identify, train, equip, deploy and support civilian police and law enforcement and criminal justice advisors to participate in multilateral peacekeeping and complex security operations. Using International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE), Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF), Peace Keeping Operations (PKO), Freedom Support Act (FSA) and Support for East European Democracy (SEED) money, INL currently deploys more than 1,000 police advisors and justice experts in eight countries, including over 300 uniformed and armed U.S. police to conduct law enforcement operations in UN peacekeeping missions in Kosovo and Haiti, and unarmed missions in Haiti, Liberia and Sudan. INL continues to implement programs that have helped establish, train, and equip 7,300 members of the new Kosovo Police Service as well as provide training for the 3,000-member East Timor Police Service. Programs in Liberia provide mentoring, training and technical assistance for the 3,500-member Liberian police service and struggling court system. INL participated in the first police/criminal justice assessment mission to Southern Sudan following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). INL has also deployed and supported one U.S. CIVPOL officers to the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) with funds from the Bureau of African Affairs. In Iraq, INL has provided 500 police liaison officers and 285 police trainers to support the reconstruction of the Iraqi police and the new Iraqi Government's efforts to provide effective internal security. INL constructed and manages the Police Training Center in Jordan being utilized to train 135,000 Iraqi police by the end of 2006. INL is also implementing justice (12 trainers/advisors) and prison (107 trainers / advisors) programs in Iraq. In Afghanistan, INL is managing police and justice programs designed to stand up and train 62,000 police in eight training centers in Kabul and the provinces, as well as assist with reform of the Justice Institutions, including the Attorney General's Office and Ministries of Interior and Justice.

Law Enforcement Training and Technical Assistance: To date, the five International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, New Mexico and the newest ILEA in El Salvador have trained over 17,000 officials from over 70 countries, including over 2,700 officials trained in 2005. ILEA curricula will continue to be modified to respond to emerging transnational criminal trends in terrorism, terrorist financing, organized crime, cyber crimes and human trafficking.

Demand Reduction: INL's demand reduction program supports the development and evaluation of research-based prevention and treatment programs whose accomplishments can be used to improve treatment and prevention services in the U.S. and abroad. An outcome-based evaluation of the long-range impact of INL-funded training for over 200 treatment programs in Peru revealed that the training reduced overall hard-core drug use from 90 percent to 34 percent among clients in the participating treatment programs. Similar significant reductions were reported for cocaine use (30 percent to 8 percent), cannabis use (37 percent to 13 percent), and coca paste use (62 percent to 22 percent). An outcome-based evaluation of INL-funded, school-based drug prevention training in Colombia revealed drug use declined from 54 percent to 10 percent in eight target cities. Finally, a leading science-based journal on drug addiction documented the overall effectiveness of the INL demand reduction program, devoting its entire November 2005 edition to "best practices" in drug abuse treatment that resulted from INL assistance to Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe.

Trafficking in Persons: Trafficking in persons may be among the fastest growing human rights violations and transnational crimes internationally. This modern-day form of slavery involves sexual and/or labor exploitation, adopting such forms as indentured servitude, debt bondage, chattel slavery and peonage. Profits from trafficking in persons undermine rule of law, fund the expansion of international crime syndicates, and foster government corruption. As one of the most lucrative criminal enterprises trafficking in persons is closely connected with money laundering, drug trafficking, document forgery and human smuggling. As part of the fight against trafficking in persons, INCLE funds were utilized by the Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons to support training and technical assistance to foreign governments, civil society and non-governmental organizations to increase arrests and prosecutions of traffickers as well as improve legal advocacy for victims. From FY 2002 through 2005, police, prosecutors, border officials, and judges in approximately 58 countries received training and technical assistance to recognize trafficking, identify victims, improve interview techniques, and build and manage trafficking cases. In addition, INCLE funds supported 18 projects promoting regional law enforcement cooperation to increase trafficking in persons investigations, prosecutions and convictions and 16 global projects related to increasing awareness of and preventing trafficking in persons, researching the extent of the problem, improving protection and assistance to victims, including victims of child sex tourism. The Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (TIP Office) in 2005 assessed the progress of 142 governments in addressing trafficking. These findings were included in the fifth annual Trafficking in Persons Report released by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice in June 2005. In addition to the country assessments, this annual report was expanded to provide important information on child sex tourism, the link between prostitution and trafficking, child soldiers, involuntary servitude, and corruption. The findings in the annual Trafficking in Persons Report assist the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons in determining programmatic needs and opportunities. In FY 2005, the TIP Office funded or implemented approximately 14 programs in over thirteen countries using INCLE funds to support programs building capacity of law enforcement to take action against trafficking networks and improve victim treatment, provide technical assistance for law enforcement, assist in drafting anti-trafficking legislation, encourage regional collaboration between source and destination countries, and build cooperation between civil society and the criminal justice system.

Program Justification

The FY 2007 INL budget request of approximately $1.517 billion is designed to support President Bush's comprehensive strategy for combating the global threat of narcotics, organized crime, and terrorism. It also reflects INL's shift away from separate programs for counternarcotics and anticrime to a broader and more integrated law enforcement approach. The request builds on and strengthens ongoing initiatives in South Asia, the Andean region, and international law enforcement training while continuing to place increased emphasis on border projects. While attacking the core targets in Asia and Latin America, the strategy focuses on strengthening host nation capabilities to fight international drugs and crime and to rebuild justice sectors in post-conflict societies. It is a long-term approach to create competent and honest counternarcotics and anticrime forces in countries where laws and institutions are weak. The strategy also supports efforts by multilateral organizations to reduce drug crop production in those major growing areas where our access is limited. Finally, the budget places special attention on anti-corruption, money laundering and financial crimes.

