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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Southwest Asia


End-Use Monitoring Report
Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 2006
Report
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ALMATY

Procedures

In 2005, post provided equipment to numerous host government institutions located throughout Kazakhstan. These institutions include the Statistics Division, of the Procurator General's Office, the Ministry of the Interior's Committee on Combating Narcotics, the Border Guard Service of the Committee for National Security, the National Laboratory of Narcotic Control of the Ministry of Justice, and the Financial Police Academy of Astana. Over the course of the year, post conducted periodic spot checks on the equipment in conjunction with separate programs such as training events, site visits, etc.

With the exception of vehicles provided to the Border Guards, the Government of Kazakhstan cooperated in all requests for verification concerning the use of equipment donated by post. While the size of Kazakhstan prevents post from inspecting every piece of equipment donated to the Government of Kazakhstan on a regular basis, the results of spot checks have shown that the equipment is being used properly and is helping the country's efforts at combating the trafficking of narcotics and the laundering of money.

Status

Computer Equipment

In 2004, post purchased 62 computers, 62 printers, two color printers, and four notebook computers for the Statistics Division of the Procurator General's Office. The computer equipment was distributed throughout Kazakhstan to 17 different branches within the Criminal Statistics Division. In 2005, post verified that the computer equipment provided to eight of these offices of the Procurator's Office in the south of Kazakhstan is being properly maintained, stored, and used.

Twenty-five desktop computers, two projectors, two projector screens, office furniture, two printers, two scanners, and two servers were donated to the Financial Police academy in Astana. Post works closely with the Director of the Financial Police Academy to insure proper usage of the computer equipment. Post conducted four spot checks throughout 2005. None of the checks found any irregularities in the proper use of the equipment.

Sixteen desktop computers, two laser printers, six office chairs and desks, one electronic scale, one laboratory scale, and one technical scale were installed at the National Laboratory of Forensics Control. Post conducted several spot checks of the newly-equipped classroom in conjunction with drug identification seminars held at the Laboratory. The checks found that the equipment is being properly used and maintained.

Vehicles

In February 2005, post transferred UAZ vehicles to the Border Guard Service of the Committee for National Security for use on the Kazakhstan Russian border. Post has encountered several problems obtaining information about the vehicles. The problems are primarily associated with the lead time necessary for verification visits.

Miscellaneous Equipment

Post transferred technical equipment to be used at the Ulken checkpoint. The equipment included drug test kits, fiber optics borescopes, and CT30-480 kits. Post inspected the equipment in conjunction with the inspection of the hanger. All donated equipment is located at the checkpoint. The equipment is not yet in use due to the need for additional electrical work at the checkpoint. The head of the Ulken checkpoint asked post to translate the drug test kits instructions from English into Russian.

Post also transferred technical equipment, including drug tests, fiber optic borescopes, and headlamps needed to search vehicles for contraband on the Kazakhstan-Russian bore. Post was unable to monitor the donated equipment in 2005 but has a verification trip planned in the first half of 2006.

Problems

The host government mostly cooperated with post on matters related to equipment monitoring. Due to the fact that Kazakhstan's territory is about four times the size of Texas and the fact that post's counter-narcotics and anti-money laundering programs are implemented throughout the country, post is not always able to perform on-site inspection of equipment. Furthermore, the host government's requirement stipulating that all diplomatic notes are due at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs six weeks prior to a proposed event, meeting, or monitoring visit created additional difficulties for post in its monitoring efforts. This was particularly the case with the equipment and vehicles provided to the Border Guard Service given this agency's chain of command. Because the Border Guard service is part of the Committee for National Security (KNB), decisions concerning post's work with the Border Guard Services are channeled through and authorized by the KNB.

Impact

The equipment donated to the Statistics Division of the Procurator General's office was part of a larger project aimed at improving the collection of criminal statistics in Kazakhstan. The Division is post's main source for data and trends concerning counternarcotics and anti-money laundering activities. Since the commodities handover, post has witnessed better quality reporting concerning these trends and statistics which are annually included in the INCSR.

Despite repeated requests from post, the Committee for National Security (KNB) has not yet provided any official statistics related to the seizure of narcotics to the Kazakhstan-Russia border. In 2006, the Border Guard Service promises to provide the post with an official report on the use of equipment provided for operations on the Kazakhstan border.

Since the opening of the computer laboratory at the Financial Police Academy, post has used the laboratory to conduct two training sessions on financial crimes investigation for financial police officers and the students of the Academy.

COLOMBO

Procedures

Post continues to monitor the use of equipment purchased for Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) involved in anti-narcotics efforts. The two NGO's are the Sri Lanka Anti-Narcotics Association (SLANA) and Mithuru-Mithuro Rehabilitation Center. Post personnel have continued to receive verbal updates on the status of equipment from each organization.

Status

A photocopier was provided to the SLANA in 1998. The equipment is in good working order at the SLANA office in Colombo. A Sony 14" color television was purchased for the Mithuru-Mithuro Drug Rehabilitation Center in 1999. It is no longer functioning.

Impact

The lack of a television set has had a negative impact. The staff has been unable to play educational and instructional video tapes. The photocopier and television, when operable, have helped the post provide comprehensive anti-narcotics support. Aiding these preventative and rehabilitative organizations complements post's anti-narcotics law enforcement assistance.

DHAKA

Procedures

Post visited the Department of Narcotics Control (DNC) lab and examined the INL-funded equipment and questioned laboratory personnel on its maintenance and use. Lab staff members were cooperative in showing the equipment and answering questions. The Embassy officer also met with the Director General (DG) for the DNC.

Status

INL has funded the purchase of several pieces of laboratory equipment for the DNC. All equipment is in open-air rooms, exposed to dust and pollution. Most equipment appeared dirty. An analytical balance, a top-loading balance, and a polarizing microscope were donated to the DNC in July 2000. The analytical balance has malfunctioned because an internal circuit burned with power fluctuations; it remains unused. The top-loading and polarizing microscope are in good working order, although the polarizing microscope remains underutilized in a room separated from the rest of the lab. One of the two lab technicians trained on the polarizing microscope has left the DNC.

Of the two high-powered microscopes donated in 2005, one is used in the lab while the other is kept in storage. The more sophisticated equipment is used only in the identification of cannabis, although chemical testing is the preferred means.

