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International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2007 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2006
Report
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Liberia

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

5,000

990

800

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

U.S. police advisors provide bilateral training and technical assistance to the Liberian National Police (LNP) to continue the development of the LNP as a professional police service.

U.S. police advisors conduct train-the-trainer courses on specialized topics and supervise LNP personnel as they conduct courses. The LNP develops curricula used at the police academy in Monrovia. Basic equipment for training purposes is procured and donated to the LNP.

Program Justification

After more than two decades of conflict and instability, Liberia's ability to enforce its own laws and maintain the peace remains tenuous. The November 2005 election of Ellen Johnson -Sirleaf as President of Liberia, the first female president on the African continent, brought a new sense of hope to the Liberian people. Maintaining peace and stability by ensuring enforcement of Liberian laws is a top priority of the new President. LNP infrastructure and capabilities remain weak, posing significant challenges to effective law enforcement. Additional challenges include rising domestic violence and trafficking in women and children. The Liberian public views the LNP with skepticism and mistrust. Strengthening the ability of the new Liberian government to address these and other law enforcement problems is a key program priority.

Since December 2003 the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) has been providing security and maintaining the peace with a UN Police component of approximately 1,015 officers from 37 different nations. The U.S. contribution to UNMIL, which reached a high of 76 officers in early 2004, is critical to U.S. interests in maximizing effectiveness of UNMIL. There are 37 U.S. civilian police officers currently assigned to UNMIL. UNMIL is scheduled to deliver a draw-down plan to the Security Council before the next mandate review in March 2006. The plan will include a draw-down timetable that is linked to the security situation, an evaluation of progress on developing Liberian police and armed forces, and a forward-look assessment of Liberian capabilities to establish and maintain the rule of law. The UN is expected to remain in Liberia until mid 2008.

Program Accomplishments

With the assistance of U.S. police provided to UNMIL, vetting of the Liberian police has concluded and training of the Liberian police continues. All LNP personnel have been vetted with those determined to be ineligible for police service scheduled for retirement or dismissal. Approximately 2,600 cadets have been trained and 1,075 police graduates are now working out of LNP station houses all across the country. In addition, 1,525 cadets, including LNP, Special Security Service, and seaport police, are in various stages of the six-month field training and are working as probationary police officers across the country. The UN is on track to complete training the total 3,500-member Liberian force by June 2007.

INL continues to donate basic equipment needed to enable LNP to function, including communications, uniforms, and transportation.

The Justice Sector Support for Liberia (JSSL) Team, consisting of two prosecutors, two court administration experts and a public defender, arrived in Monrovia in January 2006. The team will provide one-on-one technical assistance to their Liberian counterparts and assess the equipment and infrastructure needs.

FY 2007 Program

The FY 2007 program will provide up to four U.S. police officers to serve as technical advisers to the LNP. These officers will continue mentoring, advising and monitoring the LNP to encourage better police-community relations and discourage human rights violations. Police experts in the areas of community policing, anti-trafficking and domestic violence will train LNP officers in the most up-to-date police techniques in order to increase the capacity of the LNP in these high-priority areas. Program funds will also be used to purchase non-lethal equipment for training purposes.

Liberia

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Crime Control

Civilian Police

3,400

-

990

-

-

Police Development and Reform

1,000

-

-

-

800

Criminal Justice Development

Judicial Reform

300

-

-

-

-

Anti-Corruption

100

-

-

-

-

Sub-Total

4,800

-

990

-

800

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

120

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

70

-

-

-

-

Program Support

10

-

-

-

-

Sub-Total

200

-

0

-

0

Total

5,000

-

990

-

800

Nigeria

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

2,232

990

400

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Nigerian law enforcement's capacity to deter, prevent and investigate trafficking in narcotics continues to be strengthened. Nigerian drug enforcement authorities become effective and reliable partners with U.S. and other West African law enforcement agencies.

Counternarcotics training facilities upgraded and expanded; enhanced capacity to combat money laundering and terrorist financing; joint training delivered; training delivered leading to improved investigative and interdiction skills, and resulting in an increased ability to stop the flow of drugs through international airports, seaports and border entry points; new channels for communication and cooperation result in increased transnational collaboration on investigations and prosecutions of cases with West African and other countries; eventual removal of Nigeria from the list of non-cooperative countries and territories issued by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

Cooperation among prosecutors, judges and the police, especially in the prosecution of financial fraud and corruption cases, is strengthened.

Assessment conducted and strategy for improving cooperation developed; evidence collection and preservation techniques improved; joint training of law enforcement and criminal justice personnel leads to improved collaboration on corruption cases; increased investigations, arrests and prosecutions of money laundering and other financial crime cases.

Program Justification

Nigeria, the dominant economic and political power in West Africa, strongly supports U.S. counter-terrorism efforts and has been at the forefront of African efforts to combat terrorism. INL programs in Nigeria are designed to achieve key United States foreign policy objectives of strengthening democratic institutions and protecting the U.S. against international crime by improving the performance of the criminal justice sector.

Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade, transporting narcotics to markets in the United States, Europe, Asia and Africa. Some of these criminal organizations are engaged in advance-fee fraud (so-called "419" offenses), money laundering, and other forms of financial crime that defraud U.S. citizens and businesses. Years of military rule and economic decline contributed to the expansion of narcotics trafficking and criminality in Nigeria. Severe unemployment and widespread corruption provided both an incentive and the means for Nigerian criminal organizations to make Nigeria a major transit point in the international narcotics trade. Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin smuggled through Nigeria amounts to a significant portion of the heroin smuggled into the United States, resulting in Nigeria being placed on the U.S. list of major drug producing and drug-transit countries. The Financial Action Task Force still considers Nigeria to be a non-cooperative country or territory because of its weak anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing regime.

