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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Latin America


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2007 Budget Justification
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
April 2006
Report
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The Bahamas

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Enacted

FY 2007 Request

992

495

500

 
 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) significantly disrupts the movement of illicit drugs through Bahamian territory to the U.S.

The number and amount of seizures of cocaine and marijuana will increase, along with the number of arrests of narcotics traffickers.

Bahamian law enforcement, with U.S. assistance, conducts sophisticated criminal and financial investigations and effective maritime interdiction operations that will result in a reduction in narcotics trafficking activity.

Cooperation and coordination with U.S. law enforcement will increase and several major Bahamian drug trafficking organizations will be dismantled.

The number of narcotics trafficking and money laundering cases successfully prosecuted will increase.

Judicial institutions are modernized so that drug traffickers and money launderers are successfully prosecuted in an expeditious manner and their assets seized and forfeited.

The value of assets seized and forfeited will increase significantly and the government will respond expeditiously to U.S. extradition requests.

Program Justification

Cocaine from South America destined for the United States continues to pass through the Jamaica-Cuba-Bahamas sector. Since OPBAT's inception in 1982, the Bahamian and U.S. governments have cooperated closely to interdict the flow of drugs through The Bahamas. Over the years, the drug trade evolved continually. Whereas in the 1980s Colombian traffickers brought cocaine to the islands by aircraft, in the 1990s, it was the Jamaican and Bahamian organizations, which dominated the trade through the archipelago, moving drugs primarily by go-fasts. During 2005, trafficking trends indicating an increase in trafficking by aircraft and a corresponding decrease in go-fast events continued. In addition, DEA reported that Haitians migrant smuggling and drug trafficking organizations were combining their previously separate operations. To combat this ever-changing threat, OPBAT deploys as many as seven helicopters and other USG surveillance aircraft in coordination with Bahamian interceptor boats to detect and interdict maritime traffickers and aircraft operating in Bahamian territory. Although INL contributes only a fraction of the approximately $30 million the USG spends annually on OPBAT, INL assistance is crucial because it supports the participation of Bahamian law enforcement in joint interdiction efforts.

Program Accomplishments

OPBAT is the largest and oldest cooperative effort by any government involved in drug enforcement. Moreover, the Bahamian Police Drug Enforcement Unit has achieved an unparalleled record of success in taking down drug trafficking organizations. Since 2001, joint Bahamas-U.S. investigations have resulted in the takedown of three major Bahamian drug rings and hundreds of arrests in the US and The Bahamas. Total cocaine seizures by OPBAT and Bahamian police during FY 2005 decreased to one metric ton from two metric tons in FY 2004. At the same time, marijuana seizures increased from six metric tons to 13 metric tons. The decline in cocaine seizures reflects ongoing DEA operations in Jamaica as well as the Bahamas that continue to disrupt this traditional trafficking vector.

FY 2007 Program

INL intends to continue funding its direct hire position in the Narcotics Affairs Section even though this will sharply reduce the resources available to support ongoing projects. Embassy Nassau concurs that maintaining this position will demonstrate continuing commitment to OPBAT as well as confidence that additional resources will be available in the future.

Law Enforcement Investigations

This project will focus on improving the ability of the Royal Bahamian Police Force to detect, investigate, and prosecute drug smugglers through training and technical assistance.

Operation Bahamas Turks and Caicos (OPBAT)

This project will support the maintenance of OPBAT bases and provide equipment for interdiction operations.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds cover the cost of salaries, benefits, and allowances of locally-hired personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

The Bahamas

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Law Enforcement Investigations

240

-

35

-

35

OPBAT

280

-

85

-

85

Fast Response Boats

-

-

-

-

-

Sub-Total

520

-

120

-

120

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

50

-

-

-

-

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

200

-

275

-

280

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

132

-

100

-

100

Program Support

90

-

-

-

-

Sub-Total

422

-

375

-

380

Total

992

-

495

-

500

Guatemala

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

3,812 [1]

2,475

2,200

 
 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Guatemala (GOG) is a major transit point for drugs en route to the U.S. Measurements of performance are:

The amount of drugs seized should increase.

The military will continue to provide logistical support to civilian police law enforcement for drug interdiction.

The GOG makes progress in the international arena to actively pursue narcotraffickers and combat money laundering.

The GOG has finalized regulations and is implementing the money laundering law. The GOG will continue anti-corruption initiatives, including zero tolerance of government corruption.

Legislation and/or procedures are still needed to effectively use seized assets. Legislation on organized crime, including wiretap authority, will be passed and implemented.

In 2003 implementing regulations were approved for precursor chemical control legislation. Computer hardware and database software for tracking has been installed. United Nations training will be completed and the system will begin to fully monitor chemicals and detect diversions.

The GOG maintains the capability to perform professional and effective investigations that lead to the successful prosecution and conviction of narcotraffickers.

Number of arrests and successful prosecutions will rise as police and prosecutors become more proficient at investigation and increase cooperation. The GOG continues to facilitate pending extradition cases.

The GOG maintains an effective and well-publicized demand reduction program.

Surveys show a declining rate of drug use.

Program Justification

Guatemala's geographic position and extensive Peten jungle area make it a transportation node for sea, air and land narcotics transshipment. The USG estimates indicate that up to 400 metric tons of cocaine are shipped annually by land, air and sea through the Central American corridor to Mexico and the United States. The fight against transshipment, alien smuggling and other transnational crimes is complicated by the ongoing fight against corruption, the growing challenge of youth gang crime and an acute lack of resources.

Several trends are alarming. Drug smugglers are paying for services in drugs rather than cash, contributing to increasing internal trafficking and use. Youth gangs continue to spread beyond the capital to regional cities, bringing extortion, crime and violence. It is believed that these criminal organizations are often involved in other aspects of organized international crime, especially trafficking in narcotics and alien smuggling.

While significant poppy cultivation in Guatemala was eliminated in the 80s, the past two years have seen resurgent cultivation and violent resistance to eradication. There is also some marijuana cultivation for domestic use. GOG narcotics control police carry out manual eradication, interdiction, port control operations, narcotics investigations, and road interdiction and inspection functions. INL funds help support all of these activities, and complement community policing/anti-gang activities financed under other US assistance. The combination of drug-fueled corruption, drug and alien trafficking and crime has the potential to make areas of the country ungovernable and degrade regional stability, economic growth, and security of American citizens. Guatemala's commitment to a corruption-free democracy is being challenged. Already government control of some remote areas is fragile at best. The GOG is acutely aware of the impact of narcotrafficking and related crime and is proactively seeking assistance to combat it.

Program Accomplishments

In 2005, the GOG renewed for an additional three years the legislative authority for joint U.S./Guatemalan military and law enforcement operations to take place in Guatemala. During 2005, five successful Mayan Jaguar operations took place under the Central Skies operational framework, including two specifically designed to support DEA's region-wide Operation All Inclusive. The GOG also enthusiastically implemented the counternarcotics bilateral maritime agreement, including transfers of third country alien prisoners through Guatemalan territory (allowing USCG assets to remain on station to pursue drug interdiction/homeland security missions). The Anti-Narcotics Analysis and Information Services (SAIA, the Guatemalan counternarcotics police) seized almost five tons of cocaine in 2005. The GOG eradicated over 14.6 million poppy plants, or 48 hectares. Guatemala also pledged itself to host a regional Counternarcotics Coordination Center at a regional meeting in January 2006.

