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Diplomacy in Action

Asia and the Middle East


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2007 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2006
Report
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Afghanistan

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2005 Supplemental

FY 2006  Estimate

FY 2007 Request

89,280

620,000

232,650

297,390


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL's overall program objective is to work with the Government of Afghanistan (GOA) and the international community to reduce poppy cultivation, improve law enforcement capabilities, and reform the Afghan criminal justice system to enhance public security, strengthen the rule of law, and attack illegal drug production and trafficking. INL program objectives in Afghanistan are consistent with the USG longer-term goal to create stability so as to prevent Afghanistan from again becoming a haven for terrorists and criminal activities. The following programs are based upon an integrated approach. All of these objectives must be pursued simultaneously on a holistic basis to achieve success.

Counternarcotics

Working with the United Kingdom, which has the international lead on counternarcotics activities in Afghanistan, INL programs will seek to reduce poppy cultivation through an integrated program of poppy eradication, strengthening counternarcotics law enforcement efforts, and continuing public information and demand reduction programs, in conjunction with USAID alternative development programs. Included in our counternarcotics efforts:

Poppy Elimination Program teams made up of Afghans and international advisors will back up governors' counternarcotics efforts in the provinces - urging farmers to abstain from planting poppy and to eradicate poppy fields - and will verify and report cultivation and eradication results to central authorities when external assistance is required.

Afghan Eradication Force teams under the direction of the central government will conduct manual eradication in areas where provincial eradication did not take place to reduce the poppy harvest and to deter planting next year.

An aerial support component will increase the effectiveness of the ground eradication program and allow its extension into areas currently inaccessible for security or logistical reasons.

An aggressive and on-going public information campaign, geared toward persuading Afghan farmers not to plant poppy and warning them that their crops may be destroyed by government-led eradicators if they do, will contribute to an additional reduction in poppy cultivation.

Drug intelligence, investigation, and interdiction units of the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) will operate nationwide to disrupt processing operations and trafficking networks.

The GOA will reinforce the message that underlying public opinion is opposed to the drug trade through a comprehensive, nation-wide anti-drug public affairs campaign (measured against results from a 2006 public opinion survey).

Working with the Ministries of Public Health, Information and Culture, Education, and Telecommunications, the Ministry for Counter Narcotics will coordinate a national drug abuse prevention and treatment program.

Administration of Justice

INL rule of law programs in Afghanistan will continue to support Italian and international efforts and work with the Government of Afghanistan to strengthen the criminal justice system throughout the country as well as provide support for the development of the corrections system. In doing so, our justice programs also support police and counternarcotics initiatives by improving police-prosecutor coordination and helping to arrest, try and punish narcotics offenders. Our administration of justice programs:

Provide advisory and technical support to Afghan justice administrators to improve management, operation and coordination in the Ministry of Justice (MOJ), Ministry of Interior (MOI), Attorney General's Office, and Supreme Court.

Conduct standardized training for justice personnel (including prosecutors, defense counsel and judges) focusing on Afghan and international law, human rights, and criminal justice procedures.

Mentor Afghan justice personnel to improve investigations, police-prosecutor coordination, case management, trial advocacy and adjudication of criminal cases.

Provide advisory services and technical support to the MOJ Prison Directorate to improve the capacity of the nationwide corrections system.

Conduct standardized corrections training in Kabul and key provinces with an emphasis on human rights and corrections management and operations.

Provide equipment and infrastructure support to justice and corrections facilities near U.S. funded police Regional Training Centers and courts in provincial locations and in major poppy growing and drug trafficking regions.

Support development of legal professional organizations and institutions including the bar association (and licensing regime) as well as legal training and aid centers. Reintegrating women into the legal sector will remain a focus through FY 2007.

Support specialized training and mentoring for judges, prosecutors, and investigators on issues such as counternarcotics, trafficking, corruption, and prosecutorial investigations.

Support a specialized, secure facility to contain offices and secure courtrooms for counternarcotics prosecutors and investigators, and Counternarcotics Tribunal judges. Facility will also contain secure detention center for narcotics defendants.

Civilian Law Enforcement

The USG police assistance mission is to contribute to an international effort led by Germany and coordinated with the Afghan Ministry of Interior to rapidly develop an Afghan capacity to provide public security. Our goal is to help Afghanistan develop a competent, professional, democratic police force with the necessary training, equipment, infrastructure, institutional capacity and organizational structure to enforce the rule of law in Afghanistan. To reach that goal, we are continuing to enhance our basic training program with specialized training and mentoring, technical assistance and institutional capacity building and reform to enhance security throughout Afghanistan. FY 2007 funding will enable us to:

Continue to support maintenance and operation costs for our eight INL Regional Training Centers and police training advisors to enhance and expand our basic training program with an increased focus on field training for police officers and specialized courses to address the need for advanced counternarcotics, anticorruption, criminal investigative and other critical skills.

Continue to support and expand the field mentoring program to ensure police throughout the country receive on the job training and guidance to enhance and reinforce training provided in the classroom.

Complete Ministry of Interior reform efforts including the conclusion of the Pay and Rank Reform Initiative, which restructures, reorders and reforms the MOI organizational and payroll systems.

Provide continued support for community policing initiatives, revenue-generation initiatives and continued support for the establishment of specialized police units such as the Domestic Violence Unit and Professional Standards Unit.

Program Justification

INL programs in Afghanistan reflect the country's centrality in the U.S. Global War on Terrorism. INL programs in Afghanistan support U.S. counterterrorism, counter drug and anticrime goals. The FY 2007 INL program will continue to enhance the three main components that began with FY 2002 supplemental funding and continued with FY 2004, FY 2005 and FY 2006 foreign assistance and supplemental appropriations: counternarcotics activities, criminal justice sector (including corrections) reform, and police training and reform. INL programs are coordinated closely with U.S. coalition partners to complement the respective leading roles played by the United Kingdom on counternarcotics, Germany on police, and Italy on justice reform.

Although the political and economic situation in Afghanistan is improving, opium poppy production and trafficking, still accounts for roughly one-third of Afghanistan's total GDP, licit and illicit. The huge drug trade undermines economic reconstruction, weakens democratic governance based on the rule of law, and threatens regional stability. Dangerous security conditions and corruption constrain efforts to combat the drug trade and provide alternative incomes.

Programs in 2005 also provided good news: the total cultivation of opium poppy dropped by 48 percent (from 206,700 hectares to 107,000 hectares according to U.S. Government sources. Due to favorable growing conditions, however, the net opium yield only dropped by 10 percent. The reduction in planting is credited to a number of factors, including: inventory overhang from 2004, public information campaigns against poppy production (including President Karzai's public statements), hopes for alternative livelihoods assistance, and fear of forced eradication and arrest. President Karzai pledged an additional 20 percent reduction of poppy cultivation in 2006. A significant step forward on the legal front occurred in October when the GOA extradited Haji Baz Mohamed, the first Afghan citizen extradited for drug trafficking.

Restoration of the rule of law is vital to increasing security, ensuring stability, promoting economic growth, and protecting human rights. A transparent and fair justice system is critical to ensuring that the people of Afghanistan respect the authority and decision-making of the central government. In particular, a criminal defense system that affords due process and respects international human rights standards is a cornerstone of a society functioning under the rule of law. U.S. law enforcement must have the ability to work with Afghanistan in the future on crucial law enforcement issues. Despite Afghan progress on a Constitution and the development of governmental mechanisms and agencies that support justice reform, much work is needed. Critical tasks include establishment of a functioning judiciary, a competent bar, reintegration of women legal professionals, and a reliable penal system.

Given Afghanistan's struggle against narcotics, specialized prosecution is mandatory to not only bolster the rule of law in this critical area, but to provide legal consequences to both punish and deter traffickers. Assisting the Afghan government in accelerating legal mechanisms to effectively prosecute narcotics offenders is a major focus of international counternarcotics efforts.

FY 2007 funding will enable INL to continue to work with the Government of Afghanistan and the international community to improve law enforcement capabilities by strengthening the rule of law and enhancing public security throughout the country. Professionalization of the MOI and development of advanced policing skills are critical to ensuring the long-term capability of the Afghan MOI to address such critical law enforcement issues such as narcotics, corruption and organized crime. While basic training of the police force is important, it is imperative that such training is reinforced in the field and enhanced with additional instruction in operational policing skills.

Program Accomplishments

Counternarcotics

The U.S., in concert with the UK, has worked to ensure that counternarcotics is at the forefront of Afghan policy initiatives. President Karzai publicly committed to stemming drug production and trade, as expressed by the goal of a further 20 percent reduction in opium cultivation in 2006. With U.S. and UK support, the GOA established the Poppy Elimination Program (PEP) in May, 2005. PEP is designed to reduce poppy cultivation through year-round targeted public information campaigns to dissuade poppy planting, alternative livelihoods programs to spur rural development, and governor-led eradication of poppy crops. PEP teams have begun deployment to the seven key poppy producing provinces. These teams, comprised of public information, alternative livelihoods and monitoring/verification officers, work with governors to deter opium planting and support governor-led eradication by providing monitoring and verification of eradication efforts. The GOA reconfigured the Central Poppy Eradication Force (CPEF) into the Afghan Eradication Force (AEF), a more flexible and more mobile force with air support that will broaden the central government's eradication capabilities.

On the legal front, the Counternarcotics Law adopted in December, 2005, was the GOA's first step in amplifying on the prohibition of cultivation and trafficking of narcotic drugs, as contained I Amendment 7 to the Constitution. This comprehensive counternarcotics law will substantially enhance the GOA's ability to arrest, prosecute and convict drug traffickers. In October the GOA extradited accused drug dealer Haji Baz Mohammed to the U.S., the first time an Afghan citizen has been extradited for narcotics trafficking.

A comprehensive public affairs strategy was created and put into action in 2004. INL funded BBC and VOA radio anti-drug messages broadcast in both Pashto and Dari weekly.
Two Assistant U.S. Attorneys (AUSA) have been assigned to provide technical advisory assistance to the GOA on counternarcotics matters, including support to a counternarcotics Vertical Prosecution Task Force composed of specially selected and trained judges, prosecutors, and criminal investigators. An expansion of this program to support the counternarcotics task force is underway.

The INL section at Embassy Kabul is now fully staffed with 11 U.S. personnel, covering the counternarcotics, police, justice, and aviation sectors. In contrast with a single American Director's position in 2004, the program has expanded to include personnel responsible for various projects, including a Director, Deputy Director, Administrative Officer, Counternarcotics Program Officer, airing and eradication personnel and an Office Management Specialist to manage this growing program. In addition, INL supports the Counternarcotics Task Force Coordinator's Office.

Administration of Justice

The Afghan government adopted a Constitution that respects human rights, the rights of women, and adheres to due process standards, and has enacted critical judicial legislation including the Interim Criminal Procedure Code, the Court Administration Law, and the Law of Prisons and Detention Centers. Afghanistan has also made progress in drafting and approving a national development strategy for the justice sector. INL's justice program has directly supported the Afghan government for provincial justice assessments and conferences, conducted basic and specialized criminal justice and corrections training, provided basic equipment and supplies to justice institutions, and mentored Afghan defense counsels. We are helping to reorganize and reform the Attorney General's Office and are identifying key areas to improve police-prosecutor coordination in preparation for coordinated training and mentoring. INL has also established a comprehensive corrections program providing basic and in-service corrections training; capacity-building through development of standard operating procedures and policies; and equipment and infrastructure support to improve conditions, management and operation of prison and detention facilities nationwide.

