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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Andean Counterdrug Initiative


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2007 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2006
Report
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Bolivia

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

90,272

79,200

66,000

 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Disrupt the trade in illicit coca leaf and the export/trans-shipment of cocaine and precursor chemicals: the Government of Brazil (GOB) will interdict 16 percent of Bolivia's potential cocaine production. Develop and maintain programs that reduce coca production and control marketing of licit coca leaf: GOB drug strategy will introduce forced eradication in the Yungas in 2007; DIGECO (the Bolivian agency charged with controlling the marketing of legal coca) completes its institutionalization and enforces new regulations that exert greater control over trade and limits the granting of new licenses to trade coca leaves.

Develop and maintain strong counternarcotics policies and programs within the GOB and encouraging greater domestic support for counternarcotics policies and programs: the ministerial National Drug Prevention Coordinating Council (CONALTID) designs a coherent and sustainable set of programs advancing its drug strategy; a national demand reduction network is formed within civil society; the DARE program is incorporated into the national school curriculum.

Support the implementation of a GOB social communications and marketing campaign promoting counternarcotics policies and objectives. The social communications program is designed to expand awareness and support for counternarcotics goals through emphasis on the threat to family, community and national safety and stability that is created by illicit drugs and narcotrafficking.

Support GOB initiatives to strengthen and secure its own borders against transnational crime: the GOB passes legislation that improves law enforcement capabilities against transnational crime; the GOB undertakes effective regional coordination of intelligence and operations against transnational crime organizations; the GOB extends investigative and prosecutorial capabilities against trafficking across entire country, while also developing effective means to attend to victims.

Develop and maintain strong counternarcotics and anti-crime policies and programs within the GOB; develop the professional capabilities of counterterrorism forces within the GOB's judiciary and police: there is a 10 percent increase over prior year in successful prosecution of major drug cases; 95 percent of all CN police/prosecutors/legal assistants are trained in advanced drug case investigative techniques; an elite group of Bolivian National Police are trained in anti-terrorist investigative techniques.

Develop a stable, representative government characterized by political and social order, citizen confidence in the political system and strengthened democratic institutions: Public confidence in courts, public prosecutors, and defenders has increased to approximately 44 percent; the GOB passes new police organic law that is based upon modern policing principles and is responsive to complaints of corruption and abuse; percentage of complaints made against members of the Bolivia National Police resolved within six weeks/months is ten percent higher than in FY 2006.

Increase the competitiveness of licit rural enterprises; foster more effective, transparent, and responsive democratic institutions, and improve basic public services and social conditions. As part of the stated objectives, an increase in the value of licit crop exports (bananas, coffee, pineapple, cocoa, palm heart, etc.) to an estimated level of $41.7 million will be achieved. Also, strengthening local support for the control of illegal coca will be achieved through provision of basic public services and improved social conditions.

Program Justification

Bolivia's porous borders, feeble institutions, history of political exclusion, endemic poverty and a succession of weak governments has created fertile conditions for regional terrorist organizations, narcotics traffickers, diverse criminal interests and trafficking in persons. The election of cocalero leader Evo Morales as president in December of 2005 has thrown into question the continued will of the GOB to provide its counterpart (in the form of land, funding, and personnel) to bilateral projects. This, in turn, might require a significant adjustment in how USG support is channeled, in order to ensure the continued effectiveness of USG efforts to pursue our objectives through effective programs that support democratic stability and the rule of law. Disengagement and the withdrawal of USG resources would result in the rapid collapse of much of what has been achieved over more than two decades of USG financial and policy support.

Forced eradication in the Tropico de Cochabamba (Chapare) must continue - presently cocaleros replant coca roughly as fast as the GOB can eradicate it. The Yungas is the GOB's principal counternarcotics challenge and is by far the largest coca growing area in Bolivia, with a severe topography and long history of traditional coca cultivation and resistance to eradication. Alternative development activities in the area will be critical to strengthening local support for the reduction of illegal coca, but even when combined with effective interdiction, cannot counter the long-term trend line in Yungas without the eradication component.

Bolivia remains a significant transit zone for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine en route to Brazil, Argentina and eventually Europe and the United States. The nexus between drug trafficking and other forms of organized crime is evident in Bolivia. There is also increasing evidence of international drug trafficking organizations operating in Bolivia, especially Mexicans and Colombians. Bolivia is also susceptible to becoming a staging area for domestic, regional, and international terrorists due to the expanse of its virtually unmonitored borders, thinly populated rural areas, ongoing social conflicts, and its reputation for corruption. USAID's anti-corruption project, Narcotics Affairs Section's (NAS) Law Enforcement Development and Secure Borders projects and other Mission activities will help the GOB combat corruption, illegal immigration, trafficking in persons and money laundering.

Program Accomplishments

USG support to Bolivia has resulted in the reduction of potential cocaine production from an estimated 240 metric tons in 1995 to 70 metric tons in 2005. Bolivia eradicated over 6,000 hectares of coca in the Tropico in 2005. Through FY 2005, the annual value of licit products leaving the Tropics of Cochabamba and the Yungas of La Paz was estimated at $81.7 million, exceeding the $61 million target by 34 percent. Average licit gross farm gate family income in the Cochabamba Tropics continued to rise, reaching $2,667 in 2005 (compared with $2,390 in 2004). Estimated net licit family income in the Cochabamba Tropics increased from $1,865 in 2004 to $1,958 in 2005, while in the Yungas of La Paz, it increased from $1,584 to $1,711. In both areas average (licit) incomes are substantially above the national average. In both areas average (licit) incomes are substantially above the national average. In the Chapare, the value of private investment continued to increase, reaching $86.5 million. Chapare and Yungas high value licit crop exports - such as bananas, coffee, pineapple, cocoa, and palm heart - increased from $25.3 million in FY 2004 to $35 million in FY 2005. Over 800 kilometers of improved roads helped farmers reach markets while providing collateral social benefits to thousands of families. The GOB continued a strong interdiction performance in 2005, seizing 11.38 metric tons of cocaine (base and HcL), destroying 2,583 cocaine base labs and making some 4,300 arrests in 6,713 operations.

FY 2007 Program

Interdiction

The Special Counter Narcotics Police Force (FELCN) is a Bolivian National Police (BNP) entity (comprising 1,023 NAS-supported personnel) which includes a command staff and UMOPAR (rural patrol units), plus various specialized police groups: K-9 (drug detection dogs), and the FOE (Special Operations Force). The FOE comprises some 460 personnel, incorporated from the former intelligence and special operations group, the chemical control group and the money laundering investigations group under one streamlined command; it also includes SIU (a highly specialized intelligence unit, managed by DEA), GRIRMO (mobile roadblocks unit) and GICC (containers investigation group). The FOE in all its forms provides coordination for counternarcotics operations and motivates action on time-sensitive intelligence. The Garras del Valor School is an academy for training new counternarcotics personnel in such courses as basic criminal investigation procedures, the basics of the Bolivian legal system, human rights, and jungle survival skills. The Garras School also serves as a regional training center for counternarcotics police from other Latin American countries, in order to promote regional integration. The interdiction project also includes support for 71 counternarcotics prosecutors and legal assistants who lead the investigations undertaken by the FELCN elements.

In FY 2007, support will boost the presence and effectiveness of the police in the Yungas; replace obsolete equipment throughout Bolivia and assume interdiction operational costs once funded by DEA Andean Ridge Initiative (ARI) resources. FELCNwill establish three new small posts (about $60,000-80,000 each) along the border with Chile and Peru; increase the numbers of operational units of mobile trained police agents and prosecutors in the Yungas; and replace over 100 obsolete vehicles and various office and communications equipment. K-9 will hold its number of guide-dog teams at 94, but continue to deepen the training provided to each team, including a subset of teams that are trained in explosives detection, to assist in force protection for eradicators as well as continue to develop its breeding program. The Garras del Valor School will trainover 250 Garras candidates in three courses; in addition, police agents and prosecutors will be trained in advanced or refresher courses involving intelligence, information management, defensive driving, paramedic/first aid skills, etc. in settings across the country. Training, equipment and technical support will also be provided to counternarcotics prosecutors and legal assistants.

Eradication

Resources in FY 2007 will sustain limited independent forced eradication operations in the Chapare and the Yungas. New operations in the Yungas will require improvements to existing forward-operating bases, additional infrastructure, and vehicles. The Joint Eradication Task Force (JTF) will consist of approximately 2,000 military, police, and civilian personnel with separate units conducting eradication (including the provision of force protection) in the two zones. The Office of Agricultural Reconversion and Coca Crop Substitution (DIRECO) supervises the destruction of coca crops and verifies the eradication. The Ecological Police will provide perimeter security for the JTF and conduct primary reconnaissance for locating coca fields.

Policy Development/Demand Reduction

The ministerial-level National Drug Control Council (CONALTID) is the GOB's central policy making body for counternarcotics. The Vice Ministries of Social Defense and Alternative Development are the most significant implementers of these polices. This project supports the operations of these entities, by providing technical advice, equipment, training, consultancies and other support as appropriate.

This project also supports demand reduction activities, focusing principally on enabling civil society - through training and other interventions - to provide basic rehabilitation and other services the public sector remains incapable of delivering. The project also supports DARE program, which will seek to reach 35,000 middle school students in a broader base of cities.

This project also has a public affairs component that promotes USG interests in drug issues, provides accurate information on counternarcotics questions and policies to the media, enhances the professionalism of the media (especially on drug-related themes) and helps generate information useful to the USG.

Operational/Logistical Support

The entire range of USG counternarcotics projects rely upon a logistical infrastructure involving airplanes, boats, various land vehicles, helicopters, and a decentralized warehousing and supply system. This extensive support enables eradication and interdiction to operate effectively in the often primitive conditions that characterize Bolivia.

The Blue Devils Task Force (BDTF) is a special unit within the Bolivian Navy that supports interdiction across the country's extensive river system and collects actionable intelligence. In FY 2007, the project will continue the replacement of aged equipment, including 25 boat motors and 30 Zodiacs, along with 30,000 spare parts and support for 170 members, six land bases, five mobile bases (each with a large supply ship and various patrol craft) to control natural river chokepoints.

The Green Devils Task Force (GDTF), a unit of 154 Bolivian Army personnel with a fleet of approximately 110 light, medium, and heavy-lift utility and other types of vehicles provided by the USG, provides ground transportation in support to interdiction and eradication operations. In FY 2007, support will provide for the continued repair of the aging fleet of vehicles, including the provision of motors and spares, as well support for its personnel.

The Field Support Program (INFRA) supports the operating expenses for NAS facilities located outside of La Paz (including field offices, vehicle maintenance facilities and warehouses in located Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Trinidad, Chimore, and Villa Tunari). This infrastructure provides a common support platform for NAS and DEA-supported activities throughout the country. In FY 2007 we will also continue to support administrative and operating expenses not attributable to individual projects, such as personal services contract (PSC) and foreign service national (FSN) personnel salaries/benefits, travel, transportation expenses, real property rentals, office supplies, phones/utilities, and other contracted services needed in support of NAS-supported projects within their jurisdictions.

Secure Borders

This project provides for institutional strengthening across GOB law enforcement agencies that enhances their ability to better secure Bolivia's borders against transnational crime. FY 2007 support will provide consultancy services and training (either directly from USG agencies or from private consultants), as well as material support strengthening border controls through increased information-sharing with international partners and improved domestic and international cooperation. This project will also support work to mitigate the impact trafficking in persons has on its victims and will also support the prosecutions of related cases.

Terrorist Financing/Money Laundering

Law Enforcement Development Project (LEDP): In FY 2007, this project will provide training to BNP and counternarcotics police and others in modern investigative techniques that lead to successful prosecutions. Other courses will be tailored to the needs of the specific police or prosecutorial activity. Overall, the project will provide 30 courses to the law enforcement community, including courses in human rights and a new component on trafficking in persons. To accomplish this, the project will purchase training materials, hire trainers/consultants and provide for travel of course participants.

FIU Development: In FY 2007, this project will support efforts and initiatives crafted by the Department of Treasury's Office of Technical Assistance that are aimed at improving the legal basis for anti-money laundering investigations and prosecutions. Once a new anti-money laundering law is passed, the project will train an elite group of police and prosecutors in application of the law, identification and freezing of assets held by drug traffickers, terrorists, and other criminals involved in transnational crime, as well as perpetrators of corruption.

