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Diplomacy in Action

Europe and the Middle East


End-Use Monitoring Report
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 2005
Report
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ANKARA

Procedures

Equipment has been assigned to numerous locations throughout the country. Therefore, physical inspection of any but a very small portion is a practical impossibility. Post relies on periodic meetings with supervisory personnel in each recipient agency to monitor use.

All agencies maintain up-to-date physical inventories. Where feasible, post, in connection with such meetings, physically inspects some equipment. No physical inspection were carried out this year. Post hopes to inspect the equipment provided to the TNP in Istanbul and to visit the Amatem drug rehabilitation facility in Istanbul in 2005.

Status

Post verified that equipment in use in provincial police stations matched both post's records and those of the TNP. Due to sustained USG efforts, almost all of the INL-funded equipment has been distributed to field offices where it most directly benefits interdiction efforts. The TNP and Customs guards place sufficient emphasis on proper storage, maintenance and use of equipment. All equipment inspected appears to be in good condition.

INL has not funded new programs in Turkey since 1999, because the Government of Turkey (GOT) would not accept language regarding human rights in the 2000 Letter of Agreement.

Miscellaneous Equipment

Customs officials in Mersin use INL-funded actuators, a fiberscope, cameras, night vision goggles and tape recorders frequently. Customs guards in Samsun use the USG-funded fiberscope extensively. The fiberscope enables the guards to search inner compartments and fuel tanks of large TIR trucks, which increases their effectiveness dramatically. It was particularly helpful in making the recent acetic anhydrite seizures.

In 2003, four videoscopes were delivered to the TNP. The GPS tracking system provided in 2000 has been very useful. The TNP constantly uses night vision equipment in investigations. The analog voice recording systems is nearing the end of its useful life, but is still in use. About 200 voice-recording systems will be retired by year's end since the TNP has upgraded to digital systems. INL-funded equipment accounted for the bulk of specialized equipment in both Customs and TNP's inventories in Mersin. The INL-funded equipment was well maintained and property used.

The TNP is effectively using the briefcase kit and night vision binoculars. Other items used extensively by the Alcohol and Addictive Treatment Center (AMATEM) include data projector, screen, slide projector, video recorder and player. They are used for the drug awareness program in schools.

The Turkish Customs was efficiently using the INL-funded Ion Scanners and fiberscopes along the most important smuggling routes. Of the equipment previously provided to Customs, ion scanners detecting narcotics and explosives are the most useful. The GOT bought additional ion scanners to be used in their most highly trafficked areas. The fiberscopes need to be updated. Customs updated these to videoscopes and sent the fiberscopes to less active border crossings. Customs also used digital cameras and night vision pocketscopes delivered in 2000-2002.

Post procured covert cameras and communications radios for the TNP; covert transmitters and micro surveillance recorders for the Jandarma; a pilot facility and a seed processing facility for the Turkish Grain Board (GMO); and test kits and night vision pocket scopes for Turkish Customs.

In 2003, post provided ATAMEM (a state-sponsored drug rehabilitation facility) computer equipment and software, communications equipment, and telephone switchboard. The equipment is being used for patient management and rehabilitation. It has proven very useful.

In 2004, INL donated two video receiving/recoding systems and one nite-mate 3G night vision camera.

In December 2004, a humidity meter device was donated to the TMO for poppy processing operations.

Vehicles

The TMO continues to use the 45 vehicles INL funded between 1989-1993 to conduct monitoring and liaison with Turkey's licensed opium farmers. The TMO also uses these cars to monitor farmers to ensure that there is no illicit opium production. These vehicles included 27 Renaults, 12 Kartals, and six Jeep Cherokees. These cars are used in the following provinces: Afyon (14), Usak (3), Eskisehir (4), Bolvadin (3) Denizli (4), Ankara (2), Burdur (4), Kutahya (1), Konya (4), and Amasya (1), Istanbul (2), Nigde (1), Saamsun (1), and Karaman (1).

Communications Equipment

Five Motorola radio sets and chargers provided in 1999 are currently being used in the training of narcotics sniffer dogs and train-the-trainer programs begin held in Golbasi National Dog Training Center of the TNP.

The DX-2B telephone switchboard and related technical equipment together with 50 phone machines provided in 2003 are operational and used for the communication of the staff and patients within the AMATEM section of Bakirkoy hospital.