Since the end of military rule in 1999, the importance of adopting modern and effective techniques appropriate for policing in a democracy is evident. As the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) becomes more professional, it is crucial to build bridges between the police and the judiciary in order to improve the rate of criminal convictions. Success in this effort is critical to strengthening democratic institutions in Nigeria.

Program Accomplishments

Since its return to democratic government, Nigeria has demonstrated its commitment to cooperating with the U.S. in combating international crime emanating from Nigeria, including narcotics trafficking and financial fraud. With the continued assistance of the U.S., the GON is also focusing on combating public corruption, money laundering and terrorist financing. In January 2003, the instruments of ratification of the U.S.-Nigerian Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty were exchanged and the Treaty entered formally into force. The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), established in 2002 and fully constituted in April 2003, has been credited with the recovery or seizure of more than $3 billion in assets obtained through fraudulent means. There were 4,324 petitions received out of which 3,103 are under investigation. Out of the 3,103 cases, 306 are under prosecution and 25 have resulted in convictions. In addition, the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), which has been receiving U.S. assistance, conducted investigations involving 14 governors, several National Assembly members and at least three current and former cabinet ministers. Of the more than 1,468 petitions filed since ICPC's inception, 803 have been referred to the Investigations Department. Forty-seven criminal cases have been referred to the courts, involving more than 94 persons. ICPC opened two field offices in Lagos and Kaduna, and is in the process of opening two more in the northeast and the southeast sections of the country.

Counternarcotics

Counternarcotics assistance has been focused on the Nigerian National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), which has sole responsibility for combating narcotics trafficking and abuse and which cooperates with U.S. counterpart law enforcement agencies. INL has supported the NDLEA with technical assistance and training since 1999, and the results are notable. During 2003, NDLEA created "State Commands" to ensure a comprehensive nationwide presence of the Agency. NDLEA now has 37 State Commands in addition to its National Headquarters and ten Special Area Commands. In 2005, NDLEA seized 534 kilograms of heroin, 92 kilograms of cocaine, 51,000 kilograms of cannabis, and 198 kilograms of psychotropic substances. In 2005, 3,067 drug traffickers were arrested with 98 percent of them, mostly low-level couriers, successfully prosecuted. Under the direction of its new chairman, Ahmadu Giade, the NDLEA has undergone a re-organization in an attempt to wipe out corruption and promote a core value system within the agency.

U.S.-provided equipment and training have assisted the NDLEA in detecting and deterring narcotics trafficking from Lagos' Murtala Mohammed International Airport (MMIA). In 2003, INL provided a modern, digital x-ray machine for the NDLEA at MMIA. The old x-ray equipment was moved to the international airport in Abuja where the NDLEA has had great success in interdicting couriers destined for Europe and the United States. NDLEA also acquired three sniffer dogs from the South African Police Service, which complements the equipment at MMIA. Traffickers are increasingly avoiding MMIA, illustrating both NDLEA's effectiveness and the need to increase interdiction capacities elsewhere in Nigeria and West Africa.

NDLEA has been included in all INL-funded training courses dealing with cyber crime and computer forensics that have been offered by the USSS and FBI. NDLEA also participated in a three-part ATF/Customs training program dealing with small arms trafficking through the ports and landborders. NDLEA's inclusion in this training with its Customs and Immigration counterparts contributed to successful collaborations in the inspection of containers and also in identifying contraband other than drugs.

In 2004, NDLEA agents participated in several regional search and seizure operations resulting in the seizure of several hundred kilograms of cocaine in Ghana and Benin Republic. In the case of Ghana, although the cocaine - over 675 kilograms - was located in that country, through regional cooperation, NDLEA was able to seize the vessel that the drugs were transported on and arrest the vessel owner on drug-trafficking charges. In Benin, agents from NDLEA's Joint Task Force participated in the seizure of more than 93 kilograms of cocaine. In 2005, the NDLEA participated in a joint international operation to stop a container in a neighboring country. However, the agency did not let the operation continue within Nigerian borders, which could have resulted in arrests in Nigeria. According to NDLEA statistics, the agency made several arrests during the year in which there was a nexus to major sources for heroin, such as Pakistan and Afghanistan, but as a general rule, most enforcement was focused on low-level traffickers and mules, with no enforcement impact on the major traffickers who manage and finance drug trafficking from Nigeria.

Financial Fraud and Money Laundering

U.S. intervention was instrumental in pushing through legislation on money laundering, and the creation of an Anti-Terrorism, Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) that responded to Financial Action Task Force (FATF) standards.

Since May 2003, the EFCC-established Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) has recovered or seized assets of financial crime valued over $3 billion from various fraudsters inside and outside of Nigeria, and more than $7 million from a syndicate that included highly placed government officials defrauding the Federal Inland Revenue Service. NDLEA, in collaboration with the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigations, helped intercept over $3 million worth of fraudulent checks and in cooperation with Federal Express, recovered over $200,000 in merchandise that was purchased with stolen credit cards.

Initially, the NDLEA's anti-money laundering activities were limited to general investigations. Recently, the NDLEA's financial investigation capacity has been improved by upgrading the financial investigative unit to a full-fledged Directorate. Other concrete steps include establishing an inter-ministerial committee headed by the Permanent Secretary to the President and engaging in constructive dialogue and correspondence with FATF on how to meet FATF goals. Nigeria passed the 2004 Money Laundering Act, which more closely adheres to FATF standards with regards to threshold levels.

Since May 2005, an Intermittent Legal Advisor (ILA) has had an office at the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), where she is advising and training the prosecutors of the ICPC, the EFCC, and the National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP). In July 2005, the ILA organized a public corruption training program for over 50 prosecutors and investigators at the ICPC. In September 2005, the ILA organized a trial advocacy training program for 50 prosecutors in Lagos and over 60 prosecutors in Abuja. The prosecutors were from five different agencies in Nigeria: the ICPC, EFCC, NAPTIP, the NDLEA, and the Ministry of Justice. Two Assistant U.S. prosecutors and a Special Agent of the FBI traveled to Nigeria to assist with the program, which included lectures and demonstrations on various trial techniques including conducting direct examinations and cross examinations, and introducing exhibits at trial. The program concluded with a mock trial in which all the prosecutors participated. Several other training programs on topics such as collection and handling of evidence in corruption cases, money laundering, and asset forfeiture, were also held.

