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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Africa


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2008 Program and Budget Guide
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 2007
Report
September 18, 2007

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Burkina Faso

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

100

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

To strengthen the capacity of the criminal justice sector to investigate and arrest criminals engaged in trafficking in persons crimes and assist victims of trafficking.

Number of host government-civil society partnerships implementing cooperative programs as a result of U.S. Government efforts.

Number of individuals in host nation who receive training on trafficking in persons related issues.

Transformational Diplomacy

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a growing transnational crime that undermines peace and security and the goal of transformational diplomacy. Through force, fraud, and coercion, TIP deprives people of their most basic human rights; people are bought and sold into prostitution, coerced into indentured servitude or bonded labor, and captured to serve as child soldiers and camel jockeys. High profits subvert the rule of law by corrupting government officials and weakening police and criminal justice institutions. Human trafficking is a global problem that has country-specific, regional, and transnational elements.

Program Justification

TIP is an egregious abuse of human rights that is also a public health menace and a global threat to the rule of law. This modern-day form of slavery involves both sexual and labor exploitation, and takes many forms. Around the world, people are sold into prostitution, coerced into indentured servitude or bonded labor, and captured to serve as child soldiers and camel jockeys. The U.S. Government estimates that hundreds of thousands of persons are trafficked across international borders each year for labor and sexual exploitation.

The lead government advocate on the issue is the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (G/TIP) at the Department of State, established in October 2001 pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. This office is responsible for developing, monitoring and overseeing USG anti-trafficking policy and programs; compiling the largest government-produced annual Trafficking in Persons Report (the TIP Report); and advancing public awareness and advocacy involving practical solutions to governmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, Congress, and the media, toward the goal of eradicating this form of modern-day slavery.

Program Accomplishments

Country-specific funding for Burkina Faso is requested for the first time in FY 2008.

FY 2008 Program

This level of foreign assistance was recommended to provide funds that will increase prevention and prosecution efforts. Burkina Faso was ranked in 2005 and 2006 as a Tier 2 country, and the government is making significant efforts to fully comply with the minimum standards. More emphasis, however, needs to be placed on training law enforcement officials and increasing efforts to prosecute and convict traffickers. Burkina Faso is one of few countries in the region with known trafficking rings, which have been linked to regional smuggling rings. This level of sophisticated organized crime requires an equally sophisticated law enforcement response. Our foreign assistance will provide the training required that will assist Burkinabe law enforcement to successfully infiltrate and destroy these criminal rings. Further, foreign assistance will be used to sensitize the public on the issue, in an effort to reduce and eventually eliminate trafficking crimes committed by extended family members of the victims.

Burkina Faso
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Trafficking in Persons - - - - 100
Total 0 - 0 - 100

Cape Verde

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

500

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Cape Verde's law enforcement's capacity to deter, prevent and investigate trafficking in narcotics will be strengthened. Cape Verde's drug enforcement authorities become effective and reliable partners with U.S. and other West African law enforcement agencies.

Counternarcotics training delivered leading to improved investigative and interdiction skills, and resulting in an increased ability to stop the flow of drugs through international airports, seaports and border entry points; enhanced capacity to combat money laundering and terrorist financing; and new channels for communication and cooperation result in increased transnational collaboration on investigations and prosecutions of cases with West African and other countries.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement groups.

Increased numbers trained at select police training facilities; development and implementation of modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select police training facilities; development and implementation of strategic plans for improving law enforcement training; development of a modern laboratory facility to assist police in its counter-narcotics investigations; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation result in more effective law enforcement.

Transformational Diplomacy

Cape Verde is one of the most democratic countries in all of Africa, despite some problems with its legislative and presidential elections held in January and February 2006. However, Cape Verde is known to be a transit point for illegal drugs from South America en route to Europe and mainland Africa. Money laundering is a key problem tied to the flow of illegal drugs. The INL program will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding a counternarcotics and law enforcement development program focused on strengthening Cape Verde's law enforcement capabilities in interdiction.

Program Justification

The African continent is still a very weak link in international drug control. Over the past few years, major seizures have been carried out in the Gulf of Guinea region (Togo, Cape Verde and Ghana). The ten islands of Cape Verde are favored locations for transhipping, unloading, storing and picking up cargoes of illicit goods transported by vessels arriving from the Caribbean, the Atlantic coast of Latin America and West Africa on the way to Europe. This strategic position on maritime routes is compounded by the limited material and human resources devoted to combating this trafficking.

Over the past year, although police seizures of cocaine destined for Europe have increased domestic consumption of the drug as well as drug-related crime. There is also increased concern with money laundering and organized crime associated with trafficking activities.

To date, there has been no indication that cocaine is being smuggled to the United States from Cape Verde. That said, a new direct flight between the United States and Cape Verde suggest the possibility of this issue directly effecting the United States.

The main challenges identified in terms of combating drugs and related crime are: lack of accurate information on the scale of the scourge; detection of existing networks and their transnational links; identification of suitable measures to curtail trafficking and the influence of criminal networks; and capacity building of the Cape Verde police.

Such criminal activities corrupt and weaken governments, undermine progress towards the establishment of democratic institutions, hinder economic growth and foreign investment, and create an attractive environment for terrorism and other transnational crime.

INL crime and drug programs in Cape Verde will support the development of professional and sustainable law enforcement institutions capable of detecting and deterring criminals operating in their country.

Program Accomplishments

Severe budget constraints for INL programs in Africa over the past few years limited the ability to initiate new programs. Nevertheless, INL was able to provide some counternarcotics assistance for Cape Verde in the past, including the provision of drug identification kits in 1999. Cape Verde was also invited to participate in two regional DEA seminars in Nigeria in 2004 and 2006. These seminars discussed operational and interdiction strategies, and helped coordinate Cape Verde's counter-narcotics activities with other West African countries. Cape Verde also attended a regional DEA seminar in Nigeria in 2006.

FY 2008 Program

FY 2008 will be the first year of program funds for Cape Verde. Funds will be used to assist the Government of Cape Verde law enforcement in enhancing its counter-narcotics capabilities to prevent and interrupt the future movement of trafficking of narcotics in and around the country. INL assistance will provide basic skills training for Cape Verde's law enforcement including technical assistance on surveillance and inspection operations, money laundering, and financial crimes to ensure more effective transnational crime prevention activities. INCLE funds will also provide for the development of a modern laboratory facility to assist police in its counter-narcotics investigations.

Cape Verde
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Counternarcotics - - - - 500
Total - - - - 500

Democratic Republic of Congo

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

1,750


Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

To assess and build the capacity of law enforcement services in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes, as well as provide security in urban areas.

Assistance will emphasize skills-based training, but also may include technical assistance, and equipment delivery. The current capabilities and needs of law enforcement in the DRC will be assessed. Police academy development and training on general police skills will improve the capacity of DRC police to prevent crime and use developed techniques in criminal investigations.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in the DRC will be achieved through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement services in the DRC.

Increased numbers trained at police training facilities and academies; development and implementation of modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in police training facilities and academies; development and implementation of strategic plans for improving law enforcement training.