INL has awarded a grant for a U.S./Afghan LLM and Certificate Program for Afghan law professors to help improve the education of legal professionals. The grant offers Afghan legal educators the opportunity to participate in an intensive year-long LLM program, which provides them with exposure to modern law school teaching techniques, modern university life, emerging legal trends and doctrine, the U.S. judicial system and basic governing structures. The experience will help hone the legal skills of the participants as well as make available opportunities to supplement legal education with practical training. The grant also supports establishing a strong partnership between the Kabul University Law School and the University of Washington Asia Law Center in the U.S.

Civilian Law Enforcement

Since the inception of the program over three years ago, INL has established police training centers in Kabul, Kandahar, Konduz, Jalalabad, Gardez, Bamiyan, Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif and trained over 57,000 police officers. Permanent construction of all Regional Training Centers is complete. Expansion of the field training program to all major provinces is underway; mentors have been deployed to more than 24 provinces and have begun engaging with local Afghan police officials. Advanced training courses in defensive driving, firearms, crowd control, literacy, computer skills, anti-corruption, domestic violence and other critical courses are being developed and implemented at all of the RTCs and in the field.

MOI reform is proceeding well; Phase I of pay and rank reform, which focused on the top 31 most senior positions within the MOI, is now complete. Phase II is well underway; testing for the next 85 positions is complete with background checks nearly finished and interviews approximately 50 percent complete. A new anti-corruption/internal affairs unit called the Professional Standards Unit has been established and trained and mentors are now assigned to every department within the MOI to help assist with the transition to a new, streamlined and professional organization.

FY 2007 Program

Continued insecurity and increased challenges to democratic stability in Afghanistan requires the acceleration and substantial expansion of three main INL programs: counternarcotics, civilian law enforcement and administration of justice. FY 2007 funding will increase support of programs to improve national law enforcement capabilities, strengthen the rule of law, and enhance public security including disruption of drug trafficking and associated criminal activity throughout the country, as well as a significant eradication program. INL programs in FY 2007 will continue these enhanced programs.

Counternarcotics

INL funding for counternarcotics in FY 2007 will continue to support international counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan. INL programs will consist of poppy crop reduction through public information and ground-based eradication, and drug control institution building that includes public outreach, support for interdiction, and demand reduction.

Elimination/Eradication: This program is aimed at reducing large-scale poppy cultivation through: (a) an intensified province-based effort focusing on key poppy producing regions to proactively discourage poppy cultivation, combined with aggressive, governor-led eradication supported by 14 PEP monitoring and verification teams; and (b) robust application of a central government directed national manual eradication program begun in FY 2004 and transformed into four, 150-person mobile eradication teams in 2005. FY 2007 funds will be used to provide increased air support (including 10 Huey-II's deployed in FY 2006 using FY 2005 supplemental funding) for poppy elimination and eradication programs. Aircraft will also be available to assist in National Interdiction Unit operations when not engaged in supporting elimination/eradication activities. Funds will be provided to pay for salaries and support to PEP teams as well as providing salaries for Afghan police eradication and protection teams; fuel and supplies; vehicles and equipment; transportation, training, evaluation, and monitoring of the program; and contractor overhead and costs. Additional funds will lease airlift support for AEF and PEP teams. Support to a small fleet of U.S.-owned rotary wing aircraft for security, reconnaissance, resupply, medevac and search and rescue will be provided through INL's aviation support contract. Funds will be used for shipping, support infrastructure, fuel, ammunition, personnel, repair and maintenance, contractor overhead, and flying hour operational costs,

Drug Enforcement: This program is aimed at disrupting drug trafficking and associated criminal activity within Afghanistan to improve enforcement of drug laws and increase prosecutions of drug offenders. Funds will continue U.S. support to the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA), including expansion and training of the National Interdiction Unit (NIU), and maintenance of central interdiction facilities to support the Afghan Ministry of Interior's interdiction forces. Part of the FY 2006 program carried over into FY 2007 will support the CNPA through special training in case management, investigations, and police/prosecutor coordination, and will be focused on arresting those involved in the drug trade and providing efficient, effective and fair trials.

Demand Reduction:Funds will be used to fund community-based demand reduction programs aimed at rehabilitation and anti-drug education programs for youth and rural communities through school curriculum and other community activities.

Public Diplomacy: Funding in 2007 for a national anti-drug campaign will be used to continue emphasizing the anti-planting message and threat of government-led eradication and enforcement activities. The campaign will focus attention on the connections between the drug trade and crime, corruption and conflict. Messages will be channeled through radio, television and print media, as well as relayed by civic leaders and elected officials. Public diplomacy will support and strengthen the progress the Afghan government has made in its national drug control program over the past three years.
Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, ICASS costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Administration of Justice

FY 2007 resources will enable INL to continue to work with the GOA and the international community to strengthen the rule of law throughout the country. Tying police, criminal justice, and corrections systems together and expanding these efforts to the provinces will continue to be a priority. In this context, supporting the arrest, prosecution, and punishment of narcotics offenders through the general criminal justice system will be a major focus. Three strategic objectives form the foundation of INL's justice program in Afghanistan: (1) development of institutional capacity of the permanent justice institutions; (2) development of the operational capacity of criminal justice sector actors (including law enforcement) to fairly and transparently investigate crimes and prosecute/punish offenders; and 3) professionalization of justice sector personnel and promotion of human rights.

Funds will be used to cover operational costs to maintain the justice and corrections programs, including program support and security as well as direct assistance to the Afghan government. These resources will:

Improve institutional capacity of the justice institutions, including the Ministry of Justice and Attorney General's Office, by providing technical support and standardized training for justice administrators, assisting in organizational reform, and development and nationwide implementation of policies and procedures.

Enhance leadership, managerial and administrative skills of police, prosecutors, defense counsels, and judges through criminal justice training and mentoring, including courses on criminal procedure, human rights and fair trial.

Improve the operational capacity of the Afghan corrections system through a comprehensive program in Kabul and key provinces consisting of corrections training and mentoring, capacity-building, and infrastructure and equipment support.

Support the professionalization of justice personnel through legal education and training, and assist in the establishment of legal professional organizations and associated facilities.

Help identify, draft, and implement key legislation and procedures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the criminal justice system. Assist in the translation of key international treaties and standards ratified by Afghanistan into Dari and Pashtu, focusing on those related to human rights, rule of law, and due process in criminal cases.

Identify and provide equipment and infrastructure support to justice institutions and facilities.

Develop measures of effectiveness for the criminal justice system as a whole.

INL funding for counternarcotics prosecution will also be used to deploy and support mentors to train the Vertical Prosecution Task Force made up of prosecutors and investigators specifically dedicated to narcotics cases. Funds will also support the Counternarcotics Tribunal, made up of judges assigned to hear only narcotics cases. A special focus of training will be investigator-prosecutor relations and specialized counternarcotics issues. Funds will also be used to support the Counternarcotics Justice Center, a secure facility that will contain office space for the task force and judges, courtrooms, and detention space for narcotics defendants.

Civilian Law Enforcement

Assistance to train police in FY 2007 will continue to complement the German-led efforts to re-establish law enforcement functions. INL anticipates the FY 2007 program will be funded through a transfer from the Department of Defense. Funds will be used to:

Support maintenance and operation costs for eight INL Regional Training Centers and police trainer-advisors to expand and enhance the training program with advanced courses in specialized skills including counternarcotics, criminal investigative and anti-corruption training;

Continue to provide basic and refresher training for national, border and highway police;

Continue to support the deployment of experienced U.S. law enforcement professionals as mentors to Afghan police throughout Afghanistan;

Complete Ministry of Interior reform efforts that focus on organizational development including the conclusion of the Pay and Rank Reform Initiative which restructures, reorders and reforms the MOI organizational and payroll systems, continued support for community policing initiatives, revenue-generation initiatives and continued support for the establishment of specialized police units such as the Domestic Violence Unit and Professional Standards Unit.

 

Afghanistan

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2005
Supp

FY 2006

FY 2006 Supp

FY 2007

Counternarcotics Support

Crop Control/Eradication

18,347

161,000

134,000

-

232,390

Sustainable Alternative Development

-

-

-

-

-

Public Diplomacy

-

5,000

2,000

-

2,000

Drug Enforcement- Interdiction

-

64,500

5,000

-

13,000

Drug Control Capacity Building

1,488

23,500

-

-

-

Demand Reduction

-

-

2,650

-

2,000

Sub Total

19,835

254,000

143,650

-

249,390

Administration of Justice *

Justice Sector Training Program

1,983

-

8,000

-

21,000

Corrections Reform & Infrastructure

-

-

18,500

-

12,000

CNJC and Vert Pros Task Force

-

-

-

-

5,000

Sub Total

1,983

-

26,500

-

38,000

Program Development and Support *

U.S. Personnel

1,500

6,000

2,000

-

6,000

Non-U.S. Personnel

300

-

400

-

1,200

ICASS Costs

450

-

600

-

1,800

Program Support

750

-

1,000

-

1,000

Sub-Total

3,000

6,000

4,000

-

10,000

Total Drug Control Programs

24,818

260,000

174,150

-

297,390

Civilian Law Enforcement **

Training of Afghan Police

64,462

285,000

49,000

-

-

Mentoring

-

-

-

-

-

Equipment, Communications

-

35,000

-

-

-

Infrastructure, and Contracting Support

-

-

-

-

-

Institutional Support (MOI Reform/Sal Support)

-

40,000

-

-

-

LOTFA

-

-

9,500

-

-

Total Law Enforcement Programs

64,462

360,000

58,500

-

**

Total Drug Control and Law Enforcement Programs

89,280

620,000

232,650

297,390

* The Administration of Justice and Program Development and Support provide support to both counternarcotics and crime activities.
** The FY 2007 Civilian Law Enforcement Program is anticipated to be funded through a transfer of funds from DOD.

Iraq Criminal Justice Program

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005
Actual

FY 2005
Supp. [1]

FY 2006
Estimate

FY 2007
Request

-

-

-

254,600


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The objective of the Iraq Criminal Justice (CJS) Program is to support the continuing development of all CJS elements in Iraq including police, prosecutorial, judicial and correctional institutions in support of the rule of law and democratic governance in Iraq. Pursuant to National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD) 36, the Central Command (CENTCOM) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has the lead in development of the Iraq security forces including the civilian police. This mission has been delegated to CENTCOM's subordinate command, Multi National Security Transition Command-Iraq (MNSTC-I) under the command of LTGEN Martin Dempsey. INL supports this mission by furnishing up to 280 police trainers in Iraq and up to 60 trainers to the Jordan International Police training Center (JIPTC) through interagency agreements with the International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) of the U.S. Department of Justice. Additionally, through its support contractor DynCorp, INL provides 500-700 police advisors (international police liaison officers - IPLOs) and all required logistical and security support for the trainers and advisors. Through the FY 2005 Supplemental, a total of $510M in both Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Funds (IRRF) and Iraq Security Sector Funds (ISSF) has been made available to INL from DoD for these purposes. IRRF Funds to support the prosecutors, courts and corrections components were originally transferred directly to INL from the Iraq Reconstruction Management Office (IRMO) in 2004 and have been applied judiciously to programs with the result that with the exception of $26M from IRRF re-programming, additional funding has not been required to this point.

The FY 2007 Program contemplates continued funding for the police development program from ISSF via DoD. These funds will be used by INL to continue support for police training and development work by recruiting, training, equipping and deploying trainers and advisors to assist MNSTC-I.

With respect to the remainder of the Iraqi CJS, the FY 2007 program will address:

Human Rights: Build capacity within the Iraqi justice system to protect and promote human rights by:

Strengthening internal monitoring, reporting and enforcement systems within the Ministry of Interior (MOI) and Ministry of Defense (MOD);

Developing and delivering human rights education and training for legal professionals, police and personnel under authority of MOI, MOD, MOJ and HJC; and

Developing and delivering anti-torture campaigns and education for human rights NGOs on monitoring and reporting on human rights abuses in the Iraqi Criminal Justice System.

