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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Southwest Asia


End-Use Monitoring Report
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 2005
Report
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CALCUTTA

Procedures Post carried out physical inspection of vehicles with the Calcutta office of the Narcotics Control Bureau. Post obtained inputs for the End Use Monitoring report via telephone and correspondence from recipients of INL commodities at sites in other states of the consular district. INL commodities have been donated to three organizations in Eastern India: the Mizoram State Excise, the Central Bureau of Narcotics (CNB), and the Narcotics Control Bureau.

Status

Computer Equipment

Two computers with printers are at the Excise headquarters and one each is in the Champhai and Saiha offices of the Excise superintendent. Two of the desk jet printers have been out-of-order for six to seven months with problems that the Aizaw-based service contractor have not been able to rectify. INL provided computers have enhanced the agency's data collection and intelligence capacity.

Communications Equipment

Five Motorola radio handsets are being used in the headquarters by the anti- narcotics staff; two in Champhi; and one each at the Superintendents of Excise at Saihi, Varengte and Kolasib.

Vehicles

Three Maruti Gypsy 4-wheel drive utility vehicles are at the Anti-narcotics Division at Aizwl headquarters and one each is in Champhai, Saiha, and Vairengte. All are in good condition and are of great support in terms of mobility for the Excise staff's counternarcotics efforts.

Four Yamaha motorbikes are at the Aizawl headquarters and one each is at the district offices of Aizawl and Champhai for mobility in intelligence gathering. Two bikes are in Guwahati and are being used by the CNB to collect intelligence.

A Maruti Omni van was donated to the Narcotics Control Board (NCB). It is being used for preventive and surveillance work. A Maruti Esteem was donated to the NCB in 2002. It is being used for the conveyance of senior officials to conduct training programs and to attend meetings and liaison with other government agencies. It is also being used for surveillance work. A Toyota Qualia was donated to the NCB in 2003. It has been involved in a number of seizures. It has greatly enhanced the mobility of the NCB staff during its raid of an illegal drug laboratory in the city and subsequent arrests and investigations.

Miscellaneous Equipment

One digital camera was donated to the Office of the Superintendent of Excise at Saiha and to the Anti-Narcotics Squad in the Indo-Burma border town of Champhai; two were donated to the Anti-Narcotics Division of the Excise headquarters in Aizawl. The camera at Champhai developed defects that cannot be repaired locally and has been replaced with one from headquarters. The cameras have proved very useful in exchanging photographic details for identification and verification. A digital recorder was donated to NCB in 2001.

Ten weed trimmers donated to the CNB have been lying around for two years as there as there has been no poppy eradication in the Northeast since 2002.

COLOMBO

Procedures Post continues to monitor the use of equipment purchased for Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) involved in anti-narcotics efforts. The two NGO's are the Sri Lanka Anti-Narcotics Association (SLANA) and Mithuru-Mithuro Rehabilitation Center. Mission personnel have continued to receive verbal updates on the status of equipment from each organization.

Status

A photocopier was provided to the SLANA in 1998. The equipment is in good working order at the SLANA office in Colombo. A Sony 14" color television was purchased for the Mithuru-Mithuro Drug Rehabilitation Center in 1999. It is used with recovering drug addicts in an educational setting. It is in good working order.

Impact

The equipment has helped the Mission provide comprehensive anti-narcotics support. Aiding these preventative and rehabilitative organizations complements post's anti-narcotics law enforcement assistance.

DHAKA

Procedures

Post visited the testing laboratory at the Department of Narcotics Control (DNC); examined the equipment; and questioned laboratory personnel on each piece of equipment. The DNC lab technicians were cooperative and helpful. However, the lab director was inattentive and seemed irritated by the visit.

Status

In July 2000, post turned over to the DNC an analytical balance, top-loading balance, and polarizing microscope for use in their newly constructed narcotics testing laboratory. The lab's results have been accepted by the Bangladesh courts as bona fide evidence in narcotics cases. All items are clean and in excellent working order and stored in a temperature controlled lab within a secure building and compound. Items are being used for their intended purpose. However, some equipment is outside the chemists' technical training and is unused.

Problems

The DG DNC is energetic and proactive, but this department and the laboratory in particular, suffers from severe budgetary constraints. As of the December visit, chemists had not been paid for six months. Aside from the equipment provided in 2000, there is little more that the chemists and technicians have to work with. The lab itself is very poorly cleaned and maintained and lacks temperature control, refrigeration facilities, and proper ventilation. Basic items such as voltage stabilizers and Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS) do not exist. The absence of these items places equipment at undue risk of damage or failure. In addition, field communications, field testing, and sophisticated narcotics analysis tools are seriously lacking.