Transformational Diplomacy

Developing policing capabilities in the DRC advances the Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security Objective through supporting and building law enforcement services capable of improving security in the DRC, assisting the DRC's emergence from conflict and into a democratic and stable state.

Program Justification

The DRC is emerging from a brutal and complex conflict, which severely impaired, among other things, any capability to foster the rule of law. The DRC is a resource rich country, but widespread insecurity has impeded its development. A 2002 peace agreement improved security and provided space for a transitional government, which held elections in late 2006 and early 2007. It is imperative to support the new government's ability to provide security and rule of law, especially as the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) peacekeeping force begins to draw down its presence.

Developing the capacity of DRC law enforcement to provide security, deter and investigate crime, and provide modern training for its officers will greatly improve the DRC's ability to fill the security gap that MONUC may leave behind.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2008 funds represent the first year for INL assistance to the DRC.

FY 2008 Program

INL funds will be used to implement sustainable improvements in the capacity of DRC law enforcement institutions. This will include a needs assessment. The program will focus on training and may include general skills training, police academy development and specialized training courses. The program may also include technical assistance and equipment procurement. In its first year the program will have a specific focus on Kinshasa, the capital and a major urban area.

Democratic Republic of the Congo
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Development - - - - 1,750
Total - - - - 1,750

Djibouti

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

300

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

To strengthen the capacity of the criminal justice sector to investigate and arrest criminals engaged in trafficking in persons crimes and assist victims of trafficking.

Number of host government-civil society partnerships implementing cooperative programs as a result of U.S. Government efforts.

Number of individuals in host nation who receive training on trafficking in persons related issues.

Transformational Diplomacy

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a growing transnational crime that undermines peace and security and the goal of transformational diplomacy. Through force, fraud, and coercion, TIP deprives people of their most basic human rights; people are bought and sold into prostitution, coerced into indentured servitude or bonded labor, and captured to serve as child soldiers and camel jockeys. High profits subvert the rule of law by corrupting government officials and weakening police and criminal justice institutions. Human trafficking is a global problem that has country-specific, regional, and transnational elements.

Program Justification

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is an egregious abuse of human rights that is also a public health menace and a global threat to the rule of law. This modern-day form of slavery involves both sexual and labor exploitation, and takes many forms. Around the world, people are sold into prostitution, coerced into indentured servitude or bonded labor, and captured to serve as child soldiers and camel jockeys. The U.S. Government estimates that hundreds of thousands of persons are trafficked across international borders each year for labor and sexual exploitation.

The lead government advocate on the issue is the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (G/TIP) at the Department of State, established in October 2001 pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. This office is responsible for developing, monitoring and overseeing USG anti-trafficking policy and programs; compiling the largest government-produced annual Trafficking in Persons Report (the TIP Report); and advancing public awareness and advocacy involving practical solutions to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, Congress, and the media, toward the goal of eradicating this form of modern-day slavery.

Program Accomplishments

Country-specific funding for Djibouti is requested for the first time in FY 2008.

FY 2008 Program

Djibouti was included in the annual TIP report for the first time in 2006, and was ranked in the Tier 2 Watch List. Due to its location between Ethiopia, Yemen, and Somalia, Djibouti is particularly vulnerable to both labor and sex trafficking. This level of foreign assistance was recommended for Djibouti for the purpose of supporting the passage of an anti-trafficking statute, encouraging prosecutions once the statute is in place, and increasing awareness of the TIP issue among government and law enforcement officials, as well as the general public. To date, the Djiboutian Government has shown minimal understanding of TIP, but recent actions demonstrate that interest in the issue is forming. The government provided the Embassy with statistics for inclusion in the 2007 TIP report, and very recently published an editorial piece about child prostitution in a national newspaper. Our foreign assistance in 2008 will support this growing recognition of TIP realities by funding capacity-building and legislative activities.

Djibouti
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Trafficking in Persons - - - - 300
Total - - - - 300

Ethiopia

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

150

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The capacity of the criminal justice sector of Ethiopia to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes of concern to the U.S. will be strengthened. Capacities to improve border security and deny money laundering will be strengthened

Skills-based training will be emphasized; specialized law enforcement and border security units will receive training and implement modern procedures and training methods; increased numbers of criminal and financial investigations conducted by trained units; improved capability of border security to deny use of borders for illicit activity.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in Ethiopia will be achieved through the modernization and professionalization of select law enforcement and border guard units.

Increased numbers trained at training facilities; development and implementation of modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select training facilities.

Transformational Diplomacy

Denying funds and cross-border movements to international criminal organizations advances the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by mediating the negative effect of transnational crime on Ethiopia's development and controlling threats to Ethiopia's population, the second largest in Africa.

Program Justification

Nearly half of Ethiopia's the population lives in poverty (45 percent). Literacy is low (42 percent) infrastructure is inadequate, and there is high infant mortality, widespread food insecurity, and minimal access to healthcare. The on-going tensions stemming from the still-unresolved Ethiopia-Eritrea border conflict, several domestic insurgencies, and continuing instability in Somalia all negatively impact economic development in Ethiopia. All these factors make Ethiopia's population vulnerable to transnational crimes such as trafficking in small arms or in persons.

At the same time, the capital, Addis Ababa is a modernizing city of increasing financial importance in the region. Unregulated financial and cash courier networks in Addis and elsewhere in Ethiopia are vulnerable to abuse by criminal and terrorist organizations looking to launder money and transfer funds.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2008 represents the first year of funding for this program.

FY 2008 Program

INL funds will be used to achieve sustainable improvements in the capacity of select Ethiopian law enforcement and border institutions to combat illegal migration and trafficking in people, narcotics and other contraband; and to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. 

Ethiopia
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Border Security - - - - 150
Total - - - - 150

Ghana

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

500

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The capacity of Ghanaian law enforcement to address financial crimes and an increase in the number of fraud cases investigated and prosecuted.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities to combat drug traffickers.

Improved capacity to address counter-narcotics through investigations, operational planning, and operations.

Increased cooperation and coordination between law enforcement agencies on counter-narcotics efforts.

The Narcotics Control Board is established as leaders in drug law enforcement in the region.

Transformational Diplomacy

Embassy Accra is now the fourth largest U.S. Mission in the Africa Bureau. FY 2008 assistance is designed to establish and sustain effective, professional and accountable law enforcement services to address financial crimes. This will lead to an improved capacity for the GOG to protect persons, property, and democratic institutions against criminal an other extralegal elements.

Additional assistance will be used to assist the GOG in combating narcotics trafficking through training to improve coordination and enhance drug and crime interdiction capabilities and capacities. INL programs will develop the GOG law enforcement capabilities to assert the rule of law and contribute to the development of sustainable peace and security.

Program Justification

Ghana is a stable, pro-American, market-oriented democracy in a region dominated by conflict and authoritarian rule. It is playing an increasingly important regional leadership role, as a two-time chair of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), as the world's fourth largest contributor of UN peacekeeping forces, and as a member of the UN Security Council. Ghana is committed to democracy, civilian control of the military and rule of law, with a lively media and an independent judiciary and Electoral Commission. Ghana has been a strong partner for the United States in the Global War on Terrorism and could serve as an anchor of stability and democracy in West Africa.

