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Diplomacy in Action

Regional and Global Programs


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2007 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2006
Report
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Anti Crime Programs

Fighting Corruption

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Request

6,746

3,960

4,500


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL has in recent years pursued a mix of diplomatic, policy, and programmatic efforts designed to achieve the following anticorruption objectives: increasing the number of governments committed to implementing comprehensive regimes to address their corruption problems; increasing international cooperation among governments in the fight against corruption; increasing the number of countries where political will exists to pursue high-level corrupt actors and problems; and developing innovative methods to tackle corruption that show measurable effect.

INL advances these objectives through a four-pillar approach. These four pillars, articulated in various Department reports to Congress over the past few years pursuant to the International Anticorruption and Good Governance Act, include the following:

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitments

The USG opens the door to enhanced cooperation through the creation of global anticorruption goals and standards. This, in turn, encourages the sharing of best practices, builds trust and relationships between cooperating countries, and ultimately increases the effectiveness of USG government and other aid programs that assist these efforts.

Related objectives:

Increased number of reports issued annually by mutual evaluation mechanisms.

Increased number of countries that have signed and ratified the United Nations Convention Against Corruption.


Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments

The fight against corruption begins at the national and local levels. Where pockets of political and/or popular will exist, the USG can assist governments in taking effective action against corruption. This includes, inter alia, helping governments take a wide range of actions to address corruption, such as enforcing anticorruption laws and instituting preventive measures within the public administration. The U.S. is also beginning through the G-8 Anticorruption Compacts, the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), and other multilateral initiatives to reward those countries that are committed to effectively rooting out corruption.

Related objectives:

Increased the number of countries that publicly adhere to and enforce No Safe Haven policies.

Launch innovative regional initiatives in APEC, Africa and the Middle East to strengthen the political commitment of governments to fight corruption.

Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action

Popular will is the best expediter of political will against corruption. The USG can help enhance popular will in other countries by encouraging civil society, the media, and the private sector to be active in the fight against corruption, increase transparency in governments, and increase integrity in the private sector.

Related objective:

Targeted countries have improved scores in anticorruption and transparency indices.

Leading By Example

The USG has been a leader in the fight against corruption by promoting integrity within our own country and making our actions an example for the world. The international community can benefit from our examples, particularly regarding efforts to deny safe haven in the U.S. to corrupt officials, prevent U.S. multinational business from bribing overseas, enforce corruption laws, promote good public/corporate governance, and build tools and institutions to prevent corruption.

Related objectives:

Implementation and balanced use of the new presidential proclamation to deny entry into the United States by corrupt officials, those who corrupt them, and their dependents.

Participating as an evaluated party in two (OAS, COE) multilateral anticorruption monitoring mechanisms.

Program Justification

The Administration has made the international fight against corruption one of its top foreign policy priorities. The USG has clear foreign policy and national security interests in seeing corruption addressed on an international scale. Corrupt interests continually hamper global economic activity of American firms, interfere with the accomplishments of USG foreign assistance goals and programs, facilitate the continuing growth of transnational crime and international criminal organizations, and threaten democracy. Terrorists thrive on corruption, using it to facilitate the laundering of funds and the illicit trade of weapons, passports, drugs, and persons; obtain sensitive information from government sources; and move money and themselves across borders to find safe havens.

Program Accomplishments

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitments

Over the past several years, INL has helped negotiate and develop several significant regional multilateral anticorruption commitments, including the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC), Council of Europe conventions, Stability Pact compact, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Initiative to Fight Corruption and Ensure Transparency, and, most recently, the OECD/UNDP Middle East and North Africa (MENA) "Good Governance for Development for Arab States" Initiative. INL continues to make it a top priority to encourage other governments to sign, accede to, or ratify the UNCAC, which entered into force in December 2004 and currently signed or ratified by over 180 nations, including the U.S. From a diplomatic perspective, the biennial ministerial Global Forum on Fighting Corruption (GF) process is by far the most high-level existing intergovernmental forum for promoting the fight against corruption, and INL continues to lead U.S. efforts to develop and define that process. President Bush provided a statement of support to Governments participating in the 2005 Fourth GF in Brasilia in June 2005.

Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments

INL has focused its attention and resources on promoting implementation of multilateral anticorruption commitments (e.g., monitoring mechanisms) and helping develop effective governmental approaches to preventing corruption (e.g., addressing corruption within the criminal justice system through the legal profession and private bars). INL has provided or led USG experts and assistance to help over 60 countries implement anticorruption commitments through mechanisms within the Organization of American States (OAS), Council of Europe, Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative for Southeast Europe, APEC, the OECD/UNDP "Good Governance for Development for Arab States" Initiative, and the ADB/OECD Asian Anticorruption Initiative. INL has also targeted anticorruption advisors and technical assistance to help governments address weaknesses discovered during these evaluation processes. INL continues to lead U.S. law enforcement-related anticorruption assistance, particularly to help countries build their capacities to investigate and prosecute corruption cases. Over the past three years, INL further developed the capability to react rapidly to unexpected Embassy requests for anticorruption assistance to new governments or governments exhibiting strong and unusual political will to address corruption.

INL is also working with the Economic Bureau to fund the G-8 Compacts, an anticorruption assistance program targeted to countries that exhibit strong political will to address corruption problems. President Bush and other G-8 leaders at the G-8 Sea Island Summit in 2004 announced Compact programs with four countries: Georgia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, and Peru. INCLE funding is being used to help these countries achieve their Compact goals.

Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action

INL has developed and funded innovative technical assistance programs that help build the popular will against corruption and promote integrity within the private sector. Recent examples include the development of a Culture of Lawfulness educational program in several countries targeted at middle-school students and support to develop a corporate governance blueprint for Russian businesses.

Leading By Example

INL has led recent USG interagency participation, including the Department of Justice, Department of the Treasury, Department of Commerce, Office of Government Ethics, and others, in key multilateral mechanisms to observe U.S. anticorruption institutions and activities, and has helped effectively showcase our efforts as a model for other countries. INL also led efforts to advance the "No Safe Haven" policy through implementation of a Presidential Proclamation to deny entry to the corrupt, those who corrupt them, and their dependents, signed in early 2004. The G-8 member countries, in the 2003 Evian Declaration and reinforced in the 2004 Sea Island Declarations, committed to the "No Safe Haven" policy. World leaders at the Special Summit of the Americas and APEC made a similar commitment in January and November 2004, respectively.

FY 2007 Program

Anticorruption Compacts

The G-8 anticorruption assistance Compacts are an initiative that helps to fight corruption in a way that strengthens political will, rewards performance, and yields demonstrable results. By attacking corruption on multiple fronts with the strong commitment of the highest levels of government, rather than one sector at a time, the Compacts seek to raise the bar across government institutions and make transparency efforts in different sectors mutually reinforcing. Four governments - Nicaragua, Peru, Nigeria and Georgia - entered into Compacts at the G-8 Sea Island Summit in 2004, committing in writing to reform in key areas that promote transparency and help prevent corruption, including management of public finances, public procurement, and engaging civil society. All four countries have developed operational plans to meet their goals and help coordinate technical assistance. FY 2007 funds will help support the third year's effort in the four Compact countries. Assistance for each pilot country will likely focus on training, equipment and technology (including e-systems) needed to establish and maintain fiscal transparency and accountability systems, rules-based public procurement systems, effective enforcement and oversight institutions, and free and active civil society anticorruption efforts.

Multilateral and Diplomatic Programs

In addition to the Compacts, FY 2007 funds will be used through the United Nations or relevant regional organizations to help countries that have ratified the new United Nations Convention Against Corruption to implement the convention's prevention and criminalization chapters.

FY 2007 funds will be used to expand the Middle East Governance for Development (GfD) Network, an Arab-led effort which was launched in the Dead Sea, Jordan in February 2005, with the G-8, UNDP, OECD and World Bank, to create an intergovernmental anticorruption forum. The forum will work towards developing capacity, tools, and systems - such as national action plans, stronger laws, codes of conduct, and better trained investigators, prosecutors, and judges - to detect, prosecute and enforce corruption cases. As part of the GfD Initiative, President Bush pledged to help Arab nations that embrace clear standards of economic, political, and social reform.

FY 2007 funds will also be used to help APEC developing economies implement their commitments related to the APEC Leaders' Santiago Commitment and Anticorruption Course of Action. The "Santiago Commitment and APEC Course of Action" requires member countries to: deny safe haven to officials and individuals guilty of public corruption, those who corrupt them, and their assets; implement anticorruption policies and practices consistent with the UN Convention Against Corruption; implement the APEC Transparency Standards, with particular emphasis on government procurement and customs procedures; encourage collaboration to fight corruption and ensure transparency, including through cooperation with other multilateral and regional intergovernmental institutions; and develop innovative training and technical assistance programs to fight corruption and ensure transparency.

INL intends to also use FY 2007 funds to launch an initiative with committed African governments on an Africa region-wide cooperative mechanism to support critical rule of law and enforcement capabilities to promote good governance and prosecute corruption. The proposed African Anticorruption and Transparency (ACT) Initiative will leverage existing international partnerships to strengthen the political will of African governments to address governance and corruption challenges, and help them implement their commitments related to the G8 Africa Action Plan and the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC).

FY 2007 funds would additionally be used to pay contributions/dues to support two multilateral monitoring mechanisms - the Council of Europe's Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO) and the OAS Follow-up Mechanism - that promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in dozens of countries.

Border Security/Alien Smuggling

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

1,533

594

2,000


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will continue to assist selected countries to strengthen their border control regimes and make it more difficult for criminals and terrorists who threaten the interests of the United States to pass through without being detected and apprehended. INL will also work with our international partners to interdict and halt alien smuggling as far from our borders as possible.

INL border security programs help priority countries improve their port and airport security practices, through education initiatives, training, and technical assistance. The strengthening of security at ports and airports will help to prevent criminal and terrorist acts that could have an adverse impact on trade and transportation with the United States. INL has set goals for border security to include: conducting training to improve the proficiency of customs, immigration, and other border control officials; installing entry/exit systems at selected airports and seaports; assisting in the development of passport issuance systems with biometric capabilities; purchasing computers and software for immigration authorities at the international airports; providing funding to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) for capacity building programs; and providing funding to the Organization of American States (OAS) counter-terrorism subcommittee to improve port security practices through a program of technical assistance. INL work helps improve integration and coordination among various law enforcement entities at the borders. Border security improvements will enhance law enforcement cooperation, reduce corruption, increase revenue collections, and strengthen rule of law in developing countries. Performance measures will include better law enforcement controls and intelligence; increased identification and apprehension of criminals; and less illegal movement of aliens destined for the United States.

INL's attention to alien smuggling will focus on helping coordinate the activities of the interagency anti-smuggling community in their efforts to disrupt major alien smuggling rings which operate both domestically and overseas. The capacity to identify and respond to threats posed by alien smugglers and traffickers will be strengthened by the establishment in the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Section 7202) of the interagency Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC). INL will fund activities of the HSTC to collect, analyze, and disseminate intelligence on alien smuggling and human trafficking. Performance measures will include the issuance of strategic assessments and other products, developing target folders on the top alien smuggling organizations, and the opening of investigations against major smuggling and trafficking organizations with a nexus to the United States.

Program Justification

Porous borders are a threat to developing countries, as well as to the United States. Lax border controls greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid these controls, suborn them through corruption, negate them with falsified documentation, or overwhelm them. In many countries, effective control of the movement of persons, vehicles, and cargo across national borders is non-existent. Border control officials are poorly trained and equipped and inspections facilities are substandard.

As the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls provide substantial deterrence to smugglers and other criminals. They can force them into other, less attractive, routes, provoke traffickers into taking measures that raise their operational costs, and make traffickers more vulnerable to law enforcement countermeasures. Borders are also the points at which to collect important intelligence. Information gleaned from seizures, arrests, and documents can provide leads useful to making even bigger cases that help dismantle major international criminal syndicates. Successful enforcement at the border is also a powerful instrument for generating greater public support for fighting transnational crime.

The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. Identifying, disrupting and dismantling criminal networks, especially those that can be used by extremist groups, has become a high priority for U.S. authorities. The creation of the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center reflects the U.S. Government's concerns about the separate but related problems of alien smuggling, human trafficking and terrorist mobility, and the increasing sophistication of criminal networks with global reach.