The FY 2007 budget request focuses on three areas: building stability and democracy in South Asia, combating narcotics and terrorism in the Western Hemisphere, and building a democratic Iraq. The U.S. has embarked on an ambitious and historic mission to ensure that Afghanistan - the world's largest source of opium and heroin - is never again a haven for terrorists or a source of instability in the region or of oppression towards its citizens. Combating the drug trade there is critical to this mission, as are rebuilding the Afghan justice sector and strengthening the borders of neighboring states. The approach in Latin America is regional, aimed at eliminating both the production and trafficking of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana from the Andean Region and Mexico. The budget focuses on eradication and alternative development. It also includes a strong interdiction component both for source countries and the transit zones of Central America and the Caribbean as well as furnishing training and equipment to strengthen local law enforcement's ability to capture and prosecute drug traffickers and seize their assets. The program supports projects initiated under the FY 2000 Emergency (Plan Colombia) Supplemental and continued under the Andean Counterdrug Initiative. The challenge in Iraq is to rebuild a justice sector that completely withered away under the security state of Saddam Hussein.

Country and Account Programs

Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) - $721.5 million

Colombia ($465 million): Colombia's position as the supplier of over 90 percent of the cocaine and almost 50 percent of the heroin entering the United States makes the aggressive disruption of the illicit drug trade a top USG priority. Colombia is home to three Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs). These groups finance a large part of their operations with proceeds from the drug trade and are a threat to the security of the hemisphere. In the short term, funding will support Colombia's follow-on efforts to Plan Colombia at levels similar to previous years, while continuing to work toward the goal of nationalizing the programs so that U.S. Government funding levels will decline in the long term.

The Colombian law enforcement and military will use FY 2007 funding to maximize drug interdiction and eradication efforts. We are encouraged by recent preliminary reports of declining purity and increasing prices of both cocaine and heroin on U.S. streets. The reports reflect the success of the substantial investment made by USG programs. 2005 was another record year for eradication, and we anticipate spraying over 130,000 hectares of coca crops and 2,000 hectares of opium poppy in 2006 and 2007. This sustained level of aerial eradication is necessary to ensure that there is no resurgence in coca or poppy cultivation. Manual eradication will continue to be a complement to aerial spraying in areas with adequate security.

In FY 2007, we will continue to see an increase in Colombian National Police (CNP) and Colombian army (COLAR) missions, areas of operations, and number of vetted units receiving U.S. support due to the increased operational pace and successes in the field. CNP funding will be used for the operation and maintenance of aircraft in support or eradication and interdiction, and to support infrastructure improvements, CNP training, and establishment of secure and interoperable communications and intelligence systems need to keep pace. We will work to sustain and improve interdiction units, including the highly successful 150-man mobile squadrons of Carabineros or rural police, and the three airmobile Junglas interdiction companies. As we transfer job responsibilities to the Colombian government, we are eliminating U.S. contractor positions. An important initiative that will be funded as a result of savings on contractors is to replace lost and aging aircraft with newer, commercially available models that can be more easily maintained and operated by the Government of Colombia in future years, when nationalization plans currently in development have been implemented.

Alternative development programs work to create permanent alternative income-generation opportunities for local populations. Democracy programs seek to modernize the criminal justice system, promote access to justice for disenfranchised Colombians, protect human rights, increase government transparency and accountability, and support peace initiatives. Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) programs provide economic and social assistance to persons displaced by civil strife and violence, youth at risk of recruitment by illegal armed groups, and the communities in which they reside. ACI funding administered by the DOJ contributes to training for judges, prosecutors, and police, the promotion of timely and effective investigations and prosecutions of human rights violations, and Culture of Lawfulness programs to promote awareness and appreciation for the rule of law. Funds will also be used to support the demobilization of paramilitary groups that is underway.

Peru ($98.5 million): Peruvian FY 2007 plans include enhancing the capabilities of the Peruvian National Police Narcotics Directorate (DIRANDRO) to conduct advanced road interdiction, riot control, greater security for eradication teams, and interdiction in hard-core areas. There will be an expanded eradication effort by the Government of Peru's Coca Reduction Agency (CORAH) in entrenched coca growing areas and areas of expansion, and continual monitoring of new coca. Police eradication targets the near-inaccessible opium poppy cultivation areas. An increased number of police and eradicators, and expansion of the area of operations will fully engage the 24 Huey IIs that will be operational in 2007, plus two INL-owned fixed wing aircraft, and available Peruvian MI-17 helicopters. FY 2007 funds will also cover fuel, maintenance, hangars and warehousing, aircraft rental when needed, and operational support for PNP Aviation (DIRAVPOL) personnel. To help protect both program assets and personnel, funds will be used to acquire a second aircraft that can provide additional airlift to support the increase of DIRANDRO police from 400 to 2,800 personnel east of the Andes in the next three years. INL will fund, and USAID will implement, an integrated development approach to create jobs in coca-growing regions, strengthen local institutions and reduce coca cultivation. The voluntary eradication program entails carrying out agreements that include the eradication of all coca in a contiguous geographic area while providing program benefits to a group of communities that share socio-economic interests.

Bolivia ($66 million):In FY 2007, support will boost the presence and effectiveness of the police in the Yungas and replace obsolete equipment throughout Bolivia. New eradication operations in the Yungas will require improvements to existing forward-operating bases, additional infrastructure and vehicles. The Joint Eradication Task Force (JTF) will consist of approximately 2,000 military, police and civilian personnel, with separate units conducting eradication (including the provision of force protection) in the two zones. The Blue Devils Task Force will continue the replacement of aged equipment, including 25 boat motors and 30 Zodiacs, along with 30,000 spare parts and support for 170 members, six land bases, and five mobile bases to control natural river chokepoints. The Green Devils Task Force will provide for the repair of the aging fleet of vehicles, as well as support for its personnel. The Red Devils Task Force will provide support to GOB expansion of forced eradication into the Yungas while supporting similar operations in the Chapare. Funds will also support operations and maintenance for 8 UH-II upgraded helicopters and increased operations and maintenance costs for the seven additional UH-II helicopters scheduled to arrive in FY 2007. The Black Devils Task Force goal for FY 2007 is to maintain a trained, reliable medium-lift-capable aviation unit that provides aviation support to INL projects, maintaining an operational rate of 95 percent of requested missions with several aircraft, including three C-103Bs. FY 2007 alternative development programs will focus on: increasing the competitiveness of licit rural enterprises, fostering more effective, transparent and responsive democratic institutions, and improving basic public services and social conditions.