FY 2007 Program

Narcotics and Law Enforcement Project

The overall goal for this project is to support the GOG's counternarcotics institutions to effectively disrupt drug trafficking and illicit crop production in Guatemala. This project focuses on enhancing the investigative and operational capacity of Guatemalan law enforcement agencies to disrupt the trafficking of drugs and other trans-border crime.

The program will train police investigators, prosecutors and judges in modern techniques of gathering and analyzing data. The program will increase arrests, seizures and convictions based on scientific evidence.

The program will also provide training, technical assistance, equipment, and operational support to improve the GOG's interdiction, including ports. Funding will also be used for bilateral and multi-lateral counternarcotics missions, such as "Mayan Jaguar," Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) and Central Skies regional deployments. This project funds two full-time advisors, a police advisor and a customs advisor. Finally, funding will be used to re-establish and train a fully-vetted anti-narcotics law enforcement unit (SAIA) with specialized police training, technical assistance, equipment and infrastructure.

Narcotics Prosecutor Assistance Project

This project's goal is to enhance the capacity of the Public Ministry's (Attorney General) special prosecutors units to win convictions against narcotics crime and corruption through improved case development and processing. The project improves the GOG's capacity to effectively and transparently prosecute criminals while respecting internationally recognized human rights. The program will improve the capabilities of special prosecutors (counternarcotics, anti-money laundering and anti-corruption units) in the investigation, prosecution and management of cases. It will also provide specialized training for prosecutors dealing with high-profile drug trafficking and money laundering cases.

Demand Reduction and Public Awareness Project

Domestic drug use is a growing threat and national priority. This project will strengthen the Executive Secretariat for the Commission Against Addiction and Drug Trafficking (SECCATID) through equipment and technical assistance. A drug use survey completed in January provided base information on drug use to guide efforts. The program supports school education projects, improvements to rehabilitation centers, and public information campaigns.

Program Development and Support

Funds will support salaries, benefits and allowances of U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs and general administrative and operational expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Guatemala

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

*FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Narcotics Interdiction

325

-

150

-

300

Eradication

225

-

100

-

100

Institutional Development

1,537

-

810

-

590

Sub Total

2,087

-

1,060

-

990

Administration of Justice

750

-

495

-

350

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

350

-

220

-

130

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

228

-

280

-

**320

Non-U.S. Personnel

99

-

107

-

110

ICASS Costs

202

-

267

-

270

Program Support

96

-

46

-

30

Sub-Total

625

-

700

-

730

Total

3,812

-

2,475

-

2,200

* FY 2005 funding level of $3,812K includes $2,820K of INCLE and $992K of ACI funds.

**Transfer Cost of Incoming Director included.

Haiti

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

[2]

14,850

10,000

 
 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Development and reform of the Haitian National Police (HNP) continue with the help of the U.S., the UN, and other donors. With this assistance, the HNP is increasingly able to provide basic law enforcement services to the Haitian people, thereby promoting internal stability and a democratic future for Haiti. Effective law enforcement and public order in Haiti significantly reduce the attractiveness of illegal migration and the ability of criminals to traffic drugs into the U.S., while promoting economic development and long-term stability.

Existing and 1000 newly recruited Haitian National Police will continue to be vetted and trained to democratic policing standards to form the core of a credible, competent police force. Haitian police will be able to respond to reports of crime in a timely manner, conduct effective patrols, direct traffic, communicate effectively, and conduct internal and criminal investigations, with crime reducing over time. Incidences of human rights abuses by police will decrease.

U.S. police officers continue to serve in Haiti under the auspices of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), helping to maintain law and order, and training, vetting, restructuring, and monitoring the Haitian National Police.

UN International Civilian Police continue to vet, advise and train the HNP. As citizens begin to have confidence in the police as an institution, reporting of crime will increase. Security on the streets will improve, as measured by a return to normal business and reduction of daily gunfire.

Correctional training and upgrades to prison and detention infrastructure that focus on basic sanitation, proper prisoner handling and overcrowding improve treatment of detainees and prisoners and ameliorate inhumane living conditions.

Reports of prison violence will decrease. Sanitary conditions inside certain prisons and detention centers will improve.

The Haitian National Police counter drug unit investigates and makes arrests of drug traffickers in cases that lead to prosecutions.

Drug seizures and drug trafficking arrests should increase. The flow of drugs through Haiti should decline.

Financial Investigative Unit (FIU) investigations lead to prosecutions convictions, of money launderers, corrupt individuals and government officials.

The volume and the value of assets seized will increase.

Program Justification

Police and prison system reform, coupled with an overhaul of the Haitian judicial system, are crucial to building democracy and stability in Haiti. Plagued by poor and corrupt governance and mismanagement, Haiti's police and prison system has fallen victim to serious disrepair, politicization, and incompetence. With a democratically elected government, Haiti has the opportunity to start rebuilding toward a stable and peaceful future. Criminal activity helped finance the prior regimes, and continues to inhibit normal life in Port au Prince, which is plagued by gang activity, gunfire and political violence. Instability and corruption have also allowed drug smuggling to continue, with the potential for those connections to expand to smuggling of persons as well.

Strengthening Haiti's law enforcement capacity is a key U.S. priority. INL wants to ensure civil order and reduce armed gangs' ability to threaten Haiti's fragile peace by fomenting violence and smuggling drugs and arms. The HNP has little real capacity to investigate or respond to crimes, patrol, keep public order in Port au Prince slums, or even communicate internally - basic prerequisites for enforcing the law. That is slowly changing with U.S. and international assistance, but it will be a long-term effort.

Haiti has a dilapidated prison infrastructure which is overcrowded, has poor sanitation and few-to-no services, and is plagued by poor administration, little training for prison personnel and a large number of pre-trial detainees held in the system.

It is estimated that a minimum of eight metric tons of cocaine from South America transits Haiti on its way to U.S. markets. Cocaine arrives in Haiti by go-fast boats, other vessels and by small aircraft. It is then shipped onward by sea in vessels or containers or by land through the Dominican Republic. In addition to posing problems for the U.S., the drug trade in Haiti undermines the rule of law in that fragile country by fostering corruption and fomenting armed violence perpetrated by criminal gangs and political opposition groups.

Stability in Haiti will contribute to its economic growth, enhancing security in the region and diminishing the attractiveness of illegal migration to the U.S. To help achieve stability, INL will continue to support peacekeeping operations, including by providing US police to the civilian police component of MINUSTAH, albeit at a reduced level. MINUSTAH is the lead player in HNP reform and retraining, and U.S. support for MINUSTAH is pivotal to the mission's success.

Haiti is hampered in its ability to implement police and corrections reform by a tremendous lack of resources, and to some extent, lack of expertise. INL programs will continue to support enhancing institutional capacity, police development and reform, and anti-corruption measures.

Program Accomplishments

In coordination with MINUSTAH, the Interim Government of Haiti, and other donors, INL has identified the following areas for programmatic attention: crime control, which includes establishing basic police operations, and providing training and equipment; police accountability and reform; corrections assistance; and counternarcotics. We are addressing these areas on a bilateral and multilateral basis.