Anti-Corruption

Administration of Justice (AOJ): Managed by USAID, the AOJ project provides contractual technical assistance and other services/goods to support the passage of further enabling legislation, the strengthening of key justice system institutions, and the training of justice system actors to consolidate the criminal system reforms and address new problems associated with the changing character of social conflicts (nationwide, but particularly in the coca growing regions). It will also provide urgently needed reforms in the body of commercial and administrative law.

Office Of Professional Responsibility (OPR): In FY 2007, this project (managed by NAS), will provide training and material support to a small corps of internal affairs investigators with a solid grounding in human rights and the new police disciplinary code, as well as the staff of the associated tribunals that hear cases under this model system.

Aviation

Red Devils Task Force (RDTF): The RDTF provides general aviation support for the eradication and interdiction programs. In FY 2007, the project will provide support to GOB expansion of forced eradication into the Yungas, while supporting similar operations in the Chapare. Support operations and maintenance for eight UH-II upgraded helicopters and increased operation and maintenance costs for the remaining seven UH-1H helicopters (which are scheduled to be upgraded to Huey II models in the FY 2007 Air Wing Critical Flight Safety budget); support fixed and rotary-wing aviation operations headquarters at Santa Cruz and forward operating bases in Trinidad, Chimore and a new one in Suapi, at the edges of the Yungas. American citizen contractors assist the RDTF with maintenance, quality control, logistics and training, with day-to-day contract oversight provided by American PSCs. The project will also support maintenance for three light fixed-wing aircraft; a qualified force of helicopter pilots, fixed-wing pilots, crew chiefs and support technicians, and support qualification of maintenance technicians as flying crew chiefs.

Black Devils Task Force (BlkDTF): FY 2007 funds will allow the project to continue to support the GOB's interdiction and eradication activities even more effectively, with the incorporation of a refurbished King Air aircraft into the project's assets. The project's other assets are three C130B aircraft, which transport project personnel and supplies throughout Bolivia and move RDTF and BlkDTF spare aircraft parts, supplies and other project equipment to and from continental U.S. Support also covers all maintenance, repairs, spare parts, and required major inspections at U.S. facilities, as well as in-country costs for fuel and per diem, uniforms, equipment and economic incentives for 81 personnel (19 pilots, co-pilots and navigators, and 62 enlisted personnel who provide maintenance support). The goal for FY 2007 is to maintain a trained, reliable medium-lift-capable aviation unit that provides aviation support to NAS projects, while maintaining an operational rate of 95 percent of requested missions; support an American PSC who oversees BlkDTF activities, as well as four technicians who supervise maintenance; and an FSN warehouseman to maintain control of the multi-million dollar spare parts inventory.

Alternative/Integrated Development

Continued funding for the USAID-managed integrated alternative development program is required to complement the GOB's eradication and interdiction efforts. Program efforts focus on increasing the competitiveness of licit rural enterprises, fostering more effective, transparent and responsive democratic institutions, and improving basic public services and social conditions. Integrated alternative development efforts must continue to be sequenced appropriately and complemented by effective eradication and interdiction activities.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. 

Bolivia

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Interdiction

FELCN, UMOPAR, GIOE,

12,532

-

12,992

-

11,000

GISUQ, GIAEF, K9,

Garras School, Prosecutors

Eradication

JTF, Eco Police, DIRECO, DIGECO

11,383

-

10,194

-

8,000

Policy Development/Demand Reduction

993

-

847

-

600

VM/SD, Demand Reduction

Operational/Logistical Support

8,439

-

7,156

-

5,400

BDTF, GDTF, Field Support

Border and Transportation Control

34

-

34

-

34

Secure Borders

Terrorist Financing/Money Laundering

1,664

-

767

-

600

LEDP, FIU Development

Anti Corruption

620

-

593

-

400

OPR

Aviation

9,493

-

6,237

-

5,156

RDTF, BlkDTF, Helo Upgrade

Sub Total

45,158

-

38,820

-

31,190

Administration of Justice *

4,500

-

2,970

-

1,000

Alternative Development *

37,164

-

33,660

-

30,000

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

676

-

795

-

808

Non-U.S. Personnel

1,176

-

1,293

-

1,314

ICASS Costs

750

-

788

-

800

Program Support

848

-

874

-

888

Sub-Total

3,450

-

3,750

-

3,810

Total

90,272

-

79,200

-

66,000

*

Funds are transferred to USAID who manages these programs.

Brazil 

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

8,928

5,940

4,000

 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Assistance to the Government of Brazil (GOB) will continue to build and strengthen Brazil's interagency law enforcement and drug interdiction border control operations. Support will also enhance federal, state, civil, and military law enforcement capabilities by providing operational support and equipment to conduct more effective investigations and interdiction operations against specific international narcotics cartel leaders and their associates. Specifically assistance will:

Reduce the demand for illicit narcotics among Brazil's population;

Extend the GOB presence in the Amazon region, particularly in Brazil's northern international border area. Progress will reflect a five percent increase in arrests and seizures by the Brazilian state, civil, and military police.

Continue to build on training already provided by State and other USG agencies to enhance port and airport security;

Expand counternarcotics trafficking activities such as arms trafficking and money laundering;

Improve federal/state cooperation and information sharing on anti-drug issues which will enhance the GOB's ability to conduct sustained interdiction operations with a five percent increase in the number of arrests and seizures;

Develop greater regional cooperation that will build alliances between law enforcement agencies in Brazil and neighboring countries in order to disrupt major trafficking organizations operating in Brazil and to prevent spillover cultivation of illicit crops from the major producing nations;

Reduce money laundering and dismantle international criminal organizations by improving the GOB's anti-money laundering regulatory apparatus; and

Raise awareness of the dangers of drug-related crimes to deter the rising domestic consumption of illicit drugs. This will be evident by a five percent decrease in the amount of illegal narcotics consumed in Brazil.

Program Justification

Brazil is a transit country for cocaine base moving from other Andean cultivation areas to processing laboratories in Colombia. Although Brazil is not a significant drug-producing country, it is the only country that borders all three coca-producing countries in the Andes - Peru, Bolivia and Colombia. The sparsely populated Amazon region comprises more than one half of the country, which has long and porous borders. This makes Brazil a conduit for cocaine from the source countries to North America, Europe and Brazilian cities.

Brazil has relatively well-developed communications, infrastructure, and banking services that, together with major international airports and seaports, makes it a desirable transit route for illicit narcotics bound for the United States and European markets. These factors, coupled with increasingly successful enforcement efforts in neighboring Andean countries, contribute to a growing drug transit problem in Brazil. By assisting Brazil to improve its law enforcement capabilities, the United States will diminish the flow of illicit drugs passing through Brazil to the United States, as well as have an impact on illegal arms shipments and money laundering in Brazil.

Program Accomplishments

Recent USG counternarcotics efforts in Brazil have resulted in improved performance and operations of GOB counter-drug law enforcement agencies and the implementation of cooperative initiatives to reduce both the supply of, and the demand for, illicit drugs. In 2005, Operation COBRA (Colombia/Brazil) operated more effectively with representatives from Peru and Colombia working in the Joint Intelligence Center in Tabatinga. Cocaine interdiction was up in the North and North East of Brazil as result of this collaboration.

Additionally, the DEA/Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS)-supported Special Investigative Units (SIUs) of the Federal Police in Rio and Sao Paulo have been successful. Most large operations carried out by the Federal Police have been the result of information developed by the SIUs. The Federal Police, in conjunction with NAS Brazil, are developing plans to open additional SIUs in Brazil. The SIUs will be linked and offer real time intelligence to units throughout the country.

In 2005, the Brazilian version of the DARE program, PROERD, spread to all 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District. Today PROERD is the second largest DARE program in the world outside of the United States. The USG participation in this success has been substantial. As new curricula are developed periodically in the United States, the 27 state Military Police, responsible for the program in the country, continue to reach out to spread the concepts. Nearly 5 million Brazilian children have been trained in the fifth grade DARE curriculum in Brazil since 1992.

In the same year, INL support assisted the National Antidrug Secretariat's (SENAD). At the request of SENAD, INL is issuing a grant in the amount of $350,000 to a university in the state of Rio Grande do Sul to implement and operate, for a period of 13 months, the National Toll Free Service named LIFE LINE - ("LINHA DA VIDA - INFORMA��ES E ORIENTA��ES SOBRE DROGAS"). Its main objective is to provide counseling on primary and secondary drug abuse prevention, drug effects, and information on community resources for drug users, addicted people, their families, and society in general.

NAS Brasilia sponsored "in-service" refresher training for 30 trainers and their dogs. Participants came from a number of Brazilian states and will also be used for regional operations. Similar training will also be offered in early 2006 for 30 "explosive" dogs and their handlers. These teams will also be used to provide security support for the 2007 Pan American games in Rio de Janeiro.

FY 2007 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

The Brazilian Federal Police (BFP), operating in a country larger than the United States, has only 7,000 agents, of whom only 1,000 are working in the drug enforcement area. This project will contribute the additional resources and training needed to enhance BFP effectiveness in its counternarcotics efforts. Funding will support training against arms trafficking by various USG agencies as well as training to combat money laundering and other financial crimes. Additionally, INL funds will provide bullet-proof vests, communications equipments and GPS devices that will improve Brazilian law enforcement capabilities in remote areas.

Northern Brazil Law Enforcement

To guarantee the continued success of Plan Colombia, it is essential that Colombia and the United States obtain support for the plan from Colombia's neighbors. Funding will contribute to the GOB's expanding Operation COBRA to reinforce its northern borders with Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, Guyana, and Suriname via night vision equipment, small riverine boats and port control training. These operations are aimed at fortifying the northern border through riverine control, which is linked to a tactical center in Tabatinga.

State Security Law Enforcement

Working with the Brazilian National Public Safety Secretariat (SENASP), funds from this project will assist in purchasing communications equipment and GPS devices used in conducting effective investigations and interdiction operations against narcotics cartel leaders and their associates. Through this conduit, the USG hopes to work with the various branches of the Brazilian police, who are on the front lines of interdiction and law enforcement, in combating the threat of cross-border narcotics trafficking.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

This project aims to reduce the demand for drugs in Brazil, a significant market for illegal narcotics. INL funding, in conjunction with the SENAD, will support a national survey of narcotics abuse patterns and drug education programs. These pilot projects are designed to influence Brazilian public opinion on counter-drug policies and programs in order to build political will in support of narcotic control initiatives.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Brazil

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Narcotics Law Enforcement

3,500

-

1,940

-

1,000

Northern Brazil Law Enforcement

3,000

-

2,000

-

800

State Security Law Enforcement

1,528

-

1,000

-

1,000

Sub Total

8,028

-

4,940

-

2,800

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

500

-

500

-

700

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

178

-

125

-

178

Non-U.S. Personnel

77

-

125

-

77

ICASS Costs

106

-

125

-

106

Program Support

39

-

125

-

139

Sub-Total

400

-

500

-

500

Total

8,928

-

5,940

-

4,000



Colombia

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

462,767

464,781

465,000

 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Disrupt Illicit Drugs

Reduce the cultivation of coca and opium poppy to a non-commercial level.

Reduce and discourage coca and opium poppy cultivation in traditional growing areas, as well as potential new areas for cultivation through forced eradication and alternative development.

Increase manual eradication with a focus on areas where aerial spraying is not feasible.

Maintain optimal mission readiness rates for support aircraft.

Dismantle major drug trafficking organizations and prevent their resurgence.

Interdict cocaine and heroin at current high levels until production has been more severely reduced.

Employ technical assistance and training to allow the Government of Colombia (GOC) to investigate, arrest, prosecute, and convict more key narcoterrorists.

Extradite major narcotraffickers to the United States.

Strengthen Institutions

Enhance respect for rule of law throughout Colombia and increase access to justice.

Strengthen permanent police presence in conflictive areas to cement the recently established government presence and help construct additional stations as needed.

Continue the transition to the oral system of justice and train more judges, prosecutors, and police.

Expand human rights early warning system and training to ensure that communities are alerted and violations are investigated and prosecuted.

Internally displaced persons receive the assistance and support necessary to either return to their homes or establish suitable permanent residences elsewhere.

Demobilized combatants have either returned to their homes or have established permanent residence elsewhere and have successfully reintegrated into society.

Develop Alternatives

Provide opportunities via alternative development and social infrastructure projects to former coca growers and other vulnerable groups.

Increase number of families assisted and hectares in which illicit crops are replaced with licit crops through alternative development projects.

Develop employment opportunities in, or near to, areas of aerial spraying and illegal cultivation.

Increase infrastructure and economic market avenues to deliver products produced by alternative development.