Other ACI Country Programs ($26.3 million): In Ecuador ($17.3 million), funds will support additional Counternarcotics Police Directorate (DNA) personnel, port and canine operations, and provide new and/or expanded police facilities with the objective of continually maintaining 30-to 40- member units at key interdiction points, especially in remote sites on the northern Ecuadorian border with Colombia, and major roadways connecting Ecuador's borders with her ports. Funds will also support Ecuadorian military border and coastal control efforts with vehicles, field equipment and operational support. Demand reduction programs will continue as well. In FY 2007, the preventative alternative development program will provide infrastructure, local government institutional support, community strengthening and legal training. The program will also continue to increase jobs and incomes in the north by supporting the competitiveness of new and existing rural enterprises.

In Brazil ($4 million), funding will contribute to the Government of Brazil's expanding Operation COBRA (Colombia-Brazil) to reinforce its northern borders with Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, Guyana and Suriname. Funds will also support Brazilian law enforcement by assisting in the purchase of equipment used in conducting effective investigations and interdiction operations against narcotics cartel leaders and their associates. Drug awareness pilot projects will be funded to influence Brazilian public opinion on counterdrug policies and programs and to build political will in support of narcotic control initiatives.

In Panama ($4 million), funds will complete a five-year effort to establish, train and equip select small units of the police that perform counter-drug and counter international crime missions. The National Air Service will receive funds to address systemic weaknesses in air fleet maintenance and safety program. Funds will also provide training and equipment as well as a counternarcotics advisor to enhance security controls at Panama's major airports and choke points along the Pan-American Highway, as well as in ports and territorial waters.

In Venezuela ($1 million), funds will be used to support the Puerto Cabello Container Inspection Facility and the Maquetia Airport Intelligence Fusion Center. The primary goal is to develop leads from seizures that lead to the investigation and successful prosecution of criminal organizations involved in drug trafficking. Funds will also be used for demand reduction programs, work on effective money laundering model legislation and to provide a variety of equipment to support the work of two of Venezuela's principal precursor chemical control units, with the full-time advisory assistance of a DEA agent.

Critical Flight Safety Program ($65.7 million): The Department of State Air Wing has an immediate need for a Critical Flight Safety Program (CFSP) to upgrade its severely aged aircraft fleet to commercial standards in order to sustain the counternarcotics and counter-terrorism missions. The declining condition of the fleet presents the mission and our aircraft with a crippling reality of increased costs for amplified maintenance man-hours and material requirements, and degraded performance capability. In many cases aircraft have evidence of severe structural failures that have caused the Air Wing to ground aircraft. Many of the Air Wing's fleet are excess defense aircraft that are no longer supported or are being discontinued in the Department of Defense (DoD) inventory. Most of our airframes have not gone through any major airframe Programmed Depot Maintenance. Many aircraft are over 35 years old and have greater than 10,100 airframe hours. DoD typically removes from service helicopters that were flown in excess of 4,000 hours.

International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement - $795.5 million


Other Latin America - $54.8 million


Mexico ($39.0 million): FY 2007 funding will complete the five-year program to strengthen Mexico's northern border infrastructure, thereby improving the security of the U.S., while promoting the efficient flow of legal goods. Funding also will be used to provide Mexican law enforcement, security, and intelligence services with state-of-the-art equipment to increase their capacity to secure Mexico's borders, investigate criminal activities, and prevent terrorist breaches. This includes procuring up to seven additional Non-Intrusive Inspection Equipment (NIIE) units to: (1) improve capabilities at two additional northern ports of entry, (2) provide coverage at three key southern ports of entry, and (3) enhance coverage at two sea ports or airports. In FY 2007, funds will be used to construct two additional SENTRI lanes, thereby covering the ten largest of the 33 legal crossing points on Mexico's northern border. In the south, to complement the three NIIE units for crossing points along Mexico's border with Guatemala and Belize, there will be a new southern border-training component to train and equip Mexican customs, immigration, and local police officials in border-related courses such as search and rescue, effective arrest techniques, and medical first response. Emphasis will be on the continued increase of aerial eradication to significantly reduce the cultivation of opium poppy and marijuana. Funding will support broadening the coverage and increasing the effectiveness of interdiction missions (especially in the northern region bordering on the U.S.) to seize and destroy more drugs being smuggled from or through Mexican territory. INL funds will also continue to strengthen agencies of the Mexican Office of the Attorney General, particularly the Federal Investigative Agency (AFI) created under the Fox Administration. In the last year of a five-year plan to establish a model law enforcement institution, FY 2007 funds will enhance the PGR's capacity to detect and destroy methamphetamine and other synthetic drugs and the precursors used to produce them. Specifically, INL will seek to expand specialized teams, including the Sensitive Investigations Unit created to investigate criminal groups involved in methamphetamine production, the Chemical Response Team trained to raid clandestine drug laboratories, and Mexican prosecutors especially educated to prosecute chemical cases. Funds will also be used to provide additional equipment, such as specialized vehicles for raiding drug laboratories. INL will seek to increase the AFI's capacity to investigate, arrest, and prosecute gangs. Funds will be used to support the GOM Office of the Attorney General (PGR) aviation program, a key element in air and overland interdiction. The PGR operates a large fleet of fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft for tracking and interception as well as aerial eradication. Funds will be used to procure three more Schweizer helicopters for border surveillance and up to six UH-1H helicopters for personnel transport and aerial support for ground anti-terror and anti-drug operations. FY 2007 funds will continue to fund NGOs dedicated to drug abuse prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation, but will place special emphasis on NGOs that focus on methamphetamine addiction.

Haiti ($10 million): The FY 2007 program is divided in three general categories: police programs (crime control assistance), corrections program (criminal justice assistance) and counterdrug programs. The U.S. will contribute up to 20 police officers to the MINUSTAH stabilization mission. U.S. officers will continue providing expertise in the areas of academy training, field training, patrols, community policing, investigations, traffic, crime analysis, forensics, police management, supervisory skills, police administration, and other specialized skills. The U.S. will continue to assist with the training of at least 1,000 new recruits, and in-service training for 1,500 existing HNP officers, including specialized training, such as supervisory, duty officer and human rights training. The U.S. will continue to assist in forensic training and the development of HNP capacities for crime analysis. The U.S. will also help the HNP to be able to respond to civil disturbances in a manner that takes advantage of non-lethal police tactics. The U.S. will continue to support the model stations program, teaching officers how to respond to crime and run a police station on a station-by-station basis. Funding will support the operations of a vetted unit of Haitian police officers, established by DEA, with special authority to conduct drug investigations. Funding to support the intelligence collection and analysis center within the HNP will also be provided. In partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard, funding will continue the ongoing effort aimed at restoring the logistical and maintenance capacity of the HCG. The refurbishment of bases at Killick and Cap Haitien will continue and additional vessels will be provided consistent with HCG capacity to maintain and operate them. Funding will be directed toward equipping and training the HCG for maritime drug interdiction operations.