Problems

There is not much support for the laboratory facilities from the Government of Bangladesh (BDG). The laboratory remains understaffed. The main source of laboratory staff training in the last five years has been from the ICITAP. Extreme electricity fluctuations in the country have caused internal electric problems with the analytical balance.

Impact

The number of samples referred to the DNC lab has doubled from 2004 to 2005. Each seizure must be tested at this facility, where there are only two technically trained staff members. They use INL equipment and training to identify more than 1,000 samples per month. Bangladesh courts accept their results as evidence in narcotics cases. The impact of USG program is clear, but is not fully realized because of apathy within the DNC and BDG.

ISLAMABAD

Procedures

The NAS performs End Use Monitoring in the course of day-to-day program management, on-site inspections, procurement of new equipment and commodities, and contact with GOP counterparts. The NAS Director and Deputy Director also routinely reinforce EUM objectives with counterparts in recipient agencies. As needed, NAS management raises issues of commodity abuse or fraud with appropriate officials; recommends areas of improvement; and follows up to ensure timely compliance. GOP agencies are generally cooperative and responsive to EUM requirements. Recipients of NAS assistance are well aware that the NAS will not tolerate malfeasance.

In 2005, the NAS designed and distributed a template to all GOP recipient agencies for quarterly reporting on inventory, status, location and impact of INL-provided assistance. Making effective use of the template, GOP agencies began to provide the required info, including better examples of impact, in a more uniform manner this past year.

Commodities

In 2005, the NAS End Use Monitoring team organized a schedule of 62 visits to recipient agencies throughout Pakistan, including Islamabad, Quetta, Karachi, Makran coast, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and FATA agencies. During field trips throughout the year, the NAS staff also conducted over 120 spot-checks of various recipient agencies in different locations throughout the country. NAS and counterpart agencies jointly verified and updated inventories.

In cases where travel to an area was neither feasible (due to remoteness) nor safe, agencies transported commodities to main locations for inspection by the NAS staff. When taking vehicles or equipment away from their main area of deployment would have harmed operational effectiveness, NAS Management staff compared NAS-generated computerized inventory records of commodities against recipient agency written inventories provided in quarterly reports. NAS communication experts also verified the condition of equipment when agencies brought back items for repair. For example, political agents from North Waziristan personally delivered equipment to NAS Islamabad for repair, given that NAS staff could not travel there due to ongoing counterterrorism operations.

During 2005, the NAS team physically inspected about 78 percent of the 1,989 INL-funded vehicles and motorcycles, verifying their condition and location of deployment. The NAS physically inspected all 10 FLIRS, 61 percent of the 206 Night Vision Binoculars (NVBs), and about 54 percent of the 3,578 pieces of communications equipment. Most of the vehicles, communications equipment, NVBs and NVGs that were not seen were deployed in authorized counterterrorism operations in North and South Waziristan and in remote, dangerous border areas, particularly in Balochistan.

Construction

For construction activities, road, and small water schemes, the NAS' engineering section is involved from the planning and costing stage to implementation to the final certification and payment. NAS voucher examiners monitor the bills and expenses submitted and make occasional field visits to verify expenditures as necessary. Engineers monitor independently and with counterparts to assure host contract compliance and assure the quality of construction. The counternarcotics roads are monitored frequently to assure quality. For road construction and small water schemes, the NAS staff, along with the technical department, oversee the construction and carry out a final inspection and certification at completion. Completion reports are jointly signed by the executing technical agency, the NAS and the political agent in the agencies to assure accountability.

Aviation

In2005, the Senior Aviation Advisor (SSA), with the assistance of the NAS personnel, carried out field-based End Use Monitoring of the aircraft and equipment provided to the MOI Air Wing. Co-location of the SSA in Islamabad and Quetta provides USG contractor oversight of both DynCorp contractor performance and Pakistan MOI aviation employment. Helicopters and aircraft are operated and maintained under the direct supervision of USG contractors, except when deployed. The MOI Air Wing is required to notify the NAS before it launches a mission, but no longer requires NAS approval, so long as the mission is within the scope of the Letter of Agreement.

Aircraft Fuel

Aircraft fuel is monitored through flight logs that are maintained and reviewed by State Department contractor personnel. When deployed away from Quetta, fuel/invoices are given to flight crews for aircraft fuel provided. These invoices are verified by the MOI personnel and periodically submitted to NAS staff, who verifies them against quantities billed by the supplier.

Status

With a few exceptions, commodities were in place and being used for the purposes for which they were provided. Overall, post has found that the law enforcement agencies impose tight internal controls and strict administrative practices. GOP agencies generally have a good track record on maintaining current inventories of NAS-provided equipment. The condition of items varied from location to location.

During 2005 and previous EUM visits, the NAS identified for disposal or auction commodities that were unserviceable or would have excessive maintenance cost. The NAS conducted an auction of a first batch of 50 vehicles (out of 139) in 2005.

Vehicles

Law enforcement agencies reported appropriate use of INL-funded vehicles for counternarcotics and counterterrorism operations. Vehicles helped law enforcement staff move to check points for stakeouts; patrol border areas; pursue, apprehend and transport suspected border smugglers; conduct background investigations; and search for drug storage areas and laboratories. Vehicles also transported GOP managers to carry out feasibility studies for development projects; monitor the implementation of various development schemes and road construction; and verify GOP reports of crop eradication.

The vehicles provided to Home Department /FATA were found to be in assigned locations. The use of logbooks is now up to 95 percent, which will help with maintenance of vehicles.

The Frontier Corps (FC) reported proper use of BSP vehicles during the year. The FC-NWFP informed NAS staff that one Isuzu truck was destroyed by an IED in South Waziristanl; twelve FC officers also died in the accident. To date, 13 NAS-provided FC-NWFP vehicles have been destroyed during counternarcotics operations. FC-Balochistan also reported that landmines in the Dera Bugti area destroyed two Isuzu single cabin pickups.

Customs Directorate General, Intelligence and Investigation (Customs and Excise) informed NAS that one Toyota Hilux Coublin Cabin was robbed at gunpoint from a Customs Assistant Director in Karachi. Customs Intelligence Karachi has begun a departmental inquiry into the matter. Customs has promised to send the final report to the NAS once completed.