Justice Integration: Build upon current efforts to strengthen Iraqi capacity to integrate police, courts and prisons as part of Iraqi Criminal Justice System by:

Expanding implementation of the pilot criminal justice information system in the Central Criminal Court of Iraq (CCCI) to other key USG priority locations;

Conducting national and regional training sessions for police, judges and prison officials on benefits and requirements for integration, information sharing and improved methods for coordination;

Mentoring and providing technical assistance to all ministries and senior officials responsible for all criminal justice system components to ensure that each understands, functions and manages in a manner consistent with the importance of establishing and maintaining positive, effective inter-organizational relationships so that no component impedes justice system functionality.

Public Integrity: Pursue establishment of an environment within which public accountability is the rule and public corruption becomes anathema to Iraqi society by:

Assisting the Government of Iraq in implementing and, where needed, drafting anti-corruption laws, regulations and codes of conduct consistent with new Constitution and applicable on a mandatory basis to all civil servants and as a guide for the private sector requiring for selected positions, periodic financial disclosure, security clearances including polygraph, etc.;

Providing technical assistance, training and mentoring to the Commission on Public Integrity in receiving and investigating complaints of public corruption and, as appropriate, criminally prosecuting those cases;

Developing civic education programs to promote integrity in public administration and private transactions including available mechanisms for enforcing Iraq's public integrity laws; and

Providing training and technical assistance to all Iraqi ministries in ethical public administration practices, anti-corruption laws and enforcement mechanisms and benefits of adherence to the rule of law to promote effectiveness, transparency and integrity in governance.

Rule of Law Outreach: Establish the rule of lawby building culture of lawfulness and adherence to the rule of law throughout Iraq by:

Developing and assisting the Iraqis to integrate rule of law concepts and programs within the general public education process to help establish culture of lawfulness;

Training Iraqis to educate the general public on their rights in the justice system; how to navigate the court system; the proper role and conduct of police, judges and prison officials; and other educational efforts that increase public awareness and understanding of their obligations, rights and the Justice System;

Educating persons in government service and the judiciary about the rights responsibilities and benefits accruing as a result of adherence to the rule of law;

Providing appropriate instruction to prosecutors, attorneys, judges, law students/professors, and ministries with respect to non-criminal matters: dispute resolution, family law, business/finance law, securities law, mentoring law students, liaising with Iraqi bar, etc.;

Working with the Iraqi bar to educate attorneys regarding court rules, processes and policies;

Providing assistance to law schools so that curricula and instructional methods reflect new aspects of Iraq Justice System including court rules, processes and policies) and adequately prepare new attorneys to play effective roles in maintaining the rule of law;

Building Iraqi capacity to provide legal assistance to citizenry through the court system and community-based organizations (NGOs); and

Developing legal aid and public defender centers throughout Iraq to provide legal assistance to the general public.

 Public Prosecutors: Achieve an environment within which criminal cases are effectively and vigorously prosecuted in a manner consistent with commonly accepted human rights principles and without regard to the identity of ethnic origin of suspected perpetrators by:

Providing assistance to prosecutors in effectively staffing, resourcing and organizing offices throughout Iraq including systems and techniques for enhancing victim/witness relationships, establishing prosecutorial priorities, case evaluation and effective case management;

Providing training, technical assistance and mentoring to prosecutors in criminal investigations, substantive and procedural law, and trial advocacy skills; and

Educating prosecutor regarding necessity for close cooperation with civilian police, investigative judges, court administrators and trial judges.

Courts: Continue the development of judicial institutions and individual judges so that all court cases are accepted, effectively processed, properly adjudicated and, if appropriate, appealed and ruled upon in a manner consistent with the new Iraqi Constitution, court rules and applicable policies by:

Bolstering court and judicial security through court building improvements, security equipment and training of judges and judicial personnel throughout Iraq;

Assisting in the review and modernization of court administration processes and, thereafter, memorialization of such practices in court rules, regulations and/or policies;

Establishing modern computerized case management systems to schedule cases, coordinate attendance of prosecutors, complainants, witnesses, and police, and to allow lay persons to view court schedules;

Developing and training staff in court administration practices, rules and processes and build specific required skills, e.g. court administrator, clerks, transcription, etc.;

Training and mentoring court administrative personnel regarding necessity for close cooperation with civilian police, prosecutors/investigative judges, court administrators and trial judges;

Training investigative judges in techniques of criminal case investigation and relationships between police and judiciary;

Providing instruction and mentoring in substantive and procedural law, and ethical civil law adjudicative practices and associated skills for trial judges;

Expanding the scope of judicial development (criminal) to all court functional levels and geographical areas throughout Iraq by assigning resident legal advisors to provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs);

Expanding the scope of judicial development (civil and all non-criminal) to all court functional levels and geographical areas throughout Iraq by assigning INL rule of law advisors to (PRTs);

Developing an enhanced capacity for case appeals by training and mentoring appellate judges in substantive and procedural law, ethical appellate standards and rules and practices associated with legal appeals; and

Educating all judges regarding necessity for close cooperation and coordination with civilian police, court administrators and correctional officials.

Corrections: Continue to build the capacity of the Iraq Criminal Justice System to properly and securely detain arrested persons awaiting trial and sentencing as well as those who have been properly sanctioned by an Iraqi Court in a manner consistent with commonly accepted human rights principles by:

Adding corrections advisors and interpreters and continue institutional development of Iraq Correctional Service (ICS) through selection, training and mentoring of ICS personnel at all levels in techniques and processes of contemporary corrections practice;

Educating correctional officials regarding necessity for close cooperation with civilian police, prosecutors/investigative judges, trial and appellate judges and court administrators.

 Program Justification

The development of an effective, democratically oriented criminal justice system, including civilian police, prosecutorial, judicial and correctional functions, is essential to establishment of a free society in Iraq. Continued U.S. participation in the reform and development of the Iraq Criminal Justice System is required through FY 2007 to consolidate and expand the work performed in that country to date.

Program Accomplishments

As of January 2006, out of a staff of 5,964 corrections officers, 4,068 have graduated from the Basic Correctional Skills Training Course. Field training has also been conducted in five correctional facilities in Baghdad to enhance basic skills of corrections officers. Corrections Advisors deployed to various correctional facilities in the Baghdad area have also provided on the job mentoring for facility managers, supervisors and operational personnel to assist them in properly discharging newly structured and assigned duties.

Over the past year, judicial advisors have conducted regular training courses to Iraqi prosecutors and judges in human rights and the rule of law, scientific evidence, and investigative procedures. The Program's judicial advisors provided extensive assistance in the structuring, opening and operation of the Central Criminal Court of Iraq and are continuing to assist the CCCI with case processing.

FY 2007 Program

Building on IRRF resources provided to support the Criminal Justice Program, the FY 2007 budget sustains the current staffing of corrections advisors but will increase the staffing of judicial advisors. The FY 2007 program will continue to support the Corrections and Judicial program through further training and mentoring of the Iraqi Correctional Service, Ministry of Justice, judges and judicial investigators and prosecutors. FY 2007 funds will also allow for the expansion of these programs into areas beyond Baghdad to ensure all members of the ICS and judicial sector receive training. As described above, the FY 2007 INL Criminal Justice Program will significantly expand the work being done in the non-police portion of the Iraq Criminal Justice System. 

Iraq

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp *

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Civilian Police Program

-

-

-

-

-

Corrections Services

-

-

-

-

31,000

Judicial Security

-

-

-

-

1,000

Criminal Justice Development

-

-

-

-

215,600

Justice

-

-

-

-

-

Human Rights

-

-

-

-

15,000

Justice Integration

-

-

-

-

25,000

Public Integrity

-

-

-

-

18,000

Rule of Law Outreach

-

-

-

-

50,000

Public Prosecutors

-

-

-

-

14,000

Courts

-

-

-

-

93,600

Program Development and Support

-

-

-

-

7,000

Total

-

*

-

-

254,600

* Through a series of three transfers ($150 million, $160 million and $200 million) DoD has furnished a total of $510 million for police development. Additionally, the sum of $26 million in IRRF reprogrammed funds was provided to support additional resident legal advisors ($15 million) and the Joint Task Force ($11 million) investigating organized crime in Iraq.

Indonesia

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

-

4,950

4,700


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Indonesian National Police (POLRI) will be transformed into a civilian-led, police force predicated on respect for the rule of law, human rights and professionalism.

Performance indicators include the establishment of an internal disciplinary system; the institutionalization of anti-corruption practices and professional standards, the development, implementation, and integration of contemporary police investigative methods, policies, and standards of operations for the Criminal Investigations Division (CID) of the POLRI, including the Major Crimes Unit and the Economic and Special Crimes Unit, development of standard operating procedures for all major divisions of the POLRI commensurate with internationally accepted standards, and the completion of the Police Instructor Institute. Progress will also be indicated by increased public confidence in POLRI's ability to uphold the law as measured by governmental and/or NGO indices.

The Marine Police's ability to patrol ports, harbors and waterways will be improved.

Performance indicators will include the deployment of an additional squadron of the Marine Police Special Boat Unit (SBU), standard operations procedures and sustainable training capacity for maritime interdiction and security.

Indonesia will improve its legal framework to counter organized crimes and terrorism; will develop the competencies of investigators, prosecutors and judges to handle complex counter terrorism and other organized crimes cases; and establish a culture of institutional integrity within the law enforcement and criminal justice sectors.

Performance Indicators include the prosecution of significant cases by a newly developed task force, signed into affect by the GOI in September 2005, on terrorism and transnational crimes within the Attorney General's Office, the enactment of witness protection procedures, the enactment of money laundering legislation to strengthen Indonesia's AML regime, and the introduction in the Attorney General's Office of the recruitment, retention and operational policies to address corruption.

Indonesia's drug intelligence analysis and interdiction capacities will be strengthened.

Performance indicators will include an increase over 2005 in seizures by the Indonesian National Police Drug Enforcement Unit and the National Narcotics Board of drugs and other contraband; the development of advanced investigative skills to interdict narcotics shipments, the dismantlement of clandestine drug labs, and the disruption of narcotics trafficking networks.

Program Justification

Indonesia is a key strategic partner in terms of fighting transnational criminal organizations and promoting regional stability. It is the largest Muslim country in the world. As an emerging democracy, Indonesia is an important nation in providing leadership to the Islamic world. Indonesia is also a center of criminal activity, such as cyber-crime, illegal migration and piracy, and home to terrorist groups, including Jemaah Islamiyah (JI). In its transition to democracy and facing an increasingly sophisticated criminal threat, the Government of Indonesia has recognized the need for institutional reform of its police organizations and within its criminal justice system.

For thirty-three years during the reign of authoritarian President Suharto and for two years under the leadership of President Habibie, the Indonesian National Police was a part of the armed forces of Indonesia. During those thirty-five years, the police definition of domestic security was, "Protection for the State (elite) from its citizens." Until the democratic election of President Abdurahman Wahid in 2000, all but the most routine domestic security/public safety tasks were conducted by the Indonesian military (TNI) or the police paramilitary Mobile Brigade (BRIMOB), which is trained to use military tactics to preserve law and order.

In 2000, President Wahid sought assistance from several international donors, among them the United States, Australia, Britain, Japan, and the Netherlands, to support Justice Sector reform, including police reform. The USG was willing to participate and provide substantial resources, but not until the police were formally separated from the Indonesian Armed Forces. On July 1 2000, President Wahid signed Presidential Decree 02/00, formally separating the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) from the TNI. USG assistance to support the decree commenced in August 2000.