Caribbean, Central America, and Southern Cone ($5.8 million): The Caribbean accounts for an estimated 10 percent of the drug flow to the U.S. FY 2007 funding will concentrate on the maintenance of Caribbean capabilities in interdiction, law enforcement and administration of justice. Support will be provided to members of the Association of the Caribbean Chiefs of Police to facilitate the installation of computer links to the Regional Intelligence and Information Sharing System (RIISS). An INL-funded project that will become operational in 2006, the RIISS is a regional database of law enforcement and exit entry data. The RIISS will provide links to INTERPOL and permit the vetting of arrivals and departures of passengers on cruise ships and airlines.

According to the U.S. Interagency Assessment of Cocaine Movement, an estimated 90 percent of the drug flow to the U.S. transits the Central American land/sea/air corridors. FY 2007 funding will focus on drug interdiction efforts and promote improved regional and cross-border cooperation aimed at stemming the flow of drugs. Ongoing regional anticorruption, anti-alien smuggling and commercial freight tracking initiatives will also be supported. One of the first courses developed for the new ILEA Academy will be on gang-related law enforcement skills. INL is supporting the establishment or expansion of Culture of Lawfulness projects in Central America to assist governments in preventing juvenile crime and violence. INL-supported programs through the OAS drug commission (CICAD) complement bilateral law enforcement and demand reduction projects.

Africa - $21.5 million

Liberia ($0.8 million):Strengthening Liberia's law enforcement capacity remains a key priority of the USG. FY 2007 funds will continue to assist Liberia develop a credible and competent police force through mentoring, training and other technical assistance for the Liberian National Police.

Sudan ($9.8 million): INL's FY 2007 funding will establish the first ever USG law enforcement/criminal justice development program in Sudan. INL's efforts will support the Comprehensive Peace Agreement by improving the police, courts and correctional capacities in Southern Sudan through police advisors/mentors for the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS); technical assistance on the organizational structures of the police, courts and corrections; equipment, and infrastructure development.

Nigeria ($.4 million): Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade transporting drugs to the U.S., Europe and Asia. Nigeria- based criminal organizations are engaged in advance-fee fraud, and other forms of financial crime, including identity theft that defraud American citizens and businesses. FY 2007, funding will be used for Program Development and Support costs for an INL Section Chief and his office staff. The section chief is responsible for overseeing INCLE programs in Nigeria, which provide assistance in counternarcotics, police modernization, and financial crime. Several programs, previously funded, are in the early stages of execution and require the supervision of an INL Director to oversee their successful implementation.

South Africa ($.5 million):South Africa is an anchor for stability and prosperity in southern Africa. Despite South Africa's regional leadership role on crime, terrorism, and immigration, organized crime remains a threat to South Africa own efforts to create stability and prosperity at home. FY 2007 funding will be used for Program Development and Support costs for an INL Section Chief and his office staff. The section chief is responsible for overseeing INCLE programs in South Africa, which provide assistance to the Johannesburg Police, immigration and border control, and financial crimes. Several programs, previously funded, are in the early stages of execution and require the supervision of an INL Director to oversee their successful implementation. The section chief in Pretoria is also responsible for overseeing and evaluating the criminal justice system elements of the Women's Justice and Empowerment Initiative (WJEI) in South Africa and possibly Zambia. The WJEI is a 3-year $55 million presidential initiative involving four countries, including South Africa and Zambia.

Africa Regional ($.5 million): Weak law enforcement institutions throughout Africa corrupt and weaken governments, undermine progress toward democracy and provide an attractive environment for terrorism and transnational organized crime. The Africa program supports states in the region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing and the political will to achieve these goals. FY 2007 funds will be used for programs designed to upgrade core policing and prosecutorial skills through modernization of academies and teaching methodologies, and border security programs. Programs will improve the capacity of governments to combat trafficking in narcotics and other contraband, illegal migration, public corruption, and financial fraud.

Women's Justice and Empowerment Initiative ($9.5 million): The WJEI is a $55 million 3-year presidential initiative to promote women's justice and empowerment in four African nations - Benin, Kenya, South Africa, and Zambia. This initiative will work to assist the existing efforts of these countries to combat sexual violence and abuse against women, and empower them in society. INL is responsible for the criminal justice development aspect of the initiative. Funds will be used to continue to provide training, technical assistance, and equipment needed to achieve the goals of strengthening: the police's capacity to investigate reports of abuse and arrest; the court system's capacity to prosecute offenders; and laws supporting women's justice and empowerment.

Asia and the Near East - $586.9 million

Afghanistan ($297.4 million): The U.S. will continue to support the UK lead on counternarcotics by providing: enhanced assistance to Poppy Elimination Program (PEP) teams working with provincial officials to proactively discourage the growing of illegal crops; continued support to the Afghan Eradication Force, the GOA's centrally-directed, manual poppy eradication program; expanded specialized training and equipment of drug enforcement units; sustained search and rescue (SAR), recon, transportation, and air cover for ground-based counternarcotics programs via fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, both INL-owned and leased; public information campaigns amplifying the GOA's themes that opium poppy cultivation is illegal and contrary to Islam; and ongoing demand reduction programs. To the extent practicable, our efforts will key on strengthening the GOA's capacity to incrementally assume the management and direction of these programs. These INL-sponsored programs will work in conjunction with Alternative Livelihoods programs funded by USAID as well as INL's civilian police training and justice reform programs. We will continue to provide support for eight INL Training Centers and approximately 330 police advisors and mentors to continue the classroom-based basic skills training program for low-level police officers as needed, provide field training and mentoring for all police, provide new specialized courses emphasizing greater professionalization and skills development for the police, and Ministry of Interior reform efforts including payment of police salaries through a contribution to the United Nations Development Program Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan. Justice Sector Reform funds will support four strategic objectives: development of institutional capacity of the permanent justice institutions, development of the operational capacity of criminal justice sector actors, development of the corrections system, and professionalization of justice sector personnel. Specific activities will include advisory support to the criminal justice system, specialized training and mentoring of prosecutors, defense counsel and other justice personnel, equipment and infrastructure support, a legal education program for Afghan law professors, and continued support for legal associations, licensing development and legal aid centers. Funds will also be used to improve the capacity of the corrections system through training and mentoring, capacity-building projects such as setting up a prisoner tracking system, and equipment and infrastructure support for correctional facilities in Kabul and key provinces. The reintegration of Afghan women into the legal sector and improving their legal awareness will remain a focus through FY 2007.