Jandarma reports that two transmitter cigarette packets, two transmitter calendar books, one hidden transmitter, 10Yaesu hand-radios, two AID-Unitel-3000 voice and image transmitter systems, one Panasonic digital closed circuit camera are all operational. The Department of Struggle with Smuggling and Organized Crime of Jandarma uses these items during operations on narcotics issues. A voice transmitter via GSM is malfunctioning.

TNP reports that three percent of communications equipment is repaired annually and that all equipment remains operational.

Three X-ray machines located at the three main border gates were installed as part of a harmonization project. They have helped Customs detect and seize greater amounts of narcotics than in previous years.

Canine Program

The dog program assessment funded in September 2000 was very valuable. It provided for Turkish Customs an action plan for how it would develop its dog program. Prior to obtaining this action plan, Customs developed its dog program in a haphazard way, resulting in problems like dogs being trained in different languages. Customs had three dogs at the time of assessment; today it has twenty-five. Due to termination of the INL program after 1999, post has not provided additional funds for Customs' dog program.

Problems

Maintenance of equipment procured from vendors in the United Stats that do not have distributors in the United States is very costly and time-consuming since products have to be shipped back to the United States for repair.

Because of the Government of Turkey's refusal to accept the Leahy amendment language contained in the 2000 Letter of Agreement, the INL program is winding down.

Impact

INL-funded resources materially aided Turkish narcotics interdiction efforts. The direct narcotics interdiction impact of the INL-funded resources is difficult to calculate. However, in 2004, Customs seized 2.6 tons of heroin; 484 kg of hashish; 29 units of morphine; 80kg of cocaine; 2 kg of opium; 1,692,500 units of captagon; and 48,852 units of ecstasy.

ATHENS

Procedures

Throughout the year, Embassy DEA agents traveled to Alexandroupolis to observe the five-meter long, shallow-draft riverboat provided to the Greek National Police in 1996. The Greek police freely provide access.

Status

The riverboat was used by the National Police Counternarcotics Unit in Alexandroupolis for use in patrolling the Evros River and the border between Greece and Turkey, a major crossing point for traffickers in narcotics and illegal immigrants. Embassy DEA agents report that the boat is well maintained.

Impact

Greece is an increasingly important crossroads for narcotics into Europe. Domestic usage and transnational trafficking have surged in recent years. Greek narcotics police are dedicated and professional; they work closely and well with DEA.

CAIRO

Procedures

Special agents from the Cairo country office routinely visit the offices of the Egyptian Anti-narcotics General Administration (ANGA) and meet with ANGA personnel. These meetings fulfill operational and liaison purposes and provide opportunities to monitor End Use of INL-supplied equipment.

Status

Vehicles

Four Jeep Cherokees were donated to ANGA in 1998 for use in support of opium poppy and cannabis eradication initiatives in the Sinai peninsula, as well as being used for enhancing rural border interdiction efforts. The age, rough terrain, and overuse of the vehicles have made them unreliable. They need to be replaced.

Miscellaneous

The following equipment was provided to ANGA between 1998-2000: Pentium PC's (4); HP LaserJet printers (4); HP Scanjet scanner (1); JHP fax scanners (5); video recorder (1); video printer (1); Arabic/English typewriters (5); Racom 2516 digital recorders (4); Canon auto focus camera and kit (1); dial up slave systems with transmitters (5); photocopy machines (5); single tube night vision goggles (7); Phoenix IR beacons (4); Megellan GPS (2); military compasses (15); TX-923A transmitters (2); TX-0922 one watt body transmitters (2); repeater (1); power amplifier (1); Marantz PMD's (10); disguised brake light antennas (2); VHF disguised cellular telephone (1); antenna trunk lip mounts (2); foil dipole antenna (1); flat-pack antenna (1); air conditioners (8); rechargeable batteries for hand-held radios (25); lapel mike and ear pieces for handheld radios (5); rechargeable Halogen spotlights (10); projection screen (1); photocopy machines (5); Panasonic video camera; smoke detector audio recorder kit (1); pocket transmitter (2); tactical audio recovery kit (1); BXR-2215A repeater (2); fireflies (10); night vision maxabeam MBP-1207.

The equipment is located at ANGA headquarters and at ANGA's five regional offices throughout Egypt. While still operational, the computers, radios, etc are obsolete and not compatible with current technology. Most of the equipment needs to be replaced/upgraded.