Nonetheless, Ghana's democratic institutions remain weak. While there is general respect for rule of law, the security services lack trained personnel, sufficient resources and adequate codes of conduct. Corruption undermines the judiciary and the Ghana police.

Meanwhile, Ghana's security challenges are growing. Ghana has a rising and significant problem with international crime, including fraud and financial crime. Consular fraud is endemic. Illegal arms trafficking is a serious problem. While Ghana passed a trafficking in persons law in 2005, GOG authorities have little understanding of how to implement the law.

According to DEA and other foreign law enforcement intelligence, Ghana has become a major transshipment and warehousing location for tons of cocaine from South America, as well as large quantities of heroin from Afghanistan or the "Golden Triangle". By all accounts, Colombian drug trafficking organizations have established strong ties with Ghanaian and Nigerian criminal networks based out of Ghana.

Program Accomplishments

In recent years, INL funds have increased the capacity of the Ghana Narcotics Control Board, which has resulted in an increase in narcotics seizures. INL funds have also been used in the past year to fund a highly successful 14-week basic police training course as well as ongoing 8-week police courses run by ICITAP. This training has the strong backing of the Inspector General of Police and has already been replicated, which the Department of Justice reports is unprecedented in Africa.

Programs aimed at institutional law enforcement development in Sub-Saharan Africa have met with success despite limited funding and brief histories. INL funded the establishment of a bicycle patrol program in Accra, Ghana to advance the concept of community policing. Since the program's launch in 2002, the Accra patrol team has inspired a new initiative to duplicate the bicycle patrol concept in Kumasi, a regional capital in the southern part of Ghana. In August 2004, 40 patrol bicycles were donated to the Ghana Police Service (GPS) to create a new community policing patrol unit in Kumasi. The Ghanaians are coordinating the training of the new officers, applying the "train the trainers" concept.

In July 2005, instructors presented a comprehensive 18-week train-the-trainer program to thirty members of the Ghanaian Police Force. The instructors imparted Problem Based Learning (PBL) techniques, which have proved to be extremely effective throughout Africa. The instructors worked with the students to tailor a Basic Recruit Training (BRT) curriculum to meet the needs of the Ghanaian police. Topics included: First Responder, Gender/Sex Crime Issues, Force Protection and Civil Disorder Management. The tailored curriculum will be institutionalized into the police academy.

The BRT training has already positively impacted the investigative capabilities of the GPS. In October 2005, the GPS requested that two officers who were participating in the INL training report to Headquarters to investigate a politically sensitive crime committed against a foreign-national female by a Ghanaian citizen. The GPS leadership has reported that the training the officers received in crisis intervention and techniques of interviewing victims of sexual assault is critical to both resolving serious incidents and in conducting professional criminal investigations.

FY 2008 Program

Financial Crimes

Ghana has a growing problem with financial crime, including relationship and gold fraud, fake checks, and credit card and other scams. This project would provide training and equipment to enable the GOG to fight back on financial crime. It would also provide technical assistance to elements of the GOG engaged in implementing the money laundering bill. Finally, it would provide assistance in developing a public awareness campaign, involving law enforcement and civil society.

There is a growing trend of American citizens victimized by financial crimes. Our research suggests that personal relationship fraud has tripled in and commercial fraud has grown by around 50 percent in the last year in Ghana. Such fraud is impacting U.S. businesses and undermining Ghana's business environment. It is contributing to corruption and money laundering. The GOG is unprepared to address the problem. The police's Commercial Fraud Unit, in charge of investigating such scams, lacks Internet access, computers and training in financial crime. The Serious Fraud Office, which handles fraud linked to government resources, also has very little ability to track such cases. Few officers are trained in dealing with financial crime.

The GOG is expected to pass a money laundering bill and establish a Financial Intelligence Unit in the next six months, which will create new demand for skills to combat financial crimes. With increased capacity of law enforcement and a public relations campaign, this project could address Ghana's growing corruption concern in a tangible way with direct benefits to U.S. interests. This project fits the needs identified in the 2008 MPP, Prevention and Response to Terrorism Goal Paper.

Counternarcotics

The project will consist of technical assistance and training to address counter-narcotics issues affecting the country. Training may include a two-week Regional Advanced Drug Enforcement Seminar with emphasis on international control deliveries, conspiracy investigations, and operational planning. The program may include targeted training for mid-level narcotics enforcement supervisors from Ghana to address the need to increase the management and supervisory skills of mid-level supervisors in law enforcement agencies in Ghana. Ghana has not previously received this type of training. Training may also include assistance in planning and preparing for operations by GOG law enforcement to conduct investigations on drug traffickers.

Ghana
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Development - - - - 250
Counternarcotics - - - - 250
Total - - - - 500

Liberia

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

990

1,000

4,130

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

U.S. police advisors provide training and technical assistance to the Liberian National Police (LNP) to continue the development of the LNP as a professional police service. Non-lethal equipment for carrying out their policing duties is procured and donated to the LNP. Support is also given to strengthening the LNP's physical plant. $1.5 million is requested to support these activities.

U.S. justice advisors, including prosecutors, a public defender, court administrators, and a corrections specialist, provide technical training and support to the justice sector in Liberia. In addition, equipment for carrying out their justice roles is procured and donated to the various justice sector organizations. Support is also given to strengthening the justice sector's physical plant. $4.75 million is requested to support these activities.

Transformational Diplomacy

The Civilian Police (CivPol) project advances the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective, specifically Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform, by funding U.S. police advisors to the LNP. Rule of law is a keystone for the continued stability, security, and future development of Liberia. As one of the primary guarantors of rule of law in Liberia, the LNP's successful transformation is crucial to ensuring the country's overall future. Continued technical and material support, through providing U.S. advisors, donating equipment, and developing the LNP's infrastructure, will strengthen the LNP and thereby contribute to Liberia's peace and security.

The Justice Sector Support Liberia (JSSL) project advances the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Governing Justly and Democratically objective, specifically Rule of Law and Human Rights, by funding justice sector advisors, training activities, and developing and strengthening its infrastructure. This support is focused not only the judicial system, but also the Ministry of Justice, the corrections system and other organizations contributing to the justice sector and rule of law in Liberia. Without a properly functioning judicial system, prosecutors, able defenders, and trained corrections personnel, the goals of rule of law and respect for human rights cannot be achieved in Liberia. All the JSSL activities go directly to improving the quality of justice and observance of human rights in Liberia.

Program Justification

After more than two decades of conflict and instability, Liberia's ability to enforce its own laws and maintain the peace remains tenuous. The November 2005 election of Ellen Johnson -Sirleaf as President of Liberia, the first female president on the African continent, brought a new sense of hope to the Liberian people. Maintaining peace and stability by ensuring enforcement of Liberian laws is a top priority of the new President. LNP infrastructure and capabilities remain weak, posing significant challenges to effective law enforcement. Additional challenges include rising domestic violence and trafficking in women and children. The Liberian public views the LNP with skepticism and mistrust. Strengthening the ability of the new Liberian government to address these and other law enforcement problems is a key program priority.