An important aspect of the U.S. government's approach to deterring and preventing the flow of illegal aliens into the United States involves disrupting alien smuggling organizations as far from our shores as possible. This means that the fight against alien smuggling must begin in foreign lands where our influence and law enforcement authorities are more limited. Weak foreign law enforcement institutions, corrupt public officials, and inadequately trained police make it imperative that guidance and technical assistance be provided to illegal alien source and transit countries. Without adequate technical assistance many of these countries will continue to contribute to the stream of illegal aliens entering the United States. This stream, if uncontrolled, will allow foreign nationals with terrorist links to slip into the United States undetected.

Program Accomplishments

Our goal is to strategically utilize funding to ensure the most impact in this critical area. INL's critical border security program accomplishments include:

Barbados: Conducted a regional seminar on customs integrity for eight Caribbean nations.

Ecuador: Funding provided to support a vetted police unit dedicated to disrupting the alien smuggling pipeline from Ecuador to the United States.

Mexico: Jointly funded a regional forum on maritime security with the International Maritime Organization for countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Caribbean: Port security assessments conducted in St. Lucia, Dominica, Belize, and St. Kitt's-Nevis. Follow-up training conducted in Dominica and scheduled for the other three island nations.

Latin America: Funding provided to the OAS for aviation security training in the Western Hemisphere. Training delivered in the Bahamas, Haiti, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras and planned for Belize, Panama, Antigua, and Costa Rica.

East Africa: Funding provided to the IOM for a capacity building program to control irregular migration in Kenya and Tanzania.

Caribbean: Funding provided to the OAS counter terrorism subcommittee to improve security practices in the Caribbean tourism and recreation industries, in preparation for the 2007 Cricket World Cup.

Asia: Funding provided to the Asian Development Bank to assist developing countries in Southeast Asia with their efforts to improve port security and to comply with the requirements of the International Ship and Port Facility Code

In response to the migrant smuggling, trafficking and terrorist mobility challenges and to further our anti-alien smuggling objectives, INL helped create and is helping fund the inter-agency Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC). The Center brings together federal agency representatives from the policy, law enforcement, intelligence, and diplomatic arenas to work together on a full-time basis to achieve increased greater integration and effectiveness in addressing human smuggling, human trafficking, and smuggler support of clandestine terrorist travel, particularly in terms of converting intelligence into effective enforcement, diplomatic and assistance actions. The Center collates, analyzes, produces and disseminates intelligence and other information to facilitate coordinated international law enforcement efforts against illegal alien smuggling, terrorist mobility, and trafficking in persons.

In addition to producing a number of strategic assessments and intelligence reports, and contributing to other agencies' products, the HSTC has submitted two required reports for Congress. The first, submitted in June, was a report on the status of implementation of the Center with information identifying staffing and resource needs. The second is an annual strategic assessment of vulnerabilities in the United States and foreign travel systems that can be exploited by terrorists, alien smugglers, traffickers, and their facilitators. Enactment of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act will require a third report to Congress on links between trafficking in persons and terrorism, including links between the proceeds of trafficking and terrorist finance.

FY 2007 Program

INL will continue to support the OAS counterterrorism committee in its efforts to improve law enforcement training and border controls in the Western Hemisphere. This will be done through a series of initiatives including airport and seaport security training, law enforcement workshops, border and port security vulnerability assessments, and document security programs. Strengthening entry-exit controls at selected foreign airports, land border points, and seaports will also be a priority. Programs designed to improve document security will also receive attention. These programs may focus on identity documents and passport issuance systems.

Effective border control programs depend on having adequate training, visa regimes, and equipment, including automated systems to track the movement of cargo and people through ports of entry. Through our border assessments, INL will identify vulnerable countries and will work with them to upgrade their border control systems, including assisting them to improve travel document issuance systems and customs controls. Funds will also support conferences and organizations working to improve and enhance border security.

INL will continue to support the development of the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC). During FY 2007, the HSTC will continue to produce strategic assessments and intelligence reports to better inform and target law enforcement, diplomacy and foreign assistance efforts. It plans to further develop its classified website and create unclassified but secure intranet websites to effectively disseminate information. It will promote and facilitate intelligence-driven operations, investigations and prosecutions against smugglers and traffickers, resulting in disruption and dismantling of smuggling organizations, networks and pipelines. This will also adversely affect criminal support for terrorist travel. The HSTC will also support the anti-terrorist mobility efforts of the National Counterterrorism Center. Funds will be used for administrative and operational needs, and to hire support staff to provide the framework for a team of detailed foreign affairs, law enforcement and intelligence officers who will turn intelligence into action. Funds will also be used to help prepare the annual report to Congress regarding vulnerabilities in the U.S. and foreign travel systems and the Congressionally required report on links between trafficking and terrorism.

Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property Rights and Critical Infrastructure Protection

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

3,300

3,366

4,000


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL training and technical assistance programs facilitate USG assistance to and cooperation with key foreign nations on matters involving cybercrime, critical information infrastructure protection (CIIP), and intellectual property rights (IP) crime. INL's training and technical assistance programs assist foreign nations to draft effective laws and build strong enforcement capacity. INL also continues to participate in a range of USG diplomatic initiatives aimed at strengthening international standards and cooperation in combating transnational high tech and IP crime.

In the area of cybercrime, INL continues to build the capacity of foreign law enforcement partners through training and technical assistance programs targeted at identifying, investigating, prosecuting, and preventing crimes committed through the criminal misuse of information technology (IT). Improved cooperation between the USG and foreign law enforcement officials and increased successful domestic and foreign prosecutions of criminals misusing IT demonstrate the program's success. In the area of international CIIP, INL will continue to expand outreach to critical countries, with success measured by an increase in the number of nations and multilateral and multinational organizations embracing enhanced cybersecurity policies and practices. These outreach programs assist foreign nations with whom the US has shared vulnerabilities to develop policies and capacities to secure their critical information infrastructures. This fills gaps in our national security that can be exploited by transnational criminals and other state or non-state entities.

In the area of IP enforcement, INL training and technical assistance programs combat IP violations by building capacity among foreign border and customs officials, investigators, law enforcement officials, prosecutors, and judges to detect, investigate, prosecute and prevent these crimes.

Program Justification

IP crime - IP crime presents a growing threat to the most innovative sectors of the US economy. Losses to the U.S. copyright, patent, and trademark industries in areas such as hard goods, optical media, and pharmaceuticals have been staggering. One particularly troubling phenomenon is the growing involvement of transnational crime groups in IP crime. These groups have the potential to outstrip the capabilities of hard-pressed law enforcement to counter them. As a signatory to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, the USG is committed to a global enforcement effort to eliminate safe havens for online pirates and other IP criminals. Although INL has long been engaged on issues related to protection of IP, the explosion in IP crime and the growing sophistication of IP criminals has led INL to ramp up its resources dedicated to this issue. As co-chair of the inter-agency training coordination group (TCG), which includes both government and industry participation, INL promotes foreign training and technical assistance projects targeted to foreign nations where IP violations are most severe. INL's assistance includes seminars on developing TRIPS compliant laws, and also on training police officers, investigators, prosecutors, and judges to combat IP crime. Since much of the growth of violations of IP rights is fueled by the criminal misuse of IT (e.g., online piracy) there is a significant overlap with INL's mission to fight cybercrime.

Cybercrime - the criminal misuse of IT has increased exponentially in the last several years. Cybercrimes can include activities such as fraud, child pornography, and extortion, through which IT is a means for carrying out the elements of the crime, and also activities such as hacking, intrusion, and denial of service attacks, in which information networks are themselves targeted. As one of the first nations to sign the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime - the first multilateral treaty dedicated to cybercrime - the USG is one of the international leaders in promoting mutual cooperation, effective laws, and strong enforcement institutions. INL provides training and technical assistance to foreign law enforcement personnel to identify, investigate, prosecute, and prevent high-tech crimes. Given the nascence of cybercrime in many developing nations, INL's assistance includes enabling USG subject matter experts to give key nations legislative drafting advice. INL also participates in developing USG policy positions on cybercrime in organizations such as the G-8, the Council of Europe, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization of American States (OAS), and the United Nations.

In the realm of cybersecurity, the vast expansion of the Internet and the spread of IT have created new challenges for the USG in the areas of law enforcement, national security, and national economic security. Hacking, denial of service attacks, and viruses disseminated through information networks are increasing rapidly. The President has responded to this challenge by directing the issuance of the first National Cyberspace Strategy. The Strategy recognizes that the interdependence of infrastructures across communications, energy, finance, trade, and transportation sectors means that a physical or cyber attack on the critical information infrastructures of one nation will likely impact other nations. Consequently, U.S. national security depends not only on U.S. CIIP efforts within U.S. borders, but also on the capabilities and cooperation of foreign nations whose infrastructure the U.S. government and industry interact with. The National Strategy contains a strong international outreach component, focusing on the promotion of watch-and-warning networks and a global culture of cybersecurity. Within the Department of State, INL has responsibility for law enforcement related CIIP issues. INL has already stepped up to support CIIP outreach by providing training and technical assistance to key partner nations. INL expects an increase in the demand for training to combat cybercrime with the expansion of USG outreach to developing nations. INL will continue to target our resources in consultation with US agencies such as Commerce, Treasury, Justice and Homeland Security, which have strong and evolving responsibilities in the areas of cybercrime and cybersecurity.

Program Accomplishments

As the State Department's designated coordinator for federal law enforcement overseas assistance, INL is the funding source for almost all USG "cop-to-cop" law enforcement training and has the State Department lead on law enforcement with respect to IP rights. With respect to intellectual property rights, INL funds training and technical assistance programs to investigators, law enforcement personnel, prosecutors, judges, and other foreign officials and policy makers who investigate, prosecute, punish, and prevent violations of intellectual property rights.

INL selects the training and technical assistance programs through the consideration of criteria and metrics designed to identify gaps in countries/regions where inadequate laws or weak enforcement fail to protect intellectual property rights. More particularly, INL determines the needs necessary to reduce intellectual property violations and identifies a strategy to fill in the gaps through training and technical assistance programs. In making funding decisions, INL considers input from the TCG, USTR's Special 301 Report, U.S. industry, and U.S. missions to ensure the assistance is targeted to fit long-range planning goals.

Similarly, in the field of cybercrime, INL was able to support stepped-up activities by the Department of Justice in advising key nations in the APEC and OAS regions in designing effective laws, in training foreign police and prosecutors in cyber investigations, and in related CIIP activities. INL has also continued to help advance our diplomatic objectives through participation in bilateral discussions with close allies, and with multilateral organizations like the OAS, the Council of Europe, APEC, the G-8, and the United Nations.

FY 2007 Program

As co-chair of the State Department Training Coordination Group (TCG), along with our partner the Economic and Business Affairs Bureau (EB), INL will continue to fight IP crime through increased funding for foreign law enforcement training and technical assistance. INL will be consulting closely with industry groups to ensure that INL's assistance does not duplicate or overshadow industry efforts. These industry groups have urged INL to provide additional law enforcement training to fill critical gaps in their own efforts to assist foreign countries in fighting IP crime. As such, INL seeks not only to increase the numbers of such programs, but also to better integrate input and participation from private industry into our long term IP assistance plans. The countries INL is particularly likely to work with to build institutions to address IPR challenges include Brazil, Mexico, Paraguay, and Vietnam, as well as programs in cooperation with regional bodies like APEC. IP should continue to have a high profile among multilateral organizations such as the G-8, which is expected to open a new initiative on IP enforcement.

On CIIP, INL will continue to participate as part of the Department of State Inter-Agency Working Group on international outreach activities. This will include working with our closest allies to facilitate sector-to-sector relationships and connectivity between law enforcement, as well as expanding our circle of contacts to selected countries and multilateral organizations. INL expects to fully coordinate its activities with the Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies. INL expects demand for training and technical assistance to combat the criminal misuse of IT to increase throughout the range of existing INL programs. INL will assist by providing training to fight either cybercrime itself or substantive crimes such as money laundering and child pornography that are furthered through use of IT. In particular, INL expects demands for assistance from developing nations to increase in response to the success of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime as a global model. INL will also work to meet the demand from OAS member states as they advance their regional strategy to fight criminal misuse of information technology. INL expects to work closely with DHS and DOJ in assessing existing cybercrime training offerings for their effectiveness, and with State Department Diplomatic Security (DS/ATA) in determining how our crime fighting and anti-terrorist cyber training can complement each other.

