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Diplomacy in Action

2006 End-Use Monitoring Report: Africa


Report
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 1, 2007

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ACCRA

Procedures

Post received signed statements from the Government of Ghana (GOG) acknowledging receipt and proper use of the items. The Political Officer conducted site visits to inspect all of the equipment in this report. In addition, the Director of the Community Policing Program at the Ghana Police Service provided the Political Officer with a written report of that unit’s status, including a report on bicycles donated by the USG and a discussion of maintenance challenges. GOG officials were extremely cooperative in allowing access for all site visits.

Status

Computer Equipment

In 2002, post donated three computers and one server to Ghana’s Police Service’s Women and Juvenile Unit (WAJU) of the Ghana Police Service (GPS). The unit, since renamed the Domestic Violence Victim Support Unit (DOVVSU), has responsibility for crimes targeting women and children. One computer remains in use at the DOVVSU Regional Office at the Ministries Police Station in Accra and is maintained by an outside vendor, but the server is currently not working. The DOVVSU staff was unsure of the problem, but agreed to ask their technician to check the machine and advise the Political Officer. The other two machines are kept at the DOVVSU secretariat at GPS headquarters where one is used regularly; the second is currently not working due to a faulty capacitor in the main board. The DOVVSU staff is attempting to obtain a replacement part.

In 2004, post donated one laptop computer and one projector to the Narcotics Control Board. The equipment is functioning properly and is used regularly for off-site trainings and for giving presentations. The Political Officer observed both items used during a five-day workshop in October.

In February 2005, post donated four HP Compaq computers and one HP Laserjet printer to GPS’s Police Intelligence and Professional Standards Unit (PIPS). The Political Officer observed officers using the computers, all of which are functioning properly. The computers are well-maintained by GPS technical staff and an outside vendor.

In 2005, the Department of Justice ICITAP police instructors donated INL-funded equipment used in the 14-week Basic Policing skills course to the Police Training college in Tesano, Acca. The equipment included one HP desktop computer/monitor, one HP Deskjet 5500 color printer/copier/fax, one HP laptop, and one Epson printer.

In 2006, ICITAP instructors donated the following equipment to the Police College in Tesano: a second HP desktop computer/monitor, a second HP laptop computer, a second HP printer, a second HP laptop computer, a second HP printer, and a second Epson projector. The equipment is all in excellent working order and kept locked in a separate office. The Police College commandant told the Political Officer during a site visit that the equipment is routinely used in training and is lent to other GPS training schools when not in use at the college. A staff member at the Police College maintains the equipment.

In 2002, post donated a ghost mobile cellular transmitter and a voice analyzer to the NCB. The voice analyzer is in very good condition, but is not currently being used. One current NCB employee has been trained on the use of the voice stress analyzer, but the NCB has not had occasion to use the machine in actual interrogations.

Communications Equipment

Post distributed a mobile cellular transmitter and a voice stress analyzer to the NCB in calendar year 2002. The NCB has not had occasion to use the voice stress analyzer in interrogations. The Motorola radios received in 2004 are only used for training purposes since they are so large they attract attention during counternarcotics operations.

In 2004, post donated two Garmin GPS units and six Motorola two-way radios to the NCB. The GPS personal navigators are currently not in use. The Motorola radios are used only for training purposes because they lack the ability to transmit securely and are subject to eavesdropping.

In 2006, ICITAP police instructors donated four Motorola handheld radios to the Police College at Tesano, one of which has been lost. The rest are in excellent condition and regularly used for training.

Miscellaneous Equipment

Two Ion itemizers, sample traps, and calibration traps were provided to the NCB for detection of illegal substances at the airport. Both itemizers have had their explosives-detecting sensors removed to make them more sensitive to narcotics. UK Customs officials, currently working at Kotoka International Airport as part of a British-funded counternarcotics project, flew a technician to Ghana from London to service one of the machines in November 2006. Since servicing, both itemizers are working.