Since December 2003 the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) has been providing security and maintaining the peace with a UN Police component of approximately 1,015 officers from 37 different nations. The U.S. contribution to UNMIL, which reached a high of 76 officers in early 2004, is critical to U.S. interests in maximizing effectiveness of UNMIL. There are 10 U.S. civilian police officers currently assigned to UNMIL. UNMIL is scheduled to deliver a draw-down plan to the Security Council before the next mandate review in March 2006. The plan will include a draw-down timetable that is linked to the security situation, an evaluation of progress on developing Liberian police and armed forces, and a forward-look assessment of Liberian capabilities to establish and maintain the rule of law. The UN is expected to remain in Liberia until mid 2008.

Program Accomplishments

With the assistance of U.S. police provided to UNMIL, training of the Liberian police continues. There are approximately 750 trainees at the police academy, 500 trainees undergoing in-field training, 2,300 graduates from the academy in total, and an additional 250 LNP employees who underwent in-service training. U.S. police advisors are continuing to provide technical advice and support to the LNP. Uniforms and other basic supplies for the planned 3,500 strong LNP force have been procured and will be donated to them in the spring of 2007.

Training of justice sector personnel continues. Aside from the improved quality of their Liberian counterparts' work, concrete successes include the creation of the first public defender program in Liberia's history, renovations to the main judicial building in Monrovia, the Temple of Justice, creation of a case-numbering system that will eventually be replicated nationally, the donation of two buses to the Temple of Justice, training of the prosecutor's office, and fostering ties between the LNP and the prosecutor's office.

FY 2008 Program

The FY 2008 CivPol program will provide several high-level U.S. police officers to serve as technical advisers to the LNP. These officers will continue mentoring, advising and monitoring the LNP to encourage better police-community relations and discourage human rights violations. Police experts in the areas of community policing, anti-trafficking and domestic violence will train LNP officers in the most up-to-date police techniques in order to increase the capacity of the LNP in these high-priority areas. Program funds will also be used to purchase non-lethal equipment. The donation of basic equipment and rehabilitation of physical infrastructure will also continue.

The FY 2008 JSSL program will continue to provide justice sector personnel to serve as technical advisers to the various components of the Liberian justice sector. These advisers will mentor, advise, and monitor their counterparts to encourage a more consistent and smoothly functioning Liberian justice process. Various activities will be undertaken to train, equip, and improve the physical infrastructure of all aspects of the justice sector, including the courts, prosecutors' and defenders' offices, and corrections facilities. 

Liberia
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Crime Control
Civilian Police 990 - 1,000 - 1,500
Police Development and Reform - - - - 2,080
Criminal Justice Development
Corrections - - - - 500
Sub-Total 990 - 1,000 - 4,130
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - - - -
Non-U.S. Personnel - - - - -
ICASS Costs - - - - -
Program Support - - - - -
Sub-Total - - - - -
Total 990 - 1,000 - 4,130

Mauritania

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

300

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Developed capacity for specialized law enforcement units to cooperate and coordinate efforts in addressing terrorism affecting the country and the region.

Increased collaboration among various law enforcement entities as well as increased counter-terrorism investigations, arrests, and prosecutions.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2008 funds will provide technical assistance and training to develop the capability for counter-terrorism planning and coordination. INL programs will help Mauritania effectively establish the conditions and capacity for achieving peace, security, and stability and for responding effectively against rising threats to national and international security and stability.

Program Justification

Maintaining our relations with Mauritania, a country with an almost exclusively Muslim population, on our global war on terrorism remains vital to U.S. interests as well as being a critical element for the stability of Mauritania in the run-up to elections. Despite the coup, Mauritania's cooperation in counter-terrorism continues to go beyond statements of support. When necessary, and when we requested it, the Mauritanians have taken tangible action. The government's capacity for action remains limited, however, and we need to continue our efforts to strengthen it. Mauritania is also a bold advocate in the Arab world in favor of the Middle East Peace Process, and thus in favor of regional stability. It is the only Islamic Republic, and one of only three Arab League states, to recognize Israel.

Program Accomplishments

This is the first year of INL funding in Mauritania.

FY 2008 Program

INL funds will be used to provide technical assistance and training for specialized police units to strengthen its capacity to address terrorism affecting the region.

Mauritania
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Counter-terrorism - - - - 300
Total - - - - 300

Mozambique

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

300

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Improved border control at land border ports of entry.

A strategic plan for border control is implemented. Improved detection techniques and training lead to a reduction in illegal migrants and contraband leaving and entering Mozambique; increased seizures of drugs and other contraband; increased customs revenue collection; and reduced processing time for international travelers and commercial shipments.

Transformational Diplomacy

Mozambique is a potential transit country for terrorists due to porous borders, corruption, weak law enforcement, and a significant Muslim minority. The INL program advances the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding a border security project designed to improve the capacity of customs and border security forces at points of entry. Well-equipped and trained law enforcement personnel will contribute to the country's ability to secure its borders and prevent criminal activities, thereby strengthening the rule of law.

Program Justification

East and Southern Africa (Tanzania, Uganda, and Mozambique) comprise a transit route for African and Asian criminal activities including trafficking in narcotics, persons, and other contraband; alien smuggling; money laundering; financial crime; and terrorist attacks.

Mozambique is the southern African "middleman," providing a vital outlet for landlocked countries such as Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia and the Congo. Although South Africa boasts the longest coastline of any country on the continent, it also relies heavily on Mozambican ports because-for many of these countries-the ports in Mozambique are the closest and easiest for transshipment of goods.

A major challenge at ports of entry (POE) in Mozambique is the circumvention by immigrants of the designated official crossing points. The use of Mozambique as a thoroughfare for illegal aliens from the Horn of Africa and the Indian Sub-continent, who continue to South Africa (Mozambique and South Africa signed a bilateral agreement to lift visa requirements in early 2005) and further destinations, is detrimental to security and stability in the region.

Program Accomplishments

Programs aimed at institutional law enforcement development in Mozambique have met with success despite limited funding and brief histories. A Border Security Program started in 2005 continued to progress, specifically INL funding was being used to enhance the capability of point of entry-based immigration, customs, and law enforcement units to interdict criminal elements, and to quickly and accurately share information with relevant agencies. Under this program, a comprehensive port assessment of all the land borders in October identified areas that would benefit from additional assistance. In addition, the Government of Mozambique recently formed the Institution of Sea and Borders to create a collaborative effort to secure its borders.

The Academy of Police Sciences (ACIPOL) in Mozambique was established in 2000 in order to train a class of new leaders to carry-on the anti-corruption efforts of the police. INL introduced several courses in instructor development and criminal investigations to ACIPOL cadets, select members of the Mozambican law enforcement community, and a handful of prosecutors, engendering greater cooperation between police and prosecutors. INL continued to provide training for police officers in basic skills and community policing for officer candidates at the Academy during the year.

Assistance to the forensic laboratory at ACIPOL continued. INL funded a technical advisor to work with the Academy's specialists to develop a forensic curriculum and an implementation strategy to optimize ACIPOL's effectiveness in forensics training. The strategic plan, designed in coordination with Spanish and Portuguese police assigned to ACIPOL, capitalized on the expertise and investment of other donors and prevented duplication of efforts. USG implementation of the strategic plan began in 2003 and included Police First Responder courses and Basic Criminal Investigation courses for 340 police cadets and eight prosecutors. Additional INL-funded training included a Sex Crimes Investigation course and a Criminal Intelligence Management course for cadets. In January, the Embassy delivered the renovated forensic laboratory to ACIPOL. This has included transforming three classrooms to create space for a dark room for photographic work, a laboratory for fingerprint analysis, and a laboratory for testing drugs and documents. Crime Scene Kits and Drug Field Testing Kits, as well as specialized systems for dealing with volatile chemicals in the laboratory were purchased and used in training during the year.