INL believes that its efforts, as outlined above, are making a significant contribution to the United States' fight against cybercrime, IP violations, and breaches of information infrastructures. In each of the areas cited, INL has increased its efforts in recognition of the growing importance of these issues to U.S. interests.

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

3,500

2,475

4,000


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Denying funds to terrorist organizations is a national security priority. Thwarting terrorist financing requires the development of robust anti-money laundering regimes that contain the legislative, enforcement and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. INL will continue to promote and develop activities and programs that will strengthen global cooperation against financial crime and terrorist financing. We will work with foreign governments to establish or update enforcement and regulatory tools and to implement international anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing standards. INL will encourage and assist in the formation of financial intelligence units (FIUs), and enhance their ability to share critical financial intelligence by providing technical assistance to those countries that have adequate and appropriate anti-money laundering laws and regulations in place and by encouraging them to become members of the Egmont Group of FIUs. INL also will continue to support the expansion of Trade Transparency Units, modeled on FIUs, and strengthen the Pacific Island Anti-Money Laundering Program (PALP), a regional technical assistance/training program.

The numbers of successful investigations and prosecutions abroad of important terrorist financing and money laundering cases will increase. There will be an increase in the number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards, including the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Special Nine Recommendations on Terrorist Financing, as reflected by mutual and other evaluations conducted by FATF and other international standard-setting and peer review bodies.

There will be an increase in the number of countries that have criminalized terrorist financing. There will be an increase in the number of effective FIUs. There will be an expanded network of Trade Transparency Units in operation in countries of most concern. The network will combat the misuse of trade in money laundering and terrorist financing. There will be additional intermittent term mentors provided to the regional Pacific Island Anti-Money Laundering Program initiated in FY 2005.

Program Justification

Financial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat not only to the United States but also globally. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, skew currency markets, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes, such as trade-based money laundering, that until very recently has frequently eluded law enforcement. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds 3-5 percent of Global Domestic Product - or $1.5-$1.8 trillion per year -- and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Terrorists, on the other hand, appear to be relying less on the formal financial sector than to alternative remittance systems, such as hawala and cash couriers, that pose significant challenges to law enforcement. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free markets.

Program Accomplishments

In the past several years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime and money laundering, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. Between FY 2002 and FY 2005, INL provided approximately $13 million in training and technical assistance programs that delivered courses to bank regulators, bankers, law enforcement, prosecutorial and judicial personnel, and financial intelligence unit personnel from 125 governments. We draw upon a multi-agency team of experts representing the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice, and Homeland Security, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), and the Federal Reserve Board of Governors to deliver the training and technical assistance to most of these countries. INL's contributions to Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD), the Pacific Island Forum, and to the UN Global Programme against Money Laundering also played a key role in providing assistance to many of these countries. INL provided $2 million to support the President's East Africa Counter-Terrorism Initiative. In addition, INL provided contributions to multilateral organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and the FATF-style regional bodies (FSRBs): the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG), the Council of Europe (MONEYVAL), the Eastern and Southern African Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), the South American Financial Action Task Force (GAFISUD), to support anti-money laundering efforts. The members of these FSRBs have made a commitment to meet international anti-money laundering standards and undergo mutual evaluations by their peers. Our contributions support the ongoing operations of these bodies and fund special programs, such as mutual evaluation training seminars.

During 2000-2005, INL also participated in the development of the FATF's Non-Cooperating Countries and Territories (NCCT) program to identify jurisdictions not cooperating in the fight against money laundering. All 23 jurisdictions that FATF identified as NCCTs were the subject of U.S. Treasury Department advisories, warning all U.S. financial institutions to exercise enhanced scrutiny of financial transactions with the listed NCCTs. INL provided training and technical assistance to nearly all of these jurisdictions to help them correct the deficiencies identified by the FATF. Because of the improvements these countries made in their anti-money laundering regimes, FATF removed four of them from the list in 2001, eight in 2002, two in 2003, three in 2004, and four in 2005. Only Burma and Nigeria remain on the FATF NCCT list.

INL and S/CT chair an interagency process to identify the countries most vulnerable to terrorist financing activities around the world. The Bureau is a central contributor to assessing the anti-terrorist financing needs of these countries, developing implementation plans for them, and funding anti-terrorist financing technical assistance programs so they can combat this threat. INL also participates in many of the training programs.

FY 2007 Program

INL, with the Department of Homeland Security, will continue to support the new innovative Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) concept that responds to the increasing propensity of criminals and terrorists to move funds outside of formal financial sectors through use of alternative remittance systems and falsified trade data. The concept borrows from the international network of FIUs that examine financial intelligence. A similar TTU network is envisioned that will analyze countries' trade data, searching for anomalies indicating trade fraud, money laundering and/or terrorist financing. In 2005, INL provided DHS with funding to establish prototype TTUs in the Tri-Border countries of Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil that are combating the Black Market Peso Exchange. In 2007, INL will continue to provide training and equipment to set up TTUs in strategic countries. We expect, in 2007, to establish TTUs in South and Southeast Asia in countries that are susceptible to trade-based money laundering and terrorist financing.

In 2007, INL will continue to strengthen the new regional technical assistance/training program in the Pacific Island region. This program, modeled on the Caribbean Anti-money Laundering Program (CALP), is an economical way to provide comprehensive training and technical assistance to several countries in a region that share similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. The program has installed resident advisors and support staff to work in key areas needed to bring the anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes in the region up to international standards by assisting in drafting laws and regulations, and by training regulators and law enforcement officials, including prosecutors and judges.

INL is committed to assisting countries that want to establish new Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs), particularly countries that have the requisite legal framework but lack the funds to purchase the necessary, but expensive, software and hardware. In FY 2007, INL will fund an innovative "FIU in a Box" initiative that will develop scaled-down software that will enable small FIUs to collect, analyze and disseminate financial intelligence to domestic law enforcement and to other FIUs globally. These "FIUs in a Box" will enable jurisdictions that lack fiscal and human resources to become active players in the global effort to thwart money laundering and terrorist financing at a fraction of the current cost to develop a full-scale FIU. Working cooperatively with the Australian Financial Intelligence Unit that pioneered the "FIU in a Box" concept, our joint goal in FY 2007 is to have at least two Financial Intelligence Units established through the PALP that meet the qualifications for membership in the Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units.

INL will also provide funding for the placement of intermittent and long-term advisors in countries to assist in the development of legislative frameworks, regulatory schemes and FIUs. INL will continue to work closely with other USG agencies to provide this assistance, including the FBI, Justice, Treasury, Secret Service, FinCEN, Customs Service, Internal Revenue Service, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, and the OCC and will provide funding to the UN Global Programme against Money Laundering and OAS/CICAD -- organizations that are able to attract experts from a global pool of applicants. It is expected that training will focus on the countries considered to be most vulnerable to terrorist financing. Efforts will also be directed at other strategic jurisdictions that need resources and assistance to develop anti-money laundering laws to protect their economy and financial services sector against financial crime and terrorism.

INL will continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the FATF, other anti-money laundering bodies, such as the APG, MONEYVAL, CFATF, GAFISUD, ESAAMLG, OAS/CICAD, and the UN Global Program Against Money Laundering, as well as the Middle East and North African Financial Action Task Force (MENAFATF) and the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism (EAG) - the new FSRBS established in late 2004. In particular, INL wants to ensure that the FSRB's incorporate anti-terrorist financing training into their anti-money laundering criteria, that they conduct a steady stream of mutual evaluations of their members, and that they train a core of evaluators to conduct these evaluations.

INL Anticrime Programs

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Fighting Corruption

3,046

-

2,475

-

4,500

Anti-Corruption Compacts

3,700

-

1,485

-

-

Border Security/Alien Smuggling

1,533

-

594

-

2,000

Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property

Rights and Critical Infrastructure Protection

3,300

-

3,366

-

4,000

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering

3,500

-

2,475

-

4,000

Total

15,079

-

10,395

-

14,500

Civilian Police and Justice Program

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

2,678

1,980

2,000



Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The overall program objectives are to sustain the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police and criminal justice components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations; and to assist in strengthening the capabilities of the USG, United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and other regional organizations and countries to address police, justice, and prison development issues in areas emerging from conflict.

The FY 2007 program will sustain INL's capacity to manage and oversee the recruitment, selection, training, equipping, deployment and support for uniformed and non-uniformed U.S. civilian police, trainers and advisors overseas participating in and supporting peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. The program will also:

Maintain a capacity to deploy U.S. police, law enforcement advisors, justice and corrections experts.

Sustain certification of the basic U.S. training program across the U.S. and further develop relationships with federal, state and local law enforcement associations, organizations and unions.

Promote high quality, standardized civilian police peacekeeping training.

Maintain INL management and oversight capabilities by further developing options to address complex security operations, including well-defined response and support timetables and capacities.

Ensure USG-funded goods and services are obtained through full, open and timely procurement that provides maximum efficiency and benefit to U.S. taxpayers.

Program Justification

U.S. participation in complex security operations and international civilian police missions overseas is expected to continue in FY 2007 and beyond. U.S. involvement in these missions led to the creation in INL in CY 2005 of a new Office of Civilian Police and Rule of Law. INL will sustain a capacity to deploy and support experienced U.S. police, justice and corrections personnel assigned to Kosovo, Liberia, Haiti, Sudan, Afghanistan, Iraq and other countries as determined by policy makers. The world-wide support contracts awarded in 2004 provide a mechanism to conduct rapid competition and deployment of experienced law enforcement and corrections officers and criminal justice experts to support U.S. foreign policy interests in post-conflict regions around the world. Each contractor maintains databases of 2,000 interested and qualified individuals for this purpose. The FY 2007 program will maintain the program as an important component of the INL mission and will include:

World-wide logistical and support systems for the rapid deployment of U.S. police to complex, international security operations;

Capacity to provide timely and qualitative construction services and support activities, including technical aspects of construction assessment, design and oversight in difficult, hazardous, and hostile environments;

Enhanced relationships with U.S. law enforcement associations, organizations, and unions to increase participation of active-duty law enforcement personnel in CIVPOL missions overseas.

Deployment of U.S. police and law enforcement and criminal justice advisors can range from short-term assessments, training and advisory activities requiring only a few weeks; to long-term secondments of a year or more to operational missions in dangerous and volatile environments that include authority to carry weapons and perform the full range of law enforcement functions. To prepare for such operations, U.S. law enforcement personnel are given a standard course of training applicable to all deployments. Special equipment and materials, briefings, training and medical precautions needed to accommodate a particular operating environment are provided immediately prior to an actual deployment. Such equipment may include communications equipment, uniforms and other clothing, medical supplies and protective gear to meet conditions in the particular area of operation, and camping gear in the event lodging accommodations are not available. Regional or special accounts, line-item appropriations, or funds made available from supplemental budgets fund the long-term operational support needed to maintain U.S. police in actual operations. Program funding supports only limited law enforcement expertise and field activities.

The FY 2007 program sustains logistical capabilities to ensure a rapid and timely U.S. response and requests from the UN or other international organizations to contribute American police and/or advisors to address a special circumstance or participate in an international effort to assist a country emerging from a crisis situation. Key elements of this capacity are maintained by existing services contractors and include transporting U.S. personnel and equipment; pre-positioning field support items for rapid deployment; providing security, emergency medical support and evacuation services; providing operational transportation and communications capabilities; and administrative and logistical support in the field.

FY 2007 funds will also sustain outreach efforts to U.S. local, state, and federal law enforcement, agencies and professional associations for the purpose of attracting and encouraging more law enforcement interest and participation in international police missions. Oversight and management efforts will maintain capacities to assess, conceptualize, plan, prepare, implement, manage, and evaluate U.S. participation in complex security operations and international peacekeeping missions.