The NAS observed that three motorcycles intended for use by the Drug Enforcement Cell in Customs were being used by Customs administrative staff. The NAS wrote to Customs requesting that the vehicles be reassigned to the Drug Enforcement Cell. Customs advised that it had allocated all NAS-funded equipment and motorcycles to Customs field formations entrusted with drug interdiction functions and that the vehicles are being used for preventive measures, gathering drug-related information and other operational activities. The NAS is following up with Customs to ensure that such commodities are indeed being used for the intended purposes and that proper controls are in place.

The NAS identified several cases in which vehicles had been transferred among different law enforcement agencies. In one case, FC-Balochistan reported that two of its vehicles had been transferred to the Ministry of Interior and the Pakistan Rangers. NAS requested the Ministry return both vehicles to the FC-Balochistan, and is still awaiting a response. In another case, NAS discovered that a vehicle assigned to the Balochistan Police in Quetta had been transferred to the National Police Academy. The NAS subsequently wrote to the Inspector General of Balochistan Police on the matter. The IG responded that the car performing duty in NPA Islamabad "is hereby withdrawn with immediate effect and until further order." Although these cars have continued to be used for law enforcement purposes even when transferred, the NAS has stressed the need to be consulted on such changes.

Communications Equipment

Communications equipment is used by law enforcement agencies to enable them to plan, coordinate and conduct counternarcotics operations. Equipment includes VHF repeaters, VHF base stations, HF SSB base stations, VHF hand held transceivers, VHF mobile transceivers. Radio equipment plays an important role in the ability of the various law enforcement headquarters to communicate with their other stations nationwide. In some remote areas, the equipment is the sole means of communication between outposts. In the development area, communications equipment is used to communicate between the office of the political agent, the project manager and the construction/project site to relay requirements for equipment; provide site requirements for equipment; and provide information on progress of problems. The radio equipment also enables political agents to coordinate and supervise enforced destruction of opium poppy cultivation.

In 2003, NAS communication experts installed $ 4.5 million of communications equipment (including VHF repeaters, VHF base stations, HF SSB base stations, VHF hand-held radios, and VHF mobile radios) that was procured under the Border Security Project.

The high turnover of qualified and experienced technicians has hampered the proper use and maintenance of NAS-provided communications equipment by ANF, Customs, and agencies in the Tribal Areas of NEFP who rely on the NAS communication engineers to provide direct maintenance and repair service. In 2004, about 250 pieces of communications equipment were reported defective, and of those, about 150 were repaired jointly by the NAS and respective agency technical staff. About 100 radio technicians and technical staff of various GOP agencies were trained to carry out programming, installation and maintenance of NAS-funded radio equipment.

Office Equipment

The office equipment used by ANF, Customs, Frontier Corps, and Police headquarters includes computers, 39 fax machines, and 65 photocopiers. The equipment was well maintained and is in use.

Field Gear

Seven hundred sixty-three (763) INL-funded bullet-proof jackets and other field gear were properly used in law enforcement operations. The Frontier Crops Balochistan located for NAS inspection the one missing NVG noted in last year's EUM report. In addition, the Paskitan Rangers returned to the NAS three NVGs. They are in the process of retrieving from remote locations two other damaged NVGs provided in 1994 that were determined to be beyond repair.

Surveillance Equipment

Recipient GOP agencies reported using surveillance (FLIRs,. NVGs, and NVBs) and communications equipment to plan, coordinate and conduct counternarcotics and counterterrorism operations. INL-funded HF and VHF radio equipment has enhanced command and control on the border areas, allowing law enforcement agencies to reach their stations nationwide. Coast Guards noted that communications equipment has ensured a 24-hour link among all its posts and timely passage of information related to smugglers activities. In remote areas, radio equipment is crucial to operational outposts. The NAS has provided solar panels and power generators to various agencies to provide uninterrupted service to non-electrified areas.

Much of the communications equipment is deployed in extremely rugged, remote and dangerous terrain, making physical monitoring difficult. However, during the course of End Use Monitoring, the NAS staff found that GOP Customs failed to provide some INL-funded communications and other equipment that should have been available for inspection. Upon bringing the matter to the attention of the Directorate General of Intelligence and Investigation, Customs ordered in writing that all its departments make all such commodities available for NAS physical inspection at centralized locations.

Vessels

The NAS-provided 27-foot "challenger" Boston Whaler assigned to Pakistan Customs is once again operational after the GOP financed the overhaul of the boat chassis and repaired the engine.

Construction Projects

Area Development/Agricultural Projects-Fourteen (14) different road projects were under construction in Mohmand, Bajaur and Khyber during the year for a total distance of 55km. Construction of 10 kms of road was completed in Mohmand, Bajaur and Khyber agencies. In Khyber agency, 45 km of roads are under construction. Twenty-seven (27) small water schemes were also under construction in the three agencies. Four hundred eighty-eight (488) acres of demonstration plots were established in Khyber agency during the year, including 368 acres of wheat, 20 acres of rice and 100 acres of onions.

Border Security Roads-In 2005, 56 kms of roads were completed against 145 km planned. Due to the security situation, road projects were held up in South And North Waziristan.

Outposts-Twenty-seven (27) Frontier Corp (FC) outposts were completed in Baluchistan, while work on the two remaining outposts continues. Nineteen (19) FC outposts were completed in NWFP, while work on four is underway. Due to security problems in North Waziristan Agency, three FC outposts have yet to be started, and are expected to be implemented in alternate locations this year.

Aircraft

Eight UH-1H II helicopters flew a total of 875.3 hours from January to May2005. With the addition of two UH-1H IIs, the fleet flew 1,237.3 hours from May to December 2005 for annual total of 2,112.6 hours. The operational readiness rate for the year was 69.2 percent. Three fixed-wing Cessna Caravan 208 aircraft were flown 1,176.7 hours and were maintained at a fully mission capable rate of 78.3 percent.

From the arrival in May 2005 of two additional Huey II helicopters to December 2005, the Air Wing's ten Huey IIs executed 467 operational missions involving 112 aircraft sorties. These included an air assault on a suspected drug compound, poppy surveys, medevacs for personnel injured during FC operations, support for our FC border interdiction missions, and border reconnaissance. The three fixed-wing Cessna Caravans, equipped with FLIR surveillance equipment, executed 55 missions, including border surveillance, medavacs, and command and control support for large operations.