A Community Policing Program expanded upon previous INL-funded activities, incorporating additional actors in Mozambique's law enforcement community. As a result of the success of this program-specifically the bicycle patrol program-the Government is looking to expand the community policing program nationwide. The community-policing program allowed the police to begin gathering criminal intelligence and has assuaged some of the mistrust felt between the police and the community in which they serve.

Past INL funds were also used for an anti-corruption program to improve the performance of the recently restructured Central Office for the Combat of Corruption, formerly the Anti-Corruption Unit, in the Attorney General's office. INL funded training for prosecutors in investigative and case management skills. INL funds also supported a scholarship program for degree training in law and auditing for Attorney General personnel.

FY 2008 Program

FY 2008 funding will be used to continue improving Mozambique's capacity to control its borders. Taking into account the findings from the October 2006 assessment conducted as part of the Border Security Program, funds will be used for expanded training and communication systems upgrades to facilitate the timely sharing of information. Training and technical assistance will be directed at Mozambican customs and other law enforcement entities on border control and detection techniques at land ports of entry. Funds will provide for train-the-trainer courses and seminars covering issues such as integrity, interdiction, and document fraud. Funds will also provide for equipment such as tents, binoculars, radios, generators, and first aid kits. Continued improvements to border security at these outlying posts will help make Mozambique a more difficult operating environment for cross-border crime, as well as bring it closer to international standards for border controls.

Mozambique
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Development - - - - 300
Forensic Laboratory Development - - - - -
Border Security - - - - -
Trafficking in Persons - - - -
Total - - - - 300

Nigeria

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

990

400

1,200

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Nigeria's law enforcement agencies have a strengthened capacity in drug interdiction in Nigeria. Nigeria's Immigration and Customs authorities possess basic counternarcotics interdictions skills. Nigerian drug enforcement authorities become effective and reliable partners with the U.S. and other West African law enforcement agencies.

Trained law enforcement authorities use new interdiction skills to increase the number of drug traffickers detected and arrested at entry points.

The Nigerian Police Force (NPF) conducts financial crimes and money laundering investigations. Nigerians have restored public faith in its law enforcement and cooperation with the security services. NPF maintains an electronic database of police records.

An increase in arrests and prosecutions in financial crimes cases; the community police training program is expanded to additional states; improved relations between police and community.

Transformational Diplomacy

As the most populous country on the continent, a prosperous and democratic Nigeria is vital to Africa's growth and stability, and to projecting U.S. influence as a strategic partner. The USG in its development partnership with Nigeria seeks to address pervasive corruption and ineffective governance, and to promote social stability through strengthening transparent and accountable governance in Nigeria. Professionalism and reform of the security services are critical components of this partnership. The current government in Nigeria has demonstrated a commitment towards reform in this regard. INL's FY2008 programs seek to address Nigeria's needs for improvement in peace and security for further political, economic and social progress as it continues to embark on a meaningful democratic transition.

Program Justification

INL programs in Nigeria are designed to achieve key United States foreign policy objectives of strengthening democratic institutions and protecting the U.S. against international crime by improving the performance of the criminal justice sector. Support for professionalism, and reform of, the security services is integral to meeting these objectives.

Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade, transporting narcotics to markets in the United States, Europe, Asia and Africa. Some of these criminal organizations are engaged in money laundering, and other forms of financial crime that defraud U.S. citizens and businesses. Years of military rule and economic decline contributed to the expansion of narcotics trafficking and criminality in Nigeria. Despite Nigerian involvement in narcotics trafficking, with the exception of small amounts of marijuana, there is no evidence that Nigeria produces any illicit drugs. Severe unemployment and widespread corruption provide both an incentive and the means for Nigerian criminal organizations to make Nigeria a major transit point in the international narcotics trade. Southeast and Southwest Asian heroin smuggled through Nigeria amounts to a significant portion of the heroin smuggled into the United States, resulting in Nigeria being placed on the U.S. list of major drug producing and drug-transit countries. The Financial Action Task Force still considers Nigeria to be a non-cooperative country or territory because of its weak anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing regime.

Since the end of military rule in 1999, the importance of adopting modern and effective techniques appropriate for policing in a democracy is evident. INL programs focus on the development of a professional criminal justice sector. Success in this effort is critical to strengthening democratic institutions in Nigeria.

Program Accomplishments

Since its return to democratic government, Nigeria has demonstrated its commitment to cooperating with the U.S. in combating international crime emanating from Nigeria, including narcotics trafficking and financial fraud. With the continued assistance of the U.S., the GON is also focusing on combating public corruption, money laundering and terrorist financing. Nigeria earned full certification in the past five years for its counternarcotics efforts. Under the direction of its new chairman, the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) has undergone a re-organization in an attempt to eliminate corruption and promote a core system of values within the agency. Further, the NDLEA, in collaboration with the FBI, assisted in the interception of over $3 million worth of fraudulent checks. In cooperation with Federal Express, the NDLEA also recovered over $200,000 in merchandise that was purchased with stolen credit cards. The NDLEA has reconstituted the Joint Task Force and has expressed a renewed commitment to cooperation. The DEA country attach´┐Ż maintains daily communication with the NDLEA Chairman and the INL Narcotics and Law Enforcement Advisor in Abuja consults with key NDLEA officials weekly.

The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has been credited with the recovery or seizure of more than $3 billion in assets obtained through fraudulent means. There were 4,324 petitions received out of which 3,103 are under investigation. Out of the 3,103 cases, 306 are currently being prosecuted and 25 have resulted in convictions. INL-donated equipment to EFCC, comprised of computers, printers, photocopiers and cameras, have been used to maintain EFCC records and track cases. Since 2004, INL also facilitated the training of three EFCC personnel in cyber crime. These personnel are helping the EFCC in its fight against financial fraud.

In addition, the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), which has been receiving U.S. foreign assistance, conducted investigations involving 14 governors, several National Assembly members and at least three current and former cabinet ministers. Of the more than 1,468 petitions filed since ICPC's inception, 803 have been referred to the Investigations Department. Forty-seven criminal cases have been referred to the courts, involving more than 94 persons. Since May 2005, an Intermittent Legal Advisor (ILA) has had an office at the ICPC. The ILA has been advising and providing training to the prosecutors of the ICPC, the EFCC, and the National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP). In July 2005, the ILA organized a public corruption training program for over 50 prosecutors in Lagos and over 60 prosecutors in Abuja. The prosecutors were representative of five different law enforcement agencies in Nigeria: the ICPC, EFCC, NAPTIP, the NDLEA, and the Government of Nigeria's Ministry of Justice. The program concluded with a mock trial in which all the prosecutors participated. Several other training programs were provided on topics such as collection and handling of evidence in corruption cases, money laundering, and asset forfeiture. Training and technical assistance continued in 2006.