Program Justification

Colombia's position as the supplier of over 90 percent of the cocaine and almost 50 percent of the heroin entering the United States makes the aggressive disruption of the illicit drug trade a top USG priority. Colombia is home to three Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs). These groups finance a large part of their operations with proceeds from the drug trade and are a threat to the security of the hemisphere.

The funding requested in FY 2007 will continue to consolidate the successes of the Plan Colombia Supplemental of 2000 and subsequent Andean Counterdrug Initiative (ACI) programs. Even though the original Plan Colombia has formally ended, the most important elements of its programs continue. It is important to further develop and strengthen the GOC's institutions so it can assume ownership and responsibility for these programs. Without sustained support in the near term for the hard-won gains of the joint effort between Colombia and the United States, regional progress against the narcotics trafficking industry and its terrorist allies could be jeopardized.

Program Accomplishments

Colombia had a record year in eradication, interdiction, and extradition in 2005. In November 2005, preliminary results of the latest price surveys of heroin and cocaine in U.S. communities indicated that the price of heroin was up 30 percent and the price of cocaine was up 19 percent. U.S.-Colombian efforts played a decisive role in reducing the supply of these drugs, preventing hundreds of tons of illicit drugs from reaching the world market through interdiction, aerial spraying of coca and poppy crops, and manual eradication.

The U.S.-supported Anti-Narcotics Police Directorate (DIRAN) sprayed 138,775 hectares of coca in 2005 and 1,624 hectares of opium poppy. The illicit coca cultivation eradicated would have yielded over 150 metric tons of cocaine with a street value of over $15 billion. Manual eradication reportedly accounted for the destruction of an additional 31,285 hectares of coca and 497 hectares of poppy. Coca cultivation, which stood at 170,000 hectares in 2001, shrank to 145,000 hectares in 2002 and 114,000 hectares in 2003. Although the Colombian coca crop estimate remained statistically unchanged between 2003 and 2004, eradication of mature crops resulted in an estimated six percent reduction in cocaine production capacity during that timeframe. Figures for 2005 were not available at time of publication. Based on average purities of bulk seizures in the United States, net supply was approximately 515 metric tons of export quality cocaine. Effectively, Colombian counternarcotics efforts have reduced Colombia's capacity to produce cocaine by 43 percent since 2001.

Opium poppy eradication has reduced Colombian heroin cultivation by 68 percent since 2001 from 6,540 hectares to 2,100 hectares. This marked reduction in opium poppy crop size in Colombia is reflected in the most recent statistics on the price and purity of heroin in the United States; South American heroin samples declined in purity by 22 percent and increased in cost per pure gram by 30 percent between 2003 and 2004.

During 2005, DIRAN and the Colombian military captured a record 228 metric tons of cocaine and coca base, along with 718 kilos of heroin. The estimated street value of the 228 metric tons of cocaine is $23 billion.

Interdiction and eradication efforts have kept an estimated 378 metric tons of cocaine, worth over $38 billion, off the streets of the United States. The DIRAN alone destroyed 104 HCl laboratories and 773 base labs in 2005, while the number of HCL laboratories destroyed by all police and military units was 200. The DIRAN regularly conducts cooperative, or joint, operations with the Colombian Air Force, Army, and Navy. The Colombian Army Counterdrug Brigade conducts drug interdiction and provides essential ground security for aerial eradication, a crucial element in reducing ground fire aimed at our spray aircraft. Continued intelligence coordination and more intensive utilization of the Counterdrug Brigade has kept the number of hostile fire impacts on spray aircraft below historic levels, even though the program sprayed more hectares. Maintaining hostile fire impacts below historic levels has helped to sustain the operational tempo of aerial eradication operations by reducing time lost to repair damaged aircraft.

Colombia's justice system continues its transition to an accusatorial system similar to that of the United States, leading to positive changes in the roles and responsibilities of the judges, prosecutors, and criminal investigators. The accusatory system is now functioning in Bogot� and six other municipal areas and is proving to be efficient and effective. It was extended on January 1, 2006, to an additional seven judicial districts, including Medellin. Over 20,000 prosecutors, judges, and criminal investigators had received intensive training in the new accusatory system by early 2006. The USG, through the Justice Sector Reform Program (JSRP) and rule of law assistance, has helped Colombia in reforming and strengthening its criminal justice system.

USG programs have supported the cultivation of over 73,000 hectares of legal crops and completed more than 1,000 social and productive infrastructure projects in the last five years. More than 73,000 families in 17 departments have benefited. The USG has improved the delivery of public services in 156 municipalities, including the delivery of potable water and sewage treatment. To date, the USG has provided non-emergency support for over two million Colombians internally displaced by narcotics terrorism, including aid for over 2,800 former child ex-combatants. Nine peaceful-coexistence centers in small municipalities provide onsite administrative and legal assistance, educational opportunities, and a neutral space for community meetings, discussions, and events. Additionally, the GOC's presence in rural areas was expanded by the creation of 45 Justice Houses (Casas de Justicia), which offer access to justice and peaceful conflict resolution. The Early Warning System, created in 2001 to prevent massacres and forced displacement, helps ensure prompt GOC responses to possible human rights violations.

Homicides were down by 13 percent in 2005, declining to their lowest point since 1987. Kidnappings were down by 51 percent and terrorist attacks were down by 21 percent in 2005. The number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) declined by 15 percent. During 2005, the Colombian government continued consolidating control in all parts of the country, maintaining a police presence in all of Colombia's 1,098 municipalities (county seats.) Under President Uribe's administration, extraditions have increased with 304 Colombian nationals and 11 non-nationals extradited by the end of 2005.

In the short term, funding will support Colombia's follow-on efforts to Plan Colombia at levels similar to previous years, while continuing to work toward the goal of nationalizing the programs so that USG funding levels will decline in the long term. Increasing Colombian participation in funding has not been easy. President Uribe has moved faster in battling narcoterrorism than foreseen and this success has caused an increase in the operational pace of all programs. GOC support for funding, personnel, and programs has increased markedly. Colombia has doubled the percentage of GDP devoted to public security to over five percent in the last four years. The Government of Colombia has added more than 111,000 National Police and Army soldiers since 2000, with training and equipment support from the USG. The GOC also increased the number of Manual Eradication Groups (GMEs) to 60 in 2005. Thanks to increased Colombian participation in aviation activities, in Fiscal Year 2006 we will have reduced the number of U.S. contractor pilots and mechanics by over 100. Funds will be applied to expanding operational and maintenance support for military and police aviation missions, including support requirements for the helicopters protecting the Arauca pipeline. Fiscal Year 2006 will also have been the first year since 2000 without a significant increase in the helicopter or fixed-wing USG-supported fleet in Colombia.

FY 2007 Program

The Colombian law enforcement and military forces will use FY 2007 funding to maximize drug interdiction and eradication efforts. We are encouraged by recent preliminary reports of declining purity and increasing prices of both cocaine and heroin on U.S. streets. The reports reflect the success of the substantial investment made by USG programs. 2005 was another record year for eradication and we anticipate spraying over 130,000 hectares of coca crops and 2,000 hectares of opium poppy in 2006 and 2007. This sustained level of aerial eradication is necessary to ensure that there is no resurgence in coca or poppy cultivation. Manual eradication will continue to be a complement to aerial spraying in areas with adequate security.

In FY 2007, we will continue to see an increase in the number of Colombian National Police (CNP) and Colombian army (COLAR) missions, areas of operations, and vetted units receiving U.S. support due to the increased operational pace and successes in the field. CNP funding will be used for the operation and maintenance of aircraft in support of eradication and interdiction, and to support infrastructure improvements, CNP training, and secure and interoperable communications and intelligence systems. We will work to sustain and improve interdiction units, including the highly successful 150-man mobile squadrons of Carabineros or rural police, and the three airmobile Junglas interdiction companies. As we transfer job responsibilities to the Colombian government, we are eliminating U.S. contractor positions. Simultaneously, we are enhancing our operational and maintenance capabilities in the face of added responsibilities. We are providing operational and maintenance support for the two Blackhawk helicopters and eight Huey II helicopters that arrived in May 2005 to protect the Arauca pipeline, as well as managing and maintaining the new base at Saravena in Arauca, which opened in 2005. We are also working to replace lost and aging aircraft with newer, commercially available models. We plan to acquire aircraft that can be more easily maintained and operated by the Government of Colombia in future years, when nationalization plans currently in development have been implemented.

Alternative development programs work to create permanent alternative income-generation opportunities for local populations. Democracy programs seek to modernize the criminal justice system, promote access to justice for disenfranchised Colombians, protect human rights, increase government transparency and accountability, and support peace initiatives. IDP programs provide economic and social assistance to persons displaced by civil strife and violence, youth at risk of recruitment by illegal armed groups, and the communities in which they reside. ACI funding administered by the DOJ contributes to training for judges, prosecutors, and police, and the promotion of timely and effective investigations and prosecutions of human rights violations. Culture of Lawfulness programs promote awareness and appreciation for the rule of law. Funds will also be used to support the demobilization of paramilitary groups that is underway.

Support to the Colombian Military

Colombian Army (COLAR) Counterdrug Mobile Brigade: Continued support and development of the Counterdrug Brigade enhances Colombia's ability to conduct sustained eradication missions and interdiction operations. The majority of these funds will be used to train, equip, transport, and sustain the Counterdrug Brigade. Funding will provide logistical and operations support to the COLAR Counterdrug Brigade's interdiction operations, including high value targets, as well as to the CNP's aerial eradication missions. Funds will also provide similar support to other selected units of the Colombian military performing counternarcotics operations.

Colombian Army (COLAR) Aviation Support: COLAR Aviation support enhances the ability to conduct both interdiction and eradication operations. FY 2007 funds will support the COLAR Aviation Brigade aircraft, consisting of UH-1N, UH-60, Huey II, and K-MAX helicopters that provide airlift support for eradication and interdiction operations, as well as high-value target missions. Major expenditures will include fuel, parts, repair and maintenance of the helicopters, training for crews and support personnel, and infrastructure support. The continued need for these funds is due to fleet increases in recent years, increased operations tempo, and ongoing institutional development. FY 2007 funds will also be used to support helicopters and facilities dedicated to protecting the petroleum infrastructure in Arauca Department. In 2007, there is a projected increase in the number of missions, areas of operations, and number of vetted units receiving U.S. support. The strategic focus will be to capitalize on the COLAR's ability to use aggressive, small, mobile units to go after long-standing and newly developing narcotrafficking organizations. This will require sustained high levels of helicopter airlift support. Three battalions of the Counterdrug Brigade have been retrained and retooled and in conjunction with COLAR Aviation, will continue to expand their area of operations from the conflict regions of Colombia.

Airbridge Denial Program: These funds will provide continued operational and maintenance support for the Colombian Airbridge Denial Program (ABD) consisting of five Cessna Citation 560 aircraft and two C-26 aircraft. It will also provide continued training for Colombian aircrews, USG contract ground and air safety monitors. We will also explore the possibility of using ABD assets to conduct limited maritime air patrols needed to extend Colombian Government control over trafficking by sea. This would allow the Colombian Air Force to conduct maritime patrol missions in conjunction with the Colombian Navy and Joint Interagency Task Force South (JIATF-S) providing better coverage of the trafficking routes in, through and departing Colombian territory. As Colombian air operations have become more successful, the drug trafficking flight patterns and means of conveyance have changed to remote border areas close to Venezuela and Brazil and more maritime departures from the Colombian coastal areas. The ABD program was requested as a separate line item in FY 2005 and FY 2006, but has been incorporated into the regular Colombia budget in FY 2007. Other in-country costs associated with the ABD program will continue to be funded through other headings within the Colombian Military budget.

Air Force Interdiction and Surveillance: Narcoterrorists have traditionally exploited Colombia's vast and relatively unsecured borders to move illicit narcotics, weapons, money and other contraband via air. Logistical and technical assistance support will be provided to assist the Colombian Air Force in interdiction and surveillance programs in support of endgame operations against unauthorized aircraft flights (the Air Bridge Denial program) and in coordinating with COLAR and CNP Aviation units. These funds will cover in-country expenses and INL contractor costs in support of the Air Bridge Denial (ABD) program. Uses include assistance in the maintenance and operation of forward operating locations, minor infrastructure improvements, fuel, training, U.S. safety monitors and specialized equipment. Funding pays for the contract maintenance and operation of Cessna Citation C-560, Cessna 182, and FAC C-26 aircraft.

