The NAS conducted End Use Monitoring site visits and physically inspected USG-funded commodities in major locations with the Judicial Technical Police (RTG) representatives from the relevant agencies, i.e., the Department of Technical and Economic Cooperation (DTEC), the Office of the National Control Board (ONCB), and the Police Narcotics Suppression Bureau (PNSB).
During the EUM inspection period March-June 2003, joint USG/RTG teams made ten trips to all four regions of the country to physically inspect commodities. Inspections in the Bangkok metropolitan area were carried out in August and September. To facilitate the End Use Monitoring process, units located in small and remote locations forwarded inventory forms to their regional command unit. The units were then inspected by USG/RTG teams. This process was limited to only a few, small and isolated units, holding limited quantities of monitorable commodities. In all instances, counterpart agencies were entirely cooperative and responsive in implementing these procedures. EUM reporting responsibilities for commodities located at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) and the DEA sensitive units reside with ILEA and DEA.
NAS Bangkok EUM procedures for CY-2003 resulted in a verification rate of 89 percent. A total of 155 end-user sites were visited by the NAS staff. Survey teams physically inspected 3,236 of 3,651 non-expendable commodity items accounted for in this report. Based on these inspections, inventory verifications and other information available to post, the NAS knows of no instance in which monitorable INC-funded commodities were not dedicated to support of the RTG activities against the abuse, trafficking and production of illicit drugs to which they ere assigned.
At most units, the commodities provided are under the responsibility of the end-user unit chief as governed by RTG property regulations, with an officer assigned to maintain records.
Communications equipment consisting of UHF/FM base stations transceivers (20), UHF/FM handheld transceivers (34), mobile telephones (31), UHF DVP mobile transceivers (18) supported the Narcotics Law Enforcement Project. Motorola hand-held radios (138) and mobile car radios (22) supported the Special Investigative Units. All equipment is in good condition.
Five PC's, seven computer printers, and computer software were provided to the Crop Control Project; 329 PC's, 320 computer printers/plotters and computer software were provided to the RTG agencies. Thirty-two PC's and 61 printers/plotters were provided to the Demand Reduction Project. Eleven PC's and 16 printers/plotters were provided the ILEA. Ten PC's and five printers/plotters were provided to the DEA Special Unit.
Cameras, photocopiers, video cameras, fax machines, televisions, power generator night vision devices, typewriters, tape recorders, overhead projectors, paper shredders, slide projectors, and other electronic equipment were provided by the NAS to support narcotics Crop Control, Demand Reduction, and Law Enforcement Projects. Most of the equipment is in good condition, except for the power generator, electric typewriter, mobile phones and audio tape recorders which are in fair to poor condition.
The following items were found missing from the PNSB: two laptop computers, night visions goggles; two color printers, digital camera, and two transmitter/receivers.
During the period 1974-1979, the USG supplied seven Bell UH-1H (Bell 205A-1) and two Bell 206L helicopters to the RTG. These helicopters have been used by ONCB in support of the RTG opium crop surveillance and crop eradication program in northern Thailand. Most rotary airlift capability for support of the eradication program is now provided by the Royal Thai Army Third Region Command. Of the aircraft on the inventory below, aircraft 1713 has been grounded since October 1998; 1716 since October 1997; 1717 since July 1999; 1718 and 2401 since 2000; and 2402 since October 1999.
|205A-1||1712||On duty in Chiang Mai|
|205A-1||1716||Repair in Bangkok|
|205A-1||1717||Repair in Bangkok|
|205A-1||1718||Repair in Bangkok|
|205A-1||1719||Destroyed on 1981 crash|
|205A-1||1720||On duty in Chiang Mai|
|206L||2401||Repair in Bangkok|
|206L||2402||Repair in Bangkok|
During 2002, DTEC and counterpart agencies made a significant effort to identify unserviceable or overage motor vehicles; delete them from project inventories; sell items for what they could bring; or junk them. All proceeds from such sales were returned to DTEC, which employs such proceeds in implementation of drug and crime control project activities being supported by the NAS due to the continuing shrinkage in the overall size of the INL program in Thailand.