Program Changes

A Letter of Agreement (LOA) on Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement was signed in 2002 between the USG and the BDG to provide equipment and training. An ICITAP employee visited the DNC's drug lab in June 2003 to evaluate the needs and provide recommendations to increase its efficacy. In addition, an amendment to the original LOA, which will provide training to address police professionalism, internal corruption, and forensic investigations, is under review with the BDG. The narcotics coordinator will periodically check on the operations of the laboratory and report any significant changes, as well as progress in implementation of the LOA amendment.

Impact

Samples referred to the drug lab continued to increase in 2004. Without further support, the lab will become inoperative within the year. The support provided ICITAP thus far has not had a significant impact on improving the quality of the lab's work or its efficiency. It appears that this is largely due to the extent of the problems at the lab and the lack of ability of the lab technicians to use the more sophisticated analysis equipment. These factors make assistance provided at the current level inconsequential. Simple changes would improve the situation, but they must come from the DNC or elsewhere in the Government of Bangladesh.

ISLAMABAD

Procedures

The NAS performs End Use Monitoring in the course of day-to-day program management, on-site inspections, procurement of new equipment and commodities, and contact with GOP counterparts. The NAS Director and Deputy Director also routinely reinforce EUM objectives with counterparts in recipient agencies. As needed, NAS management raises issues of commodity abuse or fraud with appropriate officials; recommends areas of improvement; and follows up to ensure timely compliance. GOP agencies are generally cooperative and responsive to EUM requirements. Recipients of NAS assistance are well aware that the NAS will not tolerate malfeasance. Early in 2004, the NAS asked all recipient agencies to provide quarterly reports on inventory, status, location and impact of INL-provided assistance. Responses were not always timely, often due to bottlenecks in information flow from the MOI to the NAS. However, during the last quarter of 2004, the MOI appointed a Donor Coordinator for U.S. assistance to help facilitate and streamline the reporting process.

In 2004, the NAS EUM team carried out a series of visits to recipient agencies throughout Pakistan, including Islamabad, Quetta, Karachi, Makran coast, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and FATA agencies. During field trips throughout the year, the NAS staff also conducted over 100 spot-checks of various recipient agencies in different locations throughout the country. NAS and counterpart agencies jointly verified and updated inventories.

In some cases when travel to an area was neither feasible (due to remoteness) nor safe, agencies transported commodities to main locations for inspection by the NAS staff. When taking vehicles away from their main area of deployment would have harmed operational effectiveness, NAS Management staff compared NAS-generated computerized inventory records of commodities against recipient agency written inventories.

Status

With a few exceptions, commodities were in place and being used for the purposes for which they were provided. The condition of items varied from location to location.

Vehicles

During 2004, NAS teams inspected about 67% of the 1,676 INL-funded vehicles, verifying their condition and location of deployments. The INL-funded vehicles provided to the Government of Pakistan (GOP) are used for drug interdiction by the law enforcement agencies and to implement development programs funded by the NAS in Mohmand and Bajaur agencies. In the law enforcement area, they were used for poppy enforcement operations; law enforcement stake-outs; transporting officers to road checkpoints; chasing, apprehending and transporting criminals suspected of smuggling illicit narcotics; searching for drug laboratories; and transporting officers to central locations. In the development area, they were used to transport project managers and project implementation staff to monitor the progress of development projects, and to authenticate GOP reports of crop eradication. They were also used to purchase and transport NAS-provided agricultural commodities for farmers and security escorts required in tribal areas.

The vehicles provided to Home Department /FATA were found to be at the location to which they were assigned and being used for the purpose intended. The NAS discovered that some Khyber Agency officials were not keeping vehicle logbooks. The NAS reiterated the requirement to the Political Agent of Khyber, who responded by issuing a strict order to this staff to maintain logbooks for vehicles. The NAS staff revisited Khyber and found that logbooks were being maintained.

Twelve new Isuzu vehicles (9 trucks and 3 single cap pickups) were severely damaged /destroyed during operations against terrorists in the tribal agencies of North and South Waziritan. The FC has excellent records on the location of assignment and control of vehicles. No shortcomings were found in this area.

The FC-Balochistan appears to be using vehicles properly. Vehicles deployed to Karachi and along the coastal belt of Balochistan deteriorate faster than those deployed in other parts of Pakistan and require more maintenance and upkeep.

The Ministry of Narcotics Control (MNC) reported that one double-cab pick-up had been stolen. The matter was reported to the police, but to date the vehicle has not been recovered.