A DOJ/ICITAP Police Advisor/Program Manager was assigned in August 2002 to assist the Nigerian Police Force (NPF) with modernization and reform efforts. More than 100 instructors have been trained to teach several different disciplines, including civil disorder management, election security and community policing. The first class of 500 recruits using the new curriculum graduated in December 2003 and was assigned to the Kaduna metropolitan area. In April 2004, a community-policing project focusing on linking the NPF with the Inter-Faith Forum was implemented in Kaduna. Bicycle patrol training was also offered and by August 2004, more than one hundred officers from the Rigasa region had been trained.

In 2004, an INL-funded technical advisor continued to provide assistance working with the civilian oversight body, the Police Service Commission (PSC), in Abuja to enforce its mandate to oversee the recruitment, promotion, and discipline of members of the NPF. The advisor assisted the PSC in drafting standard operating procedures and advised them on developing a working relationship with the NPF. The advisor assisted the Commission in developing a code of conduct, mission statement, a code of ethics, civilian complaint forms, a system for classifying complaints, guidelines for investigative staff, rules of evidence collection and storage, and procedures for filing complaints. A two-week Basic Criminal Investigation Course was also offered in Abuja to selected members of the PSC's Department of Investigations, representatives from all other departments within the PSC, and the Commissioner and chairman of the PSC. In May 2005, two technical advisors returned to Kaduna to expand the community-policing project to all fifteen of Kaduna's police divisions. The project continues to thrive and has been lauded by the NPF Commissioner and Governor of Kaduna State, who donated 250 bicycles so that bicycle patrols can be expanded throughout the fifteen divisions.

FY 2008 Program

Nigeria borders five countries and the Government does not have the capacity to control its political borders. There are also four airports that operate international flights. The NDLEA has offices at all four airports. The Nigerian Immigration and Customs officials have little or no training in narcotics interdiction and are currently unable to provide assistance to the NDLEA. The NPF too lacks training and equipment to assist in detecting drug traffickers, whether at the airports or elsewhere in the country. Unfortunately, pervasive corruption and a lack of necessary equipment continue to hinder all Nigerian law enforcement agencies from effectively, efficiently, and cooperatively executing counternarcotics efforts. Accordingly, INL programs include technical assistance and training for appropriate Nigerian law enforcement personnel, including Immigration and Customs officials, in basic counter-narcotics skills. These Departments have offices located at nearly all points of entry into Nigeria, often used by drug traffickers.

FY 2008 assistance will also support strengthening the capacity of the Nigerian Police Force in digitalizing and automating its records. This will assist the Police Service Commission in fulfilling its responsibilities as a civilian disciplinary body to the NPF. Also, assistance will support extending community police training to at least three other states in Nigeria. Training will emphasize community policing, criminal intelligence and civil disorder management.

Several previously funded programs are in the early stages of execution and require the supervision of an INL Director to oversee their successful implementation, in addition to the execution of newly funded programs.

Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds will cover salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, travel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the narcotics and law enforcement affairs programs.

Nigeria
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Support
Counternarcotics Support 95 - - - 250
Police Modernization - - - - 400
Financial Fraud 95 - - - -
Judicial Sector Reform/Anti-Corruption - - - - -
Sub-Total 190 - - - 650
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 244 - 150 - 122
Non-U.S. Personnel 90 - 25 - 45
ICASS Costs 259 - 200 - 130
Program Support 207 - 25 - 253
Sub-Total 800 - 400 - 550
Total 990 - 400 - 1,200

Sierra Leone

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

150

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Sierra Leone's law enforcement's capacity to deter, prevent and investigate trafficking in narcotics will be strengthened. Sierra Leone's drug enforcement authorities become effective and reliable partners with U.S. and other West African law enforcement agencies.

Counternarcotics training delivered leading to improved investigative and interdiction skills, and resulting in an increased ability to stop the flow of drugs through international airports, seaports and border entry points; enhanced capacity to combat money laundering and terrorist financing; and new channels for communication and cooperation result in increased transnational collaboration on investigations and prosecutions of cases with West African and other countries.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities through the modernization and professionalization of Sierra Leone's law enforcement groups.

Increased numbers trained at select police training facilities; development and implementation of modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select police training facilities; development and implementation of strategic plans for improving law enforcement training; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation result in more effective law enforcement.

Transformational Diplomacy

As the situation continues to improve in Sierra Leone following the end of its civil war in 2002, the Government has begun to take a more active role internationally, for example chairing the African Union's ad hoc committee on UN Security Council expansion, as well as publicly endorsing President Bush's policy statement on terrorism. The success or failure of its recovery has implications for the United States beyond regional stability or instability.

The INL program will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding a counternarcotics and law enforcement development program focused on strengthening Sierra Leone's law enforcement capabilities in interdiction and the control of illicit activities such as money laundering.

Program Justification

Criminal activities, such as the trade in illicit gems known as "blood diamonds" for their role in funding conflicts, perpetuated the civil war in Sierra Leone for many years. Domestic fighting among disparate rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in the region (namely Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) perpetuate insurgencies, street violence, looting, arms trafficking, ethnic conflicts, and refugees in border areas.

The departure of UN troops from Sierra Leone at the end of 2005 marked a transition from peacekeeping to peace building, but the country remains vulnerable. Without professionalized law enforcement, Sierra Leone's potential to become again a breeding ground for transnational crime, regional insecurity, and terrorism is considerable. Entrenched corruption, inequitable access to justice, and abuse of power, must be successfully addressed by intensifying anti-corruption efforts. Furthermore, Sierra Leone's central location in West Africa makes it a popular transshipment point for smuggling of narcotics and other illicit goods to Western destinations. Working in the aftermath of two decades of misrule and ten years of destructive civil war, the Government needs continued assistance as it strengthens its law enforcement capacity to control illicit activities that prevent the country from becoming a stable, effective democracy.

INL will engage actively with top Sierra Leonean law enforcement leadership on the proven beneficial influence of the successful investigation and prosecution of drug, money laundering, and other violations. INL crime and drug programs in Sierra Leone will support the development of professional and sustainable law enforcement institutions capable of detecting and deterring criminals operating in their country.

FY 2008 Program

FY 2008 will be the first year of program funds for Sierra Leone. Funds will be used to assist the Government of Sierra Leone law enforcement in enhancing its counternarcotics capabilities to prevent and interrupt the future movement of trafficking of narcotics in and around the country. INL assistance will provide basic skills training for Sierra Leone's law enforcement including technical assistance on surveillance and inspection operations, money laundering, and financial crimes to ensure more effective transnational crime prevention activities.

Sierra Leone
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Development - - - - 100
Counternarcotics - - - - 50
Total - - - - 150

Sudan

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

9,800

24,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Bilateral criminal justice program for the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) is augmented through increased support for police, justice, and corrections components. U.S. police presence with the UN Mission to Sudan (UNMIS) is increased. International technical experts and trainers are deployed and assist the GOSS in building a democratic police force, developing and implementing strategies for police and criminal justice reform, and training and equipping police and criminal justice personnel.