Impact

The equipment provided to ANGA is directed at enhancing rural border interdiction efforts as well as being used for opium poppy and cannabis eradication initiatives in the Sinai Peninsula.

CHISINAU

Procedures

Post conducted quarterly spot checks on the equipment in conjunction with separate programs such as training events, site visits, etc. Equipment was provided to the Moldovan Customs Service, the Police Academy of the Moldovan Ministry of Interior (MOI), and the Ministry of Justice (MOJ). The GOM cooperated fully in all requests for examination/verification.

Status

Vehicles

In December 2003, post donated seven vehicles to the MOI for use in patrol and response by police personnel.

X-ray Van

Post provided an X-ray van to the Moldovan Customs Service in 1999. It is based in Chisinau but regularly deploys to Moldovan Ports of Entry. Maintenance was performed earlier this year. The van is fully operational.

Computer equipment

Only 50% of the computers at the Police Academy are fully functional. It appears that they are substandard desktop PC's. Chips on the hard drives overheated. Attempts to cannibalize them to support the remaining ten computers are underway. The multimedia classroom is well-maintained.

Miscellaneous Equipment

During 2003, post continued its efforts to advance Moldovan law enforcement capabilities by donating three pieces of INL-funded forensic equipment. Two were donated to the MOI and one to the MOJ. All three are in excellent condition and being used for their intended purpose.

The Customs stamps, although used since 2001, only became effective in 2003. It took two years for Ukrainian Customs to recognize their legitimacy.

Impact

The X-ray van has provided a strong deterrent to smugglers, forcing criminals to look for alternate means of transportation. The Customs stamps are already proving beneficial by stifling illicit trade through the Transnistria region of Moldova and adding economic pressure to the Transnistrians to engage in reunification talks.

The MOI lab has made extensive use of the two pieces of forensic equipment since their donation in late September. Document and/or chemical analysis that used to take fifteen days now takes only one. The lab performs tests for other Moldovan ministries and departments as well.

The MOJ, since enactment of the new criminal code in June 2003, performs similar document analysis and has conducted about 100 analyses for use in court since mid-October. The forensic equipment at both the MOI and MOJ labs has had a significant impact on the quality and quantity of forensic work performed by and for Moldovan law enforcement.

MOSCOW

Procedures

Post conducted periodic spot checks on the equipment.

Status

Computer Equipment

Two PC units, two monitors, two printers and one laptop computer were provided to the Russian Federation on Law Enforcement Cooperation and Narcotics Control.

Computer software

Analyst Notebook and Ibridge software is used by the Anti-Money Laundering assistance program to the Federal Service of Financial Monitoring. The Treasury Department has a U.S. representative at the Federal Service for Financial Monitoring. He is present 40% of the time. In addition, a locally hired representative is present full time.

Miscellaneous Equipment

One LCD projector, one scanner, one fax machine, one television, two VCR's, two cell phones, and one first aid medical were provided to the Russian Federation on Law Enforcement Cooperation and Narcotics Control.

Canines

Thirty-five canine dogs are located in Tadjikistan (10), Kyrgystan (10), Uzbekistan (10), and Turkmenistan (5) and are used by Central Asian Law Enforcement Officers to detect narcotics trafficking. They are well maintained.

All commodities are in good condition and used for the purposes intended.

Impact

The office equipment has enabled the Anti-Trafficking Legislature Working Group to draft critically needed anti-TIP legislation. A canine dog discovered 59 kilos of heroin in November 2004.

RIGA

Procedures

The RSO conducted spot checks on the equipment and met with police officials. Latvia also provided periodic reports on the status of equipment.

Status

Classroom equipment

Post uses a renovated classroom at the Latvian Police Academy to conduct training aimed at promoting U.S, objectives in Latvia and the Baltic region. The premises and equipment are in excellent condition.

Computer Equipment

Computer equipment has been used to upgrade the headquarters information processing. One computer was sent to the Organized Crime Section in Valka, Daugavpils Region.

Miscellaneous Equipment

The Latvian police are using the following equipment for the intended purposes: night vision equipment; fiber scopes; contraband detectors; pinhole cameras; video cameras; analytical software; gas chromatograph; and genetic analyzer.

Impact

All equipment has been coordinated into operational activities and is considered effective by the Latvian police.