The NAS and counterparts inspected 49 motorcycles, 13 pickup trucks, 19 sedans, 1 land cruiser, 1 station wagon and 4 vans. All vehicles remaining on inventory that were inspected were found to be in good condition. No significant problems were noted in the End Use Monitoring of motor vehicles. Six sedans, 1 station wagon, and 1 van were assigned to the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Bangkok. All are in good condition.
The following vehicles have been assigned to the GOT units: 6 motorcycles to Provincial Police Chiang Rai; 6 motorcycles to Provincial Police Mae Hong Song; 2 motorcycles to Provincial Police Payao; 3 motorcycles to Provincial Police Lam Pang; 2 motorcycles to Provincial Police Phrae; 2 motorcycles to Provincial Police Nan; 1 motorcycle to RTG Chiang Mai; 3 motorcycles to PNSB Phuket; 1 motorcycle to PNSB Pattaya; 1 motorcycle to RTA Phitsanulokle; 10 motorcycles to PNSB Bangkok; 2 pickups to RTA Chiang Mai; 1 pickup to Chiang Mai University; 1 pickup to RTA Phayao; 1 pickup to RTG Mae Hong Son; 4 pickups to RTG Phitsanulike; 1 pickup to PNSB Ayudhaya; 1 pickup to PNSB Hat Yai; 1 pickup to PNSB Udorn; 1 pickup to PNSB Ubon Ratchathani; 1 pickup to RTA Nakorn Sawan; 1 pickup to Klongphai Prison; 1 pickup to headquarters ONCB Bangkok; 15 pickups to headquarters PNSB Bangkok; 2 pickups to Royal Project Foundation Chiang Mai; 1 sedan to Royal Project Foundation Chiang Mai; 1 sedan to PNSB Samut Sakhon; 1 sedan to ONCB Tung Song Hong Bangkok; 2 sedans to headquarters ONCB Bangkok; 13 sedans to headquarters PNSB Bangkok; 1 sedan to ONCB Chiang Mai; 1 Landcruiser to headquarters PNSB Bangkok; 1 station wagon to Child Rights Center Chiang Mai; 3 vans to headquarters ONCB Bangkok; 1 van to headquarters PNSB Bangkok.
Due to shrinkage in the overall size of the INL program in Thailand, as well as continuing evolution from commodity-heavy traditional crop control and drug law enforcement toward training and technical assistance in crime control and the criminal justice sector, replacement of vehicles has not generally been provided. During 2003, this process continued with the deletion of 85 motorcycles and four pickup trucks from the EUM inventory.
Forty-nine motorcycles, 21 pickup trucks, 26 sedans, 9 SUV's and 4 vans were used in support of the Special Investigative Units (SIU's). The vehicles are located in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Udorn and Songkhla.
In November, the U.S. military donated 250 M4 carbines, with associated parts and support equipment, to the Border Patrol Police (BPP). In Chiang Mai, an interagency Intelligence Fusions Center (IIFC) was completed, including delivery and installation of a significant amount of data processing and communications equipment. FMF grant funds appropriated for 2002 were allocated to enhance the effectiveness of the BPP and to enhance the capabilities of all RTG agencies with counternarcotics missions in the northern region that participates in the IIFC.
The overall impact of the Thai Government programs has been considerable and positive in all respects. The Thai opium poppy reduction program is one of the most effective in the world. USG assistance has been critical to attaining the crop control strategic success. Effective RTG drug law enforcement efforts have resulted in significant identified diversion of illicit international movements. Illicit drug production, trafficking and abuse remain a substantial problem in Thailand and the Thai criminal justice sector remains in need of continuing technical and material assistance to respond to the growing new challenges of terrorism, money laundering and other transnational and organized crime. Long-term development of effective RTG institutional capabilities to control, reduce and prevent these activities would be substantially retarded without the impact of assistance that has been provided by the USG.