In 2004, the NAS funded vehicle maintenance support in the form of engine overhaul and/or major repair of 41 ANF vehicles. The NAS staff inspected ANF vehicles located at headquarters, Peshawar, Queta and Rawalpindi, and generally found them to be used properly. However, despite repeated requests, the ANF did not make available for inspection one of the vehicles assigned to ANF headquarters. Lower-level officials could not provide a proper justification for the use of that vehicle. The NAS Director is following up in writing on previous conversations with the ANF Director General that vehicles must be used strictly for official use. He has requested that the vehicle be made available for inspection immediately.

Communications Equipment

Communications equipment is used by law enforcement agencies to enable them to plan, coordinate and conduct counternarcotics operations. Equipment includes VHF repeaters, VHF base stations, HF SSB base stations, VHF hand held transceivers, VHF mobile transceivers. Radio equipment plays an important role in the ability of the various law enforcement headquarters to communicate with their other stations nationwide. In some remote areas, the equipment is the sole means of communication between outposts. In the development area, communications equipment is used to communicate between the office of the political agent, the project manager and the construction/project site to relay requirements for equipment; provide site requirements for equipment; and provide information on progress of problems. The radio equipment also enables political agents to coordinate and supervise enforcement destruction of opium poppy cultivation.

In 2003, NAS communication experts installed $ 4,5 million of communications equipment (including VHF repeaters, VHF base stations, HF SSB base stations, VHF hand-held radios, and VHF mobile radios) that was procured last year. $4.5 million of communications equipment was procured under the Border Security Project.

The high turnover of qualified and experienced technicians has hampered the proper use and maintenance of NAS-provided communications equipment by ANF, Customs, and agencies in the Tribal Areas of NEFP that rely on the NAS communication engineers to provide direct maintenance and repair service. In 2004, about 250 pieces of communications equipment were reported defective, and of those, about 150 were repaired jointly by the NAS and respective agency technical staff. About 100 radio technicians and technical staff of various GOP agencies were trained to carry out programming, installation and maintenance of NAS-funded radio equipment.

Office Equipment

The office equipment used by ANF, Customs, Frontier Corps, and Police headquarters includes computers, 39 fax machines, and 65 photocopiers. The equipment was well maintained and is in use.

Surveillance Equipment

In most cases, surveillance equipment (FLIR's, NVGs, NVBs) appeared under- utilized, with the exception of FC NWFP which had been used in counter- terrorism operations in South Waziristan. Other recipient agencies are still learning how to effectively use the technically sophisticated equipment in light of the low educational level of troops in the field and limited capacity to absorb technology. Additionally, due to frequent turnover of staff, once officers become trained in using the equipment, they change posts and the capacity needs to be rebuilt within the organization. The NAS has raised this issue with heads of respective law enforcement agencies and is assessing whether additional NAS-provided training is required.

A December 2004 inspection of the FC-Balochistan revealed that logs books were not being maintained for the FLIRs, NVGs, and NVB's given to the RIF. The NAS Deputy Director reiterated the requirement to FC officials responsible for EUM and the RIF team. FC promised compliance.

In early 2004, the Senior Aviation Advisor provided 20 NVG's to the local guards of the FC Balochistan who provide security at the pickets surrounding Khalid Air Base. During an on-site inspection, one of the NVG's could not be produced during inspection. The NAS is investigating the matter. Two of the five NVG's provided to the Pakistan Rangers in 1994 were determined to be beyond repair.

Vessels

The NAS-provided 27-foot "challenger" Boston Whaler assigned to Pakistan Customs remained underutilized due to the absence of Customs' own mother boat, which received major accidental damage to its hull. It has not yet been repaired due to the lack of operational budgetary support.

Agricultural and Area Development Projects

Agriculture and area development projects are concentrated in the NWFP, especially in the Khyber, Mohmand and Bajaur agencies. Agricultural extension projects consist of agricultural plots to demonstrate improved varieties of seed and the provision of fertilizer and small tools. Area development projects also included 30.3 kilometers of farm-to-market roads in Bajaur Agency and 14.5 kilometers of farm-to-market roads in Mohmand agency to open up new areas; small hand-dug wells to irrigate high-value crops; eight projects to provide irrigation channels to irrigate lands with spring water; drinking water supply projects; and electrification for wells and derivative water projects.