Indonesia is a center of cyber-crime, and its social development is hindered by the prevalence of transnational criminal organizations. Low confidence in police responsiveness and skill level has spurred citizens to take the law in their own hands, creating a major problem with vigilantism. International narcotics' trafficking is a serious and growing problem in Indonesia. Syndicated drug traffickers from countries in and beyond the region have targeted operations in Indonesia. Domestic availability and use of illicit narcotics are escalating. In addition, Indonesia is home to terrorist groups and has been the target of several deadly terrorist bombings. The skill level of POLRI must be enhanced to address effectively both criminal and terrorist activities and demonstrate its abilities to the public. Corruption is endemic in Indonesia, including within POLRI. The Police Assistance Program seeks to establish mechanisms to root out corruption by developing a code of conduct and internal disciplinary system.

Indonesia's maritime borders, which stretch across 17,000 islands, are largely unprotected and undefended, leaving the country vulnerable to a range of criminal activities from narcotics smuggling to terrorist infiltration. The strategic importance of the Malacca Strait to global economic security makes it imperative that Indonesia has the capacity to monitor and police criminal activity along the maritime borders, which are largely unprotected. A comprehensive assessment of Marine Police capabilities and needs was conducted in January 2004. This assessment was used as a basis for implementing a program to address Indonesia's multi-jurisdictional maritime policies, responsibilities and complexities. Training, technical assistance, and equipment programs developed from the assessment will be enhanced using funding and continue until the Marine Police Directorate has the capacity to effectively fulfill its mission. Since POLRI was separated from the TNI in mid-2000, the Marine Police Directorate has lacked the training, equipment, and leadership to perform enforcement duties efficiently. The Marine Police will need to be modernized over the next several years. The Marine Police need a new strategic plan and modernization of current operational units. Marine Police personnel will require training as well as equipment and technical assistance to patrol ports and waterways effectively and to combat numerous forms of local and transnational crimes.

In addition, criminal justice sector reform is crucial to effective democratic reform and goes hand-in-hand with police reform. Creating an effective, well-trained police force based on democratic principles, community policing, and respect for rule of law and individual rights must be complemented by prosecutorial and judicial reform. Effective law enforcement efforts must culminate in bringing criminals to justice through an evidence-based system as opposed to the ineffective and abuse-prone inquisitory system currently in place. USG efforts are in process to help with the significant paradigm shift required for this transition for police, prosecutors, and the court system. When cases are developed, prosecutors must be skilled in using evidence to try cases successfully, defense attorneys must know how to protect the rights of the accused, and judges must be personally above reproach and ensure a fair trial. Corruption must be rooted out at all levels of the system. If the judicial system is not reformed, police soon become demoralized, and the public loses confidence in the system.

To ensure that Indonesia's transition to democracy is meaningful and takes root within its institutions, the democratization and professional development of all levels and units of POLRI as well as the prosecutorial and judicial sectors must be realized. The Police Assistance Program, Marine Police development program, Drug Law Enforcement assistance, and Criminal Justice Sector Reform programs are designed to achieve those goals and objectives.

Program Accomplishments

The separation of the police and military into two separate institutions and POLRI's transition to a civilian-controlled, democratic police force is a work-in-progress; yet, since the implementation of the Police Assistance Program in mid-2000, significant successes have been realized. POLRI reform and training have enhanced police investigative skills and police counternarcotics training and technical assistance have resulted in seizures of illicit narcotics and the closing of synthetic-drug production labs within Indonesia.

Reorganizing and reorienting POLRI is a substantial undertaking, requiring a change in the structure, culture, management style, and training of the entire 300,000 member national police force. In August 2000, the Police Assistance Program began by implementing programs to address management issues at the highest level. Simultaneously, a combination of technical assistance, training, and equipment donations were provided to assist the police in handling civil disorder in a manner that maintained order while respecting human rights and the rule of law. As a result of this initiative, the POLRI made significant changes in their handling of demonstrations and were the recipients of laudatory comments from various members of the NGO community. Importantly, since this training took place there have been no reported deaths related to the POLRI's handling of civil disturbances. In 2003 and 2004, INL worked with the POLRI Chief and officials at national and regional levels to develop and implement management plans that incorporate principles of leadership and management into the operation and administration of POLRI throughout Indonesia. Further, the program is developing managerial skills for mid-level officers. The program includes a media outreach project to share information with the public and build confidence in the police within the populace.

In conjunction with the State Department Bureau of Diplomatic Security's Anti-terrorism Training Assistance Program, INL's Police Assistance Program includes training and technical assistance projects to give POLRI officers and units enhanced technical and investigative capabilities needed to address specialized crimes and terrorist activities. We have already seen success from our training activities, as Indonesia has arrested over 130 terrorist suspects and successfully prosecuted over 100 terrorists. Our training also provides forensics training and equipment, enabling both enhanced investigations and successful prosecutions. Drug enforcement training and drug forensic training and equipment are also contained within the program to ensure counternarcotics units can recognize illicit narcotics and discover and dismantle illicit drug labs.

There have been several areas of accomplishments of the Indonesia Police Assistance Program, including:

Transition to Democratic Policing

In order to better maximize the delivery and implementation the program concepts, as well as accentuate the POLRI ownership aspect, the project was modified to become a total train-the-trainer, curriculum and training integration initiative. The POLRI's decision to integrate these concepts into the organization's curricula had helped ensure the principles of the democratic policing are being taught throughout the police organization. This project has received consistent support from the heads of the Kopolri, GOI's National Center for Training and Education and the Human Resources Office. By having POLRI members provide the training exclusively there is a much greater likelihood individual members will accept and embrace these ideas and a much greater likelihood that the lessons and instruction will be sustainable after our project is completed. However, successes within this project have to be measured incrementally in light of the fact that total organizational transition and transformation will need to continue.

Civil Disturbance Management Project

The measurements of success for the Civil Disturbance Management project include: (1) an increase in the level of public confidence regarding POLRIPOLRI performance during civil disturbances; (2) a substantial reduction in the number of civilians and police injured in disorderly or riotous demonstrations; and (3) a reduction in the amount of property loss during demonstrations. As a result of the training, POLRI personnel have effectively controlled large demonstrations and defused emotional situations to resolve conflicts peacefully. The Indonesian government, the general public, and the NGO community have recognized the success of the program. The program has made a major impact on POLRI leaders and police in improving their relations with the public. Prior to the training, POLRI had limited understanding of the concept of conflict avoidance or the continuum of force options.

Instructor Development Workshops

This project was designed to strengthen the skills for Indonesian police instructors. Measurements of success for this project include: (1) an increase in the number of instructors who are able to demonstrate their knowledge of and ability to impart adult learning methodologies to students, and (2) to have the graduates of POLRI Training Schools demonstrate they are routinely performing the tenets of community policing learned in training. Over 249 POLRI instructors have successfully completed the IDW and have been observed successfully using their new training techniques. However, this encouraging statistic must be tempered by the fact that many instructors within the POLRI cadre have not yet received training in adult learning methodologies, nor does the POLRI currently have the requisite in investigations and other specialty areas to replicate qualitative USG provided training and curriculum.

Cyber Crime Project

Indonesia's law enforcement has been provided with computer forensic capacities through specialized training and equipment donation. This highly successful initiative was developed to prevent, interdict and investigate cyber-crime. Now that the unit is operational, the cyber-crime unit has begun supporting regional requests for computer forensic analysis from other criminal investigatory units, including law enforcement units concentrating on bank fraud, anti-money laundering, and anti-terrorism units. The CCIU has recently been credited with developing critical evidence in recent high-profile counter-terrorism investigations.

Marine Police Project

During this period we developed a two-year assistance plan to address and evaluate: Marine Police Headquarters; Marine Police Operational Commands and Units; Marine Police Training Center; and Ports and Waterways Security Stakeholders. A working group consisting of the Department of Justice's International Criminal Justice Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) and Marine Police representatives was formed to plan an Operational Units Training Needs Survey.

An Operational Unit Training Needs Survey was conducted recently at ten Marine Police units in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. The survey results will assist in identifying and prioritizing maritime security training, operational, and infrastructure development support efforts on behalf of Marine Police units throughout Indonesia.

Further, the program worked to coordinate with the Indonesian Maritime Committee Senior Technical Advisor for the National Planning Board for Security and Social Welfare (BAPPENAS). The BAPPENAS is responsible for debating and making recommendations to the national government on issues related to security and social welfare. The Planning Board has worked for over a year on a proposal to reinvent the Coordinating Agency for Maritime Security, BAKORKAMLA, which was created in 1971. On December 29, 2005, the POLRI signed into effect the restructured Coordinating Agency for Maritime Security, on which U.S. Embassy Jakarta collaborated with the GOI to redevelop and actualize.

Additionally, the director of the Marine Police Training Center invited the USG to establish a permanent office at the school, which was done shortly thereafter. Marine Police Training Center instructors consult ICITAP Technical Advisors (TAs) on lesson plan development and instructional techniques. Additionally, ICITAP established the Marine Police Resource Center for training development, which has resulted in the Marine Police developing internal basic and in-service curriculum. ICITAP TAs are have completed the entire basic curriculum for Marine Police recruits, and the new curriculum is currently being infused into the basic training program. Commencing in late 2006, all instruction at the Marine Police Training Center will be delivered using lesson plans developed with skills taught by ICITAP. Five classrooms at the Marine Police Training Center were refurbished and outfitted, which significantly improved the teaching and learning and environment for staff and students ICITAP has also delivered Basic Criminal Investigations training to 107 MP officers that has resulted in an increase of over 300 percent in case loads in the last six months, and delivered internationally accepted non-lethal baton techniques training to a cadre of MP baton instructors that has been replicated and delivered to an additional 1,000 MP officers.

FY 2007 Program

The FY 2007 Police Assistance Program for Indonesia has three central components—(1) continue capacity building to support the POLRI Marine Police and Major Criminal Investigations Unit; (2) increasing illicit drug and contraband interdictions; and (3) the completion of the Police Instructor Institute. These are ongoing programs designed to create effective, democratic, civilian-led and skilled law enforcement institutions in Indonesia. The Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program, implemented in FY 2006, will continue to address the prosecutorial and judicial side of law enforcement democratization and reform. The Drug Law Enforcement program will focus on the prevention of the manufacture and shipment of synthetic drugs.

Police Assistance Program

Funds will be used for POLRI technical assistance and training, including POLRI's Criminal Investigation Division's (CID) Major Crimes Unit and the Economic/Special Crimes Unit; equipment donation and technical assistance; training and technical assistance to judges to advance investigations and prosecutions of crimes, and enforcement of environmental laws; technical advisor to finalize the Police Instructor Institute in preparation for continued POLRI sustainability and final turnover; and classroom and training equipment such as computers and education materials.

Marine Police Development Program

Funds will be used to continue the development and deployment of the MP Special Boat Unit (SBU); to continue to provide advanced in-service training to commanders, first-line officers, and Marine Police trainers; to teach, standard operating procedures; to provide, investigative equipment; and to furnish intermittent technical advisors to implement training program addressing the capacity to patrol ports, harbors, and adjacent waterways.

Criminal Justice Sector Reform Program

Funds will be provided to support a Resident Legal Advisor to: draft provisions on criminal procedure procedures and evidentiary requirements to improve investigations and prosecutions; mentor prosecutors on advocacy and litigation skills; work with the Indonesian Attorney General's Office (AGO) to develop written standards for recruitment and retention of ethical prosecutors; create incentives for performance that do not compromise institutional integrity; and to communicate its anti-corruption efforts to the public and prospective employees.