Police Modernization

A DOJ/ICITAP Police Advisor/Program Manager was assigned in August 2002 to assist the NPF with modernization and reform efforts. More than 100 instructors have been trained to teach several different disciplines, including civil disorder management, election security and community policing. The first class of 500 recruits using the new curriculum graduated in December 2003 and was assigned to the Kaduna metropolitan area. In April 2004, a community-policing project focusing on linking the NPF with the Inter-Faith Forum was implemented in Kaduna. Bicycle patrol training was also offered and by August 2004, more than one hundred officers from the Rigasa region had been trained.

In 2004, an INL-funded technical advisor continued to provide assistance working with the civilian oversight body, the Police Service Commission (PSC), in Abuja to enforce its mandate to oversee the recruitment, promotion, and discipline of members of the NPF. The advisor assisted the PSC in drafting standard operating procedures and advised them on developing a working relationship with the NPF. The advisor assisted the Commission in developing a code of conduct, mission statement, a code of ethics, civilian complaint forms, a system for classifying complaints, guidelines for investigative staff, rules of evidence collection and storage, and procedures for filing complaints. A two-week Basic Criminal Investigation Course was also offered in Abuja to selected members of the PSC's Department of Investigations, representatives from all other departments within the PSC, and the Commissioner and chairman of the PSC. In May 2005, two technical advisors returned to Kaduna to expand the community-policing project to all fifteen of Kaduna's police divisions. The project continues to thrive and has been lauded by the NPF Commissioner and Governor of Kaduna State, who donated 250 bicycles so that bicycle patrols can be expanded throughout the fifteen divisions.

FY 2007 Program

Nigerian criminal organizations are international in scope and have a direct impact on the United States, costing American victims tens of millions of dollars each year. FY 2007 funds will be used for Program Development and Support costs for an INL Section Chief and his office staff. The section chief is responsible for overseeing prior-year INCLE-funded programs in Nigeria, which provide assistance in counternarcotics, police modernization, and financial crime.

In the area of counternarcotics, INL continues to provide training and technical assistance to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) to support a drug interdiction program. INL continues to support police modernization and reform efforts within the National Police Force (NPF) and Police Service Commission. To ensure that financial regulatory organizations have the capacity to pursue investigations and prosecution of financial crimes, including money laundering and terrorist financing, INL is providing training and technical assistance to the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Special Fraud Unit of the NPF. The overall goals are increased GON investigations and prosecution of financial crimes and public corruption, and increased cooperation with partner nations on money laundering cases.

Several of these programs, previously funded, are in the early stages of execution and require the supervision of an INL Director to oversee their successful implementation.

Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds will cover salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, travel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the narcotics and law enforcement affairs programs.

Nigeria

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Law Enforcement Support

Counternarcotics Support

550

-

95

-

-

Police Modernization

682

-

-

-

-

Financial Fraud

200

-

95

-

-

Judicial Sector Reform/Anti-Corruption

220

-

-

-

-

Sub-Total

1,652

-

190

-

0

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

177

-

244

-

122

Non-U.S. Personnel

65

-

90

-

45

ICASS Costs

188

-

259

-

130

Program Support

150

-

207

-

103

Sub-Total

580

-

800

-

400

Total

2,232

-

990

-

400

South Africa

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

1,756

594

500


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

South African police trained and effectively operating against national and transnational crime.

Effective implementation by the Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department (JMPD) of U.S. operational, management and training recommendations; JMPD training facility upgraded; increased number of JMPD and other South African police trained at the JMPD academy; improved communication and coordination between the JMPD and other police forces enhances regional efforts against transnational criminal organizations; decrease in the number of murders.

The Government of South Africa's capacity to detect, deter and prosecute complex crime is improved.

Training, technical assistance and equipment delivered and effectively utilized by law enforcement results in disruption of criminal syndicates and investigation of financial and organized crimes, drug trafficking, counterfeiting, trafficking in persons, and migrant smuggling cases; increased numbers of arrests and prosecutions and increased seizures of contraband at points of entry recorded.

Program Justification

South Africa is an anchor for stability and prosperity in the Southern African region. It plays a key leadership role in the region by encouraging other countries to address crime, terrorism and immigration threats, under the umbrellas of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and the Southern African Regional Police Chiefs Cooperation Organization (SARPCCO). Assisting South Africa on law enforcement and judicial issues directly addresses INL's twin goals of international crime and drugs while serving as a platform for the broader U.S. goals of supporting a stable and prosperous South Africa, fighting transnational security threats and creating a favorable climate for investment in the region.

Organized and complex crimes continue to vex the South African police, which face widespread street crime and very high rates of murder and rape. When the walls of apartheid crumbled, transnational organized crime syndicates entered South Africa and set up business, taking advantage of established smuggling routes, a world-class transportation system and sophisticated financial institutions. Providing technical assistance, training and select material to the South African law enforcement sector for detecting, investigating, and prosecuting complex and organized crime - including transnational crime - has helped address a key impediment to economic development, support South Africa's still-fragile democracy, and enhance security and stability in the region.