The aircraft took part in rescue and relief efforts for three major humanitarian crises in 2005. During severe flooding in the south of Pakistan, four Hueys deployed for rescue operations, logged a total of 104.4 flight hours from February 11-14. Immediately thereafter, two Hueys deployed to provide assistance after an avalanche hit northern Pakistan, logged 62.7 hours from February 21-March 1. The earthquake that occurred in October caused a full-scale shift to relief work through December. During this period, the Hueys flew 837 sorties logging 825.6 hours. Over 2,600 rescue and medical personnel were transported (to include the entire Japanese and British Rescue Teams) while 772 casualties were evacuated. The fixed-wing Caravans were used both for reconnaissance (finding isolated villages, determining road conditions, etc) and regular passenger service to the only operable airfield in the devastated area. The Caravans logged over 200 hours in support of earthquake relief operations.

In March, one MOI helicopter took fire during a poppy survey over Bajaur Agency in NWFP. There were no injuries and no aircraft damage other than a hole in the cargo door. Another bullet struck one MOI helicopter on August 2005; the helo (determined to be irrepairable within Pakistan) was airlifted to the United States. In December, another MOI helo took fire over Kohlu, Balochistan, and received engine damage that requires an engine change. Both the Inspector General Frontier Corps and his deputy who were on board the aircraft suffered leg wounds from bullets.

Impact

Pakistan made progress toward sealing a porous border with Afghanistan against infiltration by drug traffickers, terrorists, and other criminals, using INL-supplied helicopters, vehicles, and other equipment. In general, law enforcement agencies have stressed that the commodity assistance has provided them with greater mobility and a more rapid response capability for operations in the remote region, especially on the Pak-Afghan border.

Border Security

The Frontier Corps NWFP reported using NAS-provided vehicles, communications and surveillance equipment in search operations for al-Quaida suspects, which resulted in the arrest of 315 al-Qaida members and 1,345 other suspected terrorists. The agency also reports having opened up 3,150 sq. kms. of previously inaccessible areas, mostly bordering Afghanistan with INL assistance.

Narcotics Seizures

From January to December 2005, GOP security forces reported seizing 24.3metric tons (MT) of heroin (including morphine base) and 6.4 MT of opium, a nearly 61 percent increase from 2.5 MT in 2004. In particular, ANF's opium seizures increased from 677 MT to 3.76 MT and FC's opium seizures increased from .64 MT to 1.21 MT. Of the 90 MT of hashish seized by all GOP law enforcement agencies, the Coast Guard interdicted over 7.3 MT, more than the total number of CG hashish seizures for the last four year combined. Other drugs seized by ANF in 2005 included over 2,438 kgs of opium poppy straw, 38 kgs. of opium liquid, .683 kgs of Pseudo-Ephedrine, Ecstacy tablets, 210,000 of Buprenorphine injections, and other synthetic drugs.

Arrests

From January to November 10, 2005, the GOP authorized reported arresting 33,932 individuals on drug-related charges. As of November 30, 2005, the ANF had registered 437 narcotics cases in the GOP's court system, 387 of which were decided with an 89 percent conviction rate.

Opium Poppy Control

With USG assistance, the GOP conducted extensive ground and aerial monitoring this past year in NWFP and Balochistan that confirmed a 58 percent decrease in Pakistan's poppy cultivation to 3,147 hectares in 2005. This is largely contributed to a significant drop in cultivation in Balochistan from 3.067 hectares in 2004 to 278 hectares in 2005; GOP forces reported complete destruction of the Balochistan crop. USG-provide aircraft, vehicles and communications equipment were used to investigate and monitor the 2004-2005 opium poppy crop; help forces eradiate it if necessary; and verify its destruction.

Vehicles and Commo Equipment

In a single operation on June 5, 2005, the Coast Guard used INL-provided vehicles, Night Vision Goggles, GPS and communications equipment to seize 2,770 kgs of hashish. From January to December 2005, the Frontier Corps Balochistan reported using 591 NAS-provided vehicles and 357 pieces of communications equipment in operations that resulted in seizing over 16,000 kegs of heroin and morphine, 1,200 kegs. of opium, and 5,630 kegs. of hashish. The Political staff in the Tribal Agencies reported using vehicles and communications gear to transport local khassadars (police), arrest poppy growers, seize drugs, recover weapons and enforce general law and order. On August 10, Khassadars arrested suspected passengers at a checkpoint in Khyber after they admitted to having 50-grams capsules of heroin in their stomachs that were later retrieved.

Air Wing Assets

Air Wing assets directly contributed to the seizure of 88 kgs. of morphine, 889 kgs. of opium, and 312 kgs of hashish, as well as the weapons and vehicles used by the smugglers. The NAS has made clear to senior GOP interlocutors that Frontier Corps and ANF, in particular, need to make greater tactical use of the assets in counternarcotics operations.

The MOI Air Wing was the first Night Vision Goggle (NVG)-capable helicopter squadron in Pakistan. The MOI Air Wing has both fixed wing night surveillance assets and a NVG-trained night interdiction Heliborne Assault Force (HAF). Surveillance of the border improved significantly with the fixed wing aircraft, providing useful information to the border security agencies.

Problems

Maintenance of Communications Equipment

Maintenance of communications equipment continues to be a problem because law enforcement agencies lack resources and technicians with the advanced knowledge needed to do repairs. The NAS provided maintenance support for the radios of all agencies in 2005, but worked with the Pakistani technicians to enhance their capabilities in maintaining equipment. NAS radio engineers conducted two advanced training courses for law enforcement agencies in Islamabad in November 2005 and in Quetta in December 2005. The training will be replicated in Peshwar and Karachi in early 2006. The NAS also helped agencies set up proper repair shops, equipped them with tools and text equipment, and provided parts and accessories needed to repair the radio equipment.

The NAS discovered that 22 VHF hand-held radios were no longer in storage as indicated in the NAS inventory. The NAS found one of the 22 radios in the Frontier Corps NWPF stock of communications equipment which lead post to believe that this was most likely a problem with record-keeping and the rest of the radios were also probably with GOP agencies. However, since post had distributed thousands of radios in dangerous far-flung areas where counternarcotics operations are ongoing, post has not been able to do a complete inventory. The GOP agencies have stated that they do not have the radios in their inventory. The communication FSN in charge of inventory has since been fired due to numerous incidents.