A cadre of GOSS high ranking police officials begin development and implementation of a strategy for police including absorption of ex-combatants. U.S. technical experts advise on ongoing police reform activities, such as the amalgamation of Government of Sudan (GOS) National Police in the South and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) police, and the development of the ten-state structure for police that reflects the ten directorates under the GOSS Ministry of Police and Security Forces. GOSS further develops a legal framework for governing criminal justice, including a Police Act, Criminal Procedure Code, Criminal Code, and Corrections Law, and associated training programs for law enforcement and criminal justice personnel on new laws and procedures.

UN International Police (UN Police) continue force deployments to Sudan under the auspices of the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS), assisting in monitoring compliance with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), and providing guidance and advice to Sudanese police.

UN Police monitor, advise, and mentor Sudanese police on patrol and in station houses across Sudan. The number of U.S. police deployed with UNMIS is increased from nineteen to up to twenty-five officers to increase the capacity of UN policing within UNMIS, and to demonstrate U.S. support for UNMIS and the CPA. The deployment of U.S. officers to UNMIS supports the UN's efforts in developing rule of law throughout Sudan.

Transformational Diplomacy

Like other rebuilding and developing countries, Sudan faces critical barriers to transformational diplomacy goals due to instability and a lack of governance. INL FY 2008 programs advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy objective of improving Peace and Security by developing Sudanese criminal justice institutions' capabilities to foster the rule of law and improve security in the South, and the Governing Justly and Democratically objective, by providing support to judicial systems in Southern Sudan. INL programs are designed to promote security and stability, and to provide a platform for social, economic, and political progress in Sudan, a critical country that without progress will have a negative impact on stability in the region and national security.

Program Justification

The "North-South Conflict" in Sudan is Africa's oldest conflict, beginning in 1956 and lasting until the signing of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). In 2005, the UN Security Council mandated deployment of 10,000 peacekeepers and 700 civilian police to staff the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS). The United States, a leader in pressing for strong international action by the United Nations and its agencies in both the creation of the CPA and in the crisis in Darfur, pledged support for the CPA and UN mission.

INL programs in Sudan will support the implementation of the CPA by assisting the GOSS in developing the institutional capacities of the police and criminal justice system. Its lack of capacity to provide public and personal security to the Sudanese impedes international humanitarian efforts, peaceful return of refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), reintegration of ex-combatants, and long-term development goals in Sudan. Creation of a democratic police force and transparent and accessible criminal justice system in Southern Sudan is essential to generate public confidence in the GOSS and the CPA. The INL program is critical to the U.S. and international commitments to support demilitarization and security sector reform in Sudan.

UNMIS police monitors and mentors funded through INCLE provide key resources towards the establishment of public security in Sudan. UNMIS presence further helps to mitigate localized conflict and monitor geographic flashpoints while GOSS security and rule of law capabilities are stood-up.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2008 represents the second year of INCLE funding for INL in Sudan. INL received PKO funds in FY 2005 to support the assignment of one U.S. police officer to UNMIS. In FY 2006, INL received ESF funds to deploy 13 officers to UNMIS, of which, two judicial officers and two corrections officers were deployed, creating the first Integrated Criminal Justice Contingent. This model contingent served as a facilitator for holistic and comprehensive criminal justice sector development in Southern Sudan through the aegis of the UNMIS Policing Mission. FY 2006 funds also deployed a Senior law Enforcement Officer to Southern Sudan to begin training, and the advising of senior GOSS law enforcement officials.

INL also participated in an interagency police/criminal justice assessment in 2005, and will conduct another criminal justice sector assessment in Sudan in 2007. These assessments will guide future program implementation in Sudan.

FY 2007 was the first year of INCLE funding for Sudan. Programs were based upon developments from past funding, and formed a comprehensive program for criminal justice sector development in Sudan, including multilateral and bilateral components. The multilateral component supported the deployment of 19 officers to UNMIS. These deployments continued to include law enforcement, judicial and corrections officers. The bilateral component deployed senior law enforcement, judicial and corrections advisors, to actively address and support development in the three tenets of the criminal justice system.

FY 2008 Program

The FY 2008 program has a multilateral and bilateral component. Through support to UNMIS, the U.S. engages in the multilateral international police effort to maintain peace and stability in Sudan. The U.S. bilateral program complements the UNMIS efforts and supports development of GOSS law enforcement and criminal justice capacities. The bilateral program, developed in consultation with the GOSS and U.S. interagency, continues to cover all three components of a functioning criminal justice system - police, courts, and corrections.

Civilian Police

INL funds will support up to 25 U.S. police officers to UNMIS. U.S. officers will provide expertise in training, mentoring, and curriculum development. Activities will include patrols and monitoring in key areas in Sudan, and providing presence to encourage and support CPA implementation.

GOSS Police Development

A senior police advisor will be based in Juba to assist the GOSS in strategic planning, donor coordination, and institutional development of the newly created Southern Sudan Police Service. Key issues will include command and control accountability, amalgamation of GOS National Police in the South and ex-combatants into one GOSS police force, and training. Funds will also support specialized technical assistance, procurement of non-lethal equipment, improvements for police infrastructure, and police skills training.

Criminal Justice Reform

Coordinated closely with on-going USG and international donor programs, INL will support criminal justice reform in Southern Sudan to ensure that police are operating within the proper legal framework of a functioning criminal justice system, that the judicial system meets the basic legal needs of communities, and that the formal judicial system can function in tandem with customary legal systems to mediate conflicts and deter crime. The program will include a range of activities such as providing legal advisors to focus on development and implementation of pertinent laws; advocacy training for prosecutors, defense counsel, and paralegals; and development of adjudicative skills for judges. Targeted infrastructure, such as refurbishment and construction of courtrooms and offices for justice personnel, and equipment support will also be provided.

Correctional Development

INL will support the GOSS in developing a corrections system that is secure, humane, and meets international human rights standards. Funds will provide for a U.S. corrections expert to advise the GOSS on strategic development and institutional reform, as well as train corrections administrators and guards. Funds will also be available for refurbishment of select facilities and procurement of essential equipment for corrections officers.

Program Development and Support

PD&S funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct-hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, management and evaluation.

Sudan
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Crime Control
Civilian Police - - 3,800 - 5,000
Police Development and Reform - - 1,850 - 9,000
Criminal Justice Development
Justice Reform - - 1,850 - 7,000
Correctional Services Development - - 1,250 - 2,000
Sub-Total - - 8,750 - 23,000
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - 250 - 300
Non-U.S. Personnel - - 200 - 200
ICASS Costs - - - - 100
Program Support - - 600 - 400
Sub-Total - - 1,050 - 1,000
Total - - 9,800 - 24,000

Tanzania

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

450

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The capacity of the criminal justice sector within Tanzania to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes of concern to the U.S. (including illegal immigration and terrorism) will continue to be strengthened.

Skills-based training will continue to be emphasized; technical assistance, training and equipment delivered to and effectively utilized by recipients; increased numbers of criminal investigations conducted by police; improved quality of evidence used in criminal court cases; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation and information sharing.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in Tanzania will continue through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement groups within the region.

Increased numbers trained at select police training facilities; development and implementation of modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select police training facilities; development and implementation of strategic plans for improving law enforcement training; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation result in more effective law enforcement.