Democracy and the rule of law cannot flourish without a well functioning judicial sector. South Africa recognizes that its criminal justice system is not performing at its optimal capacity. The South African Police Service (SAPS) annual report for 2004/2005 (covering March 2004 to March 2005) provides information on 21 designated serious crimes (i.e. crimes of more than 10,000 cases per annum - a ratio of 20.0 per 100,000 of the population). These 21 categories cover contact crimes (crimes against a person), contact-related crimes, property-related crimes, crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection, etc. During 2004/2005, SAPS recorded 2,399,415 serious criminal acts. Murder decreased by 5.2 percent; attempted murder decreased by 18.5 percent, but rape increased by 4.5 percent as well as common assault (4.7 percent) and indecent assault (8.8 percent). In the category of crime dependent on police action for detection, drug-related crime increased by 34 percent. Although carjacking decreased by 9.9 percent, truck hijacking increased 3.2 percent and the robbery of cash in transit by 14.6 percent. Bank robbery also increased 7.4 percent. The SAPS 2004/2005 does not provide conviction rates because it does not constitute an appropriate criterion for evaluation. Instead, SAPS presents the actual number of charges/cases referred to court and the detection rate, that is, actual number of cases solved. SAPS claims that a successful conviction is not just dependent on the police but also on the actions of the Department of Justice and for this reason conviction rates do not portray the reality. Using this formula, SAPS reported that charges decreased by 113,132 charges and the charges referred to court increased by 2.61 percent to 26.89 percent. The detection rate (cases actually solved) increased by 10.01 percent to 46.44 percent.

In order to provide better security for its citizens, to increase police responsibility for distinct geographic areas, and to improve the capacity of the South African Police Service (SAPS) to deter crime, the South African Government has begun to establish municipal police forces. These forces have limited powers, and are meant to assist the SAPS through more visible policing and by spearheading the initial investigations of many less complex and serious crimes. In assisting the municipal police force in South Africa, INL is also providing much-needed stability in areas where established businesses are fleeing and new investors fear to tread due to rampant crime. The Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department has existed for about five years and needs continued technical support, direction and management advice. The first Metro Police Academy, built with USG funding, will soon provide training to metropolitan police forces from other urban areas. The relationships developed at this upgraded facility will enhance channels of communication and improve coordination across jurisdictional grounds.

South Africa's porous land and sea borders make it extremely difficult for South African authorities to identify and track illegal immigration and trafficking of drugs, contraband and persons - including potential terrorists. There is no effective system in place that links immigration, customs, and border control functions at this time. The Immigration Act of 2002 vested all responsibility for border control with the Department of Home Affairs (DHA), which is slated to receive U.S. funding.

Program Accomplishments

Law enforcement training programs for South Africa have traditionally focused on the SAPS as the premier law enforcement agency in the country. In recent years, the program has expanded to include the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) and their investigative wing the Directorate for Special Operations (DSO), the South African Revenue Service, the Special Investigating Unit and the Johannesburg Municipal Police Department (JMPD). Past programs have assisted the SAPS, DSO, and other law enforcement officers through specialized training in a wide range of courses including financial crimes, computer crimes, counterfeiting detection, interviewing techniques, border and port control, drug detection, counter-terrorism and street safety, and trafficking in persons. Relevant parts of these courses have been integrated into the SAPS's, DSO's and JMPD's training curriculum. An additional benefit of the training courses has been the enhanced cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies stemming from personal relationships formed with their South African counterparts.

Equipment donated to the police over the past four years has also proved invaluable to the SAPS. U.S.-donated Analyst Notebook software helped the SAPS organized crime units better coordinate their work, detect overlaps in different cases, and follow complex evidence chains. The software has been used in numerous investigations on narcotics, criminal gangs, and the South African terrorist group, People Against Gangsterism and Drugs and the right-wing Boermag. Equipment purchased for the SAPS' forensics lab has helped the SAPS and U.S. Secret Service agents detect several million dollars worth of counterfeit U.S. currency and fraudulent documents originating in South Africa and other African countries. Computer forensics reference material purchased for the commercial crimes section of the SAPS has complemented training provided by U.S. law enforcement agencies, resulting in increased and better investigations and court cases. The DNA analyzer provided to SAPS, only the second one in the country, is used in forensic analysis in South Africa and by other countries in the region as well. INL-provided air-wing equipment used by the SAPS has contributed to the SAG anti-drug programs' efforts to eradicate marijuana in South Africa and Swaziland.

The South African Government recognizes that one of the biggest threats to its democracy is the criminal capacity to undermine the economy and financial sector. South African law enforcement and prosecutorial sectors lack enough trained and experienced officials who can follow the path of illicitly gained profits although progress is being made on this front. These skills are needed for a wide array of investigations such as public corruption, drug trafficking and human smuggling, and to identify profits in asset forfeiture cases, which are increasing in importance in South Africa. In 2005, the U.S. conducted numerous training seminars for both prosecutors and investigators on financial crimes, money laundering and procedures to be used in preparing the cases; conducted an exchange program with a U.S. attorney to give greater exposure to South Africa attorneys working on financial crime cases; and provided hands-on mentoring for prosecutors developing financial crime cases. The U.S. is also supporting the Special Investigating Unit develop financial investigation skills and investigate corruption throughout South Africa.

For the past few years, the United states has employed an Assistant United States Attorney through the Overseas Prosecutor Development, Assistance and Training (OPDAT) program as a Resident Legal Advisor (RLA) to work inside the NPA with senior management of the organization. The RLA has acted as a legal consultant, giving advice on specific cases, spearheading the effort to educate and prosecute money laundering and financial crimes, designing strategies to combat specialized crimes, especially organized crime, and introducing the South Africans to innovative law enforcement techniques. A U.S. prosecutor specializing in the U.S. Organized Crime (RICO) statute assisted with the establishment of a national organized crime desk function, conducted training courses for South African prosecutors on South Africa's organized crime act, and provided mentoring on specific cases. A result of this program is a national desk clearing process for organized crime cases. In 2005, the RLA returned to South Africa, at the request of the NPA, to provide assistance with the prosecution of specific cases he was working on during his previous stay. Several additional visits are planned for 2006. Additionally, in 2006, an RLA with expertise in asset forfeiture laws will advise South African prosecutors on the use of asset forfeiture to combat criminal organizations involved in sophisticated financial crimes.