The major road activities were managed by a civil engineering consulting firm, which provided construction supervision services. The NAS staff monitored and spot-checked the work of the consulting firm as well as the physical work of the road construction contractors. Other projects undertaken in the area development sector include farm-to-market roads to open new areas, drinking water supply, small hand-dug wells for irrigation of high-value crops, and village electrification. The area development activities are designed mainly by the GOP with the assistance of NAS engineers.

A total of eight different road projects were under construction in Mohmand Bajaur and Khyber during the year for a total distance of 42 km. In addition, 25 small water utilization water schemes were under construction in the three agencies.

In December 2004, Frontier Corps NWPF indicated that they had completed work on 10 border outposts and were continuing work on the remaining 16 border outposts. Frontier Corps Balochistan has completed 14 border outposts and is still working on the remaining 15 border outposts. During visits to completed outposts in Balochistan, the NAS staff identified structural problems in 12 of the posts. At the contractor's expense, the contractor corrected problems at ten of the posts and is in the process of resolving issues at the other two.

Aircraft

The five Huey II helicopters were flown a total of 682.8 hours from January to May 2004. With the addition of three (3) UH-1H in July 2004, the fleet flew 1277.7 hours from July to December 2004--for an annual total of 1960.5 hours. The operational readiness rate for the year was 70.2 percent. Three (3) fixed-wing Cessna Caravan 208 aircraft were flown 1125.5 hours and were maintained at a fully mission capable rate of 75.4 percent.

On July 25, one of the Huey II's was hit by ground fire during a counter- terrorism operation with Frontier Corps in Balochistan. One Ministry of Interior Air Wing gunner was killed and the helicopter sustained some minor damage.

The embassy is not receiving timely prenotification from the MOI Air Wing of all missions. In a few cases, the Air Wing did not seek Embassy pre-approval of missions when it was required to do so. The NAS and Ambassador have emphasized the conditions under which the aircraft can be used to all levels of GOP offices, including the President., Prime Minister, Director General of Military Operations, and the Minister of Interior.

Impact

During 2004, GOP security forces reported seizing 24.7 metric tons (mt) of heroin, 2.5 mt of opium, and 136 mt of hashish. Compared to 2003, overall hashish seizures increased by 55 percent. Compared to 2003, overall heroin seizures by GOP agencies decreased by 27 percent but still represented a 178 increase over 2002. Additionally, ANF's heroin seizures increased this year by 72 percent from 4.7 mt to 8.1 mt. ANF has attributed such increases to USG-supplied equipment, which has increased its capacity to access remote areas. The performance of ANF's Special Investigation Cell (SIC)- a vetted unit established in 2000 to target major trafficking organizations, continued to improve. In Balochistan, the SIC made eight seizures of morphine-based heroin totaling over 5 metric tons (mt) in 2004.

In 2004, GOP agencies arrested 49,186 individuals on drug-related charges, representing an increase form 46,346 arrests in2003. From January to November 2004, ANF disposed of 450 cases, convicting 331 persons or 74 percent.

NAS-provided vehicles were used to implement counternarcotics development programs in Tribal Agencies of NWFP, including 1722 hectares of alternative agriculture demonstration plots on land in Bajaur, Mohmand and Khyber Agencies. In 2004, a source led the Coast Guard to conduct extensive mobile patrolling using NAS vehicles and communication equipment, which resulted in the arrests of 18 illegal immigrants in Gwadar.

The staff of the Political Administration in South Waziristan Agency reported demolishing 4,124 houses that were being used for terrorist activities. NAS vehicles were used to transport the forces. NAS-provided equipment allowed effective troop communication for maintaining law and order in the area. On several occasions, communication equipment also provided timely information on the planting of antipersonnel mines in south Wairistan Agency, which led to recovery and successful diffusion of the mines.

The helicopter squadron launched a mission in Balochistan that took down a major criminal figure involved in kidnapping and other serious crimes, as well as capturing several of his fellow conspirators.

In October 2004, the Minister of Interior Air Wing and the ANF conducted a joint air assault in Balochistan involving both INL-provided fixed wing and rotary aircraft that netted 100kg of heroin and 8 metric tons of poppy pods. An ANF surveillance flight in May 2004 identified large poppy fields in Balochistan which led to the ANF and the Frontier Corps mounting an operation that successfully eradicated poppy and made 12 arrests.

Problems

Limited Vehicle Repair and Maintenance

Normally, funds for maintenance comes from the budget of the agency to which they were donated. However, in many cases, GOP resources to operate, maintain, and support NAS-provided vehicles and communication equipment are limited. While the GOP enhanced its budgetary allocations in 2004, its ability to maintain vehicles and communications equipment is insufficient due to lack of skilled technicians and lack of adequate repair and maintenance facilities, particularly in far-flung areas where many of the vehicles operate. Expanding or constructing new facilities would require substantial increases in their budget allocation. Out of its own funds, the Frontier Corps Balochistan built a dust-free workshop facility. The NAS is procuring workshop tools and testing equipment and tools.