Post was unable to observe the covert gym bag, ghost phone or digital camera. NCB says these items are stored at its operation center at Kotoka International airport.

In 2006, ICITAP police instructors donated INL-funded equipment used in their 14-week Basic Policing Skills Course to the Police Training College in Tesano. The equipment included three HP digital cameras, one sharp VCR, one Sony Hi-8 video camera, one UPS uninterruptible power supply, six Air-Soft Glock Model 17 training handguns, two Air-Soft AK-47 electric training rifles, two Air-Soft training shotguns, ten padded training batons, six holsters, 12 pairs of safety glasses, two portable white boards, two inflatable mannequins, and one camera tripod.

In 2006, an ICITAP instructor donated additional equipment to the Police College in Tesano, including two Air-Soft Accushot Navy Seal UTGS training guns, and four plastic training knives. Except for one, defective training shotgun, the equipment from 2005 and 2006 is in excellent working order and kept locked in a separate office. The equipment is routinely used in training and is loaned to other Ghana Police Service training schools when not in use at the college.

Vehicles

In 2002, post donated 22 bicycles to the Community Policing Unit at the Cantonments Police Station in Accra. In August 2004, post donated an additional 20 bicycles to this unit. Of these, 21 currently are not useable due to broken chains, tubes, seats for which replacement parts are not available in Ghana. Of the remaining bicycles, five are used every day for patrols in Accra. The unit intends to expand by 30 officers in the next few months. The remainder of the functioning bicycles are kept in a police workshop in Accra for swapping in/out by the five patrolling officers.

In 2005, post donated 20 bicycles to the Ghana Service’s Community Policing Unit in Kumasi. These bicycles have never been used in Kumasi. The Accra Community Policing Unit took these bicycles back from Kumasi in December and locked them in the Tesano warehouse awaiting use by further recruits. Though very dusty from sitting unused for two years, the bicycles are in excellent working order.

Two Suzuki motorcycles, eight crash helmets, and a KIA surveillance van were provided to the NCB in 2003. Four additional motorcycles and one motorbike were donated in 2004. One of the 2003 motorcycles is experiencing technical problems, but the other vehicles are all working properly. Four of the motorcycles are regularly used for surveillance by the NCB. Two of the motorcycles were donated to the counternarcotics units of the Customs, Excise and Preventive Service (CEPS)) and the Ghana Police Service (GPS). The Political Officer was unable to observe the motorcycles. The surveillance van is not currently being used, as the surveillance equipment was temporarily removed in 2006 before the van was sent for engine repairs. The NCB has not yet reinstalled the surveillance equipment, but it is in good condition.

Uniforms and Field Gear

In 2004, post donated 15 tactical vests and ten sets of handcuffs to the NCB. The equipment is in good condition and is used regularly by NCB Staff.

Problems

Laser Printer

PIP officers repeated complaints made in 2005 that lack of air conditioning in PIP offices causes the laser printer to malfunction on particularly hot and humid days. PIPS officers said that a photocopier would greatly reduce the demands of the printer, but they do not have the budget to purchase one.

Bicycles

The political officer observed 21 non-functioning bicycles stacked in a heap, one on top of another in a Quartermaster’s shed behind GPS headquarters. At the political officer’s prompting, the Director of the Community Policing Unit, asked the police protocol officer to work with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on the possibility of sending replacement bicycles parts from the United States through Ghana’s Embassy in Washington using their diplomatic pouch.

Itemizers

Though the NCB is supposed to be responsible for consumables for the itemizers under its Letter of Agreement with the USG, the NCB’s budget cannot support the monthly fees for sample and calibration traps. Though the UK Customs is currently supplying consumables, it is likely the NCB will stop using one of the itemizers once the UK teams departs in 2007.