SOFIA

Procedures

The equipment donated to the Ministry of Interior, the National Service for Combating Organized Crime (NSBOP), and the National Forensics Laboratory was checked through on-site inspections. Post verified the use of additional equipment distributed to the General Customs Directorate.

Status

Communications Equipment

The thirty (30) Motorola radios provided to the General Customs Directorate have been distributed to the local offices (e.g., 5 to Svilengrad, 3 to ruse, etc.). The fiberscope is being used by Customs Counter-Narcotics Intelligence and Investigations Unit in Svilengrad.

Computer Equipment

The Director of the Institute for Forensic Science advised that the six PC's remain in the lab's possession. Five of the six computers provided to the Minister of Interior are in good working order, except for some technical problems. Post has promised to locate a missing sixth computer. The computers and printers provided to the NSBOP are in good shape with the exception of a surge protector which NSBOP has been unable to locate.

Video Equipment

All equipment (video camera, video cassette player and monitor, 16 telephones, 4 answering machines) donated in 1993 is located in the offices of the Counternarcotics Division of the Central Service. The video camera plays but can no longer record. The Ministry of Interior has requested a digital camera.

Miscellaneous equipment

The video camera, video cassette player, telephone (16), answering machine (4) donated to the NSBOP are in use. Customs reports that all drug testing kits have been used.

Impact

Bulgarian officials appreciate the equipment provided; make use of it; and appear to want more, newer and better items. The Government of Bulgaria has formed mobile teams to stop and search vehicles for drugs around the country and seeks cooperation with the United States and its neighbors. Continued support will be needed before the Bulgarian criminal justice system is able to undertake successful prosecutions of organized crime, including major drug traffickers.

TIRANA

Procedures

ICITAP advisors who are assigned to the Ministry of Public Order (MOPO), Mother Teresa airport, and the Adriatic Sea ports of Duress and Viora perform on-site inspections. This procedure has been effective. The Albanian State Police (ASP) counterparts agencies have been cooperative in this effort.

The Center for Supplies and Technical Materials is a special unit within MOPO responsible for every asset ASP possesses. The Unit is composed of police officers rather than civilians. The unit inventories and monitors all donated equipment.

Status

Computer Equipment

Laptop and desktop computers were donated to the Albanian Minister of State for Coordination Office for use by the Anti-Trafficking Section in 2004. INL provided the MOPO with computers previously. The MOPO's ability to combat crime has risen as a direct result of the equipment. The donated computers will connect police and prosecutors with ICITAP's Total Information Management System (TIMS), linking police commissariats, prosecutors' offices, and border posts with MOPO. Once fully installed and operational, TIMS will enable 100 percent passenger and vehicle checks at all border crossings; guarantee efficient case management, facilitate the analysis of criminal intelligence; and enhance police accountability and transparency.

Communications Equipment

Hand-held radios were donated to the Port Security Force and Police Commissioner, Port of Durres Authority in 2004.

Vehicles

The FBI donated five Mitsubishi Pajeros to the Anti-Trafficking Sector of the Organized Crime Vice Directorate in 2004. ICITAP donated two motorcycles to the Special Operation Sector of the Organized Crime Vice- Directorate in 2004.

Canine Equipment

New constructed kennels were donated for the use of the Police Commissioner's Office in 2004.

Miscellaneous Equipment

Portable detectors and rummage kits were donated to the Regional Police Director in 2004. Night vision goggles, portable digital dictation machines, camera adapter kits, and memory stick were donated to the Internal Control Directorate at MOPO in 2004. Fax machines, copies, and printers were donated to the Port Security Force and Police commissioner, Port of Durres Authority in 2004.

Problems

ICITAP advisors have not encountered any problems during the course of monitoring activities in 2004. However, many police units still lack sufficient training to use the donated equipment. In-service and end-user training is scheduled for 2005.

Impact

The impact of the INL program donations can be seen throughout the ASP, from improved police professionalism to increased interdictions and arrests. ICITAP qualitative analysis indicates an increase in drug seizures and related arrests in Albania since the ASP received the donated equipment. Donations to the ASP's Anti-Narcotics Canine Breeding and Training Institute impact the success of the Three Port Strategy, the goal of which is to tighten security at Mother Teresa Airport and the Adriatic Sea ports of Durres and Viora.