The DEA Singapore /Indonesia country office conducted an on-site inspection of the equipment transferred to the Indonesian Police (INP).
Three Toyota automobiles and six Honda motorcycles were provided to the INP Narcotics and Drugs Criminal Investigation Unit in June 2001; four vehicles and 25 motorcycles were transferred in 2003. To date, there have been no problems with the vehicles. The INP is maintaining the vehicles and performing all vehicle repairs. Due to the harsh road conditions and constant use of these vehicles, it is anticipated that the vehicles and motorcycles life expectancy is about 4-5 years.
Thirty-five (35) Motorola GP338 radio units were provided to the INP Narcotics and Drugs Criminal Investigation Unit in June 2001. They are being used by the INP officers in the field.
The equipment continues to assist the INP with their counternarcotics efforts in Indonesia. There are no problems with the use of this equipment.
The End Use of the items was verified through a memorandum from the National Narcotics Agency (NNA).
The six surveillance sedans and two surveillance vans provided to the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) for counternarcotics activities have reached the end of their useful lives. They will be removed from post's inventory.
One NEC Powermate computer and printer for RMCE and 18 computer modems for NNA have reached the end of their useful lives. They will be removed from inventory.
The Royal Malaysia Customs and Excise Department (RMCE) uses six portable radios. The RMCE 's Motorola repeater station was used at Subang airport for several years. It has been moved to RMCE's office facility at Nilai. It is still functioning.
The vapor detector analyzer was never effectively used. It is now sitting in a warehouse and has reached the end of its useful life. It is a sophisticated and delicate piece of equipment, difficult to calibrate, difficult to move, and difficult to use in air-conditioned space. RMCE never received adequate training from the supplier.
The vehicles were useful for counternarcotics operations for a decade. The Government of Malaysia recipients agree that items have had a positive effort on their counternarcotics effort.
In 2003, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and DEA inspected the drug analysis equipment.
In 1997, INL supplied drug analysis equipment to the Cambodian Anti-Narcotics Department laboratory in Phnom Penh. However, the equipment was never unpacked due to political strife in Cambodia at the time. The Cambodian government has formally requested U.S. assistance in assembling the drug analysis equipment. DEA has agreed to pay assembly and installation costs. DEA has made arrangements with the manufacturer in Vietnam to bring the equipment on line in 2004.
Once operable, the U.S.-donated drug analysis equipment will greatly enhance the ability of Cambodian authorities to analyze confiscated chemical substances, thereby supporting their counternarcotics efforts.
Inspections of INL-provided equipment and INL-funded construction projects were conducted during field trips to projects throughout the year. The NAS used these visits to discuss maintenance problems and to insure that INL-funded commodities are being used properly and are contributing to the overall success of the projects. Lao counterparts have made all INL-provided equipment available for inspection.
Vehicles are used for hauling supplies and providing transportation in direct support of project activities. Vehicles are used strictly for project activities.
Four pickup trucks, one Isuzu Trooper II, and 20 motorcycles used by the Lao American Crop Control project, are in good condition. One vehicle is based in Vientiane; three in Bountai. One vehicle is co-located with the Lao Commission for Drug Control and Supervision (LCDC). One motorcycle is in Vientiane; one in Samphan; and 18 in Bountai Office.
Two Toyota Landcruisers, one Isuzu Trooper, sixteen Toyota Hilux double cab pickups, one Toyota single cab pickup, two Mitsubishi double cap pickup, and ninety-three motorcycles are in use by the Law Enforcement Project; two Toyota Landcruisers, one Toyota Hilux double cab pickup truck, one Toyota Hilux single cab pickup truck, and six motorcycles are in use by the Drug Control Department; two Toyota Hilux double cab pickup trucks, and ten motorcycles are in use by the Savannakhet counternarcotics Unit; one Toyota Hilux double cab pickup and two motorcycles are in use by the Bokeo Counternarcotics Unit; one Mitsubishi double cab pickup truck and eleven motorcycles are in use by the Oudomkay Counternarcotis Unit; one pickup truck and six motorcycles are in use by the Houaphan Counternarcotics Office; one pickup truck and six motorcycles are in use by the Phongsaly Counternarcotics Office; three pickup trucks and four motorcycles are in use by the Narcotics Unit Customs office; one pickup truck and eleven motorcycles are in use by the Luang Prabang Counternarcotics office; one pickup truck and six motorcycles are in use by the Champasack Counternarcotics Office; six motorcycles and one pickup truck are in use by the Xayaboury counternarcotcis Office; six motorcycles and one pickup truck are in use by the Vientiane Capital Office; one pickup truck is in use by the Xiengkhouang Counternarcotics Office.