In FY 2003, INL began to support the Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department (JMPD), one of the largest and newest municipal forces in South Africa, by providing an advisor from the Los Angeles Police Department to work on management, organization and training issues, among other topics. The technical advisor (TA) assisted the JMPD to develop a strategic plan for implementing recommendations made during a 2001 assessment. With the assistance of the U.S. advisor, a 350-page policy manual, along with some other basic documents, was prepared. The advisor also assisted the Johannesburg City Council in their dealings with police and criminal matters, and helped organize an anti-crime campaign. Additionally, the TA developed a four-hour "Values and Integrity" course for new officers, which was presented to approximately two hundred officers. The course is now mandatory for all new officers after graduation from the Academy. The TA is currently working with the Director of Internal Affairs to develop the Department's comprehensive strategy for addressing corruption. Other metropolitan police forces are recognizing the work of the JMPD and are looking to replicate different aspects of it.

Following an earlier assessment on how to improve South Africa's immigration services, INL is assisting the Department of Home Affairs in developing a project to train immigration officers in the newly created Immigration Branch, train officers in the newly created Security and Anti-Corruption Unit, and assist in the development of procedures for line officers responsible for issuance of documents in order to reduce fraud and corrupt practices. The project is scheduled to begin in 2006.

FY 2007 Program

FY 2007 funds will be used for Program Development and Support costs for an INL Section Chief and his office staff. The section chief is responsible for overseeing prior-year INCLE-funded programs in South Africa, which provide assistance in police professionalization, and judicial sector development to detect, deter and prosecute complex crimes.

Several of the programs, previously funded, are in the early stages of execution and require the supervision of an INL Director to oversee their successful implementation. Additionally, the section chief in Pretoria has regional responsibilities, including monitoring the implementation of UNODC projects covering several Southern African countries that are centrally funded by INL. The section chief is also responsible for overseeing and evaluating the criminal justice system elements of the Women's Justice and Empowerment Initiative (WJEI) in South Africa and possibly Zambia. The WJEI is a 3-year $55 million presidential initiative involving four countries, including South Africa and Zambia.

Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds will cover salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

South Africa

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Administration of Justice

Intermittent Legal Advisor/Financial Advisor/RLA

400

-

-

-

-

Financial Crimes

197

-

-

-

-

Immigration/Border Control

197

-

-

-

-

Judicial Administration

197

-

-

-

-

Johannesburg Metropolitan Police

297

-

194

-

-

Correctional Systems Development

118

-

-

-

-

Sub-Total

1,406

-

194

-

0

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

183

-

190

-

237

Non-U.S. Personnel

34

-

50

-

63

ICASS Costs

72

-

80

-

100

Program Support

61

-

80

-

100

Sub-Total

350

-

400

-

500

Total

1,756

-

594

-

500

Sudan

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

-

-

9,800

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

New bilateral criminal justice program for the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) is established, including police, justice, and corrections components. U.S. police presence with UNMIS (UN Mission to Sudan) is increased. International technical experts and trainers are deployed and assist the GOSS in building a democratic police force, developing and implementing strategies for police and criminal justice reform, and training and equipping police and criminal justice personnel.

A cadre of GOSS high ranking police officials begin development and implementation of a strategy for police including absorption of ex-combatants. Amalgamation of Government of Sudan (GOS) National Police in the South and SPLM police, and establishment of a ten-state structure reflecting the ten directorates under the new GOSS Ministry of Police and Security. GOSS begins implementing a legal framework for governing criminal justice, including a Police Act, Criminal Procedure Code, Criminal Code, and Corrections Law, and training for criminal justice personnel on the new laws and procedures.

UN International Police (UN Police) continue deployment to Sudan under the auspices of the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), helping to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), and provide guidance and advice to Sudanese police.

UN Police monitor, advise, and mentor Sudanese police on patrol and in station houses across Sudan. The number of U.S. police deployed with UNMIS is increased from one to up to nineteen officers.

Program Justification

The "North-South Conflict" in Sudan is Africa's oldest conflict, beginning in 1956 and lasting until the signing of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). In 2005, the UN Security Council mandated deployment of 10,000 peacekeepers and 700 civilian police to staff the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS). The U.S. pledged support for the CPA and UN mission based on the dire humanitarian situation in Sudan, the continued conflict in Darfur, and the U.S. interest in ensuring that Sudan never again becomes a harbor for international terrorists.

INL programs in Sudan will support the implementation of the CPA by assisting the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) to establish and develop the institutional capacities of the police and criminal justice system. The lack of GOSS capacity to provide public and personal security impedes international humanitarian efforts, peaceful return of refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), reintegration of ex-combatants, and long-term development goals in Sudan. Creation of a democratic police force and transparent and accessible criminal justice system in Southern Sudan is essential to developing public confidence in the GOSS and the CPA. The INL program is critical to the U.S. and international commitments to support demilitarization and security sector reform in Sudan.

UNMIS police monitors and mentors are key resources for assisting in establishing public security in Sudan. UNMIS presence helps to mitigate localized conflict and monitor geographic flashpoints while GOSS security and rule of law capabilities are stood-up.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2007 represents a new request and requirement for INL. INL received PKO funds in FY 2005 to support the assignment of one U.S. police officer to UNMIS. INL continues to support that officer. INL also participated in an interagency police/criminal justice assessment in 2005 that serves as the basis for the FY 2007 request.

FY 2007 Program

The FY 2007 program has a multilateral and bilateral component. Through support to UNMIS, the U.S. engages in the multilateral international police effort to maintain peace and stability in Sudan. The U.S. bilateral program complements the UNMIS efforts and supports development of GOSS law enforcement and criminal justice capacities. The bilateral program, developed in consultation with the GOSS and U.S. interagency, covers all three components of a functioning criminal justice system - police, courts, and corrections.