To become a credible and competent police force, the HNP requires extensive training, vetting, professionalization and accountability. The U.S. has assisted in providing training and vetting support for over 1,500 new recruits and 1,000 additional officers in FY 2006. We have made the police academy operational and have begun an in-service training program for existing HNP officers, which will have trained all police in the regions in basic police techniques and human rights by the end of FY 2006. The U.S. has provided forensics training and equipment, as well as training on, and provision of, appropriate non-lethal means of responding to crisis situations.

The U.S. is also greatly enhancing the operational capacity of the HNP, with the provision of communications links at individual police stations throughout Haiti to enable officers in stations to communicate with officers in the field, along with motorcycles and trucks for officers to patrol and respond to crisis situations. The U.S. is joining other donors in supporting the model police station concept laid out by the UN, which involves rehabilitating a police station while the officers in that station are vetted and trained by the UN. The U.S. will have completed a minimum of ten model stations throughout Haiti by the end of FY 2006.

Fifty U.S. civilian police (UNPOL) have deployed to the MINUSTAH mission, joining police from 37 other nations. These officers are deployed in direct contact with the HNP on a daily basis and are responsible for training, including field training, forensics, mentoring and restructuring the HNP, a process that includes vetting. CIVPOL are involved in all aspects of police assistance and are critical to HNP reform efforts.

The U.S. has provided a new juvenile detention facility in Port au Prince, with showers and toilets and an outdoor area. The juveniles have now been moved to that facility from the 4 small cells where they were previously kept. The U.S. also made humanitarian improvements to the women's detention facility in Petion-ville, adding lights and sanitation facilities. In FY 2006, the U.S. will undertake a program to train prison personnel in better techniques for handling detainees.

The HNP, despite a chronic lack of resources, has achieved limited success in the counter narcotics area. During 2005, DEA vetted and trained the HNP counter drug unit (BLTS), conducted limited drug interdiction operations, and selected the members of a Sensitive Investigative Unit that will become operational in 2006. The HCG conducted patrols and participated in a drug interdiction operation from its Killick base in Port au Prince and reestablished operations at its renovated based in Cap Haitien. The Financial Investigative Unit continued to take actions against money laundering and corruption and seized $17.6 million in assets of a convicted Haitian trafficker.

FY 2007 Program

The FY 2007 program is divided in three general categories, police programs (crime control assistance), corrections program (criminal justice assistance) and counterdrug programs. These programs began in 2004 and are proceeding in cooperation with the Haitian Government, MINUSTAH, and other donors.

Crime Control Assistance

Civilian Police: The U.S. will contribute up to 20 U.S. police officers to the MINUSTAH stabilization mission. U.S. officers will continue providing expertise in the areas of academy training, field training, patrols, community policing, investigations, traffic, crime analysis, forensics, police management, supervisory skills, police administration, and other specialized skills. U.S. CIVPOL officers will continue to monitor the HNP to discourage and report human rights violations. They will also continue to co-locate with Haitian officers in their stations and engage in joint patrols, to increase public confidence in the police.

Training and Equipment: We and our partners estimate that 8,000-12,000 HNP are needed to provide public order in Haiti and believe a force this size is sustainable over the long term. The U.S. will continue to assist with the training of at least 1,000 new recruits, and in-service training for 1,500 existing HNP officers, including specialized training, such as supervisory, duty officer and human rights training. Together with that training, we will provide appropriate equipment, communications and mobility. All assistance will be non-lethal.

Police Accountability and Reform: Corruption is a major problem within the HNP. Key to reform of the organization will be the involvement of communities, the HNP's willingness and ability to perform internal police investigations, effective command and control over the police force, and widespread adherence to policies and procedures. INL will provide technical assistance in these areas.

Crime Control/Forensics: The ability to respond to and solve crimes is a critical capacity that must be developed within the HNP. The U.S. will continue to assist in forensic training and the development of HNP capacities for crime analysis. The U.S. will also help the HNP to be able to respond to civil disturbances in a manner that takes advantage of non-lethal police tactics. The U.S. will continue to support the model stations program, teaching officers how to respond to crime and run a police station on a station-by-station basis.

Criminal Justice

Corrections Assistance: Funds will be used to continue training of corrections officers and equipment and infrastructure to improve the functioning of prisons.

Counternarcotics

Haitian Coast Guard: In partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard, funding will continue the ongoing effort aimed at restoring the logistical and maintenance capacity of the HCG. The refurbishment of bases at Killick and Cap Haitien will continue and additional vessels will be provided consistent with HCG capacity to maintain and operate them. Funding will be directed toward equipping and training the HCG for maritime drug interdiction operations.

Financial Investigative Unit: Funding - on a shared basis with Treasury - will provide technical assistance and financial investigation mentors to support ongoing anti-money laundering and anti-corruption activities.

Special Counterdrug Unit: Funding will support the operations of a vetted unit of Haitian police officers, established by DEA, with special authority to conduct drug investigations. Funding to support the intelligence collection and analysis center within the HNP will also be provided.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds are used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Haiti

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005 *

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Civilian Police Program

-

-

6,500

-

4,000

Police Development and Reform

Training and Equipment

-

-

2,450

-

1,850

Police Accountability and Reform

-

-

1,500

-

930

Crime Prevention/Forensics

-

-

1,500

-

1,000

Sub Total

-

-

5,450

-

3,780

Criminal Justice Development

Corrections

-

-

1,000

-

500

Sub Total

-

-

1,000

-

500

Counterdrug Support

Marine Interdiction

-

-

600

-

300

Anti-Money Laundering

-

-

250

-

350

DEA Vetted Unit

-

-

375

-

350

Sub-Total

-

-

1,225

-

1,000

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

490

-

510

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

45

-

60

ICASS Costs

-

-

130

-

135

Program Support

-

-

10

-

15

Sub-Total

-

-

675

-

720

Total

*

-

14,850

-

10,000

* The Haiti Police Program was funded in FY 2005 via a transfer of $8.455 million of FY 2005 ESF funds and $5.8 million of supplemental FY 2005 ESF funds to INL.

Jamaica

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Enacted

FY 2007 Request

1,488

990

900

 
 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators


The ability of the Government of Jamaica (GOJ) to take decisive action to disrupt and deter drug trafficking and other transnational criminal activities will be strengthened through the development of strong, effective, corruption-free law enforcement institutions.

The GOJ's capacity to detect drugs, precursor chemicals and other contraband transiting Jamaica will improve, resulting in increased interdictions, seizures and arrests.

The GOJ will investigate, arrest, and prosecute public officials for corruption.

The GOJ will improve its capability to collect, analyze and disseminate intelligence for effective coordinated law enforcement action.

Continued adoption of modern law enforcement investigative tools will enable Jamaican law enforcement to conduct sophisticated investigations, resulting in significant arrests of major drug traffickers and members of their organizations.

Criminal justice in Jamaica will be strengthened and reformed, thereby improving the capacity for investigating and prosecuting drug traffickers and other criminals.

The GOJ will respond more quickly to U.S. requests under the bilateral extradition and mutual legal assistance treaties.

Program Justification

Jamaica is a major transshipment point for South American cocaine and the largest marijuana producer and exporter in the Caribbean. Traffickers use Jamaica's offshore waters, ports and airstrips to move drugs to the U.S. Jamaican ports are vulnerable to the illegal diversion of precursor chemicals used in the production of illicit drugs. Corruption continues to undermine law enforcement and judicial efforts against drug-related crime in Jamaica.