Iraq ($254.6 million): Work continues to establish the sustainable Rule of Law in Iraq supported by public outreach and required criminal justice institutions including the civilian police, an independent courts system and an effective but humane correctional system. Pursuant to NSPD-36, DOD/CENTCOM will continue to exercise primary responsibility for civilian police development with the goal of fielding 135,000 trained and qualified police. Programs developing all other aspects of the Iraqi criminal justice system will be implemented by INL utilizing the funds sought. The approach contemplated builds on the accomplishments of the past two years and includes increasing capacity of the criminal justice system to protect and promote human rights and more effectively integrate women into the justice system; expanding and consolidating the Justice Integration Program to ensure criminal justice effectiveness and efficiency by full coordination among all criminal justice agencies; increasing the scope of anti-corruption efforts to establish and environment within which public accountability is the rule and public corruption becomes anathema to Iraq society; establishing a rule of law outreach program to foster voluntary compliance with the law by establishing a culture of lawfulness, facilitating access to the courts system and educating the Iraqi population regarding the benefits of adherence to the rule of law; enhancing the role of and building capacity of public prosecutors to effectively and properly manage case loads, and select and prosecute cases without regard for ethnic, religious or other irrelevant factors; continue developing the capacity of the newly independent Iraq judiciary to accept, process and adjudicate cases under the new Iraqi Constitution and laws of Iraq; and via deployment of 107 U.S. correctional advisors, continue building the capacity of the nascent Iraq Correctional Service (ICS) including prison facilities in the north at Dahuk, Baddush, Irbil, and Sulimaniyah; in the Baghdad area at Diyala, Khadamiya, Isktbarat, Rusafa and Hillah; and in the south at Samawah, Al Amarah, Nasiriyah, Maqel and Al Minah. A capability will be maintained in country to provide logistics, transportation and security support for advisors and trainers deployed to Iraq.

Indonesia ($4.7 million): Indonesia, the world's largest Muslim country, is a strategic partner in the fight against transnational criminal organizations. It is an emerging democracy poised for a leadership role in the Islamic world. INL's FY 2007 police assistance program has four components: transformation of the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) from a military-led to a civilian-led police force, modernization of the Marine Police, reformation of the criminal justice sector and professionalization of the POLRI's counterdrug unit. Earlier phases of the POLRI program focused on developing leadership among high-ranking officers, providing specialized law enforcement training, and advancing and institutionalizing on-going anti-corruption and police disciplinary system. FY 2007 funds will focus on providing technical assistance and training to the POLRI's Criminal Investigation Division's Major Crimes Unit and the Economic/Special Crimes Unit, as well as assistance to finalize the Police Instructor Institute in preparation for continued POLRI sustainability and final turnover.

Assistance to the Marine Police will improve the effectiveness of the force charged with protecting Indonesia's maritime borders, which stretch across 17,000 islands and which are vulnerable to a range of criminal activities from narcotics trafficking to terrorism. INL assistance will also support the professionalization of the criminal justice system, which is rife with corruption and not reflective of Indonesia's move toward an open and democratic government. Counternarcotics assistance will support management, tactical operations, and forensics training. Train-the-trainer support will be offered to the counternarcotics interdiction task force.

Morocco ($1 million): Morocco is a strong partner of the United States in the global war on terrorism. Due to its long and poorly controlled borders with Algeria, Mauritania, and the Spanish enclaves, its extensive coastline, and its proximity to Europe, Morocco has significant problems with illegal migration and human smuggling, narcotics production and trafficking, the movement of terrorists through its territory, and commercial smuggling. These criminal activities undermine the rule of law, foster public corruption, and weaken Moroccan institutions that assist the U.S. in the war on terrorism. Funding will focus on border control, including extensive technical advice as well as some equipment.

Pakistan ($25.5 million): The events of September 11 shifted the focus of INL assistance to Pakistan from drug control and related programs to law enforcement, including security of the critical border with Afghanistan and Iran. The Border Security Program is designed to strengthen the capacity of law enforcement agencies in Pakistan to secure the western border against terrorists, criminal elements, and narcotics traffickers. With the delivery of needed aircraft and vehicles for the Border Security Program, funding will shift to maintenance, support, and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing. INL will also continue to support law enforcement and development activities to help modernize Pakistan's antiquated crime prevention and investigation system. Counternarcotics funding will support crop control operations in areas of new or expanded opium poppy cultivation in the border areas with Afghanistan.

Philippines ($1.9 million): The Philippines is a strategic ally and a partner in the global war on terrorism. Enhancing the capabilities of Philippine law enforcement and criminal justice sector is central to strengthening our mutual security. FY 2007 funding will continue to support law enforcement development, improved police-prosecutor cooperation and counternarcotics police development.

Thailand ($.9 million): Thailand is a long-time U.S. ally in the fight against drugs and host to one of our regional ILEAs. It also plays a leading regional role in the fight against narcotics and transnational crime. At one time, a source country for heroin, Thailand's aggressive counternarcotics strategy kept opium poppy cultivation below 1,000 hectares in 2004, for the sixth year in a row, and at the lowest level since the mid-1980s. Even so, Thailand serves as a transit zone for heroin and the sharp increase in methamphetamines coming out of Burma and other states in the region. At U.S. urging and with INL assistance, Thailand is in the process of amending virtually all of its basic narcotics laws and all substantive and procedural criminal laws, including those that pertain to money laundering and official corruption. FY 2007 funding will continue support to a recently-established criminal investigative agency, the Department of Special Investigations (DSI), which is responsible for investigating significant, non-drug transnational and organized crime.