Counternarcotics Assistance Program

Funds will be used to provide counternarcotics and forensics training, leadership and management training, and instructor training, aimed at halting the flow of illegal drugs; prevent the manufacture and shipment of synthetic drugs through technical assistance on planning and operations, intelligence analysis, tactical instruction, interdiction skills training; equipment donation such as computers, and software to assist Jakarta narcotics units dismantle narcotics organizations; to offer a Tactical Instructor Program that will train 45 police instructors to teach the principles of tactical operations; and to provide train-the-trainer support to the Interdiction Task Force to address major ports of entry (air and seaport).

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will cover the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. 

Indonesia

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Police Assistance Programs

-

-

1,360

-

1,150

Maritime Police Project

-

-

1,990

-

2,000

Criminal Justice Reform Program

-

-

515

-

525

Drug Law Enforcement

-

-

485

-

500

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

450

-

274

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

40

-

80

ICASS Costs

-

-

80

-

171

Program Support

-

-

30

-

-

Sub-Total

-

-

600

-

525

Total

-

-

4,950

-

4,700

Laos

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

1,984

990

900


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Opium poppy cultivation in Laos is reduced and the ability of the Government of Laos to deter opium poppy cultivation is maintained.

Alternative development efforts in Phongsali, Luang Prabang and other poppy-growing provinces will help to provide access to markets, government services, food production and alternative income activities. The Lao-American Projects (LAP) in Luang Prabang and Phongsali will continue to support ongoing activities including detoxification, crop substitution, education outreach, vocational training, ecotourism development, and small infrastructure projects in select areas where cultivation is still a problem.

Drug addiction treatment will continue.

To combat abuse of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS), support will provide equipment to the 100 bed ATS treatment center now under construction in Savannakhet, scheduled to open in March 2006, which will treat approximately 200 ATS addicts per year, depending on the severity of the addiction. Demand reduction education programs will continue in the form of public outreach.

Program Justification

According to U.S. estimates, in 2005 the total area under poppy cultivation in Laos decreased 44 percent to 5,600 hectares. In addition, potential opium production decreased from about 49 metric tons to only 28 metric tons in 2005.

Opium poppy is generally grown in remote, mountainous areas largely populated by ethnic minority groups that have traditionally resisted the imposition of central authority. Laos is one of the world's least developed countries, with an almost total lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail that isolates rural villages from the market economy and most government services and influence. The few government services available in market centers are rudimentary by any standard. Human resource capacity is severely limited in all fields, including law enforcement.

In recent years, the Government of Laos (GOL) has demonstrated a newfound seriousness toward the threat of illegal drugs. Increased seizures along with greater regional cooperation, particularly with the Royal Thai Government, demonstrate a GOL willingness to address its drug problem, but GOL officials readily express a need for assistance.

INL integrated rural development projects in Luang Prabang and Phongsali provinces, major opium-producing areas, are aimed at stemming production and trafficking of illicit opium, providing market-based income alternatives for opium poppy farmers, and raising awareness of and treatment for drug addiction.

The alternative development and crop substitution project will support a limited range of activities aimed at providing former poppy farmers with alternative crops and access to markets to replace income from opium cultivation. The crop substitution areas funded by the U.S. Government consistently show lower levels of opium cultivation.

In terms of demand reduction, Laos has the second highest opium addiction rate in the world; UNODC estimates that over 50 percent of the opium poppy grown is consumed locally, with most of the remainder exported to neighboring districts and provinces in Laos. In recent years, the GOL has become increasingly sensitive to the stigma of being a global leader in opium production, and officials are alarmed by the increase availability of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). The GOL has instituted tough measures for curbing illicit drugs, imposing the death penalty for certain drug-related crimes, and organizing a national campaign to address the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse among Lao youth.

The demand reduction project supports on a limited scale Lao demand reduction and drug abuse education efforts. Increasingly, these must be tailored to address the growing problem of methamphetamine abuse.

Laos is also a transit route for Burmese drugs going to China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia, and the nation does not currently possess the capability to effectively interdict precursor chemicals flowing out of China. Laos is increasingly coming under siege by drug traffickers who can easily exploit the countries' vulnerabilities. Law enforcement capabilities in Laos are both sub-standard and under-funded: more training and better coordination - as well as increased GOL support and international cooperation - are required to be effective against the major trafficking organizations active in Laos

Program Accomplishments

The U.S. conducted its own opium yield survey in 2005 and supported UNODC's field and imagery-based opium survey, which covered 189 villages and interviewed village headmen and household heads in the surveyed villages. Based on a combination of ground survey and satellite imagery, the UNODC estimated 1,800 hectares of poppy, down 73 percent since 2004. The U.S. estimate was 5,600 hectares, a decline of 44 percent. And while exact figures are in dispute, all parties agree that there is a sharp downward trend in poppy cultivation.

Funds used in the Lao-American (LAP) integrated rural development activities in Phongsali and Luang Prabang provinces, two of the highest poppy cultivation areas in Laos, are clearly showing results.

The LAP in Luang Prabang supported infrastructure projects that included 94 kilometers of penetration road, three primary schools, three community centers, and 19 gravity-fed clean water systems. A community-based detoxification facility was established in 2004 and has to date successfully detoxified over 300 opium addicts in three phases. Pilot crop substitution projects are ongoing, and cattle banks are being established.

Despite a limited budget in 2005, the Lao-American Project in Phongsali pursued infrastructure, alternative development, and opium detoxification. A 23 kilometer road has opened up new target villages, gravity-fed water systems were constructed in 10 villages, 23 ha of new rice paddy were brought into cultivation, 580 villagers (52 percent female) were enrolled in basic literacy classes, nearly 4,000 farm animals were vaccinated, 54 village livestock volunteers were trained, 4,300 mosquito nets were distributed for malaria prevention, and 27 village health volunteers were trained. New crops, such as tea (42 ha) and galanga (80 ha) were expanded, and cash income received for cattle, green tea, galanga, and handicraft sales served as an inducement to permanently abandon poppy cultivation. The project expanded cattle, goat, and pig banks that will assist 140 families. With respect to opium detoxification, the LAP assisted 130 persons and continued social programs to prevent relapse.

In FY 2005, DEA reported some improved cooperation with Lao law enforcement agencies, especially customs. NAS currently supports seven Counter Narcotics Units (CNUs) which have demonstrated improved performance. More than 450 officials from the CNUs, Customs, and other agencies have received basic officer training and specialized training at ILEA Bangkok.

FY 2007 Program

The FY 2007 program has two major components:

Alternative Development/Crop Control

FY 2007 funds will assist the GOL to provide a number of villages in the poorest areas with a licit crop and alternative to poppy cultivation, a tactic that has proven to be highly successful. USG assistance is intended to build on this momentum in support of discouraging illicit crop cultivation. FY 2007 funding will provide limited support for rural development projects in Phongsali and Luang Prabang provinces, both major poppy-growing regions. Projects will continue to improve food production through the provision of agricultural inputs and training; deliver medical services to remote villages, and support educational programs that target villages in poppy-growing districts.

In LAP/Luang Prabang, FY 2007 funds will allow us to move ahead with alternative development activities such as sticklak production, livestock procurement, and training. In LAP/Phongsali, Phase II activities will include alternative cash crops, livestock purchases, agricultural training, and rice banks, all key to sustainable conversion to a legitimate economy.

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

FY 2007 Funds will be used for the support of a newly-completed, INL-funded ATS treatment center. In addition limited support will be provided for drug-awareness outreach.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will cover the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Laos

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Narcotics Law Enforcement

100

-

50

-

-

Crop Control/Alternative Development

1,259

-

440

-

350

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

150

-

25

-

50

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

315

-

315

-

332

Non-U.S. Personnel

15

-

15

-

16

ICASS Costs

120

-

120

-

127

Program Support

25

-

25

-

25

Sub-Total

475

-

475

-

500

Total

1,984

-

990

-

900

Morocco

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

2,992

990

1,000

 
 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Improved border control at land and sea ports of entry.

A strategic plan for border control is implemented. Improved detection techniques and training lead to a reduction in illegal migrants and contraband leaving Morocco; increased seizures of drugs and other contraband; increased customs revenue collection; and reduced processing time for international travelers and commercial shipments.

Program Justification

As a liberalizing, democratizing, and moderate Muslim state, Morocco is both a victim of terrorism and a strong and committed partner of the United States in the global war on terrorism. Nevertheless, Morocco has relatively weak border control systems that could be exploited by international terrorists to carry out their activities. Morocco has substantial problems with illegal migration and human smuggling, the movement of transnational terrorists through its territory, drug production and trafficking, and commercial smuggling owing to its long and poorly controlled border with Algeria, Mauritania, and the Spanish enclaves, its extensive coastline, and its proximity to Europe. Smuggling of commercial products and trafficking in persons could ultimately provide revenue sources to terrorists. These criminal activities serve to undermine the rule of law in Morocco, could lead to corruption of public officials, and weaken the Moroccan institutions that assist the U.S. on the war against terrorism.

Hundreds of thousands of illegal migrants from the Near East and Sub-Saharan Africa transit Morocco on their way to Europe. Most are simply seeking a better life, but some harbor criminal and terrorist intentions. Morocco also consistently ranks among the world's largest producers and exporters of cannabis. The value of this illegal trade is estimated at $1 billion per year.

The 2003 terrorist bombings - carried out by an indigenous group - and the arrests and prosecutions of a number of al-Qa'ida terrorists and their Moroccan accomplices in 2002 are indicative of underlying social tensions throughout the region. These tensions have the potential to overwhelm ill prepared law enforcement institutions.

The Government of Morocco (GOM) continues to advance its political and economic reform agenda as it moves towards becoming a market-oriented democracy. In 2003, Morocco held free and fair local government council elections and concluded a Free Trade Agreement with the U.S., which was implemented in 2006. Morocco also distinguished itself as a solid partner in the fight against global terrorism. U.S. support for Morocco's political and economic transition and its continued development as a moderate, Muslim state is consistent with our National Security Strategy, strikes at the root causes of terrorism, and improves America's credibility, critical at a time when King Mohammed VI is providing significant support for the President's reform agenda.

Program Accomplishments

The U.S. has gained considerable credibility with Moroccan border enforcement agencies during the past couple of years of engagement with its Customs, Police and Gendarmerie. An initial assessment conducted by U.S. Customs and Border Protection in June 2003 led to the design and implementation of a four-phase Border Interdiction project, which was successfully completed in August 2004.

Phase I began with the delivery of four courses, including seaport, airport and land interdiction, at the ports of Casablanca, Nador, Tetuoan and Oujda. One hundred eight officers from Moroccan Customs, Police and the Gendarmerie received training in topics such as enforcement operations and narcotics identification and testing. The Phase II Mid-Management Seminar included an exchange visit in the U.S. with 12 Moroccan Customs officials representing the three border security agencies. Participants observed U.S. Customs and Border Protection activities at U.S. land, sea and airports along the U.S. southern border as well as key air and marine ports of entry. The participants were senior enough in their organizations to influence decisions and initiate procedural changes within their agencies.

In Phase III, forty-eight mid- to-high level officers from the border agencies participated in an Integrity Training and Internal Controls course. Phase IV consisted of the assignment of a U.S. Customs technical advisor in March 2004 to the ports of Casablanca, Tangier, Tetuoan, and Nador. The advisor worked with the inspectors at each port to reinforce training and broaden the perspective of the participants. This technical assistance was instrumental in the discovery of 36 kg of narcotics and other seizures. The technical advisor's observations also provided a more detailed understanding of Moroccan Customs and areas of needed improvement. A second U.S. Customs inspector conducted a 30-day technical advisory in July 2004 at the same four ports. Local officials were trained in the use of laser range finders, fiber optic scopes and Buster density readers. Three CT-30 kits, containing these tools - as well as probes and lighted inspection mirrors were procured and donated.