Program Accomplishments

INL manages three contractors to support program implementation, each with a database of 2,000 police, law enforcement advisors and justice experts to support requirements in eight countries; and funds a liaison position at the U.S. Mission to the UN in New York, a police training advisor and a senior police advisor.

INL implements programs that support international efforts to establish, train and equip the 6,350-member Kosovo Police Service; provide training to prosecutors and judges; provide technical expertise to assist in drafting criminal codes and related desk references; develop and support practical legal clinics for law students and organize professional organizations for prosecutors.

INL provides 500 International Police Liaison Officers (IPLOs) and 280 police trainers to support the Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq (MNSTC-I) and international efforts to re-establish, re-organize and train approximately 135,000 Iraqi police. INL also supports 65 prison advisors and 3 justice advisors to assist with reform and reconstruction efforts.

INL constructed and manages the Jordan International Police Training Center (JIPTC) being utilized to train Iraqi police. 3,500 students can be trained at one time in this facility and 15 countries participate in the training.

At the end of CY 2005 INL had provided basic, specialized and advanced training to almost 60,000 Afghan National Police in seven INL-constructed regional training centers and one central training center in Afghanistan. INL is also supporting seven justice sector advisors and, as of January 2006, seven corrections advisors.

INL provides the U.S. contribution of 50 U.S. police to the CIVPOL component of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, and provides training and technical assistance designed to enhance the Haitian government's efforts to re-establish Haitian National Police and criminal justice functions.

INL supports peacekeeping and justice reform in Liberia through the contribution of 37 U.S. police officers to the CIVPOL component of the United Nations Mission in Liberia, five justice sector advisors, funding for police academy development, the donation of non-lethal equipment for the Liberian National Police, and bilateral technical assistance for the courts, judiciary and prosecution services.

INL also supports one U.S. officer in Sudan deployed to the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS).

FY 2007 Program

Building on resources provided to support this program over the last four years, the FY 2007 budget sustains INL's capacity to identify, train, equip, pre-position, deploy and support law enforcement personnel who participate in an overseas mission for one year. Three companies provide the capabilities to support INL worldwide police, justice, and corrections programs as a result of full and open competition. The FY 2007 program will sustain standardized organizational structures, operating procedures, code of conduct, ethics standards, and systems needed to effectively manage this complex program. Through these efforts, U.S. police will have the opportunity to participate in specialized law enforcement training that is designed to meet U.S. Police Officer's Standards and Training (POST) in-service training requirements needed to keep their police credentials up to date. In addition, officers receive basic and advanced instruction that is unique to the organizational and operational challenges presented by international missions. The FY 2007 program sustains an INL training coordinator, a senior police advisor and a position established at the U.S. mission in New York responsible for working with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The FY 2007 program maintains personnel and resources dedicated to supporting INL capabilities to address peacekeeping and complex security matters and provide management and oversight of police, justice and prison programs.

Civilian Police Program

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Civilian Police Program

2,678

-

1,980

-

2,000

Total

2,678

-

1,980

-

2,000

 

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

9,920

9,900

1,900


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Select foreign countries will be able to apply "best practices" and new prevention and treatment technologies that are scientifically sound and effective at the national and community levels.

Training and technical assistance delivered and effectively utilized by public/private sector demand reduction organizations in Central/South America and Southeast Asia, resulting in new or enhanced programs that significantly reduce drug use and delay onset of first use in target populations.

Regional institutions that foster dissemination and utilization of "best practices" and scientific knowledge about effective prevention and treatment technologies will be established to better enable foreign countries to improve demand reduction services.

Technology transfer centers enhanced in Southeast Asia, and Latin America; delivery and implementation of core training curriculum; utilization of new prevention and treatment technologies will result in significant reductions of drug use in target populations.

The international community will be better educated about U.S. policies, programs, and successes in combating drug abuse.

Provision of one regional-level seminar in Latin America for U.S. embassy officials and key foreign government and NGO leaders resulting in increased understanding of, and support for, U.S. international anti-drug policies and programs.

Multilateral alliances will be established to build public support and political will to combat drug trafficking and abuse, develop support for U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and initiatives, and improve America's image overseas.

Training, technical assistance, web sites, newsletters, and knowledge exchange forums delivered and effectively utilized in Africa, Asia, and Latin American countries by public/private sector agencies, civil society, and grassroots organizations resulting in reduced drug use and delayed onset of first use.

International program accomplishments and lessons learned will be utilized to benefit both U.S. and foreign demand reduction services.

Four long-term, outcome-based evaluations of INL demand reduction training programs (Colombia, Vietnam, Thailand, Brazil) will be concluded and disseminated, documenting effective approaches and strategies as "best practices" that can be used to improve service delivery in demand reduction programs worldwide. 

Program Justification

Demand reduction efforts aim to reduce the use and abuse of illicit drugs worldwide. The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health, welfare, stability, security, and economy of all countries. Recognizing this threat, a key objective of the National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD # 25) on International Drug Control Policy urges the Secretary of State to "expand U.S. international demand reduction assistance and information sharing programs in key source and transit countries." At the same time, the role of demand reduction in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic has become more readily apparent as the recent worldwide increases in this epidemic are primarily concentrated among intravenous (IV) drug user populations, in addition to high-risk behavior associated with use of other non-narcotic drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants. The role of drug treatment in decreasing rates of drug use and relapse benefits U.S. foreign assistance efforts because any decrease in drug use among high-risk populations has the added benefit of decreasing the spread of HIV/AIDS.

In addition, the President's National Strategy for Combating Terrorism directs us to "work with moderate and modern governments in the Muslim world to reverse the spread of extremist ideology and those who seek to impose totalitarian ideologies on our Muslim allies and friends." Collaboration in Afghanistan and Asia with our network of 400 Muslim-based, anti-drug programs enables us to provide alternatives to radical schools that recruit young terrorists and to reduce drug consumption that fuels the coffers of terrorist groups. This network has provided us with rare access to mosques and madrassahs in volatile regions thereby enabling us to establish a prevention component to the "War on Terror." Demand reduction assistance has subsequently evolved as a key foreign policy tool to address the inter-connected threats of drugs, crime and terrorism.

Finally, foreign countries recognize the vast U.S. experience and efforts in reducing drug demand. As part of their cooperation with supply reduction efforts, many drug producing and transit countries request U.S. assistance with demand reduction technology, since drug consumption also has debilitating effects on their society and children. Demand reduction assistance thereby helps secure foreign country support for U.S.-driven supply reduction efforts, while at the same time reducing drug consumption in that country and thereby cutting-off a potential source of terrorist financing.

Program Accomplishments

As a result of INL assistance, the first national-level, drug-free community coalition outside the United States was established in Peru. INL-funded assistance has provided new updated curricula to 24 existing Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) programs around the globe. This retraining initiative allows the new D.A.R.E. curricula to reach over 3 million children and their parents. INL-funded regional demand reduction symposiums in Malaysia and Afghanistan resulted in the commitment of over 500 Afghanistan mullahs to cooperate with the United States on providing mosque-based, drug prevention and intervention services, in addition to a major Fatwa against drug production, trafficking and abuse in Afghanistan. This assistance also resulted in the establishment of mosque-based aftercare and outreach centers in 25 Afghan provinces, 12 drug prevention centers in Indonesian religious schools, and a total of six outreach centers each in Pakistan, Malaysia, and the southern Philippines.

An outcome-based evaluation of the long-range impact of INL-funded training for over 200 treatment programs in Peru revealed that the training reduced overall hard-core drug use from 90 percent to 34 percent among clients in the participating treatment programs. Similar significant reductions were reported for cocaine use (30 percent to 8 percent), cannabis use (37 percent to 13 percent), and coca paste use (62 percent to 22 percent). An outcome-based evaluation of INL-funded, school-based drug prevention training in Colombia revealed drug use declined from 54 percent to 10 percent in eight target cities. Finally, a leading science-based journal on drug addiction documented the overall effectiveness of the INL demand reduction program, devoting its entire November 2005 edition to "best practices" in drug abuse treatment that resulted from INL assistance to Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe.

FY 2007 Program

INL assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, address the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and drug-related HIV/AIDS epidemics in Southeast Asia and Africa, and address the heroin threat from Asia, Afghanistan and Colombia. A continued area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network.

The FY 2007 program is divided into three general categories. A coalition and network building program which has a three-year time limit per country. The research and demonstration programs initiative that began in 2000 has a three/four-year time limit in order to allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect "best practices" that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The training and technical assistance program, begun in 1990, imposes a four-year limit on all countries for receiving such assistance. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome).

Coalition and Network Building

Drug-Free Community Coalitions: Funding will support the enhancement of effective drug-free community coalition programs in Colombia and El Salvador that assist civil society/grassroots organizations in fighting illegal drugs. These public/private sector coalitions work towards reducing substance abuse among youth, enhancing intergovernmental collaboration, and strengthening collaboration among organizations and agencies in both the private and public sectors. Funds will provide for four technical assistance sessions each in the two target countries. The planned life of this initiative is three years, after which the coalitions will be effective vehicles for reducing drug consumption and related violence in their respective countries. A new cycle of assistance for other Latin American countries and regions around the globe will commence in 2008.

Muslim-based Anti-Drug Network: Funding will be utilized to support existing anti-drug outreach and aftercare centers in volatile Muslim regions where the U.S. needs to increase access to civil society such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Indonesia. These centers were established in mosques and madrassahs in collaboration with the INL/Colombo Plan network of Muslim-based anti-drug programs/civil society organizations in the Middle East and South/Southeast Asia, which includes the participation of 500 Afghan mullahs. This initiative will also benefit efforts to reduce drug consumption whose proceeds are a potential source of terrorist financing, cut into the recruitment base of terrorist organizations, enhance America's image in Muslim countries, and provide youth in at-risk areas with alternatives to radical or terrorist indoctrination centers. It addresses a key priority in the President's National Strategy for Combating Terrorism that directs us to "work with moderate and modern governments in the Muslim world to reverse the spread of extremist ideology and those who seek to impose totalitarian ideologies on our Muslim allies and friends." Funding will cease after three years, at which time the centers are expected to be firmly established in volatile regions, helping to reduce the high rates of drug use, relapse, and drug-related violence in their target populations.

Research and Demonstration Programs

Model Program Development and Dissemination: This initiative will support existing research-based prevention and treatment programs whose accomplishments can be used to improve treatment and prevention services in the U.S. and abroad. For FY 2007, continued funding will be provided for a community-based treatment intervention program for drug-abusing, high-risk youth in Peru. This later program includes co-funding from Italy and Luxembourg. It is anticipated that this demonstration program will require funding through 2007, at which time the program will be self-sufficient and information on the program's promising practices will be disseminated worldwide.

Training and Technical Assistance

Regional Training Centers: INL funding will provide support for its strategically located, sub-regional demand reduction training centers in Brazil (Southern Cone region), Colombia (Andean region) and Thailand (Southeast Asia) with the aim of better disseminating the President's new goals and priorities for demand reduction, in addition to the use of "best practices" and science-based prevention and treatment methods to reduce drug consumption and related violence. Success will be measured by reductions in overall drug use, including high-risk behavior (e.g., intravenous drug use) that contributes to HIV/AIDS. These centers (co-funded by other international organizations and donor countries) are an economical way to provide comprehensive assistance to several countries in a region that suffer and share similar drug abuse problems.

Drug Policy Training: At the policy level, INL will devote funding for the final year of a three-year seminar series to educate the international community about U.S. policies, programs and successes in combating drug use. One regional seminar in major drug producing/trafficking Latin American country will be conducted by INL for U.S. embassy officials and government/non-government officials who are recipients of INL/NAS funding. The seminars are also designed to ensure that U.S. Embassies and other foreign recipients of INL assistance design their programs in accordance with the President's goals and priorities for demand reduction and science-based principles. The planned life cycle of this seminar series is three years, at the end of which participating countries will have a deeper appreciation/understanding of, and support for, U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and programs. The seminars orient host country officials and INL/NAS personnel to U.S. demand reduction policies and goals (i.e. evidence-based approach to demand reduction, rejection of heroin distribution programs, etc.) and the U.S. commitment to dealing with the drug threat by reducing domestic demand. Follow-up seminars provide more targeted technical assistance for host countries that request help in designing their programs according to Administration priorities (i.e., .formation and enhancement of effective drug-free community coalition programs in key drug producing countries).