With over sixty percent of its Jamaica's budget going to debt servicing, USG and other donor assistance is essential for the GOJ is going to develop and sustain counter-drug/crime capability. The Jamaican government is committed to combating all illegal drug-related criminal activity. In October 2004, in collaboration with international law enforcement, the GOJ launched "Operation Kingfish," a highly successful umbrella operation for a number of discrete yet interrelated operations designed to attack the core of drug trafficking, criminal organizations and traffickers. "Operation Kingfish" will continue in 2006.

U.S. counternarcotics assistance seeks, through the provision of equipment, technical assistance and training, to help the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF), the Jamaica Defense Force (JDF), Jamaica Customs, and other GOJ agencies reduce the flow of illegal drugs from Jamaica to the United States; to enhance Jamaica's ability to disrupt and dismantle those international criminal organizations; and to identify, target and eliminate those threats that pose the greatest danger to US national security interest. The program also provides assistance to strengthen the GOJ's ability to counter public corruption, increase seizures of precursor chemicals, help facilitate the extradition of traffickers to the U.S.

Program Accomplishments

During 2005, collaborative efforts between local and international law enforcement agencies led to the arrest in Jamaica and the U.S. of several drug traffickers and dismantling of their organizations. Other efforts resulted in large seizures of cocaine and vessels used to transport illicit substances to the U.S., causing an increase in the price of cocaine and increases in cultivation and export of cannabis.

The JDF Air Wing and Coast Guard have also been actively involved in maritime interdiction efforts. The GOJ placed a number of seized go-fast boats and one fixed wing aircraft into service with the JDF Coast Guard and JDF Air Wing, respectively, for counternarcotics operations. Electronic equipment installed in 2004 to scan high density cargo, has resulted in the seizure of illicit drugs, in excess of two thousand pounds of marijuana, a massive weapon find and seizures of other contraband in 2005.

In 2005, the GOJ seized 142.38 kilograms of cocaine, 17,654 kilograms of cannabis and destroyed 391 hectares of cannabis, and seized more than 12,770 Ecstasy tablets. Local law enforcement officers, together with international law enforcement officers, continued to aggressively target major drug trafficking organizations. The JCF arrested 5,765 persons on drug-related charges, including 203 foreigners, in the first eleven months of 2005. The ion scan machine, located at the Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston and operated by the British, has played a major role in identifying passengers transporting drugs.

FY 2007 Program

Requested funding level for FY 2007 will permit the GOJ to undertake an integrated set of counter-drug, anti-money laundering and anti-corruption efforts:

Narcotics Law Enforcement

These projects are constructed to strengthen the GOJ's capability to identify, investigate and prosecute drug traffickers, money launderers and other international criminals and dismantle their criminal organizations; apprehend fugitives from justice; detect diversion of essential and precursor chemicals; eradicate marijuana cultivation; and counter public corruption. Requested funding will be used to support fugitive apprehension, intelligence gathering, analysis and dissemination, tracing of illegal firearms, anti-corruption programs, police modernization, financial crimes, counternarcotics sub-projects with limited equipment, training, operational support and replacement vehicles.

Border Control and Port Security

The project is designed to improve the GOJ's capability to disrupt the movement of drugs and other contraband via commercial cargo and conveyances at airports, seaports and free trade zones. Requested funding will be used to train and equip new U.S. Customs Enforcement Team (CET) personnel, purchase an additional vehicle to transport members of the expanded CET between duty stations at the airports and seaports, and support a multi-agency Airport Interdiction Task Force. Limited maintenance support for the newly installed border security system will also be provided.

Maritime Interdiction

This project supports the U.S.-Jamaica maritime counternarcotics cooperation agreement by strengthening the GOJ's ability to successfully interdict vessels transporting drugs. In the past, the USG provided two 82-foot cutters and refurbished several boats for the JDFCG. As these boats lack the speed necessary to counter the threat of go-fast vessels transporting drugs, the U.S., as noted, has provided three go-fast interceptor boats to the JDFCG. Requested funding will be used for training and equipment to establish a vessel maintenance program, and continued support for GOJ efforts to establish forward positioning sites that will enable the rapid deployment of boats for maritime drug interdiction operations.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds cover the cost of salaries, benefits, and allowances of U.S. and foreign national direct hire personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Jamaica

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Narcotics Law Enforcement

200

-

140

-

100

Border Control and Port Security

220

-

70

-

100

Maritime Interdiction

650

-

230

-

200

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

35

-

50

-

-

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

158

-

160

-

160

Non-U.S. Personnel

28

-

40

-

40

ICASS Costs

102

-

210

-

210

Program Support

95

-

90

-

90

Sub-Total

383

-

500

-

500

Total

1,488

-

990

-

900

Mexico

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

39,680

39,600

39,000

 
 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Border and Port Security

Continue to strengthen the Government of Mexico's (GOM) ability to control its borders and ports of entry through the detection and interdiction of illicit narcotics, contraband items including explosives and weapons, trafficked and smuggled persons, and individuals seeking to enter the U.S. to conduct terrorist activities.

Complete the five-year plan to harden Mexico's northern border with highly sophisticated non-intrusive inspection equipment (NIIE) at major crossing points. These units effectively and rapidly screen vehicles for contraband, thereby reducing delays of legitimate border traffic. FY 2007 funds will be used to expand the program to Mexico's southern border and major maritime ports with the purchase of up to seven additional NIIE units. Funds will also be used for two additional SENTRI (Secure Electronic Network for Travelers' Rapid Inspection) lanes, expedited border crossing lanes for pre-cleared low-risk commuters. The NIIE equipment should increase interdiction of illegal contraband by 10 percent. Similarly, the installation of SENTRI lanes will permit inspectors to concentrate on high-risk travelers, resulting in a 10 percent increase in seizures at these ports of entry.

Integrate the Advanced Passenger Information System (APIS), which now provides manifests for flights to and from Mexico for comparison with U.S. intelligence, criminal, and immigration databases, with Mexican databases. FY 2007 funds will expand the program to provide APIS information to other Mexican law enforcement entities. Upon full APIS implementation, all passengers to and from Mexico will be checked against multiple intelligence, criminal, terrorism, and law enforcement databases in both the U.S. and Mexico, resulting in a significant deterrence to using commercial air flights as a means of illegal entry into the U.S.

Initiate a training program focusing on counternarcotics for state and local police in Mexican northern border states. Mexico recently adopted a policy that provides authority to pursue narcotics cases to state and local officials. FY 2007 funds will be used to capitalize on this policy change.

Strengthen Mexico's capacity to control its southern border against trafficking of illegal drugs, precursor chemicals, arms, cash, people, and other contraband, heading to the U.S. border before it enters Mexico, thereby providing the U.S. another layer of protection. FY 2007 funds will be used to purchase up to three NIIEs for border crossing points at the Mexico-Guatemala and Mexico-Belize borders, resulting in an increase in seizures. Funds will also be used to provide computer equipment, improve infrastructure, and train border customs and immigration officials at these crossing points, resulting in more effective interdiction throughout Mexico's southern border. FY 2007 funds will expand the mobile interdiction task forces established in 2005 for deployment at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico's natural 125 mile-wide chokepoint, further restricting trafficking by land routes.