Security Concerns

In 2005, the NAS had difficulty monitoring assets and construction projects due to ongoing counterterrorism operations, particularly in North and South Waziristan. Given that these are some of the highest impact areas for INL assistance, the NAS has worked with agencies to come up with procedures that meet End Use Monitoring needs but allow work and operations to continue.

Air Wing Missions

TheEmbassy does not always receive timely prenotification from theAir Wing of all missions. In a few cases, the Air Wing did not seek Embassy pre-approval of missions when it was required to do so. The NAS and the Ambassador have emphasized the conditions under which the aircraft can be used in all levels of GOP offices, including the President, Prime Minister, Director General of Military Operations, and the Minister of Interior. The ability of the NAS to monitor use of the aircraft once deployed is also limited; the Letter of Agreement that governs the program specifically states that U.S. personnel are permitted to ride only on training flights, not operational missions.

Vehicles

FC-Balochistan reported that the 62 Toyota Hilus Single/Double Cabin 4x4's that were received in 2005 were unable to gain speed beyond 100 kms/hour and experienced excessive smoke through the exhaust. ANF, the Coast Guards, and FC-NWFP conveyed the same concerns. Having recently procured the vehicles through RPSO Frankfurt, NAS wrote to Tokyo Tsusho Corporation (TTC) to look into the matter. TTC has since been in touch with the agencies to start repairing vehicles in batches.

KABUL

Procedures

The Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development (MRRD) has verified and documented all work and contract activities involved in each project. Receipts, authorization statements, payment status, bank balance statements and copies of individual vendor contracts have been provided to INL Kabul. The INL staff has had several meetings in the past six months with MRRD officials to review their monitoring procedures and to collect documentation of payment completed On-site inspections have been scheduled but have not been conducted to date.

Although the USG had not provided any equipment or other commodities directly to the Government of Afghanistan, INL Embassy staff and contract personnel provide reports of visits to field projects and make scheduled visits to specific project sites.

Status

There are 43 immediate impact projects located in 10 different provinces. INL Kabul purchased 10 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to support the monitoring and verification of Governor-led eradication under the Poppy Elimination Program (PEP). The GPS' will be distributed to the monitoring and verification staff in the following seven PEP provinces: Kandahar, Nanghar, Helmand, Balkh, Badakhshan, Farah, and Urozgon as soon as training is completed in late January 2006. Construction projects include 104 classrooms, the digging of 484 bore wells, canal cleaning, construction of retaining walls, and installation of piping schemes to deliver water to housing as well as agriculture land.

Problems

Due to the security situation in most of the provinces where the projects were implemented and the fluidity of the INL Kabul staff during CY-2005, it was virtually impossible to monitor these projects directly. INL Kabul relied on the reports from the MRRD, Project Monitoring and Evaluations Section, and written reports to monitor the projects.

If the security situation stabilizes and INL Kabul is able to increase its law enforcement staff, INL Kabul intends to make field visits to assess a selected sample of these projects during CY-2006.

Impact

Every indication is that the immediate impact projects have had the desired effect. Providing means of irrigation, construction of classrooms where none or few existed and the drilling of wells to reduce the distance families have to carry drinking water is designed to give individuals alternatives to growing poppy. Direct assessment by INL Kabul taking place in CY-2006 should provide more solid evidence of the impact of these projects.

KATHMANDU

Procedures

Embassy officers visited the Drug Control Law Enforcement Unit (NDCLEU), the Supreme Court, the Police Laboratory and the Women's Cell and conducted spot checks of equipment provided. These organizations fully cooperated with post inquiries about the status of the USG-funded equipment.

Some equipment is used outside Katmandu Valley. Due to security restrictions on travel because of the Maoist Insurgency, monitoring of this equipment has been problematic. As a result, post has relied on status reports from Police Headquarters and information provided to post by the individual offices that have received USG-provided equipment.

Status

Vehicles

The bicycles (20), motorcycles (5), and scooters (2) were given to the NDCLEU in 1997 and 1998. All of the equipment except for two motorcycles and two motor scooters are used infrequently because of their age. The motorcycles and scooters require frequent repair. The Government has banned new importation of two-stroke engines. Thus, finding equipment to repair the motorcycles and scooters is become increasingly challenging. Eight motorcycles were presented to the Nepal Police Women's Cell in September 1999. The Cells are special units of the police, formed to combat crimes against women and children. Five of the motorcycles are in Kathmandu and three are in other districts. The cell reported that all were operational. It has received funding from Police Headquarters to repair all motorcycles provided under the 1998 program.

Laboratory Equipment

A mini-forensic laboratory for drug analysis was established in January 1999 at the Central Police laboratory. The lab has a gas chromatograph and two gas canisters, a Willey grinder, a vertical autoclave, an automatic water still, a spectrophotometer, a vacuum pump, a refractometer, a melting point apparatus, and a computer and printer connected to the chromatograph. All equipment remains in good condition.

Computer Equipment

A laptop computer, desktop computer, scanner and digital camera were presented to NDCLEU in January 2002 for the creation of a database of convicted traffickers. A computer and printer were provided to the mini- forensic laboratory in 1999. A digital scanner was provided to the NDCLEU in 2002. Dell computer monitors (65), Dell COU computers (61), Uninterrupted Power Supply units (65), and Dell printers (20), were presented to the Supreme Court in 2005 for distribution to 15 district courts. The equipment is in good condition and used for its intended purpose. The Supreme Court reports that because of the voltage in Nepal differs from the voltage of the U.S. computers, the 2005 equipment cannot be used without Stavols, which the Supreme Court currently does not have funding to purchase for each donated computer.

Miscellaneous Equipment

The DADRP has been supplied a fax machine, camera, overhead projector, monitor and video camera. All units are in good condition. The DADRP uses them regularly in support of training for Nepali teachers. The equipment is in good condition and used for the intended purpose.

Problems

Travel to some areas of Nepal has been limited due to security concerns, thus affecting the Embassy's monitoring ability.

The NDCLEU desktop computer is the organization's only such computer. It it were to crash, the database of over 900 drug arrests and information entries is not back-ed up. Thus, each unit has requested another computer to devote to e-mail and to use as a backup to their database. The size and type for this database prevents back-up by other methods. The current computer is now getting older and is not able to support newer software programs, including the latest e-mail programs. Its slow running speed causes a slow internet connection, making phone bills higher.