Navy/Maritime Interdiction: Colombia's extensive river network connects the interior with the coastal regions and is a key link between narcotics cultivation and processing facilities and embarkation points. These funds will be used to train and equip specialized units to analyze operational intelligence and interdict contraband traffic, particularly along Colombia's Pacific coast. The primary beneficiaries of this program are the Colombian Navy units.

Support to the Colombian Police

Colombian National Police (CNP) Aviation Support: Funding for the CNP Air Service (ARAVI) aircraft supports transport aircraft, eradication escorts, and intelligence platforms for interdiction and eradication operations. Expenses have increased, including: rising cost of fuel; additional aircraft for support, transport, spraying, and intelligence gathering; operation and maintenance costs; high-value target missions; training for CNP personnel; and upgrading of existing aircraft. Funds are used to support the fleet of 60 rotary-wing and 21 fixed-wing ARAVI aircraft. Other major expenses will include training for CNP personnel and the purchase of spare parts, tools, contract labor maintenance costs, ammunition, training, communications support, and aviation-related infrastructure costs.

Colombian National Police (CNP) Support for Eradication: This program enhances Colombia's ability to conduct sustained eradication operations to ensure the downward trend in illicit cultivation in Colombia. Funding will provide for operations and maintenance for the eradication aircraft fleet that includes spray aircraft, escort helicopters, imagery gathering aircraft, and heavy transport aircraft. These funds will also be used to purchase the chemicals used for eradication. The program will also purchase three aircraft to replace lost or aging spray aircraft. These new spray aircraft will be able to spray coca and poppy and will be easily supportable by the GOC as we move forward on nationalization. More dispersed cultivations, as well as the projection of our spray operations to areas more distant from fixed operating bases and more frequent repeat spraying of key cultivation areas, will increase transport costs and other logistical expenses. These funds will also support upgrades and maintenance of reconnaissance aircraft equipped with advanced imagery and mapping devices to improve the CNP's ability to locate illicit crops. Manual eradication efforts will be increased in areas where aerial spraying is not feasible, although we will proceed with caution since manual eradication is more dangerous than aerial eradication. We will provide equipment, training, and technical assistance to protect these units from mines, explosive devices, and aggressive narcotraffickers. The 2007 spray plan will reflect a further pursuit of smaller, more dispersed fields, as well as more frequent repeat spraying of key cultivation areas. Aircraft range limitations and severe topography will diminish efficiency and keep eradication flight hours high.

Colombian National Police (CNP) Support for Interdiction: Continued support for this program enhances Colombia's ability to conduct interdiction operations by funding non-aviation CNP DIRAN activities, including training and equipping DIRAN's 20 operational companies and three airmobile interdiction companies (Junglas). Funding will cover DIRAN and Junglas training costs in Colombia and at U.S. military and commercial training institutions. It will also upgrade existing DIRAN interdiction facilities and construct new facilities, especially along Colombia's eastern, southern and western zones so that DIRAN can project force into these remote, but critical areas. Funding will also provide equipment and training to sustain a DIRAN Polygraph Unit to ensure the integrity of personnel performing interdiction and security duties in Colombia's ports and other locations. The Airport Security program will continue to develop with funding for small equipment purchases, operational expenses, equipment maintenance, training of new anti-narcotics police assigned to the airports, and recertification of canines and handlers. As with eradication efforts, these programs are an ongoing cost of making the illicit drug trade unsustainable in Colombia.

Colombian National Police (CNP) Administrative Support: The focus here will be on continuing base improvements, purchase of munitions and arms, maintenance, and upgrading security and equipment. The program of establishing an interoperable communications and information system to bring the bulk of the CNP to a modern and professional level will continue, as the CNP grows and their existing equipment becomes obsolete.

Promote Social and Economic Progress

Support for Democracy: USAID's democracy program will promote a strong democratic presence to counter the negative effects that illicit activities have on transparency, accountability, and the ability of local officials to practice good governance. The USAID democracy program provides technical assistance and training to: 1) modernize the criminal justice system and promote access to justice for all Colombians; 2) promote and protect human rights through an integrated Prevention, Protection and Response program; 3) increase government transparency and accountability with a two-pronged approach to strengthen government internal control systems and promote civil society oversight of public investment and processes; 4) strengthen political parties; and 5) support peace initiatives of civil society, while strengthening the GOC's ability to implement policies and activities in support of peace throughout Colombia.

Alternative Development: USAID alternative development (AD) seeks to establish the social, institutional, and economic preconditions required to: 1) promote sustainable and equitable economic growth in regions vulnerable to drug production and conflict; and 2) place local communities in the strongest possible socio-political position to turn away permanently from involvement in illicit activities. Programs provide income and employment opportunities to rural residents and small farmers who have agreed not to grow illicit crops. AD projects also support small and medium private enterprises that generate licit income and employment opportunities and provide infrastructure to increase community cohesion and improve access to markets and services. They provide technical assistance to improve resource management in ecological buffer zones and to improve livelihoods in indigenous communities. They strengthen local and national institutions that plan rural economic development and build trade capacity. Finally, they interact with Support for Democracy programs to strengthen local governance and decentralization efforts.

Support to Vulnerable Groups/IDPs: This USAID program targets IDPs and other vulnerable groups. It provides economic and social assistance to persons displaced by civil strife and violence, to youth at risk of recruitment by illegal armed groups, and to the communities in which they reside. USAID-funded activities are focused on medium- and long-term solutions leading to the sustainable re-integration of IDPs into mainstream Colombian society through programs at the national and local levels.

Improved Environment for Demobilization and Reintegration: Subject to relevant legal conditions (including a certification by the Secretary of State) being fulfilled, USAID and the Department of State will provide support for the Government of Colombia's efforts to demobilize and reintegrate (DR) illegal armed groups back into civil society and to facilitate reconciliation and the delivery of reparations to victims of the country's armed conflict. This program provides technical assistance, institutional strengthening and implementation support for: 1) monitoring and verification of the DR process, including assurance that those responsible for serious crimes are identified, prosecuted, and punished; 2) reintegration, counseling, and job training of ex-combatants, including children; and 3) reconciliation and victims' reparations.

Administrative Support: USAID receives ACI funds to cover the administrative costs of running the alternative development program in Colombia. These funds are used to pay for salaries, benefits, and allowances of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential and warehouse leasing, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for the alternative development program.

Promote the Rule of Law

Funds will be used to further develop and institutionalize the rule of law in Colombia as a means of countering illicit drug-related activities. Major programs will provide continued support to expand and maintain police presence in areas of conflict, including the highly successful rural police or Carabineros, so that the GOC will have the security to provide the social and economic benefits of democracy to all Colombians, including IDPs. Funds will also be used for continued development of the Bomb Squad/Explosive Database Center, drug awareness and demand reduction programs, prison reform, and the successful culture of lawfulness program.

These funds also support the DOJ's judicial reform programs. Significant assistance will also be provided in the areas of money laundering, asset forfeiture, organized crime, and human rights investigations and prosecutions. The DOJ projects will continue to provide training and technical assistance to complete the transition to an accusatory judicial system similar to our own. This practical training will complement the judicial projects done by USAID in its Support for Democracy program.

Reestablish Public Security in Conflict Zones: The reestablishment of public security and general government presence in conflict zones will continue to require an expansion of the CNP's presence in these zones. Funds will be used to organize, train and equip municipal police to be stationed in new areas or areas that are currently severely understaffed in dangerous locations. Funding will also be used to continue to organize, train and equip the 150-man mobile "Carabineros" (rural police) squadrons that have proven to be very successful. The "Carabineros" are the most likely group to cover the areas vacated by the paramilitaries who have demobilized. Equipment purchases will include field equipment, light weapons and munitions, communications/command and control systems, medical supplies, force protection upgrades, vehicles, and operational logistics support. U.S. funds will also be used to continue to construct and upgrade hardened police stations in the larger municipalities to provide cover for reinserted CNP units in particularly conflicted areas.

Judicial Reforms Program: Colombia's transition to an accusatorial judicial system similar to our own has required a significant amount of training and technical assistance and has led to a change in the roles and responsibilities of judges, prosecutors, and criminal investigators. The USG, through the Justice Sector Reform Program (JSRP) and rule of law assistance, will continue to help Colombia in reforming and strengthening its criminal justice system. DOJ, USAID, and other USG agencies will provide training, technical assistance, and equipment to enhance the capacity and capabilities of the Colombian system and to make it more transparent to the public. Significant training and technical assistance will be provided in the area of money laundering, asset forfeiture, and organized crime investigations. As in our police and military programs, there will be significant emphasis on respect for human rights and anticorruption measures. Specialized units will receive training in investigating and prosecuting these types of cases. Technical assistance and training will also be provided to support areas crucial to the new judicial system like forensics and professionalization with small purchases of specialized equipment that supports these activities.

Other Programs to Promote the Rule of Law: This portion of the budget includes drug awareness and demand reduction efforts and the important Culture of Lawfulness program that promotes a respect and appreciation for rule of law in the youth who comprise the future of Colombia. We will also provide limited technical assistance and equipment to the GOC for its individual deserter program. There is also a program for promoting institutional reform within the Ministry of Defense (MOD). This program will expand reforms within MOD related to institution building, to include strengthening civilian management and direction, and promoting nationalization. We will also continue expanding the expertise and equipment base of the bomb squad and explosive database center and provide limited support to the Prison Security project. We will also continue to support respect for rule of law and civic responsibility. The Culture of Lawfulness program is being integrated into CNP basic training programs. Already in ten cities, the program will train additional teacher trainers to move the program closer to self-sufficiency.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds are used for the general administrative and operating expenses for the planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of INL programs in Colombia. Funds cover salaries, benefits, and allowances of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel; residential and warehouse leasing; field travel; International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs; and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and as anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. The NAS will also be moving into a new office building. Some funds will be used to adapt, equip, and furnish the building. In addition to salary, benefits, and allowances for personnel, these funds cover temporary duty (TDY) assistance and general administrative and indirect operating expenses that cannot be identified with a specific project. ICASS costs are the overhead costs paid to the Embassy for occupying space in the Embassy and for using basic Embassy services.

Colombia

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Support to the Colombia Military

Army Counterdrug Mobile Brigade

3,080

-

1,832

-

2,200

Army Aviation Support

125,236

-

123,453

-

119,000

Air Bridge Denial Program

-

-

-

-

11,100

Air Force Interdiction and Surveillance

4,620

-

4,574

-

4,700

Navy Maritime Interdiction Support

460

-

455

-

1,000

Sub-Total

133,396

-

130,314

-

138,000

Support to Colombian National Police

Aviation Support

70,000

-

70,518

-

69,000

Support for Eradication

82,500

-

81,695

-

81,950

Support for Interdiction

16,931

-

16,513

-

16,500

Administrative Support

1,390

-

1,376

-

1,000

Sub-Total

170,821

-

170,102

-

168,450

Promote Social & Economic Progress

Support for Democracy *

22,000

-

18,810

-

19,000

Alternative Development *

70,694

-

72,005

-

73,500

Support for Vulnerable Groups/IDP *

32,000

-

30,690

-

31,000

Demobilization and Reintegration

-

-

8,415

1,500

Sub Total

124,694

-

129,920

-

125,000

Promote the Rule of Law

Bomb Squad/Explosive Database Center

700

-

228

-

-

Prison Security/Drug Rehabilitation Training

-

-

89

-

250

Judicial Reforms Program

6,000

-

5,940

-

6,000

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

200

-

228

-

500

Culture of Lawfulness Program

400

-

594

-

250

Reinsertion Program for Armed Groups

-

-

495

-

500

Institutional Reform for Ministry of Defense

-

-

178

-

-

Reestablish Public Security in Conflict Zones

20,079

-

19,367

-

18,650

Sub-Total

27,379

-

27,119

-

26,150

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

2,000

-

1,915

-

2,400

Non-U.S. Personnel

1,400

-

2,696

-

1,700

ICASS Costs

1,000

-

864

-

1,000

Program Support

2,077

-

1,851

-

2,300

Sub-Total

6,477

-

7,326

-

7,400

Total

462,767

-

464,781

-

465,000

*

Funds are transferred to USAID who manages these programs.

Ecuador

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

25,792

19,800

17,300

 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

 
Interdiction

Enhanced Ecuadorian National Police, criminal justice system and military forces efforts coupled with improved cooperation disrupt the transit of drugs through Ecuador from neighboring countries.

A ten percent increase in counternarcotics police stationed along frequently used or newly emergent trafficking routes create choke points and improve interdiction results.

A five percent increase in the provision of additional equipment, operational support and training improve interdiction operations by the Ecuadorian Army and Navy in the country's coastal waters and along land borders.