Prior to receiving INL assistance, Moroccans lacked the tools, technology, and training necessary to protect their borders. Moroccans have demonstrated the ability to apply the training and equipment effectively. Shortly after the departure of the technical advisor and the donation of the equipment in 2004, for instance, officials at the port of Tangier made their first seizures involving concealments in gasoline tanks using INL-donated fiber-optic scopes. Following a year of training and assistance, narcotics seizure rates at this port have increased significantly. Seized vehicles involved in narcotics trafficking are up 11 percent, while seized commercial vehicles involved in narcotics trafficking are up 37 percent. The first cocaine seizure was made in 2004; none was reported in 2003. Additionally, following an Integrity Reinforcement course, the Casablanca Gendarmerie wrote it into their local academy curriculum, and now offer a weekly 1-hour refresher training. A joint management team of Customs and Police in Tetuoan also offered the integrity seminar to their port personnel in April 2004, immediately following completion of INL-funded integrity training programs in Casablanca and Rabat.

When INL first provided funding in FY 2003, interagency cooperation was lacking among the Moroccan border security agencies and assistance was needed at the most basic level. Following two years of training and support, interagency cooperation is at an all time high and seizures have increased substantially. While the primary goal of Customs before the bombings in 2003 was revenue collection, which is still very important, revenue is now taking a back seat to anti-terrorism, enforcement, and facilitation to complement free trade agreements.

FY 2007 Program

FY 2007 funding will be used to improve Morocco's capacity to control its borders. A technical advisor will assist in the implementation of a strategic plan for improving border controls that addresses systemic problems, including corruption. Training and technical assistance will be directed at Moroccan customs and other law enforcement entities on border control and detection techniques at land and sea ports of entry.

Border Control

Funding will be used to continue a border security program begun in 2004. Training and technical assistance will be directed at Moroccan customs and other law enforcement entities on border control and detection techniques at land and sea ports of entry. Funds will provide for train-the-trainer courses and seminars covering issues such as integrity, interdiction, and cargo and passenger processing. Assistance will also focus on improving the nascent access control/badging system. Funds will provide for necessary equipment such as metal-detecting wands, inspection tool kits, mobile detection vehicles, computers, surveillance equipment, and cargo inspection systems.

Program Development and Support

Funds will be used to pay for the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hires and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. 

Morocco

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Border Control

1,500

-

890

-

900

Law Enforcement Support Police

-

-

-

-

-

Professionalization

500

-

-

-

-

Community Policing

992

-

-

-

-

Sub-Total

2,992

-

890

-

900

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

44

-

44

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

17

-

17

Program Support

-

-

39

-

39

Sub-Total

-

-

100

-

100

Total

2,992

-

990

-

1,000

Pakistan

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

32,150

37,620

25,500


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Pakistani control over the border with Afghanistan and Iran is further strengthened.

Ability to monitor the 2,000-mile border with Afghanistan and Iran to interdict the passage of terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and other criminals will be improved. Access to previously inaccessible territory and the presence of security forces will be expanded through road construction. The Government of Pakistan's (GOP) border security surveillance and interdiction capabilities will be increased through continued air support, ongoing training activities, increased mobility, intelligence sharing, and expanded communications and other equipment (e.g., surveillance equipment).

The capability of the GOP to investigate and prevent criminal and terrorist activity is improved.

Technical assistance, training, and equipment will augment the capacity of Pakistani law enforcement and security agencies. Modern forensic and fingerprint identification methodologies will be instituted as standard procedures in criminal investigations. Institutional police reform programs will emphasize executive management skills, improved police training, infrastructure development, strategic planning, and internal controls to prevent corruption. Police reform programs will also include the provision of model policing projects and support for a national dialogue among law enforcement agencies.

The ability of the Government of Pakistan to deter and eradicate opium poppy cultivation and interdict narcotics trafficking is expanded.

Opium poppy eradication efforts will result in the destruction of any poppy sown in accessible areas. Poppy cultivation will decline as alternative crop programs and road infrastructure projects expand. Demand reduction and narcotics awareness public education efforts will be expanded to prevent drug abuse.

Program Justification

Pakistan is a key ally in the Global War on Terrorism and was named a Major Non-NATO Ally in early 2004. The GOP has demonstrated a commitment to combat transnational threats such as terrorism, organized crime, and narcotics trafficking. Since September 11, 2001, the GOP has taken into custody roughly 600 suspected al-Qaida and/or Taliban militants. In addition, the United States, Afghanistan and Pakistan are working together through a Tripartite Commission to promote mutual understanding and stability in the region.

Pakistan's border with Afghanistan and Iran runs approximately 2,000 miles through rough mountainous and desert terrain that is remote and thus provides a potential safe haven for terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals. Monitoring and maintaining control over this border has long posed a challenge for the under-equipped and under-trained Pakistani security agencies. This situation is made more serious and difficult by the massive scale of opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan, arms trafficking, and continuing concerns about the movement of al-Qaida and Taliban militants into Pakistan to seek refuge and plan further terrorist acts, potentially including operations directed against U.S. interests. Commodities and infrastructure support, as well as training, already provided by the USG have improved the capabilities of agencies operating on the border, but still do not come close to meeting the requirements of these forces that collectively number more than 60,000 personnel. Ongoing assistance over a period of years, at a rate the GOP can absorb, will be necessary.

Large areas of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) along the border with Afghanistan are virtually inaccessible, including to law enforcement agencies. This renders frontier areas attractive to terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals who seek refuge. INL-funded rural road construction programs begun in the FATA in opium poppy growing areas a decade ago succeeded in facilitating law enforcement access for eradication and interdiction activities. At the same time, improved infrastructure opened these remote areas for legitimate commerce, counter-drug education efforts, economic development projects, and vital health and education facilities and also extended the Government's presence into the areas. The INL-funded roads are accompanied by small infrastructure projects that improve the lives of the people and help gain their support for the entry of law enforcement into these areas. This program is expanding into areas along the Afghan border where al-Qaida and Taliban militants may otherwise find safe haven. Continued road construction is needed in the tribal areas through FY 2007 to sufficiently open up these inaccessible areas.

Law enforcement institutions in Pakistan have been neglected for decades. This has resulted in a very weak capacity to investigate even basic crimes such as stolen vehicles much less the far more serious threats posed by terrorists and narcotics traffickers. GOP capacity to combat terrorism and other serious forms of criminality successfully requires not just an infusion of resources, but also comprehensive reform and improvements to law enforcement institutions countrywide. These reforms include better cooperation and coordination among law enforcement organizations, more focus on service to the community, and overall enhancement of technical skills, particularly for forensics.

In October 2002, Pakistan promulgated Police Order 2002, a roadmap for reform. Two boards, the National Police Management Board and the National Police Training Management Board, have been convened to oversee reform efforts and to facilitate coordination and standardization of law enforcement training, policies, and procedures across the country. Pakistan needs expert assistance and resources to implement these reforms fully. In support of this effort, INL assistance is providing leadership and management training at senior law enforcement levels in addition to furnishing training in basic and advanced criminal investigation techniques. Emphasis is placed on curriculum development, promotion of organizational change, and development of high accountability and public awareness standards.

The Federal Investigative Agency (FIA) and National Police Bureau (NPB) are spearheading the nationwide conversion to the international standard 10-print fingerprint card; 300,000 cards have been compiled to date, reaching a quantity that will allow the sharing of information with U.S. law enforcement agencies. To further institutionalize use of fingerprints for the expeditious identification of criminals, the INL program has also provided an Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) that needs to be further expanded at the federal and district levels. Work also has begun on the development of a national criminal database that will link law enforcement agencies at the federal and provincial levels and enable them to share key criminal information in real time - this program also will require further expansion in 2007.

In 1990, Pakistan was a major producer of opium poppy. With assistance from the United States, Pakistan embarked on a 10-year plan to become poppy free. It essentially achieved that goal by 2000; however, due in part to massive cultivation in Afghanistan, Pakistan experienced a resurgence of opium poppy cultivation in 2002-2003. This included an expansion of cultivation into non-traditional areas along the western border in both the FATA and Balochistan. It is important that opium poppy cultivation be in the first instance contained and then eliminated as soon as possible, before its economic impact becomes too deeply rooted. Crop control efforts, including enhanced poppy monitoring, increased economic alternatives and infrastructure projects will decrease opium production. The GOP is committed to this effort, but lacks the resources necessary to implement effective anti-poppy efforts.

GOP seizures of narcotics - primarily heroin, opium and hashish - are significant and increasing, but undoubtedly represent only a small fraction of what actually is transiting the country. Arrests of traffickers in the remote border areas are difficult, as traffickers generally are far better equipped than law enforcement agencies. The continued provision of vehicles, radios, and surveillance equipment as part of the Border Security Program is expanding the capacity of law enforcement agencies to monitor and interdict narcotics trafficking. Additional resources still are needed, especially as increased efforts to combat narcotics in Afghanistan will put pressure on neighboring Pakistan to stop any elements of the drug trade that try to move east across the border.

Pakistan also is combating an increasing drug addiction problem that threatens the welfare and economic stability of its society. A National Assessment of Drug Abuse in 2000 estimated 500,000 heroin addicts in Pakistan between the ages of 18 and 25. There are also concerns about a growing number of intravenous drug users. The GOP needs additional resources in demand reduction to complement its supply-side efforts.

Program Accomplishments

The Ministry of Interior's Air Wing (50th Squadron) was established with INL funding in 2002. It currently has 10 Huey II helicopters and three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft equipped with Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) night vision enhancement systems operating from Quetta, Balochistan. The program has trained three Frontier Corps elite Heliborne Assault Force (HAF) platoons from the Rapid Interdiction Force (RIF) as well as ANF units and is now capable of a integrated air-ground operations, deployment of both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, and night vision goggle operations. A major criminal figure responsible for kidnappings in Balochistan was killed by the U.S.-trained RIF and several of his cohorts were captured. A large poppy field was discovered and eradicated and several arrests were made. The Air Wing and Anti-Narcotics Force combined efforts in an air assault in Balochistan in October 2004 that netted 100 kilograms of heroin and eight metric tons of dried opium poppy pods, demonstrating successful interagency cooperation. The Air Wing supported many other medevacs and performed logistics missions in support of security activities on the border, while continuing to train new personnel. Surveillance of the border improved with the fixed-wing aircraft, providing useful background information, as well as mission-specific information to the border security agencies.

More than 1,500 vehicles and hundreds of pieces of communications equipment have been delivered so far to the Frontier Corps in Balochistan and the Northwest Frontier Province, the Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) and other agencies operating on the border. Despite security and aircraft availability limitations, 27 border outposts were constructed in Balochistan and another two are in progress; 19 have been completed in the North West Frontier Province and seven more are underway. These resources provide border security and law enforcement personnel better access to rugged areas of the western border, and improved coordination and communication among those agencies. Police training programs have trained nearly 2,800 law enforcement officers, particularly in investigative capacity and leadership and management since FY 2002. Other courses have included first responder/crime scene investigation, instructor development, and building managerial capacity. The National Police Academy and three of the five police colleges, which train over 10,000 personnel per year, have integrated USG investigative materials into their curricula. Training is being expanded in 2006 to include all the provinces. From January to December 2005, GOP security forces reported seizing 24.3 metric tons of heroin (including morphine-base), and 6.4 metric tons of opium, a 61 percent increase from 2.5 metric tons in 2004. Of the 90 metric tons of hashish seized by all GOP law enforcement agencies, the Coast Guards interdicted over 7.3 metric tons, more than the total number of Coast Guards hashish seizures for the last four years combined. Other drugs seized by ANF in 2005 include opium poppy straw, opium liquid, Pseudo-Ephedrine, Buprenophine Injections, Ecstasy tablets and other synthetic drugs. The ANF attributes its greater capacity on the border to the Border Security Program.