Enhance security against illegal activity at principal Mexican maritime ports and airports. FY 2007 funds will provide training and development of security infrastructure to reduce illegal trafficking at major maritime ports and airports.

Interdiction and Eradication

Provide law enforcement operational support and advanced equipment to enhance Mexico's capacity to detect and interdict narcotics trafficking and proceeds destined for, or coming from, the United States. These efforts should result in a 10 percent increase in the volume of seized drugs and precursor chemicals; the number of drug production facilities discovered and destroyed; the amount of cash seizures; and the number of drug-related arrests.

In the fourth of a five-year plan, INL will expand the GOM Attorney General's aviation program (see Organized Crime and Counternarcotics Enforcement program). FY 2007 funds will be used to refurbish up to six more HU-1H transport helicopters and up to three new Schweizer reconnaissance helicopters. This influx of aircraft should substantially increase border surveillance capabilities and provide aerial support to ground anti-terror and anti-narcotic operations.

Continue bilateral cooperation to dismantle Mexico's principal drug trafficking organizations, thereby disrupting production, transportation, and distribution of illegal contraband. Continue to support specialized law enforcement units - fugitive apprehension, investigative, chemical response, and prosecutorial - with an emphasis on production and distribution of methamphetamine.

Improve Mexico's capacity to identify and eradicate illicit drug cultivation by providing operational and technical support to the Attorney General's Office aerial eradication program. Effective technical support of the program will improve the GOM's ability to track trends in cultivation, evaluate the impact of its efforts, and improve its ability to plan deployments, resulting in a 10 percent increase in the destruction of opium poppy and marijuana cultivation.

Institution Building

Promote the professionalization and modernization of Mexico's law enforcement and criminal justice sectors to improve the GOM's capacity to conduct credible investigations based on forensic evidence and the successful prosecution of criminal organizations involved in illegal drug trafficking, money laundering, and alien smuggling.

Continue to support the efforts of the GOM Attorney General's Office (PGR) to institutionalize its law enforcement agencies: the Federal Investigative Agency (AFI - equivalent to FBI); the National Center for Analysis, Planning, and Information (CENAPI), charged with gathering and analyzing intelligence on organized crime; and Organized Crime Office (SIEDO), which coordinates federal law enforcement efforts. Institutionalization of these offices will greatly improve the effectiveness of the PGR, resulting in increased investigation and prosecution of crimes.

Continue the fourth of a five-year aviation program to provide the PGR refurbished and new helicopters that will greatly increase the GOM's interdiction and eradication capacity (see Organized Crime and Counternarcotics Enforcement program).

FY 2007 funds will upgrade law enforcement training infrastructure, thereby increasing availability of professional training to federal, state, and local police. For the second year, the program will concentrate on "train-the-trainer" instruction, rather than direct training of police, to institutionalize the GOM's long-term capacity to train its law enforcement personnel, particularly in northern border states. FY 2007 funds will also focus on modernizing curriculum, with an emphasis on basic criminal investigations, interviewing techniques, collection of evidence, and preservation of crime scenes. Funds will also help improve the physical infrastructure of law enforcement training facilities.

Social Sector Support

Support demand reduction programs that seek to educate the public about the harmful personal and societal effects of drug abuse, conduct surveys to identify those requiring assistance, and support fora for prevention and treatment professionals. FY 2007 funds will continue expansion throughout Mexico of the "culture of lawfulness" program, which teaches secondary school children about the value of the rule of law, throughout the country. INL will also expand a program to combat the growing gang problem, especially prevalent on Mexico's northern and southern borders, through public information campaigns, educational programs, and targeted law enforcement.

Program Justification

During the past six years, the GOM has demonstrated its commitment to improving its law enforcement institutions through an array of new initiatives and unprecedented cooperation with U.S. law enforcement agencies. However, despite significant progress during the Fox Administration, Mexico faces major law enforcement challenges. Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) remain the principal producer of marijuana, heroin, and methamphetamine bound for the U.S. and Mexico remains a key transit zone for South American cocaine destined for the north. The 2,000-mile border presents Mexican DTOs numerous opportunities for access to the U.S. market, where they have established extensive networks.

CY 2007 will see a new Mexican Administration assume government following presidential elections in July. INL will continue current programs critical to the U.S.: (e.g. interdiction, eradication, dismantling DTOs) and conclude projects begun in the Fox Administration (border control and DNA database). INL will also continue with its core program to professionalize Mexican law enforcement institutions, expanding the training curriculum and number of trainees.

INL will also focus on designing new programs initiatives to meet emerging challenges. Narco-violence along the Mexico-U.S. border has escalated in the last two years as Mexican DTOs fight to control trafficking routes and turf. INL will begin a program to modernize state and municipal police departments along the border to begin to control border violence. There is mounting evidence that Central American youth gangs are playing a greater role in smuggling drugs, arms, and people across Mexico's border with Guatemala, increasingly serving as mules and guns for hire for Mexican drug cartels. INL will initiate a strategy to address the gang issue in Mexico through prevention and law enforcement programs. Methamphetamine abuse in the U.S. has put a spotlight on Mexican methamphetamine production and precursor imports. Mexican DTOs are increasingly using their resources, experience, and distribution networks to traffic methamphetamine into the U.S. INL will begin programs to increase the GOM's methamphetamine interdiction capabilities and control of precursor imports.

Program Accomplishments

The unprecedented law enforcement support and cooperation provided by the Fox Administration during its six years in office presented INL a unique opportunity to assist the Government of Mexico's efforts to improve its law enforcement and judicial capabilities through the establishment of credible, transparent actions and processes that will earn the respect and confidence of the people of Mexico. As a result of increased bilateral coordination, there have been major advances across the spectrum of bilateral law enforcement goals, greatly aiding the fight against international crime, while strengthening U.S. homeland security.

Beginning in 2002, INL undertook a border security program designed to help Mexico harden its northern border against the illegal trafficking of narcotics, cash, arms, and other illegal contraband. As a result, Mexico has made serious advances in improving the physical inspection infrastructure and personnel at its largest crossing points along the joint border with the U.S., including 20 high-tech NIIEs that have aided in detecting and seizing millions of dollars of contraband and bulk cash. In CY 2005, an NIIE unit at the Mexico City International Airport alone was instrumental in the detection of over $20 million of illegal drug money destined for Colombia. The Advanced Passenger Information System (APIS), another border security program, now provides U.S. law enforcement agencies passenger data for all flights arriving and departing Mexican international airports. In CY 2005, APIS screened over 15 million passengers and identified over 1,100 people sought by law enforcement agencies for various crimes. The border security program also saw the opening of three SENTRI lanes in CY 2005. These expedited border crossing lanes for pre-cleared low-risk commuters will permit authorities to concentrate more inspection resources on high-risk travelers. Three more SENTRI lanes are scheduled to open in CY 2006.