Knowledge Exchange Forums: Funding will be devoted to recurring regional drug prevention and treatment conferences (attended by the key leaders and decision-makers from the public and private sectors) to mobilize international opinion and cooperation against the drug trade, encourage governments to develop and implement strong anti-drug policies and programs, strengthen support for USG anti-drug policies/programs and existing UN conventions, and disseminate the latest science-based information on effective methods to reduce drug consumption and prevent onset of use. Funding will support two regional forums (Asia, Africa). These events will include funding from other donor countries and international organizations to reflect an emphasis on increased multilateral collaboration.

Bilateral Training: FY 2007 funds will provide targeted training and technical assistance for major drug producing and transit countries in Central/South America, Asia, Eastern Europe, Russia, and Africa on science-based demand reduction methods to reduce drug use and related violence. Training will specifically target methamphetamine abuse and intravenous drug use that leads to increased prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Additional training topics will include family support groups, relapse prevention/aftercare methods, school and peer-based prevention programs, and community and correctional-based treatment services. Bilateral training and technical assistance initiatives are funded for four years per country to allow for short-term transfer and long-term retention of knowledge, implementation of training concepts and technology with fidelity, establishment of self-sustained programs, and sufficient time to allow for achievement of long-range outcomes such as reduction in drug use in a given target country or population. 

Demand Reduction

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Coalitions and Networks

2,000

-

2,000

500

Research & Demonstration Programs

1,500

-

1,500

200

Training & Technical Assistance

6,420

-

6,400

1,200

Total

9,920

-

9,900

-

1,900

International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEA)

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

12,734

15,840

17,000


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

National law enforcement capabilities will be strengthened and stronger linkages between U.S. law enforcement entities, foreign law enforcement authorities, and future criminal justice leaders will be established through training at the five International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs): Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador and Roswell. This will result in greater cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement authorities and more successful investigation and prosecution of more important cases abroad.

ILEA curriculum will encourage graduates to interact with other alumni regionally and internationally to address law enforcement issues.

ILEA graduates will adopt methods and technologies learned at the academies to conduct successful criminal investigations.

ILEA alumni will be actively engaged in training others, either at their national academies or on-the-job.

Specific areas of growing international criminal activity will continue to be addressed by presenting training on counterterrorism, trafficking in persons, intellectual property rights and cyber crimes to combat these trends.

Modified Core curriculum designed to counter international criminal trends - with no fewer than 40 hours of training on counterterrorism, financial crimes, gang proliferation, trafficking in persons, and related topics - will be implemented in FY 2006.

Thirteen high-level specialized courses will be introduced to address the same international criminal trends as the core curriculum at the regional academies.

The total number of students' trained at all five academies will be approximately 3,000.

Areas for future expansion of the ILEA program to cover regions that are not currently addressed such as Southeast Asia/Middle East will continue to be explored.

Program Justification

ILEAs help advance U.S. interests through international cooperation while promoting social, political, and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEAs provide high-quality training and technical assistance, support institution building and enforcement capability, and foster relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts in the regions they serve. The ILEAs encourage strong partnerships among regional countries to address common problems associated with criminal activity. The ILEAs also develop an extensive network of alumni - who will become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective countries - to exchange information with their U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations.

The Department of State works with the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Treasury, and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA program. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs: the Core program, specialized training courses, and regional seminars, all targeted at mid-level officials in the police and criminal justice services of strategic countries throughout the world. State's primary roles are to provide foreign policy guidance to the ILEA Directors, ensure availability of adequate funding to support ILEA operations, and provide oversight that will ensure that U.S. foreign policy objectives are achieved.

The ILEAs will continue to be a dynamic training program, providing relevant, timely, and quality training against the backdrop of diverse and often shifting regional economic, social and political environments and in anticipation of and response to constantly changing international crime-related challenges such as terrorism, financial crimes, organized crime, corruption, illegal narcotics and trafficking in persons.

Program Accomplishments

INL has established ILEAs in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, El Salvador and New Mexico. To date, these ILEAs have trained over 18,000 officials from over 75 countries.

The ILEA in Budapest, Hungary, opened in 1995 and has trained over 10,172 officials from Central, Southern European countries as well as Russia and the former Soviet Union. ILEA Bangkok in Thailand opened in 1999 and has trained over 4,298 officials from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ILEA Gaborone in Botswana opened in 2001 and has since trained over 1,932 officials from the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and other Sub-Saharan countries. INL opened a graduate style ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico in 2001 and has trained over 1,692 international criminal justice officials who had graduated from the regional academies.

At the Organization of American States (OAS) General Assembly meeting in June 2005, Secretary Rice announced that the new ILEA for Latin America would be located in El Salvador. A Bilateral Agreement between El Salvador and the USG establishing the new ILEA was signed in September 2005 and was ratified by the Salvadoran National Assembly in November, 2005. The training program for the new ILEA in San Salvador will be similar to the ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest and Gaborone and will offer a six-week Law Enforcement Management Development Program (LEMDP) for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. In FY 2006 ILEA San Salvador will deliver one LEMDP session and about 10 Specialized courses that will concentrate on attacking international terrorism, illegal trafficking in drugs, gang proliferation, financial crimes, intellectual property theft and accountability in government.

FY 2007 Program

INL will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell and San Salvador. INL will also continue to encourage ILEA alumni to be actively engaged in training other instructors and mentors in methods and technologies learned at the academies, either at their national academies or on-the-job. This in turn will open and strengthen lines of communications to conduct joint investigations, and to share information with US counterparts.

INL will continue the development of the new ILEA in El Salvador. ILEA San Salvador is expected to deliver its full training program in FY 2007. Similar to the other regional ILEAs' curricula, the ILEA will offer a mid-level management core program for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. The training program will concentrate on attacking the most salient crime threats in the region, including drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, gang proliferation, money laundering, terrorist financing, and financial crimes and accountability in government, as well as enhancing the ability of law enforcement to anticipate and respond to terrorist threats. These courses will be designed to conform to regional nuances of these criminal activities as identified by ILEA needs assessment mechanisms.

INL will continue taking steps to establish an ILEA Regional Training Center to be located in Peru, to augment the delivery of region-specific training for Latin America. This center will concentrate on specialized courses on critical topics for countries in the Southern Cone and Andean Regions. 

International Law Enforcement Academy

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Bangkok, Thailand

2,795

2,800

2,900

Budapest, Hungary

709

-

1,640

1,750

Gaborone, Botswana

3,755

-

4,000

4,100

Roswell, New Mexico

5,000

-

5,500

5,500

Latin America

475

-

1,900

2,750

Total

12,734

-

15,840

-

17,000

International Organizations

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

5,496 [1]

3,960

5,400


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The international organizations account supports counternarcotics and anti-crime efforts of three international organizations: the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the International Narcotics Control Board, and the Organization of American States' Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). Through these multilateral programs, U.S. support not only complements our bilateral programs, but also generates increased buy-in and support from other countries for our overall anti-narcotics and anti-crime efforts. In addition, these organizations assist the USG in aligning our strategic goals with that of the global community.

UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Drug and Crime Program

Mobilize resources from a wide range of USG to enable the UN Office on Drugs and Crime to develop and implement counternarcotics and crime-control projects in countries where ongoing criminal activities, the production and transit of illicit narcotics, and illegally-diverted precursor chemicals threaten U.S. interests. These projects' aims include:

Promoting the implementation of the 1988 UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances;

Promoting the implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its supplementary protocols;

Preventing and combating money laundering and terrorist financing;

Assisting states with ratification and implementation of the universal legal instruments against terrorism through the provision of legal technical assistance;

Enhancing precursor chemical controls used in the production of heroin and amphetamine type stimulants, including methamphetamine;

Strengthening UNODC's ability to effectively and efficiently implement its programs.

Enhance law enforcement investigative capabilities through training and the provision of modern equipment, thereby disrupting the activities of criminal and drug trafficking syndicates, increasing the number of arrests and seizures, and enhancing the capabilities of law enforcement agencies to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals:

Support states in passing or strengthening legislation to prohibit and penalize illicit drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorist financing, and other ancillary crimes; and to improve mutual legal assistance, extradition, and asset forfeiture cooperation, in compliance with UN drug-control treaties;

Provide technical advice to states on how to improve mutual legal assistance, extradition and asset forfeiture cooperation; upgrade national legislation regarding all aspects of narcotics control in line with international best practices and the UN drug control treaties; develop financial intelligence units and train financial institutions to prevent money laundering and related financial crimes through placement of international experts to select high-risk countries; coordinate with other international bodies in the delivery of this assistance;

Assist in the development of legal frameworks for chemical diversion control as required by the international drug control conventions, and train and equip appropriate personnel, particularly in South and East Asia, in order to implement chemical control regimes.

Inhibit international organized crime and its impact on society and individuals through the increased implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and its supplemental protocols against human trafficking and migrant smuggling:

Strengthen the legal framework and law enforcement capacity to prevent, investigate, prosecute and adjudicate organized crime; in-country expert mentors will continue to work in select high-risk countries including Guatemala, Peru and Ghana in order to aid in implementing the TOC's component previsions, including assistance in modern investigative and analytical practices for law enforcement practitioners, extradition requests, the provision of mutual legal assistance, and witness protection.

Increase UN member states' abilities to combat and prevent terrorism through utilizing criminal justice measures and international cooperation, particularly through the adoption of the universal legal instruments against terrorism:

UNODC's Terrorism Prevention Branch will provide technical assistance to additional states to: ratify and implement all of the universal legal instruments against terrorism; fully integrate the provisions of the instruments into national law; and train criminal justice officials on the application of the new national anti-terrorism legislative provisions.

Ensure efficient UNODC program implementation by strengthening the Independent Evaluation function of UNODC:

Plan and coordinate UNODC's program and project evaluation activities; provide impartial, independent assessments on the efficiency and effectiveness of UNODC programs as well as administration and management systems for distribution to UNODC senior management and donor states, including the United States.

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (OAS/CICAD)

Improve counternarcotics capacity and performance by countries in the Western Hemisphere (Organization of American States Members):

CICAD is the principal international organization providing drug-related technical assistance and training in the Americas. The Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) - a peer review system created as part of the Summit of the Americas process - identifies gaps or weaknesses in the antidrug efforts of the OAS Member States. The MEM permits the OAS to measure progress being made by individual countries and by the Hemisphere as a whole. Performance is evaluated in: 1) national coordination efforts (drug commissions, policies and strategies), 2) legislative frameworks, 3) education/ prevention/demand reduction, and 4) supply reduction (anti-smuggling, chemical control, money laundering control). This assists CICAD in prioritizing its assistance and training resources.

Measure: Through its follow-up procedures, the MEM tracks progress in compliance with recommendations; increases or decreases in reiterated recommendations indicates whether progress is being made towards meeting international commitments and reaching long-term goals.

Increase counternarcotics cooperation within the Western Hemisphere:

Drug trafficking and organized crime are transnational threats requiring close cooperation and information sharing among neighboring states. CICAD promotes active and practical cooperation among the countries of the Western Hemisphere against drug production, trafficking (cross-border and maritime smuggling), money laundering (including terrorist financing), arms trafficking, chemical diversion, and youth gangs. To ensure that Member States are equipped with appropriate modern legal tools to confront drug-related crime and to share common legal definitions and standards to be able to work effectively together, CICAD has produced and periodically updates hemispheric model regulations.

Measure: Increase in number of countries participating in regional cooperation mechanisms, conventions, and programs. In FY 2007, CICAD should have produced new regulations on special investigative techniques for combating organized crime.

Makes progress in the inter-American region to curb money laundering, terrorist financing, and chemical diversion.

CICAD has updated its model legislation on money laundering and chemical control, and will move forward in FY 2006 and 2007 to promote their adoption hemisphere. INCLE funds will be used to provide training and technical support to governments, legislators, regulators and judicial authorities.

Measure: Increase in number of countries with updated legislation/regulations. Decrease in number of countries designated by FATF as non-cooperating jurisdictions (NCCT) within the region.