To date, 449 kilometers of counternarcotics roads have been completed in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber agencies with an additional 60 kilometers underway for the Khyber. In addition, construction began for the first tranche of 17 new security roads along the Afghan border in the FATA for a total of 244 kilometers of additional border roads by the end of Phase I. In addition, over 700 small economic projects have been completed in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber Agencies and over 40 more are underway.

Training courses involving personnel from fourteen different agencies have begun to improve skills in basic criminal investigations, small unit tactics, port of entry operations, first response at crime scenes, use of continuum of force, building organizational capacity, instructor development, and executive management. INL-funded technical assistance has been provided in the development of an organization and structure for the Federal Investigation Agency Special Investigative Group (SIG), including 153 standard operating procedures (SOPs) for police management and operations. Assistance has also been provided to adapt these SOPs to Pakistan police organizations and a Police Reform Study has been provided to the Minister of Interior and the President. Forensics assessments were conducted at Quetta, Peshawar, Lahore, and Karachi in order to better equip laboratories and train personnel, and to integrate the newly created agency, the National Forensic Sciences Agency (NFSA), which will be responsible for Pakistan's forensic laboratories. Finally, the first all-female training course was extremely well received and was attended by 100 women police officers.

GOP law enforcement agencies began using the international standard 10-print fingerprint card nationwide during the last two years; over 300,000 acceptable 10-print cards have been collected and are being entered into the AFIS system. A central fingerprint repository, a key requirement for such fingerprint database systems, was established in the Federal Investigative Agency. A steering committee has been established for the National Criminal Data Base (NCDB), which is an automated information database for use as an investigative tool for Pakistani law enforcement agencies. The NCDB will be based at the Federal Investigation Agency headquarters, and will support the processing of information about crimes. The Embassy Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) laid the groundwork for the project through work with the provinces on supplemental criminal reporting systems that will provide raw data to be included in the database.

The GOP promulgated Police Order 2002, a broad framework for reform, in 2002. Public safety commissions, designed to promote community involvement in policing and police accountability to the public, were established throughout Pakistan in keeping with the Order. Discussions continued with GOP officials on furthering reform efforts, including through strategic planning. In support of building training capacities, training has so far been provided to police personnel from throughout Pakistan on leadership and management, organizational capacity, continuum of force, instructor development, and training management. In order to institutionalize change and reach a larger audience of police personnel, emphasis was placed on working with provincial and national training institutions to adopt the training curricula. Three of four provincial Police Colleges, Sihala (Punjab), Hangu (NWFP), and Shadadpur (Sindh) have integrated several USG courses into their basic course curriculum. This is significant due to the thousands of personnel they train annually.

The Government of Pakistan has made a strong commitment to combating opium poppy cultivation and improving monitoring and eradication efforts. Pakistan's example of being declared poppy free in 2001 by the UN is used as a model in promoting counter-drug efforts around the world. Although opium poppy cultivation increased from a record low of 213 hectares in 2001 to 7,571 hectares in 2004, it dropped in half to approximately 3147 hectares in 2005.

Crop substitution programs, begun over a decade ago, have created a number of alternative economic opportunities. Initial reports suggest there has been a dramatic increase in the number of operations conducted against drug traffickers; for example, the Anti-Narcotics Force in Balochistan conducted 128 operations in 2003, as compared to 78 in 2002. DEA is working closely with the Anti-Narcotics Force's vetted unit, the Special Investigative Cell, to better enable it to disrupt and dismantle trafficking organizations. The Anti-Narcotics Force was granted permission to appeal the verdicts of two high-profile cases of concern (Manj and Notazai). Pakistan participated for the first time in the Paris Pact expert meetings under the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in Vienna in October 2004 and hosted a Paris Pact expert roundtable in Islamabad in early 2005, underscoring its interest in working in a multilateral context to counter narcotics production and trafficking. With assistance from UNODC, Pakistan is also part of an Intergovernmental Technical Committee with Iran and Afghanistan to block the flow of drugs across borders. Pakistan is also part of the Counternarcotics Working Group (CNWG), composed of senior diplomatic and military representatives from Afghanistan and the United States to increase regional cooperation and offer a forum for the in-depth exchange of views on topics of mutual concern, including security of the regions between Pakistan and Afghanistan and development of mechanisms for information sharing. Additionally, efforts are underway to engage Gulf countries to design a regional strategy.

FY 2007 Program

The FY 2007 program has three major components that build on efforts undertaken in previous years, particularly since 9/11. The program also includes program development and support (PD&S) funds.

Border Security Program

FY 2007 funds will be used to build on the successful implementation of commodity support (vehicles, communications equipment, and surveillance equipment), training, and technical assistance that was started with FY 2001 ERF Supplemental funding. The Border Security Program supports and expands law enforcement capacity to secure the western frontier against terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and other criminal elements. Beneficiaries include the Ministry of Interior, Anti-Narcotics Force, Frontier Corps - Balochistan and NWFP, Federal Investigation Agency, Coast Guard, Customs, and Home Departments.

Funds will be used to provide ongoing maintenance, support, and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing, which includes three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft and ten Huey II helicopters that are based at Quetta, Balochistan province. These aircraft permit monitoring and interception of terrorists, drug and other contraband traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas.

Law Enforcement Program

Funds will be used to further enhance law enforcement capacities and to encourage more effective law enforcement cooperation within the Government of Pakistan, as well as with the United States and other countries. Funds will be used to continue providing training, technical assistance, and equipment to expand investigative skills and forensics capacities, build accountability and internal control structures, enhance police training institutions, and improve managerial and leadership expertise. Resources will also be used for police reorganization efforts and will include technical assistance, training, and executive travel to observe modern and progressive law enforcement organizations in the United States. Funds will also be used to support continuing community policing and professional standards pilot projects through training, technical assistance, and equipment. Funds will be used to continue the police leadership institute program at the National Police Academy for superintendent-level personnel, the police supervision academy curriculum at the Police College level for inspector training, and training facility upgrades at the National Police Academy, Police Colleges, and Police Training Centers to accommodate proficiency skills training.

Funds will continue to support implementation of the AFIS at the district level, expand multi-work stations where demand warrants, and link federal and major provincial penal institutions. Funds will be used to install the National Criminal Data Base (NCDB) at the district levels to provide access to law enforcement agencies, improving investigative skills and cooperation. Funds will be used for the continued enhancement of criminal investigation capabilities, including training and equipment for forensics labs.

Counternarcotics Program

Funds will be used to support the construction of roads in opium poppy growing areas. This will include small water schemes to improve the economic potential of newly accessible areas and encourage the cultivation of high-value, legitimate crops and intensive farming. Funds also will be used to introduce alternative crops, such as off-season tomatoes, particularly in the non-traditional areas.

Finally, funds will give operational support to law enforcement agencies, particularly the Anti-Narcotics Force. This support includes funding for the aerial poppy surveys, the poppy eradication effort, and demand reduction activities.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

These funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Pakistan

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Border Security Program

FATA Road Projects

8,000

-

6,000

-

-

Aviation

12,000

-

12,000

-

10,000

Infrastructure/Commodities

4,902

-

6,000

-

2,000

Training/Training Materials

303

-

-

-

1,000

GOP Interagency Coordination

-

-

-

-

-

Sub Total

25,205

-

24,000

-

13,000

Law Enforcement/Judicial System

Law Enforcement Reform

1,000

-

4,320

-

3,950

National Criminal Data/AFIS

2,000

-

1,000

-

1,000

Sub Total

3,000

-

5,320

-

4,950

Counternarcotics Program

Crop Control

1,700

-

6,000

-

5,000

Ops support to LE agencies

1,000

-

1,000

-

1,000

Sub Total

2,700

7,000

6,000

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

350

-

405

-

590

Non-U.S. Personnel

150

-

150

-

180

ICASS Costs

380

-

380

-

380

Program Support

365

-

365

-

400

Sub-Total

1,245

-

1,300

-

1,550

Total

32,150

-

37,620

-

25,500

Philippines

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

3,968

1,980

1,900


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) will develop an effective civilian-led police force.

Training and technical assistance will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the Philippine National Police (PNP). Training and technical assistance provided to the rank and file members will help improve the PNP's criminal investigative skill, promote integrity and instill a sense of professionalism in the force.

The Philippine criminal justice system will be strengthened to successfully address transnational organized crime.

A national automated fingerprint identification system and criminal database will be established. Improved police-prosecutorial working relationships will be demonstrated through the establishment of joint task forces leading to successful case collaboration.

Program Justification

The Philippines, a Major Non-NATO Ally that straddles important air- and sea-lanes, is one of the region's most important partners in the Global War on Terror. Enhancing the capacities of the law enforcement and criminal justice systems remains a top priority and is central to strengthening mutual security.

Philippine law enforcement suffers from a lack of resources and professionalism, low capacity and ineffectiveness, corruption, and widespread behavior inconsistent with the rule of law. The result is a criminal justice system with minimal legitimacy that paves the way for the excesses of local political strongmen, former separatists turned bandits, traditional warlords, and militias.

Problems in the broader Philippine criminal justice system that provide fertile ground for transnational criminal activity and terrorism need to be addressed by a long-term, comprehensive program of training and technical assistance in areas such as drafting laws, rules and regulations concerning criminal law and procedure; developing sustainable training programs; facilitating interagency and police-prosecutor cooperation; devising judicial administration and case management systems; and developing task force capability.

An FY 2003 assessment focused on Southern Philippines law enforcement in Basilan and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), conducted by INL and the United States Department of Justice's International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) and the Office of Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training (OPDAT), revealed a variety of serious deficiencies within the criminal justice system. It also concluded that the public has little trust in law enforcement and recognizes the existence of corruption. Adding to this erosion of public confidence is the perception that the police engage in human rights abuses.

During FY 2005, a USG Interagency team conducted a larger assessment of the PNP to determine overall capacity and organizational effectiveness. The assessment identified similar deficiencies articulated in the FY 2003 assessment, but also pinpointed weakness in the areas of budget, internal affairs, training, prison management and the general absence of links between police and prosecutors.

Cooperation received from the PNP leadership and INL program momentum and successes realized to date in the challenging southern area of the Philippines have now expanded into a more far reaching program of institutional development of both the PNP at the central level and the Philippine criminal justice system. A comprehensive assistance program is necessary to achieve long term and sustainable results. Addressing PNP's weaknesses at the central level will maximize efforts undertaken in the southern Philippines. The program will further enable the PNP to increase its competencies and capabilities in order to become a fully functional partner with other entities of the Philippine criminal justice system, and a stronger and effective partner with other international law enforcement entities, particularly U.S. law enforcement agencies.

Program Accomplishments

In September 2003, a law enforcement training and technical assistance program was launched to focus primarily on Basilan and the ARMM, based on the assessment conducted by INL, ICITAP and OPDAT. The program focused primarily on the delivery of training courses in fundamental police tasks. Emphasis was also placed on providing training in the areas of contemporary police supervision.

A significant element of all the training provided has been an intensive instructor development component aimed at creating "train-the-trainer" capabilities that will strengthen institutional capacities through replication and sustainability. Lessons plans used for all of the courses were provided to the PNP and graduates of the instructor development courses were subsequently used to deliver the courses. The PNP has adopted the course lesson plans and integrated them into their existing investigative training curricula. This will guarantee the perpetuation of the skills as they are taught to future classes.

The Public Relations and Media Course presented to PNP commanders has become a requisite training course for all graduates of the PNP Academy before they are assigned to the field. To date, over 300 personnel have attended this course. This training has resulted in a more professional interaction between the PNP commanders and the media. Previously, many commanders simply refused to speak to the press or avoided attempting to develop a working relationship. This training has had a positive impact on the development of improved media relations.