Idle Equipment

Cooperation between DEA and the NCB was reduced in 2006 due to Ghana’s narcotics scandal. Much of the equipment (though in very good condition) is currently sitting idle. Post and DEA are working to support the GOG’s efforts to reconstitute Ghana’s counternarcotics capabilities and expect that USG-donated equipment will return to use in the near future.

Impact

ICITAP led police training programs have had a tremendous impact on the GPS. In January 2006, the police adapted the basic police skills training and used four ICITAP graduates to train 134 cadets in Winneba and Bolgatanga. In mid-2006, following two train-the trainer ICITAP courses, the Police Service decided to incorporate the entire ICITAP curriculum into its basic training package at the Police College. The ICITAP basic police skills training program has the potential to transform the Ghana Police, reduce human rights abuses, and lead to human trafficking investigations and prosecutions.

DOVVSU and PIP made crucial contributions to post’s annual human rights and Trafficking-In-Persons reporting by sharing case updates and statistics that are processed using the INL-funded computers donated by the USG. Post expects both units to grow in importance and workload as Ghana’s parliament prepares to pass landmark domestic violence legislation and as the public calls for greater police accountability.

The itemizers at the airport continue to have a strong impact. UK Customs Officials reported that following a January site visit by Political Officer to the airport to see the itemizers in use, NCB agents used the equipment later that evening to successfully identify two individuals who had swallowed cocaine pellets.

Though the Community Policing Program has shown disappointing results over the past few years, particularly the lack of use of the 20 bicycles donated to Kumasi, it appears that the program is finally gaining steam and all the remaining functioning bicycles may soon be in regular use. GPS Commanders appear to have made headway in convincing line officers that community policing is a concept that can work in Ghana, and the service plans to conduct community sensitization outreach programs to educate the public on how community policing works.

Program Changes

Post continues to closely monitor the GOG’s attempts to reconstitute the NCB and re-engineer the country’s counternarcotics apparatus. Post and DEA will continue providing training support as deemed necessary and effective for the NCB, but recommends waiting to provide any additional operational equipment until the NCB begins to use the equipment already donated. One exception may be the provision of a safe for secure storage of cocaine/heroin seizures as the NCB currently had no secure way of storing seized narcotics.

COTONOU

Procedures

The post Narcotics Officer visited the police station on several occasions during the past year. The Government of Benin (GOB) provides periodic reports on the use of all commodities.

Status

In 2002, post received two itemizer chemical detectors for installation at the international airport in Cotonou to assist security-screening personnel. Procedures to document the provision and use of the units have not been established as the units have never been put into use due to a lack of air conditioning spaces. The spaces were identified in 2005.

The RSO has since been communicating with INL towards having the units installed, providing training to Beninese Customs and Police and providing supplies for the units. When the units are installed, the RSO will work with Beninese Customs and Police to monitor use of the units the unit’s performance, and to track the unit’s effectiveness.

LAGOS

Procedures

The INL staff in Lagos and Abuja used online inspections and periodic spot checks by USG personnel to monitored INL-funded equipment.

Status

INL donated 10 fire-proof cabinets to Nigeria Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) in November 2006. The INL staff enjoys a cordial relationship with the Nigerian Government Agencies. The agencies have tried to maintain the equipment to the best of their ability. The few items that are not operating are beyond repair.

Communications Equipment

The Motorola VHF Base Station and 20 Motorola VHF radios donated to the NDLEA are in good condition.

Computer Equipment

During 2003, post provided 25 computers and monitors, seven printers, and one server to the Research Center at the NDLEA Training Academy. Post also provided two laptop computers, two power point projectors, two printers and one overhead projector to the Special Fraud Unit to support the Police Modernization Project. All are in use and in excellent condition.

The Nigeria Police INTERPOL unit received two desktop PC systems and two HP 1200 Laser Jet printers. The computers are in poor condition and not operable. The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) received two Compaq laptops. The National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons received two PC systems and monitors. The Special Assistant to the Presidency on Anti-Human Trafficking received two computers All are in good working condition. The laptop donated to the Special Assistant is not operational due to failure of the power pack.