Impact

The support provided to the NDCLEU and the Women's Cell of the police has had a direct and positive impact on the effectiveness of the units by increasing mobility and investigative capabilities. The NDCLEU's computers have enabled the unit to maintain regular email contact with DEA and FBI contacts in New Delhi, Bangkok and elsewhere, facilitating the investigation of organized crime syndicates.

While all U.S. donated computers are not currently operational, the Supreme Court used their computers to leverage funding from His Majesty's Government of Nepal to purchase 300 computers. The Supreme Court now has a computer in each office, and has provided computers to District Courts. This has enabled the Supreme Court to improve filing and archive systems, and to publish hearing schedules and decisions electronically. The addition of Stavols would ensure that the 15 targeted District Courts could have the most updated equipment.

Equipment in the Police Laboratory has given the Police the capacity to accurately analyze samples, usually within two days. The Police laboratory, using USG-provided equipment, analyzed over 10,000 articles from over 2,200 separate cases in 2005. This included 485 articles in 132 drug cases. Analysis by the lab is recognized as expert testimony in court.

NEW DELHI

Procedures

Due to the size of the country, the locations where the majority of the items are dispersed and post's lack of travel budget, it is not possible or feasible to conduct a physical inventory of all INL-donated commodities and vehicles. The INL Program Assistant was able to inventory all donated vehicles and computer equipment. Post requires host government officials who received INL-funded commodities to sign a receipt and agree to maintain the commodities in accordance with LOA standard provisions. Post received a status report from the Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) Deputy Director outlining the conditions and use of all the computer equipment that was purchased in 2004 and distributed to NCB offices throughout the country. Post also received a written report on the vehicles distributed to the various NCB Zonal Offices nationwide.

The Consulate in Calcutta conducted End Use Monitoring of all vehicles and commodities donated to outlying areas in the Northeast either telephonically or by receiving written reports from the host government agencies. The Consulate in Chennai inventoried the vehicles distributed to the NCB by obtaining a report from the NCB Zonal Unit outlying the condition and use of the vehicles. Two employees from the Consulate in Mumbai inspected and drove the two Quail's to determine their condition.

Status

In the past, INL-funded commodities were donated primary to recipients in Northeast India (in the states of Assam, Mizoran and West Bengal) and in North Central India in states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. However, over the last three years, vehicles and commodities were delivered to other parts of India: Mumbai, Chennai, Ahmedadad, Varanasi, Tribandrum, Jodphur, and Chandighar, making the physical inventory of INP-donated items difficult. Post found that most of the commodities were well maintained and in excellent condition.

Vehicles

One Maruta Van was donated in 2000 to the NCB headquarters in Imphal. The Eastern Zonal Unit in Calcutta has (1) Maruti Esteem and (1) Toyota Qualis. The Mizoran State Excise received (6) Maruti Gypay 4-wheel drive utility vehicles in 2001, three are at the Excise headquarters in Aizawl, and one each in the office of the Superintendent of Excise at Champai, Koasib and Saiha. Of the six Yamaha RX 135 motorcycles delivered in 2001, four are located in Aizwal headquarters and are used by the Anti-Narcotics Squad; one bike each is located at the district offices of Aizwal and Champai. All vehicles donated to the NCB in the Northeast and the Mizorem State Excise remain in good condition with maintenance necessary repairs done at the authorized workshops. The Units' officers use the vehicles for preventive duty and easy, unidentifiable movement. CBN's Preventive and Intelligence Cell, Guwahati, Assam has two Yamaha motorcycles that are in good condition and receive regular servicing and maintenance. These bikes are used primarily for intelligence gathering and for special operations.

Over 50 motorcycles were provided to the CBN and distributed to the following CBN offices throughout Uttar Pradesh, Mahya, Pradesh, and Rajasthan: 6 to Chittorgarh in Rajastban; 2 to Neemcuh in Rajastan; 1 to Gwallor; 2 in Delhi; and 2 in Guwahati, Assam; 5 Mandsaur, 4 in Jaora; 3 in Garoth; 1 in Ratlam, 1 in Indore; I in Singoli; 1 in Ujjain; 5 in Kota; 1 in Jahlawar; 3 in Bhilwara; 3 in Pratapgarh; 3 in Barabnaki; 2 in Bareilly; 2 in TiThar; and 2 in Faizabad. All are in excellent working order. The motorcycles are used to patrol the licit opium growing fields for enforcement operations; chase and apprehend criminals; search for drug laboratories; monitor field measurements; and test measurements for poppy harvest. The motorcycles have also been used for the detection and eradication of excess poppy crop, physical check at weighment centers, and the carrying out of out drug and chemical interdiction efforts.

The three vehicles that were donated to the NCB South Zone in Chennai in February 2003 remain in excellent condition, receiving routine maintenance. The Hero Honda Motorcycle, the Maruti Esteem and the Toyota Qualis, are all used for surveillance, search, seizures, and arrests.

The NCB Zonal Unit in Mumbai received two Qualis SUV's and the one Hero Honda motorcycle in March 2003. This year a FSN physically inspected all vehicles and drove two cars, determining that they were in good condition and well maintained. These vehicles are routinely used for surveillance and operations.

NCB New Delhi received (1) Toyota Quali, (2) Hero Honda motorcycles, (1) Mahindra Bolero, and (2) Maruti Esteems. The Maruti Esteems are used for surveillance as these vehicles blend into the urban traffic pattern of New Delhi. The Hero Hondas' primary functions are to perform reconnaissance, issue subpoenas, and make deliveries. All of these vehicles are in good condition.

The Seven vehicles located at the NCB Zonal Units in Chandigarh, Varanasi, Jodhpur, and Ahmendabad. remain in good condition and are used primarily for enforcement and surveillance work. Chandigarh has: (1) Hero Honda motorcycle and (1) Qualis; Varanasi has (1) Bolero; Jadhpur has: (1) Qualis and (1) Ahmedabad had (1) Hero Honda motorcycle and (1) Bolero.

Cameras

Three Sony Digital cameras were donated to three Central Detective Training Schools (CDTS) in Chandigarh, Hyderabed, and Calcutta. These cameras were donated to each of the schools by the ICITAP training team when they conducted a training program in each of the cities in August 2004. All three cameras are in excellent condition and are used to enhance the CDTS's ability to train police in crime scene photography.