Civilian Police

INL funds will support up to 19 U.S. police officers to UNMIS. U.S. officers will provide expertise in training, mentoring, and curriculum development. Activities will include patrols and monitoring in key areas in Sudan, and providing presence to encourage and support CPA implementation.

GOSS Police Development

A senior police advisor will be based in Juba to assist the GOSS in strategic planning, donor coordination, and institutional development of the newly created Southern Sudan Police. An advisor/program manager may also be placed in Embassy Khartoum. Key issues will include command and control accountability, amalgamation of GOS National Police in the South and ex-combatants into one GOSS police force, and training. Funds will also support specialized technical assistance, procurement of non-lethal equipment, and improvements for police infrastructure.

Criminal Justice Reform

Coordinated closely with on-going U.S. and international donor programs, INL will support criminal justice reform in Southern Sudan to ensure that police are operating within the proper legal framework of a functioning criminal justice system. The program will include a range of activities such as providing legal advisors to focus on development and implementation of pertinent laws; advocacy training for prosecutors, defense counsel, and paralegals; and development of adjudicative skills for judges. Targeted infrastructure, such as refurbishment and construction of courtrooms and offices for justice personnel, and equipment support will also be provided.

Correctional Development

INL will support the GOSS in developing a corrections system that is secure, humane, and meets international human rights standards. Funds will provide for a U.S. corrections expert to advise the GOSS on strategic development and institutional reform, as well as train corrections administrators and guards. Funds will also be available for refurbishment of select facilities and procurement of essential equipment for corrections officers.

Program Development and Support

PD&S funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct-hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, management and evaluation.

Sudan

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2007

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

Request

Crime Control

Civilian Police

-

-

-

-

3,800

Police Development and Reform

-

-

-

-

1,850

Criminal Justice Development

Justice Reform

-

-

-

-

1,850

Correctional Services Development

-

-

-

-

1,250

Sub-Total

-

-

-

-

8,750

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

250

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

200

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

-

Program Support

-

-

-

-

600

Sub-Total

-

-

-

-

1,050

Total

-

-

-

-

9,800

Women's Justice Empowerment Initiative

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

1,200

-

9,500


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

To reduce violence against women by strengthening the capacity of the legal system to protect women and punish violators; to improve police capacity to investigate reports of sexual violence and abusive acts against women; and to strengthen the capacity of the judicial and prosecutorial sectors in prosecuting and adjudicating such crimes.

Training, technical assistance and equipment delivered and effectively utilized by police, prosecutors, and judges result in increased numbers of arrests and prosecutions in cases related to sexual violence and abuse cases against women.

Program Justification

In June 2005, the White House announced the Women's Justice Empowerment Initiative (WJEI) to assist the existing efforts of four African countries to combat sexual violence and abuse against women in Africa. The participating countries are Benin, Kenya, South Africa, and Zambia. As the programs in these four nations develop, their successes are expected to produce a ripple effect through other countries in the region.

The NSC undertook the initial design, designating the Department of Justice (ICITAP and OPDAT) through INL as the implementing agency. To address violence against women, the initiative is using a three pronged approach: increase awareness of violence against women and the need to empower women through public awareness; improve the legal system to better address cases of such violence; and address the needs of survivors of such violence through rehabilitation and reintegration. INL is responsible for the criminal justice development aspect of the initiative.

Many African nations have already taken steps to improve legal rights for women, including new sexual offenses laws, higher penalties for sexually violent offenses against women, anti-trafficking and prostitution legislation, and laws which grant women greater rights to property and inheritance. Through the WJEI, training and technical assistance will be provided to allow for adequate implementation.

Program Accomplishments

An initial phase of assessment visits to each of the four countries was completed in February 2006. It was undertaken by a joint interagency assessment team, including INL, DOJ (ICITAP and OPDAT), USAID, State and the NSC. Embassy and USAID representatives from the host country were involved in the assessments as well. The purpose of the assessment was to obtain a clear understanding of the breadth and severity of violence against women as well as the current situation in each country, including a review of existing policies and laws, perceptions, and services already available. The assessment was also an opportunity to gauge each government's willingness and efforts to date to address the problems. Building on this, the team defined the appropriate programmatic approaches to address and reduce violence against women in each of the four countries.

FY 2007 Program


INL is responsible for the criminal justice development aspect of the initiative, specifically the strengthening of the capacity of the legal system to protect women from violence and to punish offenders. Based on the findings of the assessment visits, FY 2007 funds will be used to provide training, technical assistance, and equipment needed to achieve the goals of strengthening: the police's capacity to investigate reports of abused and arrest; the court system's capacity to prosecute offenders; and laws supporting women's justice and empowerment.

Women's Justice Empowerment Initiative

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Women's Justice and Empowerment Initiative

1,200

-

-

-

9,500

Total

1,200

-

-

-

9,500

Africa Regional

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

1,512

594

500


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The capacity of the criminal justice sector within targeted Sub-Saharan African nations to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes of concern to the U.S. (including illegal immigration and terrorism) will continue to be strengthened.

Skills-based training will continue to be emphasized; technical assistance, training and equipment delivered to and effectively utilized by recipients; increased numbers of criminal investigations conducted by police; improved quality of evidence used in criminal court cases; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation and information sharing.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in select Sub-Saharan African countries will continue through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement groups within the region.

Increased numbers trained at select police training facilities; development and implementation of modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select police training facilities; development and implementation of strategic plans for improving law enforcement training; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation result in more effective law enforcement.

Program Justification

Criminal activities throughout the African continent corrupt and weaken governments, undermine progress towards the establishment of democratic institutions, hinder economic growth and foreign investment, and create an attractive environment for terrorism and other transnational crime. Police professionalization and institutional development of the criminal justice sectors are keys to supporting democracy.

East and Southern Africa (Tanzania, Uganda, and Mozambique) comprise a transit route for African and Asian criminal activities including trafficking in narcotics, persons, and other contraband; alien smuggling; money laundering; financial crime; and terrorist attacks.