Laos ($.9 million): Laos is one of the world's least developed countries and, until this year, the third largest source - after Afghanistan and Burma - of illicit opium poppy. In keeping with its stated goal of becoming opium-free by 2006, the total area under cultivation has dropped by 45 percent in 2005. Production also declined significantly in 2005 to 28 metric tons - down from 49 metric tons in 2004. Laos is also a transit route for Burmese drugs going to China and other SE Asian states. INL development programs are aimed at stemming production, trafficking and abuse of illicit opium by providing market-based income alternatives for farmers. Funding will also support drug awareness and demand reduction programs.

Regional and Global Programs - $132.3 million

Anticrime Programs ($14.5 million): INL will continue to support a range of diplomatic and programmatic anti-crime initiatives, funded in part from the Anticrime account, but also from other INL budget line items, such as International Organizations and some country accounts. The most prominent programs will focus on money laundering, corruption, alien smuggling, border security, and various intellectual property theft and cyber-related threats.

Alien Smuggling: The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. Funds for this program will help support the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center - a joint State/Justice/Homeland Security center that has begun to collect, analyze, and disseminate intelligence and other information to facilitate coordinated international law enforcement efforts against illegal migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons.

Border Security: Porous borders greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid apprehension. However, as the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls can be a substantial deterrent to such activity and be a vehicle for gleaning useful information for identifying, investigating, and dismantling crime syndicates. INCLE funds will continue to be focused on strengthening and complementing several of the programs INL has underway in South and Central America and the Caribbean that are needed to stop a rash of criminal activity including narcotics trafficking, alien smuggling, and money laundering in this region.

Anti-Money Laundering/Terrorist Financing: INL will promote the use of legislative, enforcement and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. With Homeland Security, INL will fund training and equipment for the nascent Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) in selected countries to combat funds moved through alternative remittance systems and falsified trade data. INCLE funding will support continuation of the regional technical assistance/training program in the Pacific Island region. Regional programs are particularly cost effective because they provide training and assistance to several countries sharing similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. Funding will also provide short and long-term advisers to selected countries to help strengthen their overall anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes. Additionally, INL will fund an innovative "FIU in a Box" initiative that will develop scaled-down software that will enable small FIUs to collect, analyze and disseminate financial intelligence to domestic law enforcement and to other FIUs globally. This program will enable jurisdictions that lack fiscal and human resources to become active players in the global effort to thwart money laundering and terrorist financing at a fraction of the current start-up costs for a full-scale FIU. INL programs will also continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the Financial Action Task Force and regional FATF-style bodies, including two relatively new regional bodies for Central Asia and the Middle East.

Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and Intellectual Property (IP) Crime: INL fills a key role in the overall USG strategy to combat criminal misuse of information technology through our ability to provide capacity-building training to foreign law enforcement. INL will continue to support law enforcement training and legislative-drafting workshops in critical IP countries. As part of the USG inter-agency working group on critical infrastructure protection (CIP), INL provides policy support and training assistance to our foreign partners to help them address cyber security concerns.

Fighting Corruption: Any effective anti-crime/anti-terrorism program must also attack corruption. INCLE funding will support several international mechanisms - at the U.N., Council of Europe, OAS, APEC and others - to monitor and assist implementation of anticorruption commitments by more than 80 nations. Funding will also support continued implementation of G-8 anti-corruption assistance Compacts - fully integrated, government-wide programs designed to attack corruption across multiple sectors -- in Georgia, Nicaragua, Nigeria and Peru.

Civilian Police Program ($2 million): FY 2007 funding will sustain the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police and criminal justice components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations. The FY 2007 program will sustain INL's capacity to manage and oversee the recruitment, selection, training, equipping, deployment and support for uniformed and non-uniformed U.S. civilian police, trainers and advisors overseas participating in and supporting peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. The program will also maintain a capacity to deploy U.S. police, law enforcement advisors, justice and corrections experts; sustain certification of the basic U.S. training program across the U.S. and further develop relationships with federal, state and local law enforcement associations, organizations and unions; promote high quality, standardized civilian police peacekeeping training; maintain INL management and oversight capabilities by further developing options to address complex security operations, including well-defined response and support timetables and capacities and ensure USG-funded goods and services are obtained through full, open and timely procurement that provides maximum efficiency and benefit to U.S. taxpayers. INL expects to continue managing post conflict operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Haiti, Liberia and Sudan as well as new missions as determined by policy makers.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction ($1.9 million): While INL programs focus primarily on reducing the supply of drugs entering the United States, our demand reduction programs have become increasingly important in recent years as both producing and transit countries suffer from increasing drug use. It is recognized as a key complimentary component in efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, particularly in countries with high intravenous drug users. In addition, sharing of "best practices" increases prospects for success. An outcome-based evaluation of INL-funded, school-based D.A.R.E. training in Colombia revealed that drug use was reduced from 54 percent to 10 percent in the eight target cities participating in the program. Other recent research on the long-term impact of INL-funded treatment training in Peru revealed that overall drug use was reduced from 90 percent to 34 percent in the targeted population. A leading journal on drug addiction, Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, devoted its entire November 2005 edition to "best practices" in drug abuse treatment that resulted from INL assistance to Southeast Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. INL funded a symposium on Drug Demand Reduction in Kabul, Afghanistan that was attended by over 500 of the country's senior religious leaders and resulted in a major Fatwa against drug production, trafficking and abuse in that country. INL funded training targeting predominantly Muslim populations also resulted in the establishment of mosque-based outreach drug treatment centers in 25 provinces throughout Afghanistan.

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) ($17 million): INCLE funds will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell and continue development of the new ILEA for El Salvador. We intend to increase the tempo/focus of the instruction in the regional ILEAs in critical areas such as counter-terrorism, financial crimes, illegal narcotics, trafficking in persons, culture of lawfulness and accountability in government. Other activities in FY 2007 will include continuing to modify curricula for core and specialized curriculum to address emerging international criminal activities, and also preliminary construction efforts for a new building to house administrative staff and student classrooms for the new ILEA in San Salvador. INL will also continue taking steps to establish an ILEA Regional Training Center in Peru to augment the delivery of regional-specific training for Latin America.