One camera each was delivered to the Superintendent of Excise in Saiha and, the Anti-Narcotics Squad in Champhai and two to the Excise Headquarters in Aizawl. All four cameras are reported to be inoperable and are unservicedable. Post will explore the option of replacing the cameras.

NCB Headquarters New Delhi received a Hitachi camcorder that is used by the Investigative and Intelligence Branch in Delhi for surveillance and to record seizures. The camcorder is in excellent condition.

Eight digital cameras were purchased for the Central Bureau of Narcotics for use in their Joint Licit Opium Poppy Survey (JLOPS) in 2003. The cameras are used mainly to photograph and catalog the different stages of poppy growth in each field office and by inspectors visiting the various fields. The cameras remain in good condition.

Eighteen Cannon Powershot A400 digital cameras and (4) Canon Powershot A520 digital cameras were donated to the CNB in September 2005. They are in excellent condition. They are used for recording various stages of poppy cultivation as well as documenting seizures and arrests of diverted poppy/opium.

Computers

In 2004, post purchased (18) IBM desk top computers and monitors, (18) HP desk jet printers, (18) webcams, (18) back up UPS's and (16) copies of Analyst Notebook Software for donation to the NCB nationwide. The following NCB Zonal offices throughout the country received one set of computer equipment: Varanasi, Calcutta, Jammu, Chandigarh, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Delhi Jodhpur Ahmedabad, Chenai and Imphal. The NCB New Delhi headquarters received (7) sets of computer equipment. With the exception of one back-up UPS in the Calcutta Zonal offices, all remaining computer equipment is in good condition. Post will replace the defective UPS this year. In April of 2005, post donated a HP ML570 Server with keyboard and monitor to the NCB headquarters in New Delhi. The server is in excellent condition.

Four Compaq computers and printers were donated to the Excise Department in the Northeast. The computers can be found in the following locations: (2) Excise Headquarters anti-Narcotics Squad; (1) Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Champai, and (1) Office of the Superintendent of Excise, Saiha. Last year, INL replaced two defective printers. All items are in good condition and used for intelligence gathering, record keeping and data exchange.

Nine HP laptop computers were donated to the CBN in July 2005. The computers have been distributed to the following CBN offices: (4) CBN HQ Gwalier, (2) New Delhi, (1) Kota (1) Neemuch, and (1) in Lucknow. The computers are in excellent condition and are used primarily for storage of opium poppy cultivation data (JLOPS) and data related to the poppy crop.

One IBM laptop was donated to the Competent Authority (CA) in New Delhi in May 2005. The laptop is in excellent condition and is used to prepare materials and presentations for workshops on asset forfeiture from drug traffickers.

Communications

Three Motorola headsets are in the headquarters at Aizawl, and two each are with the Aizawl district office and the Anti-Narcotics Squad at Champhai. One each is at Saiha, Office of the Superintendent in Kolasib, and at Vairengte. All handsets, which were delivered in 2001, remain in good condition and are very useful for communication in this remote region.

Miscellaneous

The NCB's Northeast Unit in Manipur used the digital recorder for taping statements and telephone conversations. It remains in good condition.

The following equipment was provided to CBN for use in field locations in JLOPS survey in 2003: 8 digital cameras, 11 digital calipers, 60 hygrothermometers, 6 electric weighing scales, and 11 heavy-duty drying ovens. The cameras have been used to photograph and catalog the different stages of poppy growth in each field office. The 11 calipers were used for measuring the poppy capsules to determine the optimum yield at harvest time. The 11 hot air ovens were used for drying out the poppy crop. The hygrothermometers were used to record temperature and humidity.

Mid-range weighing balances were procured for use in Madhya Pradesh, Rajashan and Uttar Pradesh for weighing poppy samples. Three damaged scales were repaired last year.

A Sharp LCD Projector was donated to the competent Authority, Northern Region in May 2005. The CA uses the projector with the laptop to give presentations and workshops on asset forfeiture from drug traffickers. The projector is in excellent condition.

Two Thales Mobile Mappers (GPS) were donated to the CBN in September 2005. They are used to plot coordinates of all the licit poppy fields to pinpoint their exact locations. The CBN uses the GPS' to determine the plot sizes to better estimate opium crop yields. They are in excellent condition.

Forty sensor technology radiation pagers were donated to Indian Customs this year. They are in excellent condition. They have been distributed to various Indian Customs offices for their use in determining whether shipments contain radioactive material. Often, traffickers will mark containers radioactive, concealing contraband, hoping that no one will verity its contents.

Two Ion Track itemizers were donated to Indian Customs for use in the airports in Mumbai and New Delhi. They will be used to scan suspicious luggage where they suspect contraband is being smuggled. They are in excellent condition.

Sixteen Steiner binoculars were used in various Indian Customs operations and surveillance. They are in excellent condition.

Six Nikon Tundra binoculars were donated to CNB in July 2005. Four are in Gwalior; 1 in Kota; and 1 is in Neemuch. They are used for surveillance and undercover operations to apprehend diversion of the licit opium crop. They are in excellent condition.

Ten weed trimmers are located at Guwahati for use during operations to destroy illegal cultivation. Eight belong to the Guwahati Office and the other two are borrowed from CBN headquarters in Gwalior. The weed trimmers have not been used for the last two years since there has not been a program to eradicate poppy in Acunachal Pradesh. The weed trimmers are reported to be very cumbersome and difficult to carry over the 5-10 kilometers in hilly areas where illicit poppy growth has been discovered in the past.

Impact

INL's assistance to the NCB through donated computers and software has greatly enhanced the operational efficiency in conducting complex drug trafficking investigations. This had led to an increase in the targeting of high level drug trafficking organizations rather than couriers and low level drug traffickers. Using INL-donated computer equipment and vehicles, the NCB conducted a joint investigation with DEA counterparts in India and the US to dismantle an international pharmaceutical smuggling ring that supplied pharmaceuticals purchased over the internet, from India, to clients in the US, Costa Rica, and Australia.