Mexico has also made significant strides in improving its interdiction and eradication capacity. The GOM has destroyed thousands of hectares of illicit drug crops (opium, poppy, and marijuana), seized hundreds of tons of drugs (heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, synthetics, and marijuana), intercepted millions of dollars of criminal proceeds, arrested and prosecuted record numbers of criminals, and extradited record numbers of criminals to the U.S. Mexico also made strides in meeting long-term goals. The Attorney General's office, Mexico's principal federal law enforcement agency, has seen the modernization and reform of its investigative (AFI - Federal Investigative Agency), intelligence (CENAPI - Counternarcotics and Anti-Crime Intelligence Center), and prosecutorial (SIEDO - Deputy Attorney General's Office on Organized Crime) offices.

FY 2007 Program

The FY 2007 program consists of five general programs: 1) Border and Port Security; 2) Criminal Justice Institution Building; 3) Counternarcotics Enforcement; 4) Aviation Support; and 5) Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness. The program is designed to balance short-term operational objectives, which may immediately yield greater seizures of illegal contraband, with long-term institutional development, which will strengthen the GOM's permanent capacity to fight DTO's.

Border and Port Security

FY 2007 funding will complete the five-year program to strengthen Mexico's northern border infrastructure, thereby improving the security of the U.S. while promoting the efficient flow of legal goods. The program will expand to cover Mexico's southern border to stem illegal trafficking of drugs, arms, cash, and people before they enter Mexico.

Border Support Infrastructure: Funding will be used to provide Mexican law enforcement, security, and intelligence services with state-of-the-art equipment to increase their capacity to secure Mexico's borders, investigate criminal activities, and prevent terrorist breaches. Given Mexico's newly-adopted policy of providing narcotics enforcement authority to state and local officials, INL will redirect resources and training to state and municipal police departments.

Enhanced Inspection: Funding will be used to procure and install up to seven additional Non-Intrusive Inspection Equipment (NIIE) units to: (1) improve capabilities at two additional northern ports of entry, (2) provide coverage at three key southern ports of entry, and (3) enhance coverage at two sea ports or airports. These enhancements should increase interdiction of contraband before it reaches the U.S.

Enhanced Traffic Flow: Funds will be used to construct two additional SENTRI lanes, thereby covering the ten largest of the 33 legal crossing points on Mexico's northern border. SENTRI lanes expedite the flow of pre-cleared low-risk commuters, which makes up the bulk of border crossings, allowing inspectors to focus more resources on other higher-risk traffic.

Mobile Interdiction Team: Funding will support specialized mobile interdiction teams through training and equipment donation to assist Mexican agencies to improve their ability to control the flow of people, vehicles, and goods transiting Mexico. The mobility of these teams enables significant interdiction coverage with minimal resources.

Strengthened Southern Border: Hardening Mexico's southern border against trafficking of illegal drugs, arms, cash, other contraband and trafficked or smuggled aliens from Central and South America en route to the United States will be an important element of INL's strategy. As noted above, funding will procure three NIIE units for crossing points along Mexico's border with Guatemala and Belize. In addition, as with the northern border, the NAS will design a southern border-training component to train and equip Mexican customs, immigration, and local police officials in border-related courses such as search and rescue, effective arrest techniques, and medical first response.

Criminal Justice Institution Building

Institution Building/Office of the Attorney General: INL funds will be used to continue to strengthen agencies of the Mexican Office of the Attorney General, particularly the Federal Investigative Agency (AFI) created under the Fox Administration. In the last of a five-year plan to establish a model law enforcement institution, FY 2007 funds will focus on enhancing the PGR's capacity to detect and destroy methamphetamine and other synthetic drugs and the precursors used to produce them. Specifically, INL will seek to expand specialized teams, including the Sensitive Investigations Unit created to investigate criminal groups involved in methamphetamine production, the Chemical Response Team trained to raid clandestine drug laboratories, and Mexican prosecutors especially educated to prosecute chemical cases. Funds will also be used to provide additional equipment, such as specialized vehicles for raiding drug laboratories. INL will seek to increase the AFI's capacity to investigate, arrest, and prosecute gangs, an increasingly growing problem with spillover effects in the U.S. At the end of the program, INL expects the GOM's capacity to identify and dismantle clandestine methamphetamine laboratories to be significantly enhanced, resulting in a ten percent increase in the amount of methamphetamine interdicted by the GOM over the previous year. Training a select group of Mexican prosecutors will improve the effectiveness of chemical case prosecutions, resulting in a ten percent increase in the number of successful methamphetamine trafficking convictions. Enhanced investigation, arrest, and prosecution of criminal youth gangs in Mexico should reduce the number of criminal youth gang members who enter the U.S.

Training and Professionalization: The NAS training program is a key element in strengthening Mexico's law enforcement institutions. Funding will support a long-term train-the-trainer program to build up the GOM's ability to train its own lawn enforcement officials. Funding will be used for facilities, curriculum, and teaching methods and provide ongoing training and technical support to fully integrate modern technology and equipment into federal law enforcement offices

Anti-Corruption: INL's program is designed to assist Mexican officials in their efforts to fight corruption by providing training and technical assistance to the PGR and the Secretariat of Public Service (SFP), responsible for detecting and deterring government corruption. Funding will support efforts of the PGR's Center for Human Development to expand its capacity to investigate, combat, and deter corruption and misconduct within the PGR. The program will enhance PGR and SFP officials with the tools necessary to investigate and prosecute complex criminal cases and obtain convictions of corrupt public officials through the use of modern investigative techniques and technological advances. FY 2007 funds will also expand both the number of courses provided and number of officials trained in topics such as Ethics in Government, White Collar Crime, Anti-Corruption Investigations, and Management and Leadership. Funding will be used to continue to expand the Culture of Lawfulness project, which teaches school children about the rule of law from at an early age, throughout Mexico.

Anti-Money Laundering: Mexico is the primary placement point for drug proceeds from the U.S. into the international financial system. This program will continue to improve and broaden the capacity and efficiency of the treasury ministry (Hacienda) - in partnership with the banking industry - to detect suspicious transactions and to enhance the ability of the PGR to investigate and prosecute such offenses. Funding will be used not only to provide advanced training, computers, and analytical support to GOM agencies, but also to promote an effective partnership between these agencies and Mexican financial institutions and with international partners (such as the U.S.). In addition, the project will assist the PGR in pursuing asset forfeiture and managing seized/forfeited assets, through training in legal forfeiture, asset management, and accountability.

Counternarcotics Enforcement

Interdiction: This will be the fourth year of special emphasis on increasing Mexico's operational capacity to interdict drugs before they reach the U.S. Funding will be used to enhance and broaden interdiction efforts through direct operational support. The NAS will use FY 2007 funds to procure three additional vehicles to expand the specially-trained and equipped mobile interdiction task forces established in 2006 for deployment at the 125-mile wise Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico's natural chokepoint. This deployment should also result in improved ability to control the flow of people, vehicles, and goods entering Mexico from the south - a natural chokepoint for smuggling routes from Central and South America.

Eradication: Emphasis will be on the continued increase of aerial eradication with the objective of significantly reducing the cultivation of opium poppy and marijuana crops - stopping drugs before they are produced. Funding will also support broadening the coverage and increasing the effectiveness of interdiction missions (especially in the northern region bordering on the U.S.) to seize and destroy more drugs being smuggled from or through Mexican territory.