Thanks to the U.S. trained dogs and their handlers, traffickers are finding it more difficult to smuggle narcotics into or out of Albania.

The donated computers have connected police with ICITAP's TIMS. Overall, the ASP remains sorely under-equipped and in need of continued international assistance in the form of equipment donations.

The Ministry approved the creation of a fully restructured information technology organization with the ASP in 2004. The Border Control and Criminal Records Information Systems have proven their efficiency by dramatically increasing the number of arrests at all TIMS enabled border crossings.

VALLETTA

Procedures

Post works closely with the Government of Malta (GOM) police and the Armed Forces (AFM) to ensure proper cooperation and coordination on narcotics control issues. The RSO is the narcotics reporting officer and monitors the narcotics trafficking situation in the country closely. The RSO also advances initiatives to expand law enforcement cooperation. Post is generally satisfied with the cooperation of local authorities in thwarting and reporting on illegal drug activity in Malta.

The DEA country Attach�' based in Rome has coverage responsibility for Malta. DEA Rome maintains a close relationship with the Malta Police and regularly provides support and assistance to GOM law enforcement agencies.

Status

An eighty-seven foot "protector" class patrol boat was provided to the Armed Forces of Malta through Foreign Military Sales in November of 2002. Post's Defense Attach� (DAO) works very closely with the Armed Forces on issues related to crew training and the boat's operational effectiveness. DOA monitors the patrolling activity for quantitative results. To date, the patrol boat has not been involved in a drug interdiction mission.

Impact

Drug seizures, while not comparable to those in major transit countries, have continued at a pace indicative of a serious program of interdiction and supply reduction. Local drug enforcement authorities have been very grateful for previous USG law enforcement training and welcome new opportunities.

YEREVAN

Procedures

Donations were documented through side letters and inventory spreadsheets. Post made several spot checks of the classroom equipment at the training facilities. Metal detectors were observed in use during routine visits to the Government of Armenia (GOAM) offices. Post regularly observes and receives usage reports on the X-ray van. It is inspected twice a year, most recently in August 2004.

Status

X-ray Van

In August 1999, INL installed an X-ray van for the Customs Department and provided relevant operation, maintenance and service training. Post regularly observes and received usage reports on the vehicle. It is inspected and serviced twice a year. It is based at the post office and used to inspect suspicious parcels and other materials. It also travels to various border crossings as needed.

Metal Detectors

The sixteen big metal detectors, fourteen hand-held and six walk-through metal detectors provided to the Office of the President of the Republic of Armenia in October 1999 were not properly inventoried by post upon receipt. Post's efforts to identify the equipment with serial numbers in order to make a thorough inventory and monitor equipment has not been successful. GOAM offices have the metal detectors in use. They have been observed by Embassy staff during routine visits.

Classroom Equipment

Equipment was installed in two classrooms in the National Police Academy, one classroom in the Police NCO Training Center, and two classrooms at the Procuracy Training Center under the auspices of a law enforcement academy development project. The equipment includes: TV's, LCD projectors, laser jet printers, desktop computers, simultaneous interpretation equipment, scanners, projection screen, etc. All of the equipment is in excellent working condition.

At the NCO Training Center, the equipment was used by California police detectives during their investigations training. The National Police Academy has conducted regular computer classes for police trainees and computer literacy classes. Six classes received this training in 2004. Seventy- five employees of the Procuracy Center attended computer literacy training using the computer classroom.

Computer Equipment

The following equipment was donated to the Kanaker NCO Training Center: 15 desktop computers, 15 color monitors, two network servers, two laser jet printers, 15 computer desks, and 15 computer desk chairs.

The following equipment was donated to the National Police Academy: 25 desktop computers, 20 computer desks, 20 computer desk chairs, two network servers, 2 laser jet printers, and one scanner.

The following equipment was donated to the Procuracy Training Center: 10 desktop computers, 10 color monitors, 2 network servers, 2 laser jet printers, two scanners.

Miscellaneous Equipment

Photocopiers, television, flipcharts, video cameras, overhead projectors, simultaneous interpretation equipment slide projectors, etc. were provided to each training center.

Impact

The classroom and computer equipment at the training centers has enhanced the training programs at all three facilities. The equipment has been used for various seminars. The X-ray van is used on a regular basis to inspect suspicious parcels and other material.



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