Vehicles

Two Hilux pickups, one Haice Mini Bus, one Hilux 4x4 and one Toyota Hilux 2x2s were provided NDLEA. The INTERPOL received one Toyota Hilux 4x4 and one Toyota Condor van. A Toyota Double Cabin and a Toyota Condor wagon were donated to the Special Fraud Unit of the Nigeria Police Force.

All vehicles appear to be in good condition and in constant use. Any repairs needed have been done by the Government of Nigeria (GON). Vehicles are located at INTERPOL, SFU, JOS Academy, Lagos HQS of NDLEA, the airport in Lagos, Apapa Zone and Tincan Island.

Miscellaneous Equipment

During 2003, post provided a digital medical X-ray machine for use by NDLEA at the Lagos International Airport and AFIX tractor (fingerprint machine) for the Special Fraud Unit. The AFIX tractor has been moved from the Special Fraud Unit to the NPF Forensics Unit. It is in good working condition and used regularly. The X-ray machine is well maintained and used on a daily basis by the airport command of the NDLEA in Lagos.

The following non-expendable commodities were received by NDLEA in prior years: file cabinets (6); desks (2); leather chairs (2); RICOH fax machines (2); ICOM radio chargers (12); Wang printer (1); ICOM radios (3); Opt quest UPS (3); Sharp photocopy machine (1); Sanyo split air conditioners (4); video machines (4); Sharp multi-system TV (1); Panasonic TV (1); Sony handicam (1); Panasonic Camcorder (1); microcassette tape recorders (5); answering machines (2); Panasonic telephones (10); voltage regulators (4);, itemizers (4).

The following non-expendable commodities were received by the National Agency for Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP): CPU (5); flat screen monitor (5); NEC projector (1); Panasonic copier (1); projector screen (1); Smart UPS (3); Sony cyber-shot digital camera (1); Sony laptops (3); LG-VCR+DVD player (1); Sony Trinitron television (1).

The following equipment was donated to the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC): HP Laser jet 4200N printer (3); NEC projector (1); Elton P420 plastic card printer (1); Sony Cyber shot digital camera (1).

The following equipment was donated to INTERPOL: Gubabi fireproof file cabins (4); Panasonic fax machine (1); AVC 650 VA UPS (2); generator (1).

The following equipment was donated to the Lagos State Police: bulletproof vests (4) flashlights (70).

All items were observed to be in use and in good condition.

Problems

The itemizes at the Airports are not in use due to a lack of required consumables. The power pack for the laptop donated to the Special Assistant to the President on Trafficking n Persons (NAPTIP) is not operational due to a faulty power pack. The few items that are not operating are beyond repair.

Impact

The X-ray machine at the Murtala Mohammed Airport in Lagos has been very helpful in drug interdiction. It has been used to detect illicit drugs swallowed by drug traffickers. Since its installation, many drug traffickers have been arrested at the airport. It has also served as a deterrent to drug traffickers, by shifting drug couriers to other airports in Nigeria and countries in West Africa sub-region, which do not have the equipment.

Program Changes

INL Assistant Secretary has approved the purchase of new, state of the art X-ray machines for all Nigerian international airports.

LUSAKA

Procedures

Post obligated $18,000 to support two Counter-Trafficking in Persons (TIP) initiatives in 2006.

Status

M-Films Production

M-Films Production was awarded a grant to produce and host an interactive mobile video show in communities and schools in Livingston and Lusaka. The program was designed to stimulate discussions on the topic of human trafficking in Zambia and the Southern Africa region. M-Films also distributed an assortment of information, education, and communication materials which focuses on youth empowerment, sexual abuse, and human trafficking.