Aviation Support

Funds will be used to support the GOM Office of the Attorney General (PGR) aviation program, a key element in air and overland interdiction. The PGR operates a large air fleet that includes fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft for tracking and interception as well as aerial eradication. FY 2007 will be the fourth of a five-year plan to provide up to 28 Schweizer helicopters and up to 29 refurbished UH-1H helicopters. Funds will be used to procure three more Schweizer helicopters for border surveillance and up to six UH-1H helicopters for personnel transport and aerial support for ground anti-terror and anti-drug operations. Funding will also be used to train PGR pilots, mechanics, sensor operators, and analysts. In addition, funding will be used to support C-26 reconnaissance aircraft used by the Mexican Air Force for signal collection and aerial detection and monitoring of suspect aircraft.

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

Drug abuse in Mexico has increased significantly in recent years. Mexican non-governmental organizations (NGOs) based in schools and the workplace are essential to reverse this trend. FY 2007 funds will continue to fund NGOs dedicated to drug abuse prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation, but will place special emphasis on NGOs that focus on methamphetamine addiction. In addition, INL will initiate a program to focus attention and educate the public about narco-violence along the border. Understanding drug abuse trends in Mexico is essential to design effective programs. As in other years, INL will continue to fund drug abuse studies by Mexico's National Council on Addictions to obtain necessary epidemiological data.

Program Development and Support

Funds will be used for salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, ICASS funding and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Mexico

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Border and Port Security

Border Support Infrastructure

1,900

-

8,500

-

2,000

Enhanced Inspection

9,500

-

5,100

-

6,800

Enhanced Traffic Flow

3,000

-

1,250

-

2,000

Mobile Interdiction Team

480

-

2,000

-

1,000

National Crime Data Base

-

1,000

-

-

Strengthened Southern Border

-

-

-

3,000

Sub-Total

14,880

-

17,850

-

14,800

Criminal Justice Institution Building

Office of the Attorney General

1,488

-

7,000

-

5,500

Professionalization and Training

2,480

-

3,000

-

2,500

Anti-Corruption

496

-

500

-

1,000

Equipment and Infrastructure

992

-

-

-

-

Anti-Money Laundering

992

-

500

-

800

Sub-Total

6,448

-

11,000

-

9,800

Counternarcotics Enforcement

Counternarcotics/Organized Crime Support

992

-

-

-

-

Drug Interdiction & Crop

Eradication Support

5,126

-

3,500

-

5,000

Sub-Total

6,118

-

3,500

-

5,000

Aviation Support

Schweizer Helicopters

5,250

-

-

-

3,600

UH-1H Refurbished Helicopters

3,000

-

5,000

-

2,400

C-26 Support

2,000

-

-

-

800

Sub-Total

10,250

-

5,000

-

6,800

Sub-Operational Support

37,696

-

37,350

-

36,400

Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction

248

-

500

-

1,000

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

452

-

455

-

450

Non-U.S. Personnel

257

-

260

-

220

ICASS Costs

438

-

435

-

430

Program Support

589

-

600

-

500

Sub-Total

1,736

-

1,750

-

1,600

Total

39,680

-

39,600

-

39,000

Caribbean and Central America (Transit Zone)

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

3,224 [3]

2,475 [3]

1,700

 
 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

All South American drug shipments headed for the United States transit through these two regions by land, sea or air. The program will enhance the abilities of law enforcement agencies to detect and intercept shipments and detain traffickers. Performance indicators include:

Increased number of interdictions and quantity of drugs and contraband seized.

Government forces able to respond to growing number of suspect movements.

Broadened and more effective exchanges of information with USG and among regional partners.

Evidence of deterrence seen in shifts in trafficking patterns and behavior.

Augmented ability of responsible agencies to investigate, prosecute, seize criminal assets, interdict illicit drug and chemical shipments and control money laundering.

Increases in the number of arrests and successful prosecutions of drug traffickers and money launderers, number and quantity of drug and chemical seizures, and amount and value of proceeds of crime and criminal assets seized and forfeited.

Criminal justice institutions respond to threats of drug trafficking, narcotics-related crime and corruption more effectively. In Central America, affected governments better equipped to respond to problem of youth gangs through both enforcement and prevention.

Gaps or shortcomings in legislation and regulations addressed.

Measured improvement in prosecution rates.

Youth gang activity; levels of violence/crime decrease.

Anti-corruption measures established; numbers of successful corruption-related investigations, actions, and prosecutions increase.

Bilateral and multilateral mutual legal assistance and extradition cooperation expanded.

Response time for requests under the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty reduced; number of successful extraditions increased.

Number of successful joint investigations, operations, prosecutions increase.

Hemispheric and sub-regional institutions that promote intergovernmental initiatives against criminal activity, drug trafficking and drug abuse are fortified.

Regional bodies undertake initiatives result in legal harmonization, establishment of minimum standards of performance, decreases in drug abuse, etc.

Program Justification

The Caribbean and Central America account comprises ten separate programs: Dominican Republic, Eastern Caribbean, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Situated in the main transit zone for drugs destined for the U.S., these countries constitute a first line of defense against drug traffickers and other transnational criminal organizations seeking to penetrate U.S. borders. All are poor, developing nations. They lack the resources and institutional capacities to respond effectively to transnational organized crime, although most have demonstrated the political will to do so. Helping these countries develop law enforcement and judicial institutions capable of confronting drug trafficking, associated violence, criminal youth gangs, corruption and drug abuse serves U.S. counternarcotics, democracy and security interests.

Program Accomplishments

In 2005, Caribbean and Central American law enforcement agencies seized large quantities of drugs and took other actions against the transport and cultivation of drugs. For example, Trinidad and Tobago seized 3 metric tons of cocaine and over 100 metric tons of marijuana. The Bahamas seized one metric ton of cocaine and over 13 metric tons of marijuana. The Dominican Republic made several large seizures headed for the U.S., totaling over 2.2 metric tons of cocaine, 121 kgs of heroin and 280,627 units of MDMA. Jamaica seized 142 kgs of cocaine, 17 metric tons of marijuana and 13,070 ecstasy tablets. In Honduras, over 800 people were arrested for drug trafficking offenses, and law enforcement seized 269 kgs of cocaine, 2.5 kgs of heroin, 1.3 metric tons of marijuana and over four million dollars in assets. The Salvadoran military and police worked closely with USG forces to seize 46 metric tons of cocaine during 2005. Guatemala eradicated 58 hectares of opium poppy, seized over 4 metric tons of cocaine and facilitated the arrest of 67 drug traffickers by the U.S. Coast Guard in international waters under the bilateral maritime agreement with the U.S.

In 2005, Trinidad and Tobago and the Regional Security System - a treaty-based organization consisting of the seven Eastern Caribbean islands - assumed full financial responsibility for the operation and maintenance of their respective C-26 airborne surveillance programs. SOUTHCOM's Joint Inter-Agency Task Force (JIATF-S) will continue to coordinate the maritime and air interdiction detection operations of the two C-26 programs.

Central American countries continued to improve their ability to interdict transiting drugs (as reflected in increased seizures). Belize established a National Coast Guard service that strengthened its maritime and coastal interdiction efforts. There was also progress in regional cooperation and border control. For example, El Salvador implemented a Containerized Freight Tracking System to monitor commercial trucking at its Amatillo border crossing with Honduras. Costa Rica's Mobile Enforcement Team (a specialized, interagency law enforcement unit) joined in cross-border missions with Nicaraguan and Panamanian counterparts. El Salvador and the United States established an Inter-America International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) for the Americas.