International Organizations ($5.4 million): Funding multilateral approaches to fighting crime and drugs, the International Organizations budget complements INCLE and ACI bilateral programs. Such funding has a multiplier effect by encouraging financial and political burden sharing by other countries. It not only demonstrates a U.S. commitment to combating the aforementioned global threats, but also provides the United States with an invaluable multilateral option through which to pursue U.S. bilateral objectives. For many countries, assistance from international organizations is often more acceptable politically than direct bilateral assistance.

FY 2007 funds will support the UN Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in continuing and expanding ongoing international programs that enhance law enforcement as well as judicial and financial institutions in developing countries. Funds will be used to promote the ratification and implementation of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its supplemental protocols against human trafficking and migrant smuggling, the three UN drug control conventions, and the legal instruments against terrorism. Funding to UNODC will also support regional precursor chemical control projects, which track the flow of those substances used in the manufacture of cocaine, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants. In addition, INL resources will support the International Narcotics Control Board's global database of precursor chemical shipments and legitimate industrial needs. USG assistance will also help fund the UNODC Global Programme against Money Laundering to combat traditional forms of money laundering and the financing of terrorism; and the global legal advisory program, which promotes full implementation of the various international drug conventions. Finally, resources will also support the activities and assessments of UNODC's Independent Evaluation Unit, which provides reporting and analysis on the efficiency and effectiveness of UNODC program implementation.

Funding for the OAS/Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) will continue to support the leading drug control entity within the Western Hemisphere. INL resources support key technical assistance and training projects for Latin American countries as they seek to enhance their ability to fight drugs and related crime, focusing in particular on shortcomings identified in the Mutual Evaluation Mechanism (MEM). INL additionally works with and through the organization to build multilateral support to strengthen efforts against the consumption, production, and trafficking of illegal drugs and against other forms of transnational organized crime, particularly corruption, money laundering, and weapons trafficking. USG assistance to CICAD will continue to support supply reduction programs in the region that have contributed to improved institutional capacities, expanded cross-border and maritime regional capacity. INL funds will also provide CICAD the resources necessary to continue demand-side projects. CICAD has increased the number of countries - with USG funds - that are able to conduct basic epidemiological surveillance, improved the skills of nurses and other key health providers to offer drug treatment, expanded availability of drug abuse prevention education and information materials, and are developing minimum standards for treatment.

Interregional Aviation Support ($65.5 million): In FY 2007, the Interregional Aviation Support budget provides coordinated core level services necessary to operate the Department's current fleet of 189 fixed and rotary wing aircraft supporting counternarcotics aviation activities worldwide. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. Centrally administrated oversight includes: setting and implementation uniform safety and training standards consistent with aviation industry practices, uniform operational procedures, logistics support, fleet level maintenance administration, including the Critical Flight Safety Program, and administration aviation support contract. INL air assets are deployed as directed administration policy with current deployments to Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Afghanistan, and for border security operations in Pakistan. The air assets are also available, as needed, to other temporary deployment locations.

Operations include eradication, mobility, interdiction, monitoring, and logistical support. The primary focus will continue to be on the aggressive aerial eradication of Colombian coca and poppy, where U.S.-funded planes sprayed over 138,500 hectares of coca and approximately 1,600 hectares of poppy in 2005. This marks the fifth consecutive year of record spray results. Aviation services in Bolivia, Peru, and Afghanistan will continue to support manual eradication as well as limited interdiction efforts in Peru and Bolivia. INL-owned aircraft provide Pakistan with an Air Wing capability for integrated helicopter, fixed-wing, and ground forces operations in day, night, or using night vision goggles (NVG); it is used to provide surveillance along the porous, 2,000-mile Afghan-Pakistan border area to permit interdiction of trafficking in persons, narcotics, arms, and other contraband, as well as to assist in monitoring areas where opium poppy is cultivated to permit eradication efforts. Finally, the establishment of host-government self-sufficiency remains a central goal for Air Wing operations in each country.

Program Development and Support (PD&S) ($19 million): Funds will be used for the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL Staff. Funding covers the salaries and benefits of U.S. Direct Hire employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel. These funds also cover field travel necessary for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are also used to maintain reliable and secure information resource management systems, and for office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, and the purchase of materials, supplies, furniture and equipment.

Trafficking in Persons ($7 million): In FY 2007, requested funds will support anti-trafficking in persons programs with a focus on Tier 2 (especially Watchlist) and Tier 3 countries of the 2005 Trafficking in Persons Report. Programs will provide needed assistance in the areas of training for police, prosecutors, judges and immigration officials on investigating and prosecuting traffickers and monitoring international borders; drafting anti-trafficking legislation; and investigative equipment such as computers, forensic crime kits, radios, and vehicles for anti-trafficking police units or task forces; training for law enforcement officials by non-government organizations (NGOs) or international organizations on topics such as identification and appropriate treatment of victims; awareness programs to prevent sex tourism; creation of victim sensitive forensic interview rooms; establishment of national hotlines; development of anti-trafficking curricula for police academies; and dissemination of best practices in prevention of human trafficking, investigation and prosecution of traffickers and protection and assistance for victims.

Budget Summary

INL Budget by Program

FY2005

FY 2005

FY2006

FY2007

Actual

Supp

Allocation

Request

ACI Country Programs

Bolivia: Interdiction/Eradication

48,608

-

42,570

35,000

Alter. Dev./Inst. Building

41,664

-

36,630

31,000

Brazil

8,928

-

5,940

4,000

Colombia: Interdiction/Eradication

310,694

-

307,742

313,850

Alter. Dev./Inst. Building

124,694

-

129,920

125,000

Rule of Law

27,379

-

27,119

26,150

Ecuador: Interdiction/Eradication

10,912

-

8,375

8,900

Alter.Dev. /Inst. Building

14,880

-

11,425

8,400

Guatemala

992

-

-

-

Nicaragua

992

-

-

-

Panama

5,952

-

4,455

4,000

Peru: Interdiction/Eradication

61,504

-

58,410

56,000

Alter.Dev./Inst.Building

53,866

-

48,510

42,500

Venezuela

2,976

-

2,229

1,000

Critical Flight Safety Program

-

-

29,970

65,700

Air Bridge Denial Program

11,111

-

13,860

-

Total ACI Country Programs

725,152

-

727,155

721,500

Subtotal: Interdiction/Eradication

461,652

-

473,231

488,400

Subtotal: Alter.Dev./Inst.Bldg.