All are in good condition and well maintained. A full-time mechanic controls the project motor pool operation and maintenance. Vehicles are used strictly for project activities.
In the Lao-American project, the Motorola base stations provide communications between Vientiane and the project offices in Phongsaly Province. The mobile radios allow for communication between the project area staff and the district offices. All equipment is dedicated to the Anti-Narcotics Crop Control Project with little opportunity for diversion.
Two HF-SSB radios, four VHF-FM mobile radios, seven VHF ICOM hand-held transceivers, and 14 VHF/FM visar hand-held transceivers are used by the Savannakhet counternarcotics Office. Two HF-SSB radios and two VHF FM radios are used by the Oudomxay Counternarcotics Office. Twelve hand-held radios are used by the Xayaboury Counternarcotics Office. One HF SSB radio, two VHF FM radios, and ten hand-held radios are used by the Champasack Counternarcotics Office. Two HF SSB radios, two VHF FM radios, and ten hand-held radios are used by the Phongsaly Counternarcotics Office. One HF SSB radio, two VHF FM radios, and twelve handheld radios are used by the Houaphan Counternarcotics Office. Twelve handheld radios are used by the Vientiane Municipality Counternarcotics Office; one HF SSB radio and two VHF FM radios, and ten handheld radios are used by the Luang Prabang counter Narcotics Office. Five HF-SSB radios, seven VHF-FM radios, and 38 hand-held receivers are used by the Drug Control Department.
Radio maintenance and repairs were performed either by the U.S. owned distributor of Motorola equipment or by the Ministry of Interior technical staff sent to the CNO's.
Computer and office equipment are used full time in the Vientiane project office for project management purposes. Four CPU's and monitors are located at the Lao National Committee for Drug Control and Supervision. A Gateway 2000 computer and LaserJet printer are located at each of the following offices: Savannakhet, Department of Customs/Narcotics Unit, Ministry of Finance, Champasack Counternarcotics Office, Phongsaly Counternarcotics Office, Houaphan Counternarcotics Office, Luang Prabang Counternarcotics Office, and Oudomxay Offices.
Four Dell computers and three laps are in use by the NAS. Two Gateway 2000 computers are broken.
Computers need constant maintenance and repair. Since computer service in the provinces is irregular, such computers must be brought into Vientiane for service. Moreover, the supply of electricity in some areas is unreliable. So post is very reliant on generators. The NAS keeps careful inventory of the whereabouts of all computer components at all times.
Fax machines, VCR's, binoculars, cameras, television monitors, cassette recorders, and copy machines are used throughout the projects. They are all in good condition. Copy machines need maintenance and repair regularly in some northern provinces, where the electrical supply is not stable.
Maintenance of equipment, especially computers and copiers require constant monitoring. The NAS has urged on numerous occasions that counterparts immediately report problems with equipment and installations both during and between inspection visits.
Due to budget restraints, post is in the process of revising the law enforcement program. Post will ensure that whatever new office equipment is provided to provincial counternarcotics includes a maintenance contract.
USG funding and commodities remain the keys to project success in Laos. As one of the world's poorest countries, Laos has virtually no funding available for counternarcotics activities and would be unable to actively pursue counternarcotics goals without foreign donor support. The Lao government continues to seek such support. The U.S. is the largest donor in the counternarcotics area, both via the bilateral projects and through UNODC projects.