FY 2007 Program

Caribbean Country Assistance

The Caribbean accounts for an estimated 10 percent of the drug flow to the United States. Funding will concentrate on the maintenance of Caribbean capabilities in interdiction, law enforcement and administration of justice. Support will be provided to members of the Association of the Caribbean Chiefs of Police to facilitate the installation of computer links to the Regional Intelligence and Information Sharing System (RIISS). An INL-funded project that will become operational in 2006, the RIISS is a regional database of law enforcement and exit entry data. The RIISS will provide links to INTERPOL and permit the vetting of arrivals and departures of passengers on cruise ships and airlines.

Central America Country Assistance

According to the U.S. Interagency Assessment of Cocaine Movement, an estimated 90 percent of the drug flow to the U.S. transits the Central American land/sea/air corridors. Funding will focus on drug interdiction efforts and promote improved regional and cross-border cooperation aimed at stemming the flow of drugs. Ongoing regional anticorruption, anti-alien smuggling and commercial freight tracking initiatives will also be supported. One of the first courses developed for the new ILEA Academy will be on gang-related law enforcement skills. INL is supporting the establishment or expansion of Culture of Lawfulness projects in Central America to assist governments in preventing juvenile crime and violence. INL-supported programs through the OAS drug commission (CICAD) complement bilateral law enforcement and demand reduction projects.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, allowances, and benefits of U.S. and foreign national direct hire employees and contract personnel working in Narcotics Affairs Sections or Offices in the region. In addition, funds pay for International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Caribbean and Central America

(Transit Zone)

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005 *

Supp

FY 2006 *

Supp

FY 2007

Caribbean Country Assistance

600

-

550

-

500

Central America Country Assistance

600

-

550

-

500

South America Country Assistance

300

-

200

-

-

Regional Programs

500

-

175

-

-

Program Development and Support

1,224

-

1,000

-

700

Sub-Total

3,224

-

2,475

-

1,700

* In FY 2005 and 2006 the Caribbean and Central America Regional (Transit Zone) programs were represented under the Latin America Regional budget line item. The entire FY 2005 and 2006 Latin America Regional budgets are being reported here for illustrative purposes.

Southern Cone Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2005 Actual

FY 2006 Estimate

FY 2007 Request

---

---

500

 
 

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

 
Selected law enforcement agencies have an enhanced ability to investigate, prosecute, seize and forfeit assets, interdict drugs and chemical shipments and control money laundering.

Enhance the capabilities of the law enforcement agencies in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay to enable them to more effectively act against narcotics trafficking, other transborder crime and international terrorism.
Continue law enforcement institution building to combat trafficking and to counter possible spillover of cultivation and/or processing operations from Colombia as a result of increased counternarcotics activities there.

Support programs to encourage cross-border operations and intelligence sharing among law enforcement and military to address regional trafficking organizations and trafficking patterns that rely on national borders to evade law enforcement operations and to impede the flow of illicit arms and narcotics.

Selected criminal justice institutions are better able to respond effectively to threats of drugs trafficking, narcotics-related crime and corruption.

Develop host nation law enforcement capabilities to assert the rule of law in drug transit and terrorist-occupied areas.

Program Justification

Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay are vulnerable to exploitation as transit zones for tens of thousands of metric tons of cocaine originating in Andean source countries and other transborder crimes, such as money laundering, smuggling precursor chemicals, trafficking in persons and intellectual rights piracy. The Tri-Border Area (TBA), shared by Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, has long served as an ideal location for illicit activity. Funds are raised in the Tri-border Area for several of the world's largest and best-funded international terrorist organizations, Hezbollah, Hamas and al Jamaa al-Islamiyya.

Assistance will enhance the institutions and capabilities of the law enforcement agencies in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay to enable them to more effectively act against narcotics trafficking; other transborder crime; international terrorism; and to counter possible spillover of cultivation and/or processing operations from Colombia; and support programs to encourage cross-border operations and intelligence sharing.

Program Accomplishments

Following on last year's tremendous success in capturing Brazilian fugitive and accused arms/drug trafficker Ivan Carlos Mendes Mesquita, Paraguay extradited him to the United States in June 2005. In addition, Paraguay's National Anti-Drug Secretariat (SENAD), in cooperation with the Brazilian National Police, captured Brazilian national, Luis Alberto Da Cunha, who was on Brazil's ten Most Wanted list. Brazil is seeking extradition of Da Cunha who is connected to Mesquita.

Argentine and Uruguayan authorities have made significant cocaine and heroin seizures and dismantled a numbers of cocaine paste laboratories. In Argentina, training has bolstered Argentina's counternarcotics capabilities, as evidenced by a significant increase in drug seizures in 2005, surpassing two tons of cocaine, the largest amount seized since 1995. According to Argentina's Secretariat for the Prevention of Drug Addiction and Counternarcotics Programs (SEDRONAR) drug seizure statistics, cocaine seizures for the first three quarters of 2005 increased by 66 percent, as compared the same period in 2004. Additionally, the Uruguayan legislature is considering a new asset forfeiture initiative that would allow the Government of Uruguay to confiscate and immediately sell a drug trafficker's vehicle, providing additional resources for Uruguayan counter-drug efforts.

In March 2005, the Chilean NGO "Citizen Peace Foundation", in coordination with Embassy Santiago, launched the country's first pilot program for drug courts in the port town of Valparasio. Following this successful launch, the program will be expanded to Santiago in 2006. Additionally, Chile completed its multi-year, nationwide criminal justice reform project in June 2005. With its completion, Chile's 12 regions, plus the Santiago Metropolitan region have adopted the new adversarial judicial system based on oral trials rather than document-based legal proceedings.

FY 2007 Program

Paraguay: Support will focus on strengthening the GOP's capability to disrupt cocaine trafficking operations, pursue and arrest high-level narcotics traffickers, and to combat money laundering with provision of computers, communications and other equipment, salary support, training and technical assistance.

Argentina: Support will provide training and equipment to GOA law enforcement agencies that target smuggling activities at ports, airports and against major narcotics trafficking organizations.

Chile: Support will assist Chile to increase its effectiveness in anti-money laundering, judicial reform, chemical control and narcotics interdiction by providing training, seminars and workshops; equipment and technical assistance.

Uruguay: Support will help prevent Uruguay from becoming a major narcotics transit and consumption country by providing training for demand reduction programs and the anti-money laundering unit.

Program, Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, allowances, and benefits for foreign national direct hire employees and contract personnel working in Narcotics Affairs Offices. In addition, funds for International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Southern Cone

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2005

FY 2006

FY 2005

Supp

FY 2006

Supp

FY 2007

Program Development and Support

-

-

-

-

500

Total

-

-

-

-

500

________________

[1] FY 2005 funding level of $3,812,000 includes $2,820,000 of INCLE funds and $992,000 of ACI funds.

[2] The Haiti Police Program was funded in FY 2005 via a transfer of $8.455 million of FY 2005 ESF funds and $5.8 million of supplemental FY 2005 ESF funds to INL.

[3] In FY 2005 and 2006 the Caribbean and Central America Regional (Transit Zone) programs were reported under Latin America Regional budget line item. The entire FY 2005 and 2006 Latin America Regional budgets are being reported here.



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