Staff Shortages

The ANF is operating at 83 percent of authorized strength, with 1,608 of 1,934 authorized personnel. The GOP is also considering restructuring plans that would almost double ANF's manpower to 3,100, including the addition of needed inspectors and constables. Since many agencies badly lack maintenance capabilities, post has urged them to create new or fill vacant positions in repair and maintenance.

KATHMANDU

Procedures

The Political Officer and the FSN visited the Drug Control Law Enforcement Unit (NDCLEU), the Police laboratory, and the Women's Cell and conducted spot checks of equipment provided. These organizations are all fully cooperative with post's inquiries about the status of the USG-funded equipment.

Some equipment is used outside Kathmandu Valley. Due to security restriction on travel because of the Maoist Insurgency, monitoring of this equipment has been problematic. As a result, post has relied on status reports from Police Headquarters and information provided to post by the individual offices that have received USG-provided equipment.

Status

The equipment donated to the NDCLEU, and the Home Ministry's Drug Abuse Demand Reduction Project (DADRP) is in good condition and is being used for the intended purpose.

Vehicles

The bicycles (20), motorcycles (5), and scooters (2) were given to the NDCLEU in 1997 and 1998. All of the equipment except for two motorcycles and two motor scooters are used infrequently because of their age. The motor scooters require frequent repair. Eight motorcycles were presented to the Nepal Police Women's Cell in September 1999. The Cells are special units of the police, formed to combat crimes against women and children. Four of the motorcycles are in Kathmandu and four are in other districts. Two of the motorcycles were misappropriated from the Women's Cell for other police business. After subsequent intervention by post, the equipment was returned to the unit. The Cell is waiting for funding from Police Headquarters to repair one motorcycle provided under the 1998 program.

Computer Equipment

A laptop computer, desktop computer, scanner and digital camera were presented to NDCLEU in January 2002 for the creation of a database of convicted traffickers. A computer and printer were provided to the mini- forensic laboratory. A digital scanner was provided to the NDCLEU in 2002.

Miscellaneous Equipment

A mini-forensic laboratory for drug analysis was established in January 1999 at the Central Police laboratory. The lab has a gas chromatograph and two gas canisters, a Wiley grinder, a vertical autoclave, an automatic water still, a spectrophotometer, a vacuum pump, a refractometer, a melting point apparatus, and a computer and printer connected to the chromatograph. Not all of the forensic lap equipment is used, although it remains in good condition, due to lack of training on the equipment for the lab's staff. The lab received four days of training from the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC New Delhi) in September 2004. Although the lab staff requested additional training, the UNODC course has allowed them to fully employ all of their equipment.

The DADRP has been supplied a fax machine, camera, overhead projector, monitor and video camera. All units are in good condition. The DADRP uses them regularly in support of training for Nepali teachers.

Problems

Travel to some areas of Nepal has been limited due to security concerns. However, most monitoring activities are carried out effectively.

Impact

The support provided to the NDCLEU and the Women's Cell of the police has had a direct and positive impact on the effectiveness of the units by increasing mobility and investigative capabilities. The NDCLEU's computers have enabled the unit to maintain regular email contact with DEA and FBI contacts in New Delhi, Bangkok and elsewhere, facilitating the investigation of organized crime syndicates.

Equipment in the Police Laboratory has given the police the capacity to accurately analyze drug sample. Between February 1997 and December 2004, the Police Laboratory analyzed 2,733 samples for 1,287 separate drug cases using USG-provided equipment.

NEW DELHI

Procedures

Due to the size of the country, the locations where the majority of the items are dispersed and post's lack of travel budget, it is not possible or feasible to conduct a physical inventory of all INL-donated commodities and vehicles. The Consulate in Calcutta conducted EUM of all vehicles and commodities donated to outlying areas in the Northeast either telephonically or by receiving written reports from the host government agencies. Calcutta was able to inspect the vehicles that were donated to the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) Zonal Office in Calcutta. The Consulate in Chennai inventoried the vehicles distributed to the NCB by obtaining a report from the NCB Zonal Unit outlying the condition and use of the vehicles. The NCB zonal director in Mumbai forwarded correspondence indicating the condition and use of the donated vehicles there.