Improvements in mobility, communications and technical operations enable increased drug seizures by the Counternarcotics Police.

International trafficking in drugs, persons, and other illicit goods are disrupted and criminal organizations dismantled.

Stabilization

Enhanced security along the border with Colombia discourages narcotics traffickers and illegal armed groups from crossing into Ecuador.

Criminal Justice Development

Government institutions are able to better combat drug and other organized crime groups.

Ecuadorian police and military personnel have the required knowledge and skills to interdict drugs and drug-related trafficking effectively and as safely as possible, increasing interdictions and arrests.

Police, prosecutors and judges have a common understanding of permissible and best-practice investigatory techniques; documentation and evidentiary requirements; oral testimony and other necessary elements to conduct more successful investigations and prosecutions of significant drug cases under the new Code of Criminal Procedures.

Money laundering and precursor chemical controls are implemented with a greater specialized expertise, resulting in increased prosecutions and convictions for violations.

Economic and Social Sector Development

Improvement in economic/social infrastructure decreases the vulnerability of Ecuador to the production and domestic use of illicit drugs.

Increase in public campaigns targeting illicit drugs and studies comparing domestic drug abuse to results of a 2003 baseline study strengthen popular resistance to drug trafficking and consumption.

Public infrastructure improvements increase access to markets for licit crops and improve competitiveness of indigenous industries as measured by increasing sales and family income.

Program Justification 

Sharing borders and a contiguous seacoast with Colombia and Peru, Ecuador is a major transit country for illicit drugs and chemicals. The armed conflict in Colombia also complicates drug interdiction on Ecuador's northern border. Most drugs leave Ecuador by sea. Ecuadorian authorities continue to strive for improved port cargo inspections. Cocaine seizures for 2005 were at levels substantially above any recorded previous year, while seizures of heroin and precursor chemicals continued at high levels. Uneven implementation of the new criminal procedures code, a faulty judicial system, and conflicting laws hamper prosecutions. The USG provides equipment, infrastructure, and training to help improve counternarcotics performance.

Weak public institutions, widespread corruption and a poorly regulated financial system make Ecuador vulnerable to organized crime. Border controls of persons and goods are undependable. Much of the population lives in poverty. Scanty government presence in a large portion of the country contributes to lawlessness. The Ecuadorian National Police (ENP) and military forces are inadequately equipped and trained to deal with international criminal or insurgent pressures.

There is no evidence that significant illicit crops or drugs are produced in Ecuador. However, coca base, cocaine hydrochloride and heroin from Colombia and Peru are transshipped internationally through Ecuador's sea and airports in volumes ranging from a few hundred grams to multi-ton loads. Maritime cocaine shipments aboard Ecuadorian flag vessels and through Ecuadorian waters increased dramatically in 2005. Although Ecuador has no bilateral maritime agreement with the U.S., law enforcement operators are improving their ability to work cooperatively to facilitate boarding and search of suspect vessels by United States law enforcement personnel. Detected shipments of drugs via international mail and messenger services continued at a high level in 2005.

Ecuadorian alternative development efforts are focused on economic and social development programs along the northern border that are "preventive" rather than "alternative" development, since illicit crop cultivation is not currently significant; however it still remains a major problem in the adjacent Putumayo region of Colombia. Attention to alternative development will take advantage of the current relative stability in the north to further consolidate successes to date in containing narcotrafficking spillover threats.

Program Accomplishments

Overall, seizures were at a record-setting pace with nearly 45 metric tons of cocaine seized in 2005. The USG continued to receive excellent cooperation from the ENP and from the Armed Forces, who do the bulk of border patrolling in Ecuador and continue to seize large amounts of white gas, a chemical precursor for drug processing. In 2005, the Government of Ecuador (GOE) returned several FARC guerillas to the Government of Colombia (GOC). Some of these narco-terrorists were in Ecuadorian hospitals recovering from wounds received during fighting in Putumayo.

Along the northern border, Embassy Ecuador's Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) inaugurated a new police headquarters for the anti-narcotics police in San Lorenzo. In addition to the donation of three fast patrol launches, NAS Quito funded a $3 million pier (to be completed in early 2006) for the Ecuadorian marines. These efforts will significantly improve their patrolling capabilities. The police and marines also cooperated in the discovery and eradication of three separate cultivations (2-4 hectares) of coca in this zone in 2005.

NAS completed a helipad in the Esmeraldas city navy base that will allow fast transport of soldiers and supplies to the San Lorenzo marine battalion in a crisis situation. Funding has helped build, expand, and improve vehicle maintenance facilities in Esmeraldas, Ibarra, Tulcan and Santa Cecilia (Sucumbios province) for Humvees and five-ton trucks donated by NAS to the Ecuadorian army special forces and marines in early 2004. These vehicles are assisting the effort to expand patrolling along the Colombian border. The USG also began planning a checkpoint in La Bonita, Sucumbios, in a lawless zone right across from the FARC in Putumayo

The 120-man NAS-funded Quick Reaction Force (QRF) of the Ecuadorian army graduated U.S. Special Forces training and took up station in Santa Cecilia, Sucumbios. Given the escalating fighting in Putumayo and the imminent placement of a Colombian brigade there, the QRF is providing essential patrolling on the border. The next step is to train QRF's for Esmeraldas and Carchi provinces. The USG also renovated the anti-narcotics police barracks in Lago Agrio, allowing for more police and drug-detecting dogs to be assigned there.

FY 2007 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Police Operations: This project is responsible for nearly all of the drug seizures in Ecuador. Funds will support the Counternarcotics Police Directorate (DNA) port and canine operations; acquisition of law enforcement and communications equipment; vehicle acquisition, maintenance, repair and operational costs; and the cost of providing a port advisor from the U.S. Customs Service (DHS/ICE).

Police Facilities Construction: Funding will support expanding police presence and counternarcotics operations, begun in FY 2000, to sensitive outlying locations inadequately protected against narcotics trafficking. The project will fund new and/or expanded police facilities with the objective of continually maintaining 30 to 40 member units at key interdiction points, especially in remote sites on the northern Ecuadorian border with Colombia, and major roadways connecting Ecuador's borders with her ports.

Police and Judicial Training: The addition of new DNA personnel will increase the need for basic and advanced training emphasizing ground and airborne field operations, intelligence methods, and cargo and personnel inspection techniques is growing, with military co-trained with police where appropriate. The project will meet this need and also broaden the scope and detail of the training provided to implement the new code of criminal procedures, working particularly with the National Commission on Judicial Reform established in 2003.

Money Laundering and Chemical Control: Ecuador is a major dollar-based drug transit country economy with weak banking controls. The country also produces chemical precursors and is a transit corridor for diverted chemicals. The project will provide training and equipment to assist the GOE's establishment of new financial intelligence and chemical control units, as well as the enforcement units that will support them.

Military Border and Coastal Control

Continuing the military border and coastal control project including vehicles, field equipment, and some operational support will further strengthen Ecuador's ability to protect its national territory against narco-terrorist incursions and to interdict illicit international shipments of drugs and chemicals.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

This project will counter Ecuadorian public misunderstandings and disinformation regarding U.S. policies and activities and the true nature of the drug, terrorism and other transnational challenges. It will provide informational materials, sponsor travel to view U.S. counternarcotics projects and activities, and fund guest speakers. The project will also directly support drug awareness projects operated by GOE.

Alternative Development/Northern Border Development

This program will discourage the spread of the Andean regional narcotics economy into Ecuador by assisting the GOE in strengthening state presence and community structures in the north, generally fortifying a licit social, economic and political environment. In FY 2007, the program's geographic reach will expand, while providing infrastructure, local government institutional support, community strengthening, and legal training. The program will also continue to increase jobs and incomes in the north by supporting the competitiveness of new and existing rural enterprises. Activities will include capital investments and complementary technical assistance helping local governments build and sustain social and productive infrastructure; technical assistance and training to municipal governments and local communities to identify and resolve local development problems democratically; support for small farmers to legalize land holdings; and support to strengthen the competitiveness of existing agricultural and related enterprises in the north. Additionally, funds will support expanding the public diplomacy activity launched last year that identifies the USG-GOE Northern Border efforts as a positive contributor to the economic well-being of the northern border.

Program Development & Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. 

Ecuador

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Police Operations

3,962

-

2,757

-

3,000

Police Facilities Construction

1,960

-

1,325

-

1,500

Police and Judicial Training

945

-

875

-

800

Money Laundering and Chemical

200

240

Control

270

-

-

-

-

Sub-Total

7,137

-

5,157

-

5,540

Military Border and Coastal Control

3,000

-

2,358

-

2,500

Drug Awareness/Public Diplomacy

75

-

60

-

60

Alternative Development *

14,880

-

11,425

-

8,400

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

400

-

200

-

200

Non-U.S. Personnel

90

-

200

-

200

ICASS Costs

130

-

200

-

200

Program Support

80

-

200

-

200

Sub-Total

700

-

800

-

800

Total

25,792

-

19,800

-

17,300

*

Funds are transferred to USAID who manages these programs.

Panama

Budget Summary ($000)
 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

5,952

4,455

4,000

 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

 
Interdiction 

Enhance Panama's interdiction capability to disrupt the regional flow of illicit drugs, chemicals, weapons, and people by improving its law enforcement infrastructure and control of its borders and international ports of entry and exit.

Increase operational readiness of the Panamanian National Police (PNP) units involved in counter-drug missions. Assistance to improve and expand the PNP cargo truck and small patrol boat fleets, modernize its communications and to provide advance training will result in a seven percent increase over FY 2006 in seizures of illegal contraband (especially illicit drugs) and increased counter-drug missions in the Colon metropolitan area and the Santiago province.

Advanced training, specialized equipment and operational support provided to a customs manifest review unit improves security at Panama's Atlantic Ports and the Colon Free Trade Zone, resulting in a 10 percent increase over FY 2006 in seizures of illicit goods at these ports and at the Colon Free Trade Zone.

Continuing the refurbishment and upgrading of the National Maritime Service's (SMN) truck and small patrol boat fleets as well as expanding its network of land support bases will increase the number and breadth of operations, resulting in a five percent growth of maritime seizures of illicit goods over FY 2006.

Completing the first stage of modernizing the National Air Service's (SAN) operations center, continuing to upgrade its fixed wing fleet, and enhancing maritime air patrol capability will enable the SAN to undertake more missions than in FY 2006 to support other law enforcement agencies in the interdiction of illicit goods.

Criminal Justice Development  

Professionalize, modernize, and expand Panama's institutional capacity to effectively investigate and properly prosecute criminal activities, broaden operational and policy cooperation with other nations (especially USG law enforcement), increase seizures and forfeitures of criminal assets and cripple international criminal organizations engaged in transnational crimes.

Professionalize, modernize and expand the capacity of the PNP through training and assistance of a law enforcement advisor will increase by 10 percent over FY 2006 the number of traffickers arrested and successfully prosecuted, deported, or extradited as a result of Government of Panama (GOP) investigations.

Professionalize, modernize, and expand the capacity of the Technical Judicial Police (PTJ), especially the PTJ narcotics unit established in 2006, will result in a ten percent increase over FY 2006 in PTJ investigations and arrests.

Improve Panama's capability to combat money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes, and to coordinate effectively with international partners.

Building on progress enabled by USG programs, the Embassy's Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) will provide continuing training and operational assistance (focusing on drug and terrorism financing) to the Financial Analysis Unit (FAU) of the Presidency and the Financial Investigation Units (FIU) of the Technical Judicial Police that will result in a 10 percent increase over 2006 in the number of investigations, arrests, and prosecutions of money laundering cases.

In addition to strengthening Panama's institutional capacity to investigate and prosecute cases of public corruption, the implementation of a culture of lawfulness project will begin changing social values to reject corruption and acceptance of criminality.

Improving the capability of the Public Ministry anti-corruption unit will result in a five percent increase over FY 2006 in the number of corruption cases investigated and prosecuted. Implementation of a culture of lawfulness program in Panamanian secondary schools will instill a respect for a lawful society into students.

Program Justification 

With the only temperate waterway between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and only land connection between North and South America, Panama is the geographic cross-roads of the hemisphere as well as a major global air traffic, financial, communications, and world commerce hub. This makes Panama a natural nexus for transnational crime - including drug and precursor chemical trafficking, money laundering, trafficking in arms, and illegal immigration. President Torrijos (who took office in September 2004) has improved security and bilateral cooperation, but Panama's budgetary constraints limit its law enforcement capacity and the country remains a major transit point for illegal drugs heading for the United States as well as Europe. In addition, Panama's judicial system is undermined by corruption and the control of its borders against transnational crime is inadequate, making the country highly vulnerable to drug trafficking, precursor chemical diversion, arms trafficking, alien smuggling, and other illicit activities.