263,800

-

253,924

233,100

Subtotal: USAID Direct Apportionment.

235,104

-

226,485

206,900

INCLE COUNTRY PROGRAMS

Other Latin America

Bahamas

992

-

495

500

Guatemala

2,820

-

2,475

2,200

Jamaica

1,488

-

990

900

Mexico

39,680

-

39,600

39,000

Latin America Regional

3,224

-

2,475

-

Haiti

-

-

14,850

10,000

Southern Cone

-

-

-

500

Transit Zone

-

-

-

1,700

Subtotal

48,204

-

60,885

54,800

Africa

Liberia

5,000

-

990

800

Nigeria

2,232

-

990

400

South Africa

1,756

-

594

500

Sudan

-

-

-

9,800

Africa Regional

1,512

-

594

500

WEGI

1,200

-

-

9,500

Subtotal

11,700

-

3,168

21,500

Asia and the Near East

Afghanistan

89,280

620,000

232,650

297,390

Indonesia

-

-

4,950

4,700

East Timor

-

-

1,485

-

Iraq

-

-

-

254,600

Laos

1,984

-

990

900

Morocco

2,992

-

990

1,000

Pakistan

32,150

-

37,620

25,500

Philippines

3,968

-

1,980

1,900

Thailand

1,608

-

990

900

Asia/Middle East Regional

496

-

-

-

Subtotal

132,478

620,000

281,655

586,890

Europe

Malta

2,976

-

-

-

Subtotal

2,976

-

-

-

Total Incle Country Programs

195,358

620,000

345,708

663,190

Global

Interregional Aviation Support

66,620

-

62,865

65,500

Systems Support & Upgrades

694

-

-

-

International Organizations

5,496

-

3,960

5,400

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

9,920

-

9,900

1,900

Trafficking in Persons

4,960

-

4,950

7,000

Civilian Police Program

2,678

-

1,980

2,000

INL Anticrime Programs

15,079

-

10,395

14,500

Alien Smuggling & Border Security

1,533

-

594

2,000

Fighting Corruption

3,046

-

2,475

4,500

Anticorruption Compacts

3,700

-

1,485

-

Financial Crimes/Money Laundering

3,500

-

2,475

4,000

Cyber Crime, IPR and CIP

3,300

-

3,366

4,000

ILEA Operations

12,734

-

15,840

17,000

TOTAL INCLE GLOBAL PROGRAMS

118,181

-

109,890

113,300

Program Development and Support

13,850

-

16,830

19,000

TOTAL INCLE BUDGET

327,389

620,000

472,428

795,490

TOTAL ACI BUDGET

725,152

-

727,155

721,500

TOTAL INL PROGRAMS

1,052,541

620,000

1,199,583

1,516,990

INL Budget by Function

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FY 2005

FY 2005

 

FY 2006

 

FY 2007

 

 

Actual

Supp

%

Allocation

%

Request

%

ACI Funds:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eradication and Interdiction:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Narcotics Law Enforcement and Interdiction

96,845

-

5.79%

88,010

7.34%

60,990

4.02%

Eradication and Crop Control

105,618

-

6.31%

103,589

8.64%

101,181

6.67%

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

3,453

-

0.21%

3,282

0.27%

2,860

0.19%

Crime

2,514

-

0.15%

1,246

0.10%

1,034

0.07%

Critical Flight Safety & Aviation/Operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

and Logistical Support

233,918

 

13.99%

257,580

21.47%

302,575

19.95%

Program Development and Support

16,249

-

0.97%

17,931

1.49%

18,060

1.19%

Sub-Total Eradication and Interdiction - ACI Funds

458,597

-

27.42%

471,638

39.31%

486,700

32.09%

Alternative Development/Institution Building

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alternative Development

230,604

-

13.79%

223,515

18.63%

205,900

13.57%

Administration of Justice and Support for Democracy

35,951

-

2.15%

32,002

2.68%

28,900

1.91%

Sub-Total Alt. Dev./Inst. Bldg.

266,555

-

15.94%

255,517

21.31%

234,800

15.48%

TOTAL - ACI

725,152

-

43.36%

727,155

60.62%

721,500

47.56%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INCLE Funds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eradication and Interdiction:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Narcotics Law Enforcement and Interdiction

40,644

88,000

7.69%

38,045

3.17%

43,610

2.87%

Eradication and Crop Control

93,448

161,000

15.21%

206,905

17.25%

308,340

20.32%

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

10,728

5,000

0.94%

15,345

1.28%

7,080

0.47%

Sub-Total Eradication and Interdiction

144,820

254,000

23.84%

260,295

21.70%

359,030

23.66%

Alternative Development/Institution Building

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Administration of Justice and Support for Democracy

11,722

-

0.70%

45,495

3.79%

306,305

20.19%

Program Development and Support

25,667

6,000

1.89%

30,635

2.55%

46,955

3.10%

Border Control

30,218

-

1.81%

32,998

2.75%

20,950

1.38%

Anticrime Programs

14,602

-

0.87%

12,350

1.03%

15,400

1.02%

International Organizations

5,496

-

0.33%

3,960

0.33%

5,400

0.36%

Other Global Crime

74,492

360,000

25.98%

63,925

5.33%

15,450

1.02%

Civilian Police Program

2,678

-

0.16%

1,980

0.17%

2,000

0.13%

International Law Enforcement Academy

12,734

-

0.76%

15,840

1.32%

17,000

1.12%

Trafficking in Persons

4,960

-

0.30%

4,950

0.41%

7,000

0.46%

Sub-Total - Alt. Dev./Inst. Bldg.

182,569

366,000

32.80%

212,133

17.68%

436,460

28.78%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL -INCLE

327,389

620,000

56.64%

472,428

39.38%

795,490

52.44%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL - INL BUDGET

1,052,541

620,000

100.00%

1,199,583

100.00%

1,516,990

100.00%



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