The INL Program Assistant conducted EUM of vehicles donated to the NCB in New Delhi. The remaining NCB Zonal Unit Directors were contacted telephonically for information regarding the vehicles located at the four remaining outposts. In New Delhi, the INL Program Assistant was able to inventory all donated vehicles and computer equipment. Post received a status report from the NCB Deputy Director outlining the condition and use of all the computer equipment that was purchased this year and distributed to NCB's office throughout the country.

Status

 Vehicles

One Maruta Van was donated in 2000 to the NCB headquarters in Imphal. The Eastern Zonal Unit in Calcutta has (1) Maruti Esteem and (1) Toyota Qualis. The Mizoran State Excise received (6) Maruti Gypay 4-wheel drive utility vehicles in 2001-three are at the Excise headquarters in Aizawl and one each in the office of the Superintendent of Excise at Champai, Koasib and Saiha. Of the six Yamaha RX 135 motorcycles delivered in 2001, four are located in Aizwal headquarters and are used by the Anti-Narcotics Squad; one bike each is located at the district offices of Aizwal and "Champai. All vehicles donated to the NCB in the Northeast and the Mizorem State Excise remain in good condition with maintenance necessary repairs done at the authorized workshops. The Units' officers use the vehicles for preventive duty and surveillance. CBN's Preventive and Intelligence Cell, Guwahati, Assam has two Yamaha motorcycles that require engine and body repairs. These bikes are used primarily for intelligence gathering and for special operations.

Over 50 motorcycles were provided to the Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN); 18 to Chittorgarh in Rajastban; 18 to Neemcuh in Rajastan; 10 to Luckow in Uttar Pradesh, 1 to Gwallor; 1 in Delhi; and 2 in Guwahati, Assam. With the exception of two motorcycles in Guwahati, and one in Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh, all are in excellent working order. These three motorcycles require major repairs. The motorcycles are used to patrol the licit opium growing fields for enforcement operations; chase and apprehend criminals; search for drug laboratories; monitor field measurements; and test measurements for poppy harvest. The motorcycles have also been used for the detection and eradication of excess poppy crop, physical check at weighment centers, and the carrying out of out drug and chemical interdiction efforts. Post will assist CBN in repairing the three motorcycles.

The three vehicles that were donated to the NCB South Zone in Chennai in February 2003 remain in excellent condition. The Hero Honda Motorcycle, the Maruti Esteem and the Toyota Qualis, are all used for surveillance, search, seizures and arrests.

The two Qualis' and the one Hero Honda Motorcycle in Mumbai remain in good condition and are used regularly for surveillance and other operational purposes. These vehicles were delivered in the Zonal Unit in 2003. NCB New Delhi reserved (1) Toyota Qualis, (2) Hero Honda motorcycles, (1) Mahindra Bolero, and (2) Maruti Esteems. The Qualis is the New Delhi Zonal Unit's main operational vehicle used primarily for preventive work, searches, and seizures of illicit narcotics. The Maruti Exteems are used for surveillance as these vehicles blend in easily into the urban traffic pattern of New Delhi. The Hero Hondas'primary functions are to perform reconnaissance, issue subpoenas, and make deliveries. All of these vehicles are in excellent condition.

Seven vehicles are located at the NCB Zonal Units in Chandigarh, Varanasi, Jodhpur, and Ahmendabad. They remain in excellent condition and are used primarily for enforcement and surveillance work.

Cameras

Three Sony Digital cameras were donated to three Central Detective Training Schools (CDTS) in Chandigarh, Hyderabed, and Calcutta. These cameras were donated to each of the schools by the ICITAP training team when they conducted a training program in each of the cities in August 2004. All three cameras are in excellent condition and are used to enhance the CDTS's ability to train police in crime scene photography.

One camera each was delivered to the Superintendent of Excise in Saiha and, the Anti-Narcotics Squad in Champhai and two to the Excise Headquarters in Aizawl. Two of the cameras are in excellent condition; the cameras in Champhai and in Aizawl are out-of-order and cannot be repaired locally. The one in Champhai has been replaced with one of the cameras from headquarters. The cameras delivered in 2001 have been useful in collecting and maintaining records with photographic details of suspected/arrested individuals for identification/verification.

Computers

In 2004, post purchased (18) IBM desk top computers and monitors, (18) HP desk jet printers, (18) webcams, (18) back up UPS's and (16) copies of Analyst Notebook Software for donation to the NCB nationwide. The following NCB Zonal offices throughout the country received one set of computer equipment comprised of one each computer/monitor/printer/webcam/UPS/software: Varanasi, Calcutta, Jammu, Chandigarh, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Delhi Jodhpur Ahmedabad, Chenai and Imphal. The NCB New Delhi headquarters received (7) sets of computer equipment.