West Africa (Ghana) is a major transit hub for narcotics trafficking, trafficking of persons, small arms, financial fraud, and fraudulent documents directly affecting U.S. citizens. Weak criminal justice institutions across Africa have made the continent a safe haven for organized crime groups, including terrorist cells. Since September 11, 2001, and the crackdown on traditional transshipment routes for drugs and arms, Africa has become a convenient alternative route for illegal contraband heading for the U.S. and Europe.

INL crime and drug programs in African countries support the development of professional and sustainable law enforcement institutions capable of detecting and deterring criminals operating in their territories. By making African countries less attractive to criminal elements, INL programs foster the rule of law that forms the bedrock upon which the USG's broader goals of democracy and prosperity are established.

Program Accomplishments

Programs aimed at institutional law enforcement development in Sub-Saharan Africa have met with success despite limited funding and brief histories. Notable among these successes has been the investment by governments in Uganda, Ghana and Tanzania to maximize INL assistance by replicating USG training and methods, and funding laboratory upgrades beyond that provided by INL.

During the past few years, the Tanzanian Police Force (TPF) has received civil disorder management training, including the development of a riot deployment strategy designed by command-level officers with the assistance of a U.S. advisor. In August 2004, two instructors delivered two iterations of a Basic Skills Training Development Course in Tanzania. The consultants worked with police to institutionalize a skills-based training curriculum adapted for the Tanzanian context. Approximately 40 student-trainers from regions throughout the country attended the training. At the conclusion of the program the equipment used, valued at approximately $10,000, was donated to Tanzanian law enforcement. The instructors noted marked improvement in crime scene management and forensic evidence collection. Previously, upon arriving at a crime scene, officers would step all over the evidence and not search for possible assailants in the area surrounding the crime scene. Following training, officers are better educated at actively managing crime scenes and collecting evidence. Officer safety and proper first responder tactics have improved as well. In 2005, two instructors presented two iterations of a two-week Basic Criminal Investigations Course. A total of 55 TPF Criminal Investigations Division (CID) detectives and trainers attended the training. The first iteration culminated with a mock criminal investigation and courtroom exercise involving a rape scenario. In anticipation of the October 2005 Tanzanian presidential election, INL funded refresher Civil Disorder Management (CDM) and election security training to selected members of the TPF to prepare them for civil disorder that might occur. This training targeted TPF command officers, line officers, and instructors. Reports following the election indicated that there were no causalities resulting from violence associated with the elections in the mainland. The riot police dispersed crowds without the use of deadly weapons, carrying with them only riot equipment, much of which was provided by INL. INL-funded training gave the officers and their senior commanders the confidence, skills, and equipment needed to control civil disorder in a professional and constructive manner. Having institutionalized CDM training at its basic academy in Masindi, the TPF has trained an additional one thousand TPF members in CDM.

In Mozambique, assistance to the forensic laboratory at the National Police Sciences Academy (ACIPOL) continued. INL funded a technical advisor to work with the Academy's specialists to develop a forensic curriculum and an implementation strategy to optimize ACIPOL's effectiveness. The strategic plan, designed in coordination with Spanish and Portuguese police assigned to ACIPOL, capitalized on the expertise and investment of other donors and prevented duplication of efforts. Implementation of the strategic plan began in 2003 and included Police First Responder Courses (FPR) and Basic Criminal Investigation (BCI) courses for 340 police cadets and 8 prosecutors. Additional training offered in 2003 included a Sex Crimes Investigation Course and a Criminal Intelligence Management Course for 53 cadets. From January through March 2004, a consultant assigned to the ACIPOL programs continued to provide technical assistance in Maputo. Forensic assistance to ACIPOL continued during 2005. Three classrooms were renovated and modified for use as training laboratories in the areas of fingerprints, questioned documents, photography and drugs. The final installation of the fume hoods was completed in the fourth quarter of 2005. Crime Scene Kits and Drug Field Testing Kits were purchased and delivered in anticipation of the training scheduled for 2006.

A Community Policing Program in 2005-2006 expanded upon previous INL-funded activities, incorporating additional actors in the law enforcement community in Mozambique. A well-executed community-policing program will serve to increase the gathering of criminal intelligence and will help assuage the mistrust felt between the police and the communities in which they serve.

INL funded the establishment of a bicycle patrol program in Accra, Ghana to advance the concept of community policing. Since the program's launch in 2002, the Accra patrol team has inspired a new initiative to duplicate the bicycle patrol concept in Kumasi, a regional capital in the southern part of Ghana. In August 2004, 40 patrol bicycles were donated to the Ghana Police Service (GPS) to create a new community policing patrol unit in Kumasi. The Ghanaians are coordinating the training of the new officers, applying the "train the trainers" concept.

In July 2005, instructors presented a comprehensive 18-week train-the-trainer program to thirty members of the Ghanaian Police Force. The instructors imparted Problem Based Learning (PBL) techniques, which have proved to be extremely effective throughout Africa. The instructors worked with the students to tailor a Basic Recruit Training (BRT) curriculum to meet the needs of the Ghanaian police. Topics included: First Responder, Gender/Sex Crime Issues, Force Protection and Civil Disorder Management. The tailored curriculum will be institutionalized into the police academy.

The BRT training has already positively impacted the investigative capabilities of the GPS. In October 2005, the GPS requested that two officers who were participating in the INL training report to Headquarters to investigate a politically sensitive crime committed against a foreign-national female by a Ghanaian citizen. The GPS leadership has reported that the training the officers received in crisis intervention and techniques of interviewing victims of sexual assault is critical to both resolving serious incidents and in conducting professional criminal investigations.

In July 2005, INL funded General Criminal Investigations training for 60 Kenyan Police Service (KPS) training instructors and investigators. These 60 officers received training in cutting edge investigative practices culminating in a mock criminal investigation and trial. Additional training on First Police Responder, Field Training Officer, and General Skills Development is scheduled for later in 2006.