Transformational Diplomacy

The INL program advances the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by developing Tanzania's police force as it evolves into a modern, democratic, and responsive law enforcement institution. With improved internal controls against police corruption, professional development opportunities for the police force, and forensic capabilities to increase successful prosecutions, the force will be in a better position to control illicit activities and maintain stability.

Program Justification

Tanzania is a key U.S. ally in East Africa that has maintained a stable government since it gained independence. The 1998 terrorist bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Dar es Salaam served to bring the governments of Tanzania and the United States into a closer economic, political, and security alliance.

While the situation has in Tanzania has improved, the threat of terrorism remains at a critical level, partly due to porous borders but also due to a previously documented perception that terrorists can act with impunity and little risk of detection in the country. The crime environment is permissive, as indicated by the increasing frequency of criminals carrying firearms, with long guns appearing more often both outside and inside the capital. It is believed that this is due to the fact that as some regional conflicts appear to be settling down, Tanzania's long and poorly controlled border fails to prevent would-be criminals and bandits from other countries from entering it.

Tanzania is located along trafficking routes linking Latin America, the Middle East and Asia as well South Africa, Europe and, to a lesser extent, the United States. According to the 2007 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR), drugs like hashish, cocaine, heroin, mandrax, and opium have found their way into and through Tanzania's porous borders. Tanzanian institutions have minimal capacity to combat drug trafficking, and corruption reduces that capacity still further.

Program Accomplishments

Though fairly new and with limited funding, the law enforcement development program in Tanzania has flourished. During the past few years, the Tanzanian Police Force (TPF) has received civil disorder management training, including the development of a riot deployment strategy designed by command-level officers with the assistance of a U.S. advisor. In anticipation of the October 2005 Tanzanian presidential election, INL funded refresher Civil Disorder Management (CDM) and election security training to selected members of the TPF to prepare them for civil disorder that might occur. Reports following the election indicated that there were no causalities resulting from violence associated with the elections in the mainland. The riot police dispersed crowds without the use of deadly weapons, carrying with them only riot equipment, much of which was provided by INL. INL-funded training gave the officers and their senior commanders the confidence, skills, and equipment needed to control civil disorder in a professional and constructive manner. Having institutionalized CDM training at its basic academy in Masindi, the TPF has trained an additional one thousand TPF members in CDM. In June 2006, INL funded a one-week CDM course to TPF personnel to review lessons learned from the 2005 election.

INL assistance in forensic lab development has continued with excellent results. Since 2003, INL has funded a senior forensic technical advisor to the TPF to develop a forensic laboratory. Equipment, including a superglue chamber, computer equipment for a computerized fingerprint database, firearms equipment, and a comparison microscope with a 35mm camera, has been donated. Technical procedures are at various stages of completion, and the TPF have incorporated the uses of the new instruments and equipment that have been provided. Training of laboratory personnel continued in Crime Scene Investigation, Laboratory Safety, and Quality Assurance. Government of Tanzania cooperation has been exceptional, resulting in host government-funded upgrades to existing lab space completed ahead of schedule. Added, the Criminal Investigations Division (CID) within the TPF has within its ranks investigators and officials who possess the basic skills necessary to process information, develop an investigative strategy, and devise and execute an investigative plan. They have a proven record, both locally and across state boundaries, and the ability to coordinate these skills within the legal considerations and constraints of a criminal trial.

FY 2008 Program

Building upon the success of past assistance, FY 2008 funds will be used to continue development of the Tanzania Police Force (TPF) forensic laboratory to facilitate evidence-based investigations and prosecutions. By 2007, basic equipment and training, such as the ballistics-shooting tank, fingerprint database and filing system, comparison microscope, and document examiner will be complete. The lab will also have a thorough drug-testing and analysis section. DNA is the next major project the lab needs to be on par with other crime labs worldwide, which is what FY 2008 funds will be used for. Funds will be used to provide technical advisory services, training and appropriate lab equipment.

FY 2008 funds will also be used for police training in various areas, such as counternarcotics and financial investigative techniques, to develop a wide range of professional skills. This program will assist the TPF to become a more modern and professional police force.

The Government of Tanzania has been receptive to INL programs, as demonstrated by the replication of the basic skills training and the success of the forensic lab, and will benefit greatly from additional assistance.

Tanzania
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Police Development and Reform - - - - 450
Total - - - - 450

Uganda

Budget Summary ($000) 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

350

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The capacity of the Ugandan criminal justice sector to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes of concern to the U.S. (including illegal migration and terrorism) will continue to be strengthened.

Skills-based training will continue to be emphasized; technical assistance, training and equipment delivered to and effectively utilized by recipients; increased numbers of criminal investigations conducted by police; improved quality of evidence used in criminal court cases; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation and information sharing.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in Uganda will continue through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement agencies. Training will focus on community policing techniques, and where possible, target Northern Uganda.

Increased numbers trained in community based policing; development and implementation of community engagement by police; development and implementation of plans to improve law enforcement responsibility and rule of law; an increase in investigations conducted as a result of community involvement and cooperation with police; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation result in more effective law enforcement.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2008 funds advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy objective of improving Peace and Security by developing Ugandan criminal justice institutions' capabilities to maintain the rule of law and improve community security, especially with regard to Northern Uganda. The biggest obstacle facing the country is recovering from the armed insurgency of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). In the last year there has been significant improvement in security in northern Uganda, and in July 2006, peace talks began between the Government of Uganda (GOU) and the LRA.

Program Justification

Proposed activities work to achieve two main goals for Uganda: to build the capacities of Ugandan criminal justice institutions, and to build police accountability and improve police-community relationships through community policing programs.

Criminal activities throughout the African continent corrupt and weaken governments, undermine progress towards the establishment of democratic institutions, hinder economic growth and foreign investment, and create an attractive environment for terrorism and other transnational crime. Police professionalization and institutional development of the criminal justice sectors are keys to supporting democracy.

East and Southern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Mozambique) comprise a transit route for African and Asian criminal activities including trafficking in narcotics, persons, and other contraband; alien smuggling; money laundering; financial crime; and terrorist attacks. As a result, developing Uganda's capabilities in criminal investigations is imperative.

As northern Uganda transitions from a conflict emergency to more traditional development assistance, increasing support will be needed to ensure stability. The needs in northern Uganda include better security, continuing reintegration of ex-combatants and stepping up national reconciliation. Building on previous cooperation with the Ugandan police, United States assistance will continue law enforcement assistance in FY 2008 to: (1) develop further forensic laboratory capabilities to enhance criminal investigations and prosecutions; and (2) support community policing in northern Uganda. As much as possible, these resources will serve the needs of northern Uganda.

INL crime and drug programs in African countries support the development of professional and sustainable law enforcement institutions capable of detecting and deterring criminals operating in their territories. By making African countries less attractive to criminal elements, INL programs foster the rule of law that forms the bedrock upon which the USG's broader goals of democracy and prosperity are established.

Program Accomplishments

Programs aimed at institutional law enforcement development in Sub-Saharan Africa have met with success despite limited funding and brief histories. Notable among these successes has been the investment by the government of Uganda, which has maximized INL assistance by replicating