Program Justification

UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Drug and Crime Program

Located in Vienna, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is the major multilateral organization providing assistance to combat drugs and crime. It enhances countries' bilateral programs worldwide and also implements projects that are politically infeasible on a bilateral basis. U.S. support to UNODC complements INL bilateral programs and leverages U.S. funds by promoting increased buy-in and support from a broader array of donor countries. UNODC is the only multilateral institution providing technical assistance on a global basis for the development of modern law enforcement, financial regulatory and judicial institutions and practices. It has a unique role to assist states in ratifying and implementing international conventions including the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC), the UN Convention against Corruption (CAC), the three UN anti-drug conventions as well as the universal instruments against terrorism. It is also the only multilateral organization that maintains the global reach and credibility necessary to deliver technical assistance in relation to these aforementioned instruments. The United States will remain a strong advocate of these important international documents in bilateral dialogues and offer direct USG assistance to promote implementation where appropriate. The organization is a steadfast ally in support of strict enforcement efforts against illicit drugs, organized crime, and terrorism, as required under international law.

OAS/CICAD

The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), the drug control arm of the Organization of American States (OAS), is the premier counterdrug forum for the Western Hemisphere. It is also one of the most effective entities within the OAS. CICAD combines a policy-level Commission that meets twice a year with a technical Executive Secretariat that supports the Commission and conducts programs and training throughout the year. CICAD's technical sub-groups facilitate valuable exchanges of information and experience among national experts on topics ranging from money laundering to drug abuse treatment and prevention and lay the basis for action plans. The Secretariat provides a central resource and coordination point for hemispheric statistics and information, training and technical support, legal standards, national experiences and research. The Secretariat, using funds from INL and other donors, provide a wide array of technical assistance to Member States, some on an individual basis (e.g., national drug strategies) but most often in sub-regional groupings (e.g., Central America, the English-speaking Caribbean, the Andes).

Much of CICAD's success has been due to sustained U.S. foreign policy efforts to promote a strong anti-drug coalition and sense of shared responsibility among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. Active participation by the U.S. interagency community in specialized CICAD activities has been critical to achieving high standards of performance as well as keeping CICAD's efforts relevant to U.S. counterdrug agencies. CICAD has been instrumental in developing hemispheric solidarity on the drug issue and to putting an end to finger pointing between "supplier" and "consumer" nations. Hemispheric efforts are guided by the Summit of the Americas-mandated "Anti-Drug Strategy in the Americas." Through CICAD efforts, all OAS Member States are now party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention. As documented in the MEM process, CICAD has been successful in moving the 34 OAS Member States forward in developing strong national anti-drug programs, policies, and laws.

Funding will be used for CICAD projects, training and technical assistance that advance the goals of the hemispheric drug strategy, including: development of sound national anti-drug policies and programs, promulgation of modern laws and regulations, elimination of drug production and drug abuse, and control of chemical diversion, arms trafficking, and money laundering. CICAD programs complement INL's bilateral programs and fill gaps in multinational support efforts (e.g., on alternative development projects in the Andes). INL has encouraged close collaboration between CICAD technical staff and U.S. Embassy program managers.

While the OAS has become more engaged in counterterrorism and other security-related matters since 2001, drug trafficking remains a major preoccupation for all 34 OAS Member States. Because of its recognized expertise in areas such as money laundering and arms trafficking control, CICAD has emerged as an important player in the hemispheric response to terrorism, partnering with the OAS' Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE) to confront terrorist financing. Under the OAS reorganization that began in 2005-2006, CICAD and CICTE became the two major action arms of a newly-established "Department of Multidimensional Security."

Program Accomplishments

UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Drug and Crime Program

Funding from INL supports a wide range of UNODC technical assistance and legal reform projects.

INL has supported UNODC's efforts to ratify and implement the three UN drug control conventions and their requisite obligations, including through relevant judicial and legislative reforms and direct on-site operational support to prosecution and judicial services in ongoing prosecution and asset forfeiture casework. For example, in 2005, UNODC provided legal advice and assistance in drafting legislation to 20 countries on drug control, anti-money laundering, and anti-corruption issues. It organized training and casework problem-solving workshops for judges, magistrates, prosecutors and law enforcement in 14 countries that are in need of assistance relating to extradition requests, mutual legal assistance and confiscation casework. In Latin America, through increasing coordination with other bilateral donors (including the United States), UNODC held mock trials on money laundering, provided tools for mutual legal assistance requests and case flow management for prosecution services, and conducted anti-money laundering computer based training. It also trained prosecutors from 13 Pacific Island countries on mutual assistance and extradition requests.

Since September of 2003, UNODC has performed a crucial role in promoting the ratification and implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and its supplementary protocols to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling. In 2005, technical assistance mentors in Peru, Guatemala and Ghana: conducted law enforcement assessments, reviewed applicable legislation and developed legislative implementation guides to ensure compliance with the TOC, provided technical assistance to specialized investigators working in the area of organized crime, and organized legislative training and roundtable events for policymakers and other relevant government officials.

In 2005, the Terrorism Prevention Branch continued to provide assistance to requesting countries for the ratification and implementation of the universal instruments against terrorism. It provided legislative assistance to 59 countries, and conducted 16 regional and subregional workshops, reaching 87 countries. In 2005, the number of countries that ratified all of these instruments increased from 43 to 75.

UNODC implemented chemical control projects in South and East Asia, major drug transit regions for precursor chemicals intended for illicit drug production. INL supported the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)'s Database for Precursor Chemical Control, which plays a vital role in INCB's three programs that focus on precursor chemicals. In 2005, Project Prism, which targets precursors used in the illicit manufacture of the amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), developed an on-line system for pre-export notifications. Operation Purple gathered and analyzed information from 30 exporting authorities on 3,995 shipments in international trade that involved over 125,000 ton of potassium permanganate (a key chemical used in the illicit manufacture of cocaine), in addition to stopping 172 shipments involving 12,565 tons of the chemical. Operation Topaz, which targets a major heroin precursor, gathered and analyzed 7,500 shipments from 22 exporting authorities involving over 1,315,000 tons of acetic anhydride

UNODC's Global Program Against Money Laundering (UNGPML) places mentors in countries and regional centers across the globe that help draft modern anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist finance legislation, train prosecutors and financial investigators, and develop financial intelligence units. In total, the UNGPML provided technical assistance on combating money laundering and terrorist financing to more than 50 countries and jurisdictions throughout the world in 2005. Additionally, its interactive computer-based anti-money laundering program is universally acclaimed and has been translated into Spanish (by the OAS), and French, is being translated into Russian and Chinese. No other multilateral organization cooperates more with the international funding institutions or entities such as the Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units.

INL funding supported a new UNODC project, the Independent Evaluation Unit (IEU). The IEU has already produced its first report, which provided recommendations for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of certain UNODC projects.

OAS/CICAD

CICAD's work has been highlighted in the Summit of the Americas process, where Heads of State have entrusted CICAD to develop and implement the Anti-Drug Strategy of the Americas and the MEM. The 2005 Summit in Argentina encouraged CICAD to expand its work in building analytical capacity in the hemisphere, notably to expand work done in estimating social and economic costs of the drug problem. MEM provides each country with an objective diagnostic of the weaknesses in its anti-drug strategies, programs and laws, and identifies ways in which the countries can improve regional and international cooperation. These assessments validate individual country requirements for technical and material support, allowing INL and other international donors to better prioritize assistance. The MEM system also keeps pressure on individual governments by reporting publicly on progress in addressing problems.

FY 2007 Program

INL funding to UNODC programs in FY 2007 will be programmed for the following initiatives:

UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Drug and Crime Program

Global Legal Advisory Program: This program promotes the adoption and implementation of the three UN drug control conventions, assisting countries in developing and implementing adequate laws to meet the requirements of the instruments. Specifically, INL funds will be used to establish drug control legal frameworks in countries recently emerging from conflict. Priorities include: improving mutual legal assistance, extradition and asset forfeiture cooperation; and upgrading model legislation.

Precursor Chemical Control: Funds will be used to continue support for several UNODC regional projects, including those in Central, South and East Asia, which track the flow of precursor chemicals used to manufacture cocaine, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, including methamphetamine. These projects aim to train law enforcement officials in order to strengthen the capacity of countries to prevent domestic and regional diversion and trafficking of precursor chemicals. UNODC will work to enhance regional cooperation to further this end. In addition, INL resources will also be provided to support the International Narcotics Control Board's global database of precursor chemical shipments and legitimate industrial needs.

Implementation of the TOC: This project utilizes the expertise of in-country, expert mentors in order to provide assistance in the implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and its supplementary protocols. Funds will be used to expand and deepen the activities of resident mentors in Peru, Guatemala and Ghana, and will likely fund the activities of a planned additional resident mentor in Vietnam. Mentors provide extensive training to law enforcement and judicial officials on the criminalization and investigatory standards inscribed in the Convention, as well as its mutual legal assistance provisions.

Global Program Against Money Laundering (GPML): INL will continue to support UNODC's continuing global efforts to enhance effective legal and regulatory regimes against money laundering and terrorist financing. These funds will be used to support the placement of resident mentors in selected countries to assist in bringing their money laundering and counter-terrorist finance laws and regulations up to international financial standards, develop and strengthen financial intelligence units (FIUs), and train law enforcement, prosecutors, regulators, investigators, and financial regulators in the implementation of the legislation. The GPML will also continue to expand its universally acclaimed interactive anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing computer program that has been translated into numerous languages.

Ratification and Implementation of Universal Legal Instruments Against Terrorism: UNODC's Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) developed a global project entitled, "Strengthening the Legal Regime against Terrorism," which provides the overall framework for delivering technical assistance with global, sub-regional and country-specific components and activities. Funds will be used to continue support to this aforementioned project. In addition to assisting states in ratifying all of these instruments, the focus of TPB will shift to legislative implementation assistance and the need to integrate the provisions of the instruments into national legislation. TPB will also initiate assistance to countries to update their existing legislation.

Independent Evaluation Unit: This independent assessment unit provides reporting and analysis on the efficiency and effectiveness of UNODC program implementation to UNODC senior management, as well as the donor states, including the United States. Funding support will enable the Unit to carry out such activities and assessments.

OAS/CICAD

In FY 2007, sustained funding to CICAD is needed to continue to support the implementation of the hemispheric drug strategy, including the operation of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM). Much of the funding will be devoted to providing technical support and training to address shortcomings in country anti-drug programs identified by the MEM. It will also support expansion of CICAD's practical and useful demand-side, supply-side and legal development programs. INL funding will be used to support programs in the following priority areas:

Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM): A peer review system that provides governments with recommendations on how to strengthen their anti-drug efforts - staff, travel, and processing costs - follow-on training and technical support to OAS Member States. In 2006, an inter-governmental group will examine ways to make the MEM even more effective and to reduce costs of the mechanism to permit more funding to be directed towards implementing recommendations.

Strengthening national drug control commissions: Assists governments in developing anti-drug strategies, national coordinating bodies, national analytical centers and systems; establishes data banks and tracking systems for chemical precursors.

Legal development: Includes updating regional model legislation (firearms, money laundering, chemicals), orientation for legislators and judges; communications systems to facilitate regional exchange of information and cooperation; and programs relating to the control of money laundering, chemical diversion, and arms trafficking; training for regulators (bank, chemical, weapons) and investigators

Supply Reduction Efforts: Intensify/expand work in promoting maritime and port security, customs controls, and cooperation/communication among law enforcement entities throughout the Americas through training, technical assistance, best practices guidelines, building public-private partnerships. Assist governments in complying with the requirements of the best practices in the International Maritime Organization's International Port Security System (IPSS). Continue ongoing alternative development projects, including exploration of new technologies for use in supporting national supply reduction and alternative development efforts.

Demand reduction and youth programs: Assist Member States build effective national drug awareness/education programs, conduct epidemiological surveillance (according to hemispheric standards), train nurses and other health professionals in drug treatment, and support development of an English-language version of the on-line Masters Program in drug abuse prevention. Includes regional demand reduction training, adoption of minimum standards of drug treatment, and policy and program development for at-risk populations, e.g. street children and youth gang members.