Panama's large banking sector, its position in the global finance system and dollar-based economy make it a potential money laundering center. Panama requires technical assistance and material support for it to carry on an effective campaign against money laundering through implementing internal controls and attacking criminal and terrorist groups engaged in money laundering, especially in the Colon Free Trade Zone. It is in the United States' interest, as well as global interest, to promote cooperation with Panama to counter transnational crime.

Program Accomplishments

This decade's excellent law enforcement cooperation between the United States and Panama has improved markedly since 2004 under the Torrijos Administration. The FY 2005 was invested in the continued maturation and improvement of Panama's law enforcement sector and to provide technical and operational support to the country's programs against drug trafficking and other transnational crime. INL and other USG financial assistance, technical help and professional cooperation enabled the GOP to increase its already serious capacity to interdict drugs and secure its land, maritime and air borders that resulted in increased drug and drug money seizures - including (through November) 10.3 metric tons of cocaine, 9.5 metric tons of marijuana and $10.5 million in currency. Culminating a process begun in 2001, Panama's model chemical control legislation (drafted with USG assistance) was approved in April. The professional and capable National Maritime Service (SMN) maintains good bilateral relationships and cooperates fully with USG requests for boarding and interdictions, assisting the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) to verify ship registry data, and transferring prisoners and evidence to the United States under the Bilateral Maritime Counter-Narcotics Agreement (that saves the USG several millions of dollars). Despite limited resources, the SAN provides excellent counternarcotics support, such as in Operation "Sombra III" to identified clandestine airstrips and the October seizure of 1.8 metric tons of cocaine near Porvenir, Colon. SAN aircraft also support SMN maritime interdiction missions, and the SAN-SMN relationship has grown to a point that the GOP is exploring the possibility of merging the two into a National Coast Guard.

Panama is making steady progress in other areas of law enforcement. Following up on the campaign promise to tackle corruption, the Torrijos Administration has begun auditing government accounts, investigating major public corruption cases and, with INL assistance, begun to establish a specialized anti-corruption unit within the PTJ. In financial crimes, including money laundering, Panama improved its regulation and enforcement of its financial controls, continued ongoing investigations into the Western Hemisphere's largest Black Market Peso Exchange money laundering scheme and provided international cooperation for investigations into possible money laundering and corruption by high-level Costa Rican and Peruvian government officials. In 2005, Panama formally indicted Nicaraguan ex-president Aleman for money laundering, stemming from a cooperative investigation with Nicaragua in 2004. In the area of drug awareness and demand reduction, the USG and the Panamanian Commission for the Study and Prevention of Drug-Related Crimes (CONAPRED) continued its five-year (2002 - 2007) strategy by funding seven demand reduction projects.

FY 2007 Program

Border Control Enhancement

National Police: The PNP bears the principal responsibility for disrupting the large volume of Colombian narcotics being transshipped to the United States as well as other contraband being smuggled along this principal trafficking corridor. FY 2007 funds will complete a five-year effort to establish, train, and equip select small units of the PNP that perform counter-drug and counter transnational crime missions. Funds will also provide limited direct operational support to the PNP, assistance to enhance its infrastructure (by improving the PNP trucks and small patrol boats fleets, and professional training to law enforcement personnel. FY 2007 programs will broaden its focus from the Darian region (on the Colombia border) to the Colon metropolitan area and Santiago province.

National Air Service (SAN): The SAN provides aviation support to the PNP and the SMN with its fleet of rotary and fixed wing aircraft based in Panama City. Funds will be used to address systemic weaknesses in the SAN's air fleet maintenance and safety program, provide operational assistance to minimize the use of Panamanian airspace by drug traffickers, and improve law enforcement aerial reconnaissance capability.

Border Enhancement: This project assists GOP law enforcement agencies with controlling trafficking of narcotics, arms, illegal migrants, and other contraband along the country's major transportation routes. Funds will provide training and equipment as well as a counternarcotics advisor to enhance security controls at Panama's major airports and choke points along the Pan-American Highway. In addition, funds will be used to enable elite mobile teams to conduct counter-drug surge operations.

National Maritime Service: The SMN provides law enforcement and security for Panama's territorial waters (including the Panama Canal), a major smuggling corridor for drugs and other contrabands. FY 2007 funds will support infrastructure enhancement (upgrading patrol boats and land bases while modernizing logistic systems), provide professional training and lend limited operational assistance. These programs will enable the SMN to increase its control of the coastal region, including small ports and natural inlets that have been a haven for smuggling.

Port Security: This project will address post-9/11 maritime issues such a cruise ship security and commercial shipping container security by working closely with the Panama Canal Authority (ACP) and Maritime Authority (AMP) to take an integrated approach to maritime and port security challenges. The project will focus on the Colon Free Zone, a major commercial maritime shipping nexus as well as a primary part of the Black Market Peso Exchange. Funds will be used to train and equip Port Security Boarding Teams and assist in strengthening security control and systems of the Colon Free Zone Authority.

Law Enforcement Enhancement

Panamanian Customs Service: Operational assistance and training will be provided to Panamanian Customs officials for cargo inspections, investigations into Black Market Peso Exchange, money laundering, and infringements of intellectual property rights. In 2006, the NAS will help establish a customs manifest review unit to improve port and Colon Free Zone security.

Technical Judicial Police: The effectiveness of the PTJ, the GOP's primary criminal investigative arm, has been limited due to insufficient resources and inter-agency disputes. FY 2007 funds will provide training and equipment to improve the PTJ's professionalism and capacity. Funds will also assist in operational support for the PTJ's narcotic unit.

Financial Investigations Unit: With USG-support, the GOP has made good progress in improving its money laundering regime. FY 2007 funds will continue assisting the Financial Analysis Unit, Financial Investigative Unit, and the Cooperative Association and Banking Superintendent with training to improve investigative skills and enable the prosecution of increasingly sophisticated money-laundering cases.

Law Enforcement Modernization: This project will assist in modernizing Panamanian law enforcement offices through training, better use of information technology, and reshaping the police role in preventing crime. The city of Colon will host pilot projects that will be expanded into high-crime areas of Panama City. Special emphasis will be placed on dealing with youth gangs.

Anti-Corruption Program

There is significant GOP and public concern about the level of corruption within society, and anti-corruption was one of President Torrijos' campaign planks. FY 2007 programs will support a "Culture of Lawfulness" project (that teaches secondary school students the importance and role of law) and will continue strengthening the Public Ministry's anti-corruption office.

Drug Awareness and Demand Reduction

The growing drug traffic and greater availability of drugs is feeding a rise in drug abuse. FY 2007 funds will support the Ministry of Education continuing develop drug awareness programs. Funds will also provide some limited support to non-governmental organization drug awareness and anti gang programs and will encourage NGO partnerships with the GOP.

Program Development & Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances for U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. 

Panama

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Border Control Enhancement

National Police

750

-

650

-

550

National Air Service

500

-

250

-

250

Border Enhancement

500

-

400

-

250

National Maritime Service

750

-

650

-

600

Port Security

240

-

0

-

250

Sub-Total

2,740

-

1,950

-

1,900

Law Enforcement Enhancement

Public Ministry Special

Investigations Unit

500

-

0

-

0

Panamian Customs Service

200

-

300

-

200

Technical Judicial Police

500

-

500

-

350

Financial Investigations Unit

200

-

150

-

150

Law Enforcement Modernization

500

-

375

-

300

Sub-Total

1,900

-

1,325

-

1,000

Anti-Corruption Initiatives

450

-

350

-

300

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

100

-

75

-

50

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

320

-

303

-

300

Non-U.S. Personnel

45

-

45

-

45

ICASS Costs

300

-

310

-

310

Program Support

97

-

97

-

95

Sub-Total

762

-

755

-

750

Total

5,952

-

4,455

-

4,000

Peru

Budget Summary ($000) 
 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Enacted

FY 2007 Request

115,370

106,920

98,500

 
 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Peru (GOP) institutionalizes policy-making and coordination and begins to take over management of certain counternarcotics programs. Indicators include:

The maintenance and operation of Peruvian National Police air wing is performed 100 percent by Peruvian nationals. USG contractor provides oversight on maintenance, training, and operations of equipment and helicopters.

Completion of upgrades to the INL helicopters operated by the police aviation unit allows the extension of counternarcotics law enforcement efforts to remote areas of Peru.

Improved coordination and capabilities of Peruvian agencies involved in counternarcotics law enforcement lead to more effective action against illicit drug trafficking.

Implement the development and maintenance of a comprehensive maritime and port interdiction program to diminish substantially the exploitation of Peru's northern ports by narcotraffickers.

Improvements in the efficiency of the Peruvian judicial sector allow it to effectively prosecute drug cases.

Continuing USG support for special narcotics prosecutors and support for judicial personnel in regions with heavy narcotics caseloads results in an increase in the number of arrests/prosecutions of major criminals and narcotics traffickers and a decrease in pre-trial detention time.

The illegal cultivation of coca and opium poppy is reduced and eventually Peru becomes a marginal rather than major source of illicit drugs and drug trafficking.

Programmed and voluntary eradication will eliminate 12,500 hectares of illicit coca in CY 2007.

The GOP identifies coca for traditional licit uses and establishes tracking system.

The GOP, with the help of the USG, develops a reconnaissance capability to identify and eradicate opium poppy cultivations.

The number of port and road counternarcotics interdiction checkpoints east of the Peruvian Andes is increased by ten percent in 2006, resulting in a ten percent increase in the number and amount of cocaine seizures over previous years.

Continued efforts to upgrade Peruvian National Police Narcotics Directorate (DIRANDRO) and National Taxation Administration (SUNAT) Customs operations at Peru's ports leads to an increase in drug seizures from commercial planes and passengers. Assistance to Peruvian Postal Service (SERPOST) results in increased drug seizures from mail.

New equipment for Financial Investigation Unit (FIU) makes it more effective and the number of drug-related money laundering arrests and prosecutions increase by 10 percent a year.

Improvements in alternative economic and social infrastructure and services; increased legal income generation; and social communication and community development activities provide incentives for communities of farmers to eliminate illicit coca cultivation. This is coordinated with programmed eradication to create and expand coca-free zones.

Implementation of comprehensive macroeconomic policy reforms expands the licit economy.

An increased awareness of the dangers of drug trafficking and drug abuse increases public support for counternarcotics policies and leads to a reduction in the demand for illicit drugs.

Peru generates statistical data on public concerns about drug abuse and related criminal activity. The data is used to design, implement and evaluate public awareness campaigns.

Both public support and GOP political will for law enforcement efforts against illegal drug cultivation and trafficking are realized and maintained at high levels.

Both survey results and GOP actions indicate that Peruvians will no longer tolerate illegal drug cultivation and trafficking.

Program Justification  

Peru is the second largest cocaine producing country in the world and a major exporter of cocaine and cocaine base to markets in South America, Mexico, the United States, and Europe. USG coca cultivation estimates increased 38 percent in 2005, partially due to expansion of the sample area to include new areas of cultivation. Cultivation within the 2004 boundaries increased 23 per cent. In addition, narcotraffickers appear to be increasing the density of coca plants per hectare and speeding up the harvest cycle. Peru has a limited legal market for coca leaf: medical use of alkaloids and commercial use of flavoring in the United States and Europe and traditional uses - legitimate use accounts for only 9,000 metric tons of leaf, a fraction of the 62,500 metric tons USG estimates believe could be being produced.

Despite pledges by President Toledo to eliminate drug production during his administration, the country lacks the financial resources and equipment to adequately address drug production and consumption. However, the past two years has seen an increase in political will, as the GOP recognizes the danger of allowing its territory to be taken over by the drug industry. One cause for concern is the growing evidence of links between the Sendero Luminoso and cocaleros in the Upper Huallaga and Apurimac and Ene River Valleys.

Program Accomplishments  

In 2005, the GOP made significant advances against drugs. Despite record eradication, they lost ground against cultivation. GOP eradication efforts resulted in a steady decline in coca cultivation from a high of 115,000 hectares in the 1990s. By CY 2003 the total cultivated was 31,150 hectares, but the decrease slowed and cultivation had risen to 38,000 hectares by 2005. This 2005 estimate includes 4,000 hectares in areas that had not been previously measured and increases in the traditional areas of the Huallaga and Aguaytia.