Four Compaq computers and printers were donated to the Excise Department in the Northeast. The computers can be found in the following locations: (2) Excise Headquarters anti-Narcotics Squad; (1) Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Champai, and (1) in the Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Saiha. Last year, INL replaced two defective printers. All items are in good condition and used for intelligence gathering, record keeping and data exchange. These computers were distributed to the various Excise Offices in 2001.

Communications

Three Motorola headsets are in the headquarters at Aizawl, and two each are with the Aizawl district office and the Anti-Narcotics Squad at Champhai. One each is at Saiha, Office of the Superintendent in Kolasib, and at Vairengte. All handsets, which were delivered in 2001, remain in good condition and are very useful for communication in this remote region.

Miscellaneous

The NCB's Northeast Unit in Manipur used the digital recorder for taping statements and telephone conversations. It remains in good condition.

The following equipment was provided to CBN for use in field locations in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh: 8 digital cameras, 11 digital calipers, 60 hygrothermometers, 6 electric weighing scales, and 11 heavy-duty drying ovens. The cameras have been used to photograph and catalog the different stages of poppy growth in each field office. The remaining 2 cameras are kept in Gwalior where they are used by inspectors visiting the various fields. The 11 calipers were used for measuring the poppy capsules to determine the optimum yield at harvest time. The 11 hot air ovens were used for drying out the poppy crop. The hygrothermometers were used to record temperature and humidity. Of the 60 hygrothermometers, seven are not functioning properly. These cannot be repaired. There is no need to replace them. Two of the six electronic weighing balances purchased for weighing samples are not working properly. INL is expecting a report from the Neemcuh field office to determine how to repair or replace the two scales.

NCB New Delhi received a Hitachi camcorder that is used by the investigative and intelligence branch in Delhi for surveillance and to record seizures. The camcorder is in excellent condition.

Ten weed trimmers are located at Guwahati for use during operations to destroy illegal cultivation. Eight belong to the Guwahati Office and the other two are borrowed from CBN headquarters in Gwalior. Four are working properly and the remainder need minor repairs.

Impact

INL's assistance to the CBN through donated vehicles and equipment has greatly enhanced the operational efficiency in apprehending traffickers and seizing contraband. The Analyst Notebook software program evaluates in several hours data that previously took two weeks for several officers to collate and analyze. DEA reports that this software is being used as part of a major, joint ongoing investigation being conducted by NCB and DEA, which will have a significant U.S. impact. This has increased NCB's operational capacity by freeing up manpower for interdictions as well as increasing the amount of seizures and arrests.

The use of an INL-funded vehicle donated to the NCB throughout India has enhanced NCB's ability to apprehend traffickers and make seizures, especially in rural areas. The four-wheel drive Bolero that was donated to the Jodhpur zonal unit was used in three international operations in predominantly desert terrain. The Bolero was used to seize about 75 kg of heroin, 130 kg of hashish and to dismantle one mandrax manufacturing unit this year. Calcutta's Zonal Unit reports that their vehicles were used for the seizure of 29 kg heroin, 6 kg opium, 3,259 kg of marijuana, and 29 arrests.

Using the INL donated Qualis, the New Delhi Zonal Unit seized about 2.2 metric tons of acetic anhydride, 31 kg heroin, 9 kg heroin, 80 kg hashish, and 2 cases of cocaine. In Varansi, the NCB zonal Director noted that the Bolero and Maruti were used to recover 25 kg heroin, 125 kg marijuana, and 200 kg of hashish. Seven cases were filed and 15 arrested. The vehicles donated to the NCB zonal Unit in Chennai were used to recover psychotropic substances that were packaged to mail to the USA as well as various heroin seizures throughout Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

INL's assistance to the CBN in donating the vehicles and equipment used in the JLOPS survey has greatly enhanced the mobility of the CBN's staff and helped CBN effectively monitor the harvest of the opium crop and subsequent processing.

TASHKENT

Procedures

Post also has a full-time FSN to support INL training courses and equipment donations. Post continues to improve its procedures to monitor INL-financed equipment on a day-to-day basis. Post personnel travel to remote border posts and meet with appropriate officials to verify proper storage, maintenance, and use of the INL-provided equipment. DEA maintains an inventory of all equipment transferred to the SIU. It has instituted a tracking system for property transferred to the SIU. The GOU end-user agency is required to sign an End User certificate for every lot of INL-provided equipment.