The INL-funded vehicles donated to the NCB throughout India have enhanced NCB's ability to apprehend traffickers and make seizures, especially in outlying areas. The following seizures and arrests were made using INL-donated vehicles in the following NCB zonal Units: New Delhi NCB Zonal Unit-seized 3.6 million dosage units of psychotropic substances and 13.05 kg of heroin with 22 arrests; Mumbai NCB Zonal Unit seized 58.5 kg of heroin and ephedrine. The vehicles were used for surveillance and the subsequent arrests of 61 persons. Chennai NCB Zonal Unit seized 354 kg of opium poppy hush, 3 kg of heroin, and 12,340 tablets of pharmaceutical, making 12 arrests. The NCB Varanasi Zonal Unit seized 7.8 kg of amphetamines and 648,070 tablets of pharmaceutical making 12 arrests. The Jodhpur NCB Zonal Unit seized 7.8 kg of amphetamines and 648,070 tablets of psychotropic substances, arresting 4 individuals. The Calcutta NCB Zonal Unit seized 9.5 kg of heroin arresting 14 individuals. The Chandigarh NCB Zonal Unit seized 64 kg heroin arresting 17 individuals. The Ahmedabad NCB Zonal Unit seized 40kg of hashish, arresting 9 individuals. The Imphal NCB Zonal Unit seized 4,913 kg of heroin. The Jammu NCB Zonal Unit seized 28,715 dosage units of spasmo proxyvon pyrevon as well as 4.5 kg of heroin, arresting 7 individuals.

INL's donations of the vehicles and equipment used in the JLOPS survey has greatly enhanced the mobility of the CBN's staff and helped CBN effectively monitor the harvest of the opium crop and subsequent processing. This year, the CBN seized 19.45 kg of opium using the INL-donated motorcycles.

TASHKENT

Procedures

Post has a full-time FSN to support INL training courses and equipment donations. Post continues to improve its procedures to monitor INL-financed equipment on a day-to-day basis. Post personnel travel to remote border posts and meet with appropriate officials to verify proper storage, maintenance, and use of the INL-provided equipment. DEA maintains an inventory of all equipment transferred to the SIU. It has instituted a tracking system for property transferred to the SIU. The Government of Uzbekistan (GOU) end-user agency is required to sign an End User certificate for every lot of INL-provided equipment. The various GOU agencies are required to provide the Embassy with information regarding final disposition of each donated items in the lot, including the serial number, name of the items and geographical distribution.

Status

Vehicles

In August 2000, Uzbek Customs Committee received nine 4-wheel drive Jeep Cherokees and spare parts. All vehicles were equipped by Customs with a HF radio. They are currently divided into five mobile units patrolling rural border areas. Post has confirmed that the six of the vehicles are in satisfactory condition. A seventh vehicle is inoperable because of difficulties in finding spare parts on the local market. Two of the vehicles are being used by the National Security Service and General Prosecutor's Office to conduct joint tactical operations.

Twenty-eight vehicles were obtained for use by the Special Investigative Unit (SIU). All vehicles were accounted for and in operating condition.

Computer Equipment

In December 2002, post delivered 27 INL-funded laptop computers for use at 12 remote border railroad ports of entry/exit on the borders with Tajikistan Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. Border Guard officials have reported that they are able to process passengers and trains transiting the borders more efficiently. Previously, Border Guards used notepads to record passport data and submit the information to headquarters for analysis. They had to wait nearly one month for results. Officers can now register passengers much faster and can more readily identify wanted criminals.

Document Examination Equipment

In October 2001, INL provided the Committee for State Border Protection document examination equipment to improve passport control activities at border checkpoints. Donated equipment included: 100 Universal Desktop Magnifiers and spare lamps, 200 hand-held UV-spot detectors and spare UV lamps, 8 multifunctional passport readers, and one set of passport computer software. The equipment was distributed to more than 40 border posts. The software was donated to the Border Guard Academy.

Laboratory Equipment

In 2004, post furnished laboratory equipment to enhance the GOU's capabilities to perform forensic analysis of explosives and narcotics substances. The equipment included a portable explosive detector, five digital scales, and an Agilent Electrophoresis system. The explosives laboratory played a key role in identifying the explosive substances used by the suicide bomber who attacked Embassy Tashkent in July 2004. The Drug Laboratory received an Agilent Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer System, which greatly support evidence processing in criminal drug cases.

Miscellaneous

Basic investigative equipment was distributed to the Counterdrug Department of the Uzbek Ministry of Internal Affairs. The equipment transferred included 21 digital video cameras, 68 portable digital audio recorders, 36 digital cameras, and 19 TV sets and VCRs. Transfer of this equipment helped outfit the counternarcotics units with basic equipment.

In December 2002, inspection mirrors (300), "Mag-Lite" flashlights (300), and Narcotics Identification Kits (140) were provided to the State Customs Committee to ensure that every Customs post on the border had a least basic inspection and testing equipment and to increase potential drug interdiction at ports of entry/exit. The equipment was distributed to 60 stationary and mobile Customs border posts, as well as to Customs training facilities. The provision of this durable low-tech equipment has ensured thorough coverage of vehicular and rail traffic through Uzbek borders and freed up limited GOU funds for other equipment purchases available on the local market. The majority of this equipment is in working condition. All mirrors are fully functional and in use. Ten flashlights are inoperable due to malfunctions with the on/off switch. The equipment and test kits are a vital part of the inspection process.

In 2001, post provided jungle boots, camel backs, compasses, diving fins, first- aid kits, flashlights, GPS systems, vests, protractors and watches to the Committee for State Border Protection for use by the maritime operations unit in patrolling the islands in the Amudarya river that serves as the border between Uzbekistan and Afghanistan.

The following equipment was donated in support of the SIU for use in targeting and dismantling high-level transnational drug trafficking organizations operating in the area: office safes, binoculars, handcuffs, scanners, digital scales, digital camcorders, SLR cameras, folding chairs, Polaroid cameras, computer software, GPS units, Motorola radios, voice recorders and supplies, TV sets, cellular telephones, typewriter, office furniture, printer, digital CD cameras, laptop computers, desktop computers, VCR's, televisions, high power telephoto lens, technical investigative equipment, and mobile printers, USP units, office safes. DEA conducted an unscheduled inventory of equipment during 2005.

Problems

Post has encountered some problems obtaining information about donated equipment from the host government. These difficulties have increased as the U.S.-Uzbekistan bilateral relationship has deteriorated. In addition, post is unable to monitor the majority of donated equipment on a regular basis, as it is in remote, difficult to access locations.

Impact

The impact of the resources is difficult to determine since the INL-funded program is still in its infant stages. However, the SIU has been effective and has conducted several successful operations.



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