The USG funded Crime Scene Courses have trained and equipped nearly 200 criminal investigators in the identification, preservation and collection of crime scene evidence. These investigators have returned to their respective station houses to utilize these skills to help investigate and solve a wide variety of crimes. These lesson plans have also been adopted by the PNP and made a permanent part of the PNP's investigative training curricula.

Overall to date, 1,270 police officers and supervisors have been trained by the USG in the various courses offered. Students have included members of the PNP Criminal Investigation Unit, Forensics Unit, Crime Laboratory Unit, Special Action Force (Special Forces), Maritime Group, Airport Security Group, Public Safety College Staff and Regional Academy Staff of the PNP.

In 2003, funding was provided to FBI Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS) to assist the GRP with the establishment of an automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) that would meet international standards. The project was conducted on a train-the trainer-basis and included training in basic fingerprint classification, and the lifting of latent prints at crime scenes. Fingerprint kits, latent kits, magnifiers and cameras were donated. The initial FBI assessment resulted in the provision to FBI of over 200 prints of suspected terrorists, including one print that matched an active case in the United States.

FY 2007 Program

The three major components to the FY 2007 program are Law Enforcement Support, Administration of Justice, and Counternarcotics. FY 2007 funds will be used to continue to develop long-term and sustainable civilian law enforcement capacity, improve police-prosecutorial cooperation, and support GRP efforts to strengthen respect for the rule of law.

Law Enforcement Support

FY 2007 program will focus on providing resident technical advisors and training programs for targeted groups of law enforcement officers, prosecutors and jurists. Programs to improve the quality and transparency of civilian rule of law through assisting the PNP with strategic planning, competency-building, and sustainable training programs of PNP personnel will continue.

Funding will also provide for continuation of the fingerprinting (AFIS) project and forensic document facilities, specifically training and equipment such as fingerprint identification kits, fingerprint booking stations, scanners, digital cameras, and a file server for the storage of prints. The AFIS when completed will conform to U.S. technological standards, ensuring interoperability, and real-time access by U.S. law enforcement personnel.

Administration of Justice

The effectiveness of law enforcement's working relationship with the prosecutors continues to be an important component of this program. The FY 2007 program is designed to improve police-prosecutor cooperation to better manage crime scenes, preserve evidence and bring criminals to justice. The strengthening of the working relationship between police and prosecutors through the implementation of policies and procedures - that will require the police to consult with prosecutors during investigations - will further establish corruption-fighting mechanisms and initiate improvements in judicial administration and criminal case management. Funding will used to provide technical assistance and training.

Counternarcotics

Funding for this project will provide technical assistance, training, and equipment for the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency. Specialized courses such as criminal investigation and prosecution of drug crimes and management will be provided. Funds permitting, limited equipment such as drug identification kits will be provided.

Philippines

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Law Enforcement Support

2,993

-

1,000

-

1,500

Administration of Justice

300

-

350

-

300

Counternarcotics

75

-

150

-

100

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

450

-

330

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

75

-

75

-

-

ICASS Costs

70

-

70

-

-

Program Support

5

-

5

-

-

Sub-Total

600

-

480

-

*

Total

3,968

-

1,980

-

1,900

* FY 2007 PD&S costs will be covered with prior-year PD&S funds.

Thailand


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

1,608

990

900


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Build regional law enforcement capacity through comprehensive skill-building training for police and other law enforcement personnel. Regional law enforcement cooperation will be enhanced, leading to more effective coordination with countries in the region on efforts to prevent transnational crime, including drug trafficking, IPR violations, terrorism, trafficking in persons, and other crimes. Improve the Royal Thai Government (RTG) law enforcement ability to deter and investigate terrorist activity in the southern provinces by designing and conducting bilateral programs of technical assistance and supervisory training using U.S. and regional experts. Build Royal Thai Police and Ministry of Justice forensic science crime solving capabilities, which are also directly applicable to successfully combating terrorist activity.

Promote Thai criminal laws that facilitate investigation and prosecution of corruption cases. Dissuade government tolerance of extra-judicial killings or other abuses in measures to suppress drug trafficking. Promote professional expertise and experience of U.S. enforcement and criminal justice institutions among Thai legislators, political and opinion leaders, and criminal justice system practitioners. Promote public ethics, transparency and internal oversight to enable RTG institutions within the justice system to reduce tolerance for public corruption and to investigate and prosecute public corruption cases.

Deliver comprehensive training programs of comparative ethics for members of the judiciary, lawyers and prosecutors in order to prevent, identify and punish public corruption, and to promote integrity among public officials.

Program Justification

Thailand is victim to a variety of transnational crime conducted by criminal organizations, including trafficking in narcotics, weapons and persons. The country has achieved significant success in its comprehensive, long-term strategies against illegal drug abuse, trafficking, and production; however, its criminal laws, criminal justice institutions, and regulatory and investigative capabilities require improvement in order to respond more effectively to transnational and organized crime in the 21st century. The corrosive effects of public corruption further impair effective RTG response to these threats.

The RTG considers illegal drug trafficking and abuse as one of its most serious national security problems. The use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) creates serious public health and social problems, and requires modification and expansion of demand reduction programs that were originally tailored for heroin abuse. A national campaign in 2003 to suppress the drug trade had some success, but was also criticized for serious human rights abuses. Thailand has been a leader in programs for prevention and treatment of drug abuse. Its effort to reduce and eliminate opium poppy cultivation and heroin production is one of the most successful in the world. U.S Department of State drug control assistance to Thailand dates to the 1970's, but is being gradually phased out in recognition of the success against opium production and in response to evolving patterns of international drug smuggling. After decades on the list of Major Narcotics Producing and Trafficking Countries, Thailand was removed for the first time in September 2004.

The RTG is making a systematic effort to review its criminal justice system and to develop and implement new or modified substantive and procedural criminal laws, procedures and practices that respond appropriately to organized and transnational crime, and implement obligations of the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Drug Trafficking, the 2000 Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC), and the 2003 Convention Against Corruption.

Thailand is a regional leader in international cooperation against drugs and transnational crime. It has agreements for cooperation with the United States, its neighbors and others, and takes a leading role in regional and multilateral drug and crime control organizations. Under a bilateral agreement concluded in 1998, the RTG and USG jointly operate the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Bangkok, which has thus far provided training to 4,500 law enforcement officials from Southeast Asia and China.

As traditional forms of U.S. Department of State counter narcotics assistance are reduced, "value-added" assistance by the United States in fighting corruption and other areas will remain crucial elements in Thailand's efforts to reform and modernize law enforcement institutions.

Program Accomplishments

INL-funded programs support a wide range of activities that have resulted in tangible accomplishments. For the eight consecutive year, the opium poppy crop in 2005 remained below 1,000 hectares. Thailand's evolution from a major source country for opium to a net importer of heroin constitutes a significant strategic success and was a factor in removing Thailand from the list of major narcotics producing or trafficking countries in 2004.

With U.S. support and encouragement, Thailand is in the process of amending many of its basic narcotics and other substantive and procedural criminal laws. During 2005, Thailand employed additional legal authorities authorizing use of wiretap evidence in drug investigations and allowing reduction of sentences for convicted drug offenders who cooperate with prosecutors and investigators. Legislation on plea-bargaining in criminal cases, controlled deliveries, establishment of a witness protection program and other improvements in substantive and procedural criminal law remain under active discussion and consideration by various Thai legal institutions and the Parliament. Thailand signed the UN Convention Against Corruption, and the Thai Criminal Law Institute expanded its ongoing review of criminal laws to include that Convention. The RTG became a party to the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Convention after the Foreign Minister submitted the instrument of ratification at the United Nations General Assembly meeting September 29, 2004.

INL-funded programs contributed materially to Thai law enforcement agencies' ability to conduct investigations by providing equipment, training and institutional building blocks that expand Thai counter narcotics professionalism. However, in response to reports of police involvement in unexplained killings of drug suspects during the government's anti-drug campaign at the beginning of 2003, INL suspended most forms of counternarcotics assistance and training to the Thai Provincial Police. That suspension remains in place pending investigations of the killings, including prosecution of anyone found responsible for wrongful extra-judicial killings. (No FY 2007 funds will be provided to Provincial Police absent such investigations; drug law enforcement funding will support counternarcotics assistance to other Thai law enforcement agencies.)

The RTG approved in 2005 a budget of approximately $2 million to build a dormitory facility adjacent to the ILEA classroom/administrative building. This project is expected to begin in early 2006. During 2005, the ILEA regional curriculum included drug and other law enforcement skills training, with many courses having direct applicability to law enforcement capacity against terrorism. In 2005, ILEA Bangkok trained 667 law enforcement officers and supervisors in INL-supported training programs. A smaller number were trained in non-INL funded programs which utilized ILEA as a venue.

Thailand continues to play a leading regional role in counter narcotics and fighting other transnational criminal threats. The RTG has cooperated with China, Burma, and other nations on significant drug investigations, resulting in numerous seizures of significant quantities of heroin and methamphetamine tablets. Thailand participated in several regional conferences on the suppression of precursor chemicals in 2005. Thailand has encouraged China and India to take stronger action to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals used to manufacture methamphetamine. Thailand increased counternarcotics cooperation with Burma, and continued its pilot alternative development projects in Burma, based on its own successful experience. Thailand plays a leading role in the UN-sponsored ACCORD plan of action designed to promote regional cooperation on drug and crime control efforts. Thailand also continued to demonstrate regional and international leadership in law enforcement affairs. With INL support, the RTG-affiliated Royal Projects Foundation began in 2005 to provide alternative crop development assistance to Afghan President Karzai's administration.

FY 2007 Program

The FY 2007 program will include continuing support to a recently-established criminal investigative agency, the Department of Special Investigations (DSI), which is responsible for investigating significant, non-drug transnational and organized crime. In FY 2003, INL provided an initial project grant of $500,000 to assist establishment of DSI. FY 2007 funding will be used to offer training courses and technical assistance with organizational development by U.S. federal law enforcement agencies including the FBI and the Department of Justice (ICITAP). The development of the DSI should enable more focused investigations by the Thai law enforcement community, thereby facilitating the solving of crimes that affect U.S. business and national interests, such as IPR infringement, cyber crime, and financial crime.

Expansion and refinement of regional programs at ILEA Bangkok will continue, as well as development of bilateral programs to Thai law enforcement agencies that will both further U.S. interests in combating transnational criminal activity as well as threats to Thai security that are posed by the continuing terrorist incidents in southern provinces.

Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds will cover salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime training program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Thailand

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Crime Control and Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice Sector Development

308

-

-

-

-

Measures Against Money Laundering

-

-

-

-

-

Department of Special Investigations

200

Sub Total

308

-

-

-

200

Drug Control Assistance

Drug (and Customs) Law

Enforcement

273

-

115

-

-

Crop Control/Alternative

Development

100

-

-

-

-

Regional Narcotics Control

50

-

-

-

-

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

100

-

-

-

-

Sub Total

523

-

115

-

-

Measures Against Corruption

100

-

225

-

-

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

275

-

300

-

323

Non-U.S. Personnel

90

-

115

-

124

ICASS Costs

178

-

135

-

145

Program Support

134

-

100

-

108

Sub-Total

677

-

650

-

700

Total

1,608

-

990

-

900

 

___________________

[1] Through a series of three transfers ($150 million, $160 million and $200 million) DoD has furnished a total of $510 million for police development. Additionally, the sum of $26 million in IRRF reprogrammed funds was provided to support additional resident legal advisors ($15 million) and the Joint Task Force ($11 million) investigating organized crime in Iraq.



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