The Ugandan government optimized U.S. Government training to fund the replication of successful programs at its own expense. A law enforcement development project for the Criminal Investigation Division (CID) of the Ugandan Police Force (UPF) initiated in November 2003 provided practical training to approximately 550 members of the UPF in instructor and curriculum development, and a forensic overview. The USG-funded training included a criminal investigation simulation and mock trial. An INL-funded advisor assisted the Government of Uganda in the development and purchase of equipment for a criminal information database that has the potential to link with similar systems in Kenya and Tanzania. The Ugandan government supplemented this project by purchasing additional computer equipment.

In 2004, the Ugandan government began applying the U.S.-developed training curriculum to train over 500 UPF recruits. Overall, more than 900 Ugandan police recruits received some USG sponsored training in 2004. In February 2004, instructors taught a 16-week Basic Skills Development Program using a "train-the-trainer" curriculum with 24 instructors from the UPF: twelve officer and twelve basic recruit instructors. In Kampala, these instructors worked with UPF student-trainers to develop their instruction of skills-based training. In Masindi, trainers mentored the student-trainers as they delivered the newly acquired learning techniques to several hundred UPF basic recruits. Since training began, the annual conviction rates of cases taken to court have increased from 31.5 percent to 36.9 percent. In the span of a month, between February and March 2004, there were 39 criminal cases in Mbale; 26 resulted in convictions, six in acquittals, four in discharges, and one in adjournment. In addition, UPF members, across the board, have displayed greater confidence. The UPF has created a training video library, covering issues as diverse as handcuffing and human rights. The Inspector General of the Police hopes to develop a training program that can be of benefit to other regional countries. In May 2005, INL funded management training for filed training officers in the UPF, which built upon the basic skills training development program conducted in 2004. Case management training is scheduled for 2006.

INL funds were used for an anti-corruption program to improve the performance of the recently restructured Central Office for the Combat of Corruption, formerly the Anti-Corruption Unit (ACU), in the Attorney General's office. INL funded training for prosecutors in investigative and case management skills. INL funds also supported a scholarship program for degree training in law and auditing for Attorney General personnel.

INL assistance in forensic lab development has continued with excellent results. Government of Tanzania cooperation has been exceptional, resulting in host government-funded upgrades to existing lab space completed ahead of schedule. In 2003, INL-funded a senior forensic technical advisor (TA) to the Tanzania Police Force (TPF) to develop a forensic laboratory. Phase 1 renovation of the TPF Forensic Bureau laboratory was completed and work has begun on Phase 2. Final construction will be completed in 2006. The TA assisted the TPF in drafting a laboratory policy and procedures manual, which is currently being implemented. Equipment, including a superglue chamber, computer equipment for a computerized fingerprint database, firearms equipment, and a comparison microscope with a 35mm camera, was donated. Technical procedures are in various stages of completion and incorporate the uses of the new instruments and equipment that have been provided. Training of laboratory personnel continued in Crime Scene Investigation, Laboratory Safety, and Quality Assurance.

Efforts continue to expand the national drug lab in Senegal into a regional lab for use by other Francophone countries in West Africa. In 2003, an advanced Drug Standards Training course for the three technicians at the drug laboratory was conducted in Dakar by a DEA chemist. Portable drug analysis kits were donated to the Senegalese at the conclusion of the course. In 2005, a senior forensic advisor and a forensic chemist provided in-user training on the newly installed gas chromatograph and conducted a two-week drug analysis course for the drug chemists at the laboratory.

Forensic training for the Uganda Police Force began in October 2004, and enhancement of the forensic capabilities continued during 2005. A Senior Forensic Advisor (TA) advised on the lab design during the renovation of the building to house the forensic lab. INL-funded trainers also provided training to the laboratory staff in Crime Scene Investigation, Basis and Advanced Fingerprint Examination, Digital Photography and specialized Computer Software Programs. Additionally, INL funds were used to provide equipment and advanced training in Forensic Autopsy Procedures to the forensic pathologists at Mulago Hospital, which performs autopsies for the Ugandan Police Force.

FY 2007 Program

INL funds will be used to continue sustainable improvements in the capacity of select African law enforcement institutions to combat illegal migration and trafficking in people, narcotics and other contraband; and to develop democratic policing with an emphasis on human rights and ethics. Funding will continue to target states in the region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing, and a record of having used prior-year U.S. assistance effectively.

Ghana: FY 2007 funds will provide training in advanced investigative techniques, airport interdiction, and seaport interdiction to the Narcotics Control Board, which has been credited with increasing seizures of heroin and cocaine transiting West Africa.

Mozambique: FY 2007 will be used to continue a community policing program begun in 2005. Sustainable and institutional reform of law enforcement and criminal justice sectors will be supported through modernizing teaching curricula and teaching methodologies at law enforcement academies and through organizational change management. Funds will be used to procure additional patrol bicycles (approximately 100) to extend the program into additional neighborhoods.

Uganda: FY 2007 funds will be used to continue development of the Uganda Police Force (UPF) forensic laboratory to facilitate evidence-based investigations and prosecutions. Funds will be used to provide technical advisory services, training and appropriate lab equipment. The forensic advisor will continue to work with the director of the UPF forensic laboratory to provide management and supervisory training, review and enhance policy manuals, and identify the most pressing technical training needs.

Tanzania: FY 2007 funds will be used to continue development of the Tanzania Police Force (TPF) forensic laboratory to facilitate evidence-based investigations and prosecutions. Funds will be used to provide technical advisory services, training and appropriate lab equipment.

Africa Regional

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Law Enforcement Development

466

-

396

-

150

Forensic Laboratory Development

830

-

-

-

250

Border Security

216

-

198

-

-

Counternarcotics

-

-

-

-

100

Total

1,512

-

594

-

500



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