The growth in cultivation occurred despite the eradication of nearly 10,500 hectares of coca in CY 2004 (7,605 forced eradication and 2,700 voluntary) and CY 2005 eradication of 12,208 hectares (8,967 programmed, 3,242 voluntary). Expansion of coca is probably related to the sustained high prices for coca and the perception of impunity fostered by initial government reluctance to confront growers.

The 2005 eradication total was achieved despite continued attacks on eradicators and alternative development personnel. Eradicators struck core areas and zones of expansion, such as the remote Puno area. The GOP also eliminated seedling nurseries that could have planted another 3,540 hectares of illegal coca and destroyed 49 rustic labs associated with the fields.

In 2005, INL also continued supporting voluntary coca eradication - implemented by USAID and the GOP and verified by INL-supported Peruvian teams. In 2005, voluntary eradication exceeded its annual target with the elimination of 3,242 hectares of coca.

The PNP reported that they eradicated 92 hectares of opium fields in CY 2005. Limited intelligence, the remoteness of the growing areas, and heavy cloud cover has made it difficult to locate and eradicate the poppy. For the first time, in 2005, USG survey efforts detected opium poppy, discovering 229 probable fields. The average field size was less than 0.1 hectare. In April 2005, a PNP investigation resulted in the seizure of 412 kilograms of opium latex in Chiclayo Province. It is unknown if these sizeable seizures are related to increased opium poppy cultivation in Peru. Intelligence indicates that opium products are shipped via land routes to Ecuador and Colombia for conversion to morphine base and heroin.

During 2005, the DIRANDRO continued to conduct "rolling" interdiction in the Monzon Valley and in the Apurimac/Ene River Valleys (VRAE) Valley to disrupt trade and drive down the price of leaf. In 2005, DIRANDRO destroyed 1,100 clandestine cocaine base laboratories and 22 cocaine HCL labs; 1,525 tons of coca leaf, 587 tons of precursor chemicals; 11.27 metric tons of cocaine hydrochloride; 4.5 tons of cocaine base; 95.5 hectares of opium; 500.7 kilos of opium latex; six kgs. of opium alkaloids; and 1,146 kgs. of marijuana.

Port container inspections and manifest reviews continued in major ports. In cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies, private shipping companies improved their abilities to monitor sea cargo containers. They provided DIRANDRO and Peruvian Customs with information to support investigations of major Peruvian and other international trafficking organizations using sea cargo containers to transport large shipments of cocaine to the United States, Mexico, and Europe. Port programs directed at interdicting maritime shipments of drugs have begun to pay-off. Over 11 metric tons of Peruvian cocaine was seized in Peru or in transit to consumer destinations in CY 2005.

Fernando Zevallos-Gonzales, an Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)-designated Kingpin and a Department of Justice Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF)-designated priority target, was taken into custody on November 19, 2005. Zevallos was sentenced by a Peruvian court to 20 years in jail in December. Two of his key lieutenants, Jorge Chavez-Montoya and Jesus Manuel Francia-Pesaque, were arrested separately on charges including drug trafficking and witness intimidation.

There has been a remarkable turn around in public opinion over the past two years, from un-examined sympathy for "oppressed" coca farmers to widespread recognition of the link between coca leaf cultivation and drug consumption.

In the Alternative Development program, over 3,200 hectares of coca were eradicated in these communities in CY2005. Since the beginning of the Andean Counterdrug Initiative, more than 31,000 families have been included in productive activities, including almost 40,000 hectares of licit crops and the completion of 442 infrastructure projects including hundreds of kilometers of road rehabilitation and maintenance, 27 bridges, over 200 water systems, schools, health posts, and 12 electricity systems among others. In 2005, the program concluded the $30 million rehabilitation of the Fernando Belaunde Terry highway, which will remove a major barrier to legal economic development in an area that has been plagued with narcotrafficking for over twenty years. In FY 2005, $22.5 million in new sales of licit products in coca growing regions was generated.

FY 2007 Program

Interdiction and Eradication

Law Enforcement Support: As in the past, interdiction operations will be conducted by air, on land, in seaports, on rivers, and with the use of dogs. FY 2007 plans include providing continuing training and field exercises for existing police and the new officers now emerging from the police academies, including training by the FBI, DEA, and police professionals. This will enhance the capabilities of DIRANDRO to conduct advanced road interdiction, riot control, greater security for eradication teams, and interdiction in hard-core areas. With more trained police, we will have enough police personnel to cover areas of expansion as well as traditional growing areas.

Increased police in the field requires a concomitant increase in air and land transportation, communications, technical equipment for drug detection and other operational support. The canine unit will be expanded, with additional dogs and handlers.

Aviation Support: Aviation support is essential to interdiction and eradication. Increased number of police and eradicators, and expansion of the area of operations will fully engage the 24 Huey IIs that will be operational in 2007, plus two INL-owned fixed wing aircraft, and available Peruvian MI-17 helicopters. FY 2007 funds will also cover fuel, maintenance, hangars and warehousing, aircraft rental when needed, and operational support for PNP Aviation (DIRAVPOL) personnel.

Eradication and interdiction missions are becoming more difficult and dangerous as Sendero Luminoso openly supports actions against counternarcotics organizations. Airlift is required to distant and isolated areas, increasing flying time and complicating logistical support. To help protect both program assets and personnel, funds will be used to acquire a second aircraft that can provide additional airlift to support the increase of DIRANDRO police from 400 to 2,800 personnel east of the Andes in the next three years.

Port Security Support: FY 2007 funding will focus on expanding Peru's ability to effectively detect drugs smuggled through Peru's commercial and fishing ports through technical assistance, training and the provision of detection equipment. Emphasis will be placed on the construction and development of additional Manifest Review Units (MRUs) for Pacific ports. Anti-smuggling measures will also be enhanced in airports, and expanded to regional airports.

Coca and Opium Poppy Eradication: The FY 2007 budget will support expanded eradication efforts by the GOP's Coca Reduction Agency (CORAH) in entrenched coca growing areas and areas of expansion, as well as continue to monitor new coca. Police eradication targets the near-inaccessible opium poppy cultivation areas. INL supports mapping and confirmation of voluntary eradication. The government increased the programmed eradication goal for 2006 by 2,000 hectares to 10,000 hectares, including previously untouched zones. Funding will support additional manual laborers, security personnel, new forward operating locations, and field survey assessment equipment. It will also require additional funding for airlift and increases in equipment for ground personnel, vehicle support and maintenance, aircraft operations, maintenance and fuel.

The CORAH civil construction unit will provide support to counternarcotics law enforcement and military agencies in the construction, maintenance, and renovation of facilities in outlying areas. CORAH construction services have allowed the police to establish forward operational bases in key coca cultivation areas.

Support to the Armed Forces: The USG and the GOP are currently working to improve the capacity of the Peruvian military and police to affect air, ground, seaport, and river end games based upon actionable intelligence. Two C-26s began counternarcotics missions in 2005. Support costs will continue for facility renovation and improvement, aircraft modification, fuel facilities and training, as well as possible radar improvements.

Customs Interdiction: The Peruvian Customs Service's drug enforcement section concentrates on interdicting narcotics, principally at the country's airports and ports. In FY 2007, funds will continue to improve and expand capacity through training and equipment, such as X-rays, and will extend it to smaller ports. Progress will be measured in terms of the number of cocaine and opium poppy derivatives seized.

Narcotics Prosecution: In FY 2007, funding will continue to support GOP prosecutors assigned to oversee police and military drug enforcement operations, interrogate suspects and witnesses, secure evidence, supervise the destruction of illegal facilities such as laboratories or airstrips, and prepare cases for trial. Prosecutors are also needed to accompany eradication in confrontational areas to serve as impartial witnesses that rights are not being violated and to defuse protests. With expansion of interdiction and eradication, more prosecutors are needed in the field. Funds will provide entry-level and advanced training to help build successful prosecution of narcotics cases.

Counternarcotics Policy Development: Funds will be used to strengthen management, laws and regulations affecting Peruvian Narcotics Policy. Activities include re-structuring the mechanism for controlling legal coca use, improving management of the counternarcotics agency DEVIDA and providing technical assistance to strengthen the implementation of a new precursor chemical law and regulations.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction: Funds will be used to assist the GOP in controlling domestic demand for cocaine within Peru, using community coalitions of anti-drug groups, and in increasing public awareness of the dangers of drug abuse. Community coalitions are used for mutual strengthening of anti-drug groups.

Crop Monitoring and Research: A branch of CORAH called CADA (Corps for Assistance to Alternative Development) monitors and maps coca and poppy cultivation, estimates cultivation for voluntary eradication programs and verifies that fields are actually uprooted. CADA will continue to map coca and poppy cultivation. It will also work with Peru and regionally and to improve scientific methodology for remote sensing and mapping of illegal crops.

In addition, a joint USG/OAS/CICAD Alternative Crop Research and Extension project complements the bilateral alternative development program. This project will continue to perform field research into coffee and cacao diseases, with a focus on finding ways to increase production yields in alternative development areas and developing international markets. The Institute for Tropical Crops also conducts research for the USDA and collaborates with USAID, the Andean Countries Cocoa Export Support Opportunity (ACESSO) project, and other development efforts.

Public Relations and Media Engagement: As the result of several years of engagement in public information, there has been a change in attitude among Peruvians about coca. They now recognize the link to drug production, corruption and crime. Funds for this area will continue to support research into public attitudes and design, implementation and evaluation of information campaigns. It will also inform the public about eradication and interdiction, while combating trafficker-financed disinformation.

Money Laundering Support: Peru is beginning to acquire the tools to attack narcotics-related money laundering and other financial crimes. This project will continue to provide the GOP with knowledge and resources, furthering USG efforts to disrupt international criminal organizations and activities in Peru. In 2007 we will fund advanced training and operational support.

Chemical Control: The GOP suffers from diversion of essential chemicals for drug manufacture. When captured, police need a safe way to dispose of seized illicit chemicals. FY 2007 funds will support a database to monitor chemicals and detect diversion, support periodic interdiction efforts and a chemical controls program at checkpoints on the major roads connecting Lima to the source zones.

Program Development & Support (PD&S): PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances for U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. 

Alternative Development and Institution Building

In FY 2007, INL will fund, and USAID will implement, an integrated development approach to create jobs in coca-growing regions, strengthen local institutions, and reduce coca cultivation. The voluntary eradication program entails carrying out agreements that include the eradication of all coca in a contiguous geographic area while providing program benefits to a group of communities that share socio-economic interests. Additionally, USAID seeks substantial involvement of local officials through the municipal participatory budgeting and planning process.

USAID/Peru's Alternative Development Program is an integrated package of economic and social development interventions. Specific FY 2007 interventions will:

Continue providing immediate economic and social impact by generating temporary income, supporting basic services, and promoting local organizations and improved governance in areas where voluntary or programmed coca eradication has taken place;

Continue promoting sustainable economic and social development in and around the primary coca-growing areas via infrastructure projects, technical assistance and training to small farmers, private sector entrepreneurs, and government entities;

Continue improving the policy and institutional framework related to alternative development and counternarcotics through studies and technical assistance to key allies; and

Continue generating political will, encouraging behavioral changes in target populations, and disseminating accurate information to beneficiaries through a crosscutting communications program. 

Peru

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Law Enforcement Support

19,517

-

17,200

-

10,000

Aviation Support

17,400

-

17,545

-

24,719

Maritime Security Program

992

-

2,250

-

2,250

Sub-Total

37,909

-

36,995

-

36,969

Coca and Opium Poppy Eradication

7,640

-

7,700

-

8,000

Support to the Armed Forces

2,140

-

500

-

100

Peruvian Customs

1,500

-

1,500

-

0

Administration of Justice/Prosecutors

1,685

-

650

-

800

Institutional Development

248

-

250

-

0

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

1,585

-

1,600

-

1,400

Anti -Corruption

-

-

-

-

200

Money Laundering Support

496

-

445

-

400

Crop Monitoring and Research

3,970

-

4,000

-

2,531

Crop Research and Extension (ICT)

-

-

-

-

700

Public Relations and Media

635

-

645

-

900

Chemical Control

124

-

125

-

0

Alternative Development*

53,866

-

48,510

-

42,500

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

875

-

805

-

825

Non-U.S. Personnel

929

-

1,545

-

1,530

ICASS Costs

805

-

900

-

1,000

Program Support

963

-

750

-

645

Sub-Total

3,572

-

4,000

-

4,000

Total

115,370

-

106,920

-

98,500

*

Funds are transferred to USAID who manages these programs.