M-films partnered with a variety of organizations to host the interactive mobile video show. The Ministry of Education provided access to schools; international donor agencies such as IOM and ILO-IPEC provided IEC materials; and NGO’s, such as the Young Women’s Christian Association (YMCA), helped to facilitate the mobile shows in Livingstone.

Window Images Media

Window Images Media (WIMD) was awarded a grant to raise awareness of human trafficking in Zambia and Southern Africa. WIMD produced twelve live call-in radio programs, which generated wide interest as indicated by the large number of listeners who phoned in or sent text messages. The main target group was students, job seekers, business, people, cross-border traders and parents.

Impact

With three districts visited during the project implementation of M-Films production, a total of 4,964 people have been reached. Window Images Media programs generated wide interest as indicated by the large number of listeners who phoned in or sent text messages.

NAIROBI

Procedures

Computers were provided to the Anti-Narcotics Unit (ANU). The ANU provides post a report summarizing the location and condition of the equipment. The ANU provides ready access to the equipment upon request. Regular meetings are conducted with the Director of the Criminal Investigations Division (CID), which has oversight responsibility for the ANU.

Status

In 2002, ten computers were provided to the ANU. Nine of the ten computers are still in use. Post maintains regular contact with the ANU to allow close monitoring of the computers. The ANU also provides periodic reports on the use of the computers, including the location and condition of the equipment. The CID controls their dissemination and placement within the Kenya Police Service (KPS). The ANU reports that they are in use at the following locations: Jomo Keyatta International Airport, Malaba, Eldoret Airport, and Busia.

Problems

Continuing corruption concerns, coupled with diminished control by the designated recipient over the dissemination of resources, hampered post’s provision of additional assistance.

Impact

The ANU reports that the provision of the computers has enabled the KPS (and by extension the ANU) to improve recordkeeping and nationwide data collection. As a result, the ANU is able to compile data to provide more comprehensive, detailed, and reliable reports on anti-narcotics related activities.

Program Changes

Post is undertaking a review of past and proposed assistance in light of current needs of the ANU and KPS to identify opportunities where additional assistance might be most effectively employed.

PRETORIA

Procedures

During 2006, the NLEA and the U.S. Secret Service (USSS) inspected the equipment provided to the South African Government and the SADC region. NLEO visited the Special Investigative Unit (SIU) and physically viewed its equipment. The ICITAP Technical Adviser to the Johannesburg Metropolitan Police (JMPD) has access to some of the equipment and receives reports on the equipment dispersed to the officers, as well as reports on the JMPD Academy project. USSS officers travel frequently throughout the region and thus can conduct a physical inventory. In some cases, updates were obtained via e-mail.

Status

Miscellaneous Equipment

Seven desk stations, three drawer compartments, 5 four drawer steel filing cabinets, 2 steel lockable cupboards, 3 five tiered bookcases, nine chairs, 2 letter trays, and 3 waste bins were provided to the SIU in 2005. In 2004, the SIU received 68 desks, 11 conference tables, 32 filing cabinets, 27 cupboards, 58 five tier shelves, 4 four legged chairs, 42 high back chairs, 14 mid-back chairs, 1 boardroom table, 90 stacker chairs, 13 workstations, 1 lectern, 2 reception desks, 2 coffee tables, and 4 waiting chairs.

In 2005, the SIU received 7 desk stations with pedestals, a cantilever leg, “3” drawer pedestal compartment, five “4” drawer steel filing cabinets, two steel lockable cupboards, three “5” tiered bookcases, nine chairs, two letter trays, seven wastepaper baskets and three waste bins.

In 2003, 299 breath analyzers, one projector, one VHS player/recorder, one television, and one external mouse were given to the Johannesburg Metropolitan Police Department. The breath analyzers are in constant use as preliminary indicators of drunken driving, including roadside checks. If suspected to be under the influence, the driver would then be arrested and taken for a blood test.