Maintenance of a hemispheric data collection system: Continued support for CICAD's Hemispheric Observatory on Drugs, the hemispheric statistical systems (demand and supply side) in order to maintain a centralized, dependable source of statistics to track progress in hemispheric anti-drug programs. The unit has developed and is training governments in a standardized approach to estimating social and economic costs of the drug problem to assist decision makers in determining budget priorities and to better inform the public, legislatures and media about the impact of drugs on a society and its economy. 

International Organizations

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005 *

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

UNODC

3,996

-

2,960

-

4,000

OAS/CICAD

1,500

-

1,000

-

1,400

Total

5,496

-

3,960

-

5,400

* This figure includes $496,000 reported under the UN Crime Center budget line item.

Interregional Aviation Support

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

66,620

62,865

65,500


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Interregional Aviation Support budget provides coordinated core level services necessary to operate the Department's current fleet of 189 fixed and rotary wing aircraft supporting counternarcotics aviation activities worldwide. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. Centrally administrated oversight includes: setting and implementing uniform safety and training standards consistent with aviation industry practices; uniform operational procedures, logistics support, fleet level maintenance administration, including the Critical Flight Safety Program, and administrating the aviation support contract. INL air assets are deployed as directed by administration policy with current deployments to Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Afghanistan, and for border security operations in Pakistan. The air assets are also available, as needed, to other temporary deployment locations. This budget is augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local NAS and cooperating host government missions.

The Government of Colombia (with INL aviation services support and assistance) will conduct an aggressive aerial eradication program to reduce coca and opium poppy cultivation in Colombia to minimum levels.

With GOC concurrence, areas of coca and opium poppy cultivation in Colombia will be aerially sprayed with herbicide, and cocaine and heroin production will be reduced as a result of this eradication.

Successful missions will be conducted against narco-terrorists and their infrastructure.

The Governments of Peru and Bolivia (with INL provided air transportation support to move people and materials) will expand manual eradication efforts in outlying areas of their respective countries.

In Bolivia, coca cultivation will be reduced and new plantings will be prevented in the Chapare region (subject to the cooperation of the host government).

In Peru, coca cultivation will be reduced as evidenced by the eradication/ abandonment of the remaining coca fields (subject to the cooperation of the host government). Opium poppy field surveillance will be increased.

INL will support missions to transport host government law enforcement or counternarcotics military personnel by air in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, and other countries for the purpose of destroying cocaine and heroin processing laboratories and interdicting drug trafficking activities to the extent possible using current assets.

The number of interdiction and eradication missions flown in Peru will increase in 2006. The eradication goal will increase from 8,000 to 10,000 hectares. The UH-1 helicopter fleet will be increased and upgraded to 24 UH-2s (Huey-II). Aerial reconnaissance missions will be conducted to locate drug crops, production facilities, and verify eradication program results.

Drug production areas and facilities will be successfully identified and mapped year-round in Colombia and on an as-needed basis in other countries.

Border security reconnaissance and interdiction operations in Pakistan will be effective against trafficking of narcotics and weapons, illegal border crossings, and terrorism.

Operations, training, and logistical support provided to the Pakistani border security aviation program will result in more frequent and more effective surveillance and interdiction missions.

The aerial eradication and interdiction programs will be performed to the highest standards of safety and efficiency with due regard for increased security risks.

Technological innovations will be developed and implemented to improve the effectiveness and safety of aerial eradication and interdiction efforts.

Afghanistan illicit poppy cultivation increased 239 percent in the last year. The numbers are daunting. In 2003 the poppy crop measured 61,000 hectares, and in 2004 the crop totaled 206,700 hectares. Afghanistan now tops the world in opium production. The Administration has proposed to provide aerial support to Afghan manual eradication and interdiction efforts in FY 2006, which likely would continue in FY 2007.

Program Justification

The INL aviation program is the backbone of our counternarcotics objectives in the key source countries of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. INL assists these governments and others to locate and eradicate drug crops, interdict drug production and trafficking activities, protect borders, and develop internal institutional counternarcotics aviation capabilities. FY 2007 funding will provide for continuation of core activities with the existing fleet. Potential losses and upgrades of aircraft are not included.

The aviation program provides eradication, mobility, interdiction, and logistical support that augment and facilitate ground operations and in many cases perform functions that would not be possible by any other means. In Colombia, the program conducts aerial eradication in hostile, remote and increasingly scattered regions. In Peru and Bolivia, the program supports transportation for manual eradication. Airplanes and helicopters transport law enforcement personnel, critical supplies, and equipment to remote, underdeveloped, and unsecured regions that would otherwise be inaccessible, as well as provide medical evacuation capability for eradicators and law enforcement personnel when needed. Air reconnaissance assets are essential in locating, identifying, and targeting drug activities and verifying operational results.

In all assisted countries, the assets are also employed for interdiction efforts. In Colombia they are also used to conduct operations against narco-terrorists under expanded authorities. In Pakistan, the assets are used for the monitoring and interception of terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas.

By working closely with host government personnel to instill aviation technical and management skills and technology transfer, INL supports the operational goal of enhancing political determination to combat illegal drug production and trafficking. This builds long-lasting institutions that have the trained personnel and demonstrated abilities to assume increased responsibility for counternarcotics air activities.

Program Accomplishments

In 2005, INL-owned aircraft flew 52,493 flight hours; airplanes flew 12,441 and helicopters flew 40,052 flight hours. This is about 1,000 flight hours per week.

Colombia - Eradication

The Interregional Aviation Support program has made possible the expansion of aerial eradication in Colombia that, along with alternative development, is the backbone of that country's counternarcotics strategy. INL and the Colombian National Police (CNP) have collaborated in the mounting of an effective campaign using T-65 Thrush, OV-10D Bronco, and AT-802 Air Tractor spray planes to eradicate coca and opium poppy cultivation. In 2005, over 138,500 hectares of coca were sprayed - another record setting year. From 2001 to 2005, we have sprayed over 600,000 hectares of coca that would have produced 4.8 metric tons of cocaine. INL has assisted the CNP with training, maintenance, logistics, and operational support to make this effort possible. The program also provided logistical and operational support in the form of C-27 cargo airplanes and a Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS) mounted on a Cessna C-208 Caravan for identification and mapping of coca. In 2005, INL Air Wing aircraft supporting the aerial eradication and Colombian Army (COLAR) helicopter program sustained 332 hits from hostile ground fire - down from 383 hits in 2003 - but which still caused the loss of several aircraft and downtime due to extensive maintenance repairs.

Colombia - COLAR

Besides supporting Colombian National Police aerial eradication activities, the Interregional Aviation Support program initiated and helps sustain the Colombian Army (COLAR) Aviation Brigade that provides rotary wing air mobility to the Counter Narcotics Brigade (CD Bde). Most of the aviation support and maintenance for the Colombian Army Aviation Program, also known as the "Plan Colombia Helicopter Program" (PCHP), is part of a contract administered by the INL Air Wing. DynCorp provides pilots, maintenance technicians, trainers, and logistics support to the PCHP, since the Government of Colombia is not able to provide all the resources necessary to support these operations. The current PCHP helicopter fleet consists of 31 Huey-II helicopters, 26 UH-1N helicopters, 15 UH-60L "Blackhawk" helicopters, and 5 K-Max helicopters. The desired end-state of this effort, a fully trained COLAR aviation unit capable of conducting air mobile operations, is yielding results in terms of interdiction and ground support to aerial eradication. That unit has flown over 62,449 hours since its inception. PCHP assets have been instrumental in the takedown of a number of major narco-terrorist targets.

Peru and Bolivia

INL aviation support to Peru and Bolivia has been instrumental in continued coca reduction operations. In Peru, INL-owned helicopters and fixed wing aircraft (C-208, B 1900D, and rented PNPP Antonovo 32, M-17) continue to transport manual eradication teams and Peruvian counternarcotics police in order to implement far-reaching counternarcotics operations using a mobile-basing strategy. In Bolivia, INL helicopters enabled the government to project authority over vast areas where drug traffickers previously operated with impunity, and establish mobile, forward operating bases. During times of violent attacks against eradicators and law enforcement personnel, the air assets conducted life-saving medical evacuations. The significant eradication of coca in the Chapare region of Bolivia would not have been possible without the helicopter support provided through the INL aviation program. INL provided aviation technical support and training, and logistical support was an essential ingredient of the success enjoyed by host nation personnel operating these helicopters. The aviation program has also continued to make progress in establishing self-sufficiency in host nation counternarcotics aviation organizations.

Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) Program

INL provided support to other Latin American countries in identifying and curtailing drug cultivation through its RARE program. On a semi-annual basis, we conduct reconnaissance of illicit poppy cultivation in Guatemala, and provide the host nation with photography and GPS mapping of poppy and marijuana field locations. In FY 2006, we are scheduled to conduct the reconnaissance portion of a RARE operation in Peru for poppy.

Pakistan

In 2002, INL established and now supports a project in Pakistan to assist the host government in securing its border with Afghanistan. This project provides ten Huey-II helicopters (five in 2003, three in 2004, and two in 2005) and three C-208 Cessna Caravan airplanes to the Ministry of the Interior in order to provide law enforcement personnel with the operational capability to interdict drug trafficking and other illegal activities. Due to the receptiveness of the host nation team towards the operational and mechanic's training program, we were able to reduce aviation mechanic contractor presence in 2003. During the past year, these aviation assets assisted the GOP in accomplishing many objectives, including aerial surveillance of opium poppy fields utilizing mounted cameras and GPS capabilities, medevac and rescue operations, and counter-terrorism activities. In the past two years, nationwide heroin seizures increased 224 percent and opium seizures by 125 percent. These aircraft provide Pakistan with an Air Wing capability for integrated helicopter, fixed-wing, and ground forces operations in day, at night, or at night using night vision goggles (NVG). These aircraft make up the only NVG aviation interdiction force in Pakistan, and due to its unique capability and past performance, are the premier interdiction force. The aircraft provide surveillance along the porous Afghanistan-Pakistan border area. The unit participates in the interdiction of trafficking in persons, narcotics, arms, and other contraband, as well as to assist in monitoring areas where opium poppy is cultivated to permit eradication efforts.

Technology

INL has put into place many technological innovations to enhance the safety and effectiveness of its programs. INL has continued to modify its OV-10D aircraft to provide appropriate armoring and night vision goggle capability in addition to state-of-the-art, satellite-guided spray systems. This has provided more protection and safety for crews while delivering herbicide precisely. Many of these same features were incorporated into the more recently acquired AT-802 spray planes. The aviation program continues to improve and expand the usage of a technologically advanced system for identifying, plotting, and targeting coca cultivation, known as the Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS).

Self-sufficiency

INL will continue to support helicopter operations in Peru, Bolivia, and Pakistan. Training and institution building efforts will allow us to continue to reduce the number of American contractor personnel at these locations. At the same time, we will continue to pursue technological innovations to improve aircraft performance and explore the use of new variations of aircraft to enhance eradication capabilities at a reasonable cost.

FY 2007 Program

In FY 2007, the Interregional Aviation Support budget will continue to provide core level services necessary to operate the current fleet of 189 fixed and rotary wing aircraft. These services include supporting counternarcotics aviation activities in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and Afghanistan, and border security operations in Pakistan, and as needed, programs at other temporary deployment locations. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. This budget will be augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local NAS and cooperating host government missions.

Colombia

A primary concern will be the continued aerial eradication of Colombian coca and poppy. Further successes in the coca and poppy campaigns are expected to reduce the target population of the illicit crops. The program is expected to be conducted in a hostile environment as narco-terrorists fight back against our spray and support aircraft. Funding in FY 2007 does not cover replacement of destroyed assets.

Bolivia, Peru, and Pakistan

In Bolivia, INL will continue to support (with continuing GOB cooperation) the Red Devil Task Force (RDTF) efforts to eliminate residual coca and prevent new plantings in the Chapare region. INL aviation assets will also support interdiction operations along Bolivia's borders. In Peru, we will continue to support the reduction of coca cultivation, seek to aerially verify the extent of opium poppy cultivation, and support interdiction missions. In Pakistan, INL will continue to refine operational procedures and provide logistical support for the helicopters and fixed wing, sensor-equipped aircraft.

Afghanistan

The Administration has proposed to provide aerial support to Afghan manual eradication and interdiction efforts in FY 2006, which likely would continue in FY 2007. The Government of Afghanistan has not asked our support for an aerial eradication program.