Venezuela

Budget Summary ($000)
 

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

2,976

2,229

1,000

 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

 
Interdiction 

Develop operational capabilities and procedures to detect and seize narcotics and chemical and radiological arms shipments at Venezuela's primary seaports, airports, and border points of entry. Improve follow-up investigations that will result in a five percent increase in intelligence information on organized crime methods of operation, organizational structure, and identities as well as arrests of key perpetrators.

Criminal Justice Development

Strengthen Government of Venezuela's (GOV) investigative, prosecutorial, and judicial capabilities to attack organized crime, narcotrafficking, and terrorism. Assistance will address the serious weakness in Venezuela's judicial system while improving criminal investigations and making prosecutions more professional. These improvements will lead to a two percent increase in prosecutions and sentencing of key narcotraffickers.

Money Laundering

Improve the monitoring procedures of Venezuela's financial institutions as well as their investigation and reporting of suspicious financial transactions, in order to provide actionable intelligence to GOV financial crime enforcement agencies. Accordingly, this processed intelligence will provide evidence for the prosecution and sentencing of organized crime figures and terrorists guilty of financial crimes.

Program Justification 

Venezuela sits poised as a prime narcotics conduit to the United States. Venezuela shares a long, poorly controlled 2,100-kilometer border with neighboring Colombia, the world's primary producer of cocaine and an increasingly important supplier of heroin. DEA estimates that that up to 250 metric tons of cocaine transit through Venezuela annually. Drug seizures in Venezuela are correspondingly high. Venezuela's ill secured seaports, particularly Puerto Cabello, serve as embarkation points for multi-ton loads of cocaine secreted in cargo shipping containers en route to the United States and Europe. Additionally, Venezuela has a poorly regulated financial sector that is a prime target for the laundering of drug proceeds.

Program Accomplishments 

Venezuela has a strong record on interdicting the transport of cocaine, heroin, and other drugs. Building on consecutive record seizures of cocaine in 2002, 2003 and 2004, the GOV reported seized 54 metric tons during the first eight months of 2005. In November 2005, the GOV carried out an eight day eradication operation in the Serrania de Perija mountain range on Venezuela's northwestern border with Colombia. Reportedly, 132 hectares of illicit coca, marijuana and poppy cultivations were manually eradicated.

Despite these successes, our counternarcotics cooperation with Venezuela has deteriorated steadily in 2005, leading to their decertification in September. This decline is highlighted by the removal of the Venezuelan National Guard from the Embassy Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS)-supported Prosecutor's Drug Task Force; the failure of the GOV to sign the counternarcotics information exchange system (CNIES); and the end of DEA cooperation pending a revised counternarcotics memorandum of understanding.

FY 2007 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Port Security/Intelligence Fusion Center: Funds will be used to support the Puerto Cabello Container Inspection Facility and the Maquetia Airport Intelligence Fusion Center. The primary goal is to develop leads from seizures that lead to the investigation and successful prosecution of criminal organizations involved in drug trafficking. The same equipment, training and personnel simultaneously provide Venezuelan airports and seaports' with anti-terrorist capabilities.

Money Laundering Control: This project will be used to support seminars to keep positive debate alive on developing and pending legislation and support efforts to increase understanding and application of new laws once enacted.

Administration of Justice

Prosecutor Training: These projects will include prosecutor and investigator training, publication and dissemination of a new handbook for prosecutors, improvements to chain-of-evidence procedures, and assistance in drafting essential legislation.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

This project will serve to increase public intolerance to organized crime, warn of the dangers of illicit drug consumption, and gain broader confidence in and support for law enforcement efforts.

Program, Development and Support (PD&S)

These funds are used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Venezuela

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Port Security

451

-

167

-

75

Border Security

450

-

200

-

-

Airport Security

325

-

207

-

-

Intelligence Fusion and Analysis

200

-

200

-

-

Precursor Chemical Control

25

-

50

-

-

Money Laundering Control

50

-

85

-

25

Sub Total

1,501

-

909

-

100

Administration of Justice

Prosecutor Training

150

-

50

-

25

Prosecutor's Drug Task Force

400

-

200

-

25

MOJ Infrastructure Development

100

-

70

-

-

Sub-Total

650

-

320

-

50

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

25

-

200

-

50

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

308

-

286

-

286

Non-U.S. Personnel

106

-

76

-

76

ICASS Costs

226

-

216

-

216

Program Support

160

-

222

-

222

Sub-Total

800

-

800

-

800

Total

2,976

-

2,229

-

1,000

Critical Flight Safety Program 

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

-

29,970

65,700

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators  

INL Air Wing assists key governments with the combating of drug trafficking and terrorism by providing aviation expertise and resources to eradicate and interdict illicit drugs, strengthen law enforcement, support counter-terrorist operations, and develop internal institutional counternarcotics (CN) and counter-terrorism (CT) capabilities.

The primary objective of the multi-year Critical Flight Safety Program (CFSP) is to ensure aircrew and aircraft safety, specifically structural integrity, of the aircraft operated by the INL Air Wing. Upon completion of this program the Department will have ensured to the best of its ability that the INL aviation fleet will not suffer loss of life or valuable aviation resources due to structural fatigue and aging aircraft. The secondary objective of the Critical Flight Safety Plan is to refurbish 30-year old, Vietnam-era military aircraft to a modern commercially supportable standard, therefore making them less costly to operate, easier to maintain, and more reliable.

In summary, the Air Wing CFSP will:

Increase safety for aircrews and personnel flying in these aircraft.

Extend the service lifetime of these aircraft, maximizing their value to the USG.

Control or potentially eliminate excessively high maintenance and part cost growth rates; make aircraft commercially supportable.

Increase operational readiness and sustain mission success.

INL has embarked on this multi-level CFSP to improve safety for aircrews and aircraft, to stop the degradation and extend the life of its severely aged aircraft, and to sustain its CN/CT missions. Specifically, the CFSP will conduct the following:

Conduct a Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) of 15 OV-10D aircraft used to conduct aerial eradication in high threat environments.

Refurbish a total of 39 UH-1N helicopters providing support to both aerial eradication and Colombian Army counterterrorism operations.

Convert the remaining INL Air Wing UH-1H Vietnam era helicopter fleet to a modern Huey-II configuration (Peru and Bolivia).

Institute a depot level maintenance program on the Congressionally-funded Plan Colombia UH-60 Blackhawks to prevent them from deteriorating like the INL Air Wing's UH-1H's.

Purchase four UH-60 helicopters to conduct Search and Rescue (SAR) operations as replacements for the existing marginally adequate UH-1N's.

Specifically, in FY 2007 we will continue the refurbishment and upgrade of aging Vietnam era UH-1H helicopters, refurbishment UH-1N helicopters (first priority to eradication helicopters), extending the service life of OV-10D airframes, and initiate armament upgrades for Colombia SAR aircraft.

In early FY 2004 the Air Wing staff developed a Strategic Plan (SP) to better match Air Wing resources against its mission over the next 3-5 years at a time when the aging of the fleet threatens readiness, safety, and operational effectiveness. The SP formed the foundation of the CFSP.

The SP and CFSP are built around specific annual and long-term goals that are based on operational requirements and utilize standard aviation industry metrics for performance evaluation and validation. The following performance indicators for FY 2007 support these metrics and are concrete and measurable:

    1. Purchase one engine for immediate installation in UH-1N helicopters.
    2. Refurbish six UH-1N helicopters.
    3. Complete SLEP process on four of the fifteen OV-10D aircraft.
    4. Convert seven UH-1H airframes to Huey-II helicopters.
    5. Procure of two Huey-II (attrition) helicopters
    6. Perform programmed maintenance for one C-208, four UH-60L, one K-MAX, and one C-27.

Program Justification

The Department runs the risk of a catastrophic in-flight failure leading to loss of life due to the age of the aircraft INL is operating. The Air Wing has suffered serious in-flight structural failures and has been fortunate that no aircrews and aircraft were lost as a result. The Air Wing has already removed from service at least three helicopters due to structural problems not economically repairable, and will continue to remove further aircraft from service as problems are found.

Three factors have converged to necessitate this program. First, the sustained extraordinarily high operations tempo in Colombia; second, the fact that we have been steadily flying the same Vietnam-vintage aircraft in Peru and Bolivia for over 15 years now, and third, we have never been able to fund a much needed depot level inspect-and-repair-as-necessary program.

The INL Air Wing is maintaining its aircraft safely; or, more accurately stated, as safely as possible without conducting the inspections and refurbishments listed in the program objectives. If an aircraft is deemed unsafe, it will be grounded.

INL has documented steady reduction in aircraft availability, particularly the older eradication aircraft (OV-10 and supporting UH-1N's) over the past two years. These aircraft are excess defense aircraft that are no longer supported by or are being discontinued in the Department of Defense inventory, and have not gone through any major airframe Programmed Depot Maintenance. Many aircraft are over 35 years old and have greater than 10,100 airframe hours. (DoD typically removes from service helicopters that were flown in excess of 4,000 hours.)

Additionally, many major aircraft components are obsolete and no longer being manufactured or have limited repair capability. In many cases these components, such as engine assemblies, are experiencing premature removals far more frequently and never reach time-life expectancy. Failure and removal rates of major components are compounded by the incidence of ground fire and operations in a high op-tempo austere environment. These factors make managing readiness and controlling cost an extremely difficult challenge.

The requested funding for the CFSP for FY 2007 is essential to eliminate these safety and mission readiness risks. The CFSP will upgrade, sustain, and replace aircraft necessary for INL's eradication, interdiction, and CN/CT programs throughout Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru.

Program Accomplishments

The Air Wing provides core level aviation services necessary to operate, sustain, and maintain a fleet of over 189 fixed and rotary wing aircraft of ten types. The aircraft support CN/CT aviation eradication, interdiction, counter-terrorism and border security programs in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru.

In Colombia, the Air Wing, in conjunction with the Colombian National Police, has had four consecutive years of record breaking aerial eradication of coca. As a result of the aerial eradication campaign in 2002 we saw the first reduction in the size of the coca crop in Colombia and another reduction in 2003. We fully expect to see a further reduction after the campaign in 2005 (pending CNC figures as of this time). In addition, the Colombian Army Plan Colombia helicopter program, which provides air mobility for their Counter Drug Brigade, has changed the balance of power in Colombia and enabled the GOC to project force into areas not under central government control for years, such as Putumayo.

The Air Wing accomplished the following spray goals in Colombia:

Fiscal Year

Coca Sprayed
(
Hectares)*

Poppy Sprayed (Hectares)*

Percent Reduction Coca

Percent Reduction Poppy

2002

122,695

3,043

15

25

2003

127,112

2,821

21

11

2004

131,824

2,899

-1

52

2005

138,775

1,624

**

**


* True Ground Area Covered (TGAC)
** Data is computed from CNC illicit crop estimates that is not expected before the end of the second quarter of FY 2006.

In Bolivia and Peru, two countries facing serious challenges to fragile democracies in part fueled by organized cocaleros and the traffickers supporting them, the Air Wing helicopter programs remain key components of the country team counter-narcotics strategies. In Peru virtually all manual eradication is dependent on support from the Air Wing Program.

FY 2007 Program

The Department of State Air Wing has an immediate need for a Critical Flight Safety Program (CFSP) to upgrade its severely aged aircraft fleet to commercial standards in order to sustain the counternarcotics and counter-terrorism missions. The declining condition of the fleet presents the mission and our aircraft with a crippling reality of increased costs for amplified maintenance man-hours and material requirements, and degraded performance capability. In many cases aircraft have evidence of severe structural failures that have caused the Air Wing to ground aircraft. Much of the Air Wing's fleet is excess defense aircraft that is no longer supported by or is being discontinued in the Department of Defense (DoD) inventory. Most of our airframes have not gone through any major airframe Programmed Depot Maintenance. Many aircraft are over 35 years old and have greater than 10,100 airframe hours. DoD typically removes from service helicopters that were flown in excess of 4,000 hours.

Critical Flight Safety

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Critical Flight Safety Program

UH-1N Program (Long Term)

-

-

10,000

-

15,000

UH-1N Interim Program

Engines PT6-3B

-

-

3,340

-

1,000

OV-10D Service Life Extension Program

-

-

4,400

-

10,100

Huey-II Program Conversion (UH-1H to Huey-II)

-

-

12,230

-

24,500

Huey-II Procurement (Attrition)

-

-

-

-

6,700

Huey-II Wiring Upgrade

-

-

-

-

1,200

Programmed Maintenance

-

-

-

-

7,200

Sub-Total

0

0

29,970

0

65,700

Total

0

0

29,970

0

65,700



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