In 2004, one infrared spectrometer, one gas chromatographer, one liquid chromatographer, 5 video recorders, 8 cassette recorders, 7 projectors, 1 DVD player, 76 flashlights, 2 laminators, 4 microscopes, 4 VHS tape duplicators, 2 shredders, 1 forensic tool kit, 91 cameras, and 6 thumb drives were donated to the South African Police Services (SAPS). The equipment is in good condition.

The VHS player/recorder and TV are used for training purposes and are working well. The Swaziland Police were given 50 back-pack sprayers for use in drug eradication.

A bio-metric access control system and I.D. card machine were donated to the SIU for the head office and Pretoria region. It mitigates the risk of unauthorized access to the SIU facilities. It is in excellent working condition.

The Swaziland Police were given 50 back pack sprayers for use in drug eradication.

Construction

A JMPD Academy was constructed in 2006. The first academy class which consisted of JMPD and Erkhuleni trainees began in July 2006 and graduated in December. The mayor of Johannesburg has committed to doubling the size of the JMPD over the next two years so the academy will run at full capacity.

Communications Equipment

In 2004, five (5) video recorders, eight (8) cassette recorders, seven (7) projectors, one (1) DVD player, four (4) cell phones, seventy-six (76) flashlights, two (2) laminators, four (4) microscopes, four (4) VHSD tape duplicators, ten (10) Motorola radios, ten (10) Motorola batteries, ten (1) Motorola desktop chargers were given to the SAPS and Scorpions during the Financial Crimes and Forensic Training.

A PABX System, which provides voice over IP via a WAN system, was provided to the SIU for use in operations in East London, Pretoria, Durban, Nelspruit, Umtata and Capetown. It is used in investigating fraud, corruption and mismanagement of state assets and monies.

Computer Equipment

SAPS and Scorpions were given 25 scanners, ten (10) laptops, 22 forensic computers, 43 printers, four (4) CD-RW external drives, ten (10) palms, 21 external hard drive, forty (40) mouse and keyboards, and two (2) AXTZ microchips.

The Kenya Police Service received two (2) forensic tool kits, two (2) 200 GB hard drives, one (1) microscope and two (2) printers. The Tanzania Police Service received one (1) forensic tool, one (1) 200 GB had drive, and one (1) printer. The Zambia Police Service received one (1) forensic tool kit, one (1) 200 GB hard drive, and one (1) printer.

The Ghana Police Service received one (1) forensic tool kit, one (1) 200 GB hard drive, and one (1) printer. The Swaziland’s Police Service and Uganda’s Police Service each received one (1) microscope.

The Center for Crime Prevention Studies, Rhodes University, was given one Asus laptop, two 17” LCD flat screen monitors, one firewall, three dual Pentium III 800 MHZ PC’s, one scanner and one server/high end work station. The laptop has reached the end of its useful life. All of the other equipment is in good working condition.

A desktop computer system previously used by the Technical Adviser to the Johannesburg Metropolitan Police was turned over to the Office of the Chief of Police. It is in good operating condition.

Impact

The identification cards have proven to be worth every penny. Someone impersonating a SIU investigator presented himself to one of the SIU’s clients and tried to obtain documentation of an ongoing investigation. The official in charge asked for his SIU I.D. card. Failing to produce it, he fled. However, he was apprehended, arrested, and charged with fraud and impersonating a member of a law enforcement agency.

The increased demand by the various Departments of the South African Government for SIU to investigate corruption has resulted in SIU’s rapid growth. The equipment provided by INL and training by the USSS for the South African Police Service, National Directorate for Public Prosecution, and six southern African countries, provided substantial training which will allow these entities to extract crucial information from computers seized during the course of an investigation. This training covered money laundering, procurement fraud, medical claims fraud and how desktop publishing is used to facilitate a variety of financial crimes.

The breath analyzers are used as preliminary indicators for the JMPD. When there are visible indicators of drunken driving, as well as at roadside checks, the analyzers are used as preliminary indicator of a driver being under the influence.



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