Self-sufficiency

The establishment of host country self-sufficiency in counternarcotics and border security aviation programs will continue to be a priority. In 2006, we are operating with the minimum number of contractor and INL Air Wing staff in Bolivia and Peru required, effectively monitoring, and assisting as necessary, the daily operations and maintenance activities of the RDTF and the Peruvian National Police. In Colombia, we expect to begin to see results in this area with the COLAR aviation program, as personnel we have trained gain experience and maturity, allowing the gradual reduction of contractor presence. We expect that these advances will begin to permit greater host nation management of the assets. We will continue to emphasize technological improvements to maximize productivity and safety of spray platforms while maintaining cost effectiveness.

The Interregional Aviation Support program, augmented by country program funds for location-specific requirements, will continue to provide safe, professional aviation support to counternarcotics and border security programs worldwide.

Interregional Aviation Support

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Aviation Support Services Contract

54,695

-

51,665

-

52,760

DOD-Source Parts

Maintenance and Overhaul

5,000

-

2,000

-

2,000

Operations Support

Salaries and Benefits

4,000

-

6,000

-

7,000

Field Travel

235

-

300

-

350

Administrative Services and Program

-

-

-

-

-

Support

2,000

-

2,400

-

2,800

Base Support at Patrick AFB

690

-

500

-

590

Sub Total

6,925

-

9,200

-

10,740

TOTAL

66,620

-

62,865

-

65,500

Program Development and Support

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

13,850[2]

16,830

19,000


Program Justification

The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is charged with developing strategies and programs to achieve international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign-policy objectives. INL maintains a cadre of both domestic and overseas program and technical experts to carry out a wide range of initiatives. Washington personnel functions include, but are not limited to: international narcotics control and law enforcement policy formulation and implementation; coordination of policies and programs with other USG agencies and with other governments and international organizations; budget and financial management activities; program administration and analysis including development, implementation, oversight and evaluation of overseas programs; contract, procurement and information systems support; field assistance visits to Embassy Narcotics Affairs Sections and Law Enforcement Sections to review, analyze and make recommendations on programs, funds control and procurement; sponsoring regional policy and program management conferences and seminars; and, developing and providing training programs both domestically and overseas for embassy and INL personnel.

The Program Development and Support (PD&S) account funds the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL staff. Over three-quarters of the PD&S budget request is programmed for salaries and benefits of U.S. Direct Hire (USDH) employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel.

Field travel for the INL personnel based in Washington is funded from the PD&S account. This is an essential component of the bureau's program, needed for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are utilized to maintain a reliable and secure information resource management system and operating infrastructure to enable bureau employees to pursue policy objectives and complete work requirements effectively and efficiently. In addition, funding for the following expenses ensure an adequate level of administrative support to allow the bureau to function effectively: office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, miscellaneous contractual services (Information Management non-personal services contractor personnel, INL office renovation expenses, etc.), materials, supplies, furniture, furnishings and equipment.

FY 2007 Program

The PD&S budget request for FY 2007 is intended to cover the annual, government-wide cost of living increase, in-grade step increases and promotions that occur during that fiscal year. It is also intended to cover the annualized portion of wage increase for positions that INL plans to fill during FY 2007 to improve program oversight and expanded programs. In addition the PD&S budget covers costs for field travel and transportation costs; equipment rentals, communications and utility expenses; printing and reproduction; miscellaneous contractual services; and furniture, furnishings and equipment. 

Program Development and Support

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005 *

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Personnel Compensation

8,830

-

9,165

-

10,347

Personnel Benefits

2,050

-

2,059

-

2,324

Field Travel and Transportation

560

-

1,178

-

1,330

Equipment Rentals, Communications

and Utility Expenses

205

-

168

-

190

Printing and Reproduction

185

-

68

-

77

Miscellaneous Contractual Services

1,915

-

3,687

-

4,162

Materials and Supplies

75

-

337

-

380

Furniture, Furnishings and Equipment

30

-

168

-

190

Total

13,850

-

16,830

-

19,000

* In FY 2005 an additional $3.2M was transferred into PD&S.

Trafficking in Persons

Budget Summary ($000)


FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

4,960

4,950

7,000


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

To strengthen the capacity of the criminal justice sector within targeted countries to investigate and arrest criminals engaged in trafficking in persons crimes and assist victims of trafficking.

Establishment of skills-based training of police units in five countries focused on trafficking in persons.

Demonstrated collaborative efforts between criminal justice agencies and civil society programs serving trafficking victims in ten countries.

Improved bi-lateral and/or regional coordination on trafficking law enforcement and repatriation activities in four targeted areas.

Program Justification

Trafficking in persons may be among the fastest growing human rights violations and transnational crimes internationally. This modern-day form of slavery involves sexual and/or labor exploitation, adopting such forms as indentured servitude, debt bondage, chattel slavery and peonage. Trafficking in persons is a growing transnational crime that preys mainly on the poor, uneducated, and powerless. Profits from trafficking in persons undermine rule of law, fund the expansion of international crime syndicates, and foster government corruption. In addition to the individual misery wrought by this human rights abuse we believe there is a connection to organized crime and the grave security threats such as drug and weapons trafficking. As one of the most lucrative criminal enterprises trafficking in persons is closely connected with money laundering, drug trafficking, document forgery and human smuggling. The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons gives foreign assistance grants to increase the capacity of governments and non-governmental organizations to improve law enforcement's investigation and prosecution of this crime as well as to protect the victims.

Estimates vary, but 600,000 to 800,000, persons, primarily women and children, are annually trafficked across borders worldwide, including 14,500-17,500 victims brought into the United States each year. The number of victims is estimated to rise into the millions when intra-country trafficking is taken into account.

The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) and its subsequent (TVPRA) reauthorization in 2003 and 2005, provide the U.S. Government with the necessary tools to aggressively combat this heinous crime at the international and national level. The State Department, through the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (G/TIP Office), is charged with coordinating the U.S. Government's implementation of the TVPA and TVPRA, compiling the largest government-produced annual Trafficking in Persons Report (the TIP Report); and advancing public awareness and advocacy involving practical solutions to combat human trafficking worldwide.

Program Accomplishments

Below are some highlights of programs with prior year funding from the Trafficking in Persons Office:

In the Philippines, the law enforcement agencies worked with the International Justice Mission (IJM) to gather solid information on trafficking cases, free victims, arrest traffickers and encourage successful prosecutions by improving evidence collection. IJM reported that it was pressing forward with 15 TIP-related prosecutions under the new anti-trafficking law. One case that IJM is working on is against a Manila police officer - the first public official charged under the anti-trafficking law.

In Yemen, UNICEF's research on child trafficking (based on information from children repatriated from Saudi Arabia) is being utilized by the government for its national program and to direct policy responses, which includes a recently amended penal code that has been submitted to the Parliament for ratification. As a result of this research, the Ministry of Human Rights and UNICEF established national telephone hotline services on child trafficking and launched community-based awareness campaigns in high source areas. In addition a reception center for repatriated children was established in Harad that served 180 repatriated children over one quarter.

In India, Free the Slaves' activities to build local law enforcement capacity to free children trafficked into labor exploitation and file cases against traffickers and exploitative employers resulted in 24 TIP-specific legal cases filed in court and 12 prosecutions. Hotlines established by Free the Slaves to increase reporting of suspected trafficking cases identified 116 new cases in a six month period. Utilizing information from the hotline and village outreach activities, Free the Slaves and law enforcement rescued 107 children and young adults from exploitation.

In Costa Rica, the national police (CRNP) increased its arrests in Child Sexual Exploitation cases by more than 120 percent since DOJ/ICITAP began providing training and technical assistance in the country last year. In 2004, the CRNP made 25 Child Sexual Exploitation arrests, while so far in 2005 (until November); the number of arrests has jumped to 33. ICITAP provided long-term technical assistance, training, and institutional development assistance to Costa Rican police, investigators, immigration officers, prosecutors, government social service providers, and NGOs.

In Pakistan, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) improved understanding of trafficking by Pakistani law enforcement. As a result, the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) established a specific Anti-Trafficking Unit that is now functional in Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, Quetta, and Peshawar. The FIA conducted raids in different parts of the country and arrested 19 people suspected of being part of a trafficking ring. The arrests included travel agents suspected in arranging the transport of victims.

Since June 2005, more than 1,000 traffickers have been arrested, 600 prosecuted and more than 100 convicted world-wide as reported by recipients of G/TIP's INCLE funded projects around the world.

FY 2007 Program

International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) Funds for anti-trafficking activities totaling $7 million would be targeted primarily to countries which have a growing trafficking in persons problem and a demonstrable need for resources to combat trafficking in Tier 3, Tier 2 Watch List countries, and countries lacking adequate resources to address this situation. Proposed law enforcement activities will be closely coordinated with other on-going USG law enforcement programs to ensure coordination and to avoid duplication. All funded projects will be vetted through the Senior Policy Operating Group on Trafficking in Persons (SPOG) to ensure compliance with USG policies and prevent redundancy.

INCLE funds will support programs to strengthen law enforcement capacities to fight criminals involved in trafficking in persons, including persons trafficked for sexual and/or labor abuse or as child soldiers. Programs will focus on activities to in three areas: prosecution, protection, and prevention of trafficking in persons. Approximately 120,000 children have participated in armed conflicts throughout Africa, particularly in countries such as Liberia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda. These children serve as combatants, porters, domestic workers, and sex slaves and endure severe physical and psychological trauma.

Assistance will be targeted primarily to countries and regions identified by the Department as having a serious trafficking in persons problem involving forced sexual and/or labor exploitation, particularly countries that have been rated Tier 2, Tier 2 Watch List, and Tier 3 in the Department's annual Trafficking in Persons Report. Proposed focus countries for FY 2007 funding include Afghanistan, Cambodia, China, India, Kuwait, Liberia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Nigeria, Mexico, the Philippines, Thailand, and Uganda.

G/TIP Office programs will provide technical assistance and training to police, prosecutors, judges and/or immigration officials in such areas as follows: investigating, arresting, and prosecuting traffickers and monitoring international borders; training police officers how to communicate with victims in a manner that encourages them to cooperate as potential witnesses and to ensure that their immediate protection needs are met.

The transnational nature of trafficking overwhelms many countries' law enforcement agencies, which are not equipped to adequately monitor borders or stop organized trafficking networks. Approximately $4.5 million in INCLE funds will be allocated towards law enforcement training in investigative and prosecutorial capacity-building initiatives which may include: providing technical training for police, prosecutors, judges, immigration officials and medical personnel; facilitating law enforcement interagency cooperation on trafficking in persons matters; legal drafting and legislative assistance; specialized prosecutorial training in TIP cases; and equipment and modest supplies for anti-trafficking police units or taskforces. A provision of equipment may include computers, radios or other communications technologies, audio/visual equipment, motorcycles to support specialized TIP police units.

The G/TIP Office proposes to use approximately $2 million in INCLE funds to support protection programs, a critical component in aiding the police, prosecutors and others to handle appropriately trafficking in persons victims, particularly in the development of key victim witnesses and arrest leads. Other areas may include assistance to forensic laboratories, including specialized forensics training related to TIP cases and the procurement of forensic evidence collection rape kits, the development of formal protection protocols for victims; support for victim advocates; development of specialized procedures for child victims, including the creation of child-friendly forensic interview rooms and courtroom accommodations that reduce the trauma for a child witness.

Approximately $500,000 will be allocated to support prevention programs. Programs will focus on law enforcement and NGO support to raise public awareness and outreach to communities at risk to be trafficked for sex trafficking, labor trafficking, domestic servitude, sex tourism, child bonded labor, and training for peacekeepers. Priority areas include countries in Tier 3, Tier 2 Watchlist, Tier 2, and countries with a growing problem committed to combating trafficking in persons. 

Trafficking in Persons

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Prosecution Program

2,500

-

3,950

-

4,500

Protection Program

2,000

-

800

-

2,000

Prevention Program

460

-

200

-

500

Total

4,960

-

4,950

-

7,000

_______________

[1] This figure includes $496,000 reported under the UN Crime Center budget line item.

[2] In FY 2005 an additional $3.2M was transferred into PD&S.



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