Status  

Vehicles

In August 2000, Customs received nine 4-wheel drive Jeep Cherokees and spare parts funded by INL. All vehicles were equipped by Customs with a HF radio. They are currently divided into five mobile units patrolling rural border areas. Post has confirmed that the vehicles are in satisfactory condition. The State Customs Committee is encountering difficulties finding spare parts on the local market. The INL coordinator noticed that at least three of the vehicles are being misused. One is being used by the head of the Customs Smuggling Unit Chief for transportation to and from the office. Post has notified the Customs Committee and plans to hold a formal meeting with the head of the Anti-Smuggling Unit to address the misuse. Twenty-eight vehicles were obtained for use by the Special Investigative Unit (SIU).

Computer Equipment

In December 2002, post delivered 27 INL-funded laptop computers for use at 12 remote border railroad ports of entry/exit on the borders with Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Afghanistan, a region that includes several major narcotics trafficking routes. Border Guard officials have reported that with the laptops, they are able to more efficiently process passengers and trains transiting the borders. Previously, border guards used notepads to record passport data and submit the information to headquarters for analysis. They had to wait nearly one month for results. Officers can now register passengers much faster and can more readily identify wanted criminals.

Document Examination Equipment

In October 2001, INL provided the committee for State Border Protection document examination equipment to improve passport control activities at border checkpoints. Donated equipment included: 100 Universal Desktop Magnifiers and spare lamps, 200 hand-held UV-spot detectors and spare lamps, 8 multifunctional passport readers, and one set of passport computer software. The equipment was distributed to more than 40 border posts. The software was donated to the Border Guard Academy.

Laboratory Equipment

In 2004, post provided the Ministry of Internal Affairs with an explosive laboratory and a drug laboratory. The equipment included a portable explosive detector, five digital scales, and an Agilent Electrophoresis system. The explosives laboratory played a key role in identifying the explosive substances used by suicide bombers who attacked Tashkent and Bukhara in the spring and the U.S. and Israeli Embassies and the General Prosecutor's office in July. The explosives lab, its management, and staff were very supportive and greatly appreciative of INL assistance.

The Central Counter Drug Laboratory received an Agilent Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer System, which greatly supports evidence processing in criminal drug cases.

Post anticipates that these labs will support investigation procedures and help bring investigation standards closer to international standards.

Miscellaneous

In December 2002, inspections mirrors (300), "Mag-Lite" flashlights (300), and narcotics identification kits (140) were provided to the State Customs Committee to ensure that every Customs post on the border had a least basic inspection and testing equipment and to increase potential drug interdiction at ports of entry/exit. The equipment was distributed to 60 stationary and mobile Customs border posts, as well as to Customs training facilities. The provision of this durable low-tech equipment has ensured thorough coverage of vehicular and rail traffic through Uzbek borders and freed up limited GOU funds for other equipment purchases available on the local market. The majority of this equipment is in working condition. However, a majority of Customs officers were not using their drug kits due to a lack of knowledge about and training with the kits. A recent training course was conducted on the use of the kits. Demonstrations were done at three border posts where Customs officials expressed surprise at their ease of use.

In 2001, post provided jungle boots, camel backs, compasses, diving fins, first- aid kits, flashlights, GPS systems, vests, protractors and watches to the Committee for State Border Protection for use by the Maritime Operations Unit in patrolling the islands in the Amudarya River that serves as the border between Uzbekistan and Afghanistan.

The following equipment was donated in support of the SIU for use in targeting and dismantling high-level transnational drug trafficking organizations operating in the area: office safes, binoculars, handcuffs, scanners, digital scales, digital camcorders, SLR cameras, folding chairs, Polaroid camera, computer software, GPS units Motorola radios, voice recorders and supplies, two 25-inch TV sets, cellular telephones, typewriter, office furniture, printer, digital CD cameras, laptop computers, desktop computers, VCR's, televisions, high power telephoto lens, technical investigative equipment, and mobile printers, USP units, office safes. DEA conducted an unscheduled inventory of equipment during 2004.

Basic investigative equipment was distributed to the Counter Drug Department of the Uzbek Ministry of Internal Affairs. The equipment included 21 digital video cameras; 68 portable digital audio recorders; 36 digital cameras; 19 TV sets and VCR's. The equipment has been observed in use by the Regional DEA office.

Problems

Post has encountered some problems obtaining information about donated equipment from the host government. Additionally, due to the fact that a majority of equipment is situated in remote locations, post is unable to regularly monitor the equipment.

Impact

The impact of the resources is difficult to determine since the INL-funded program is still in its infancy. However, the SIU has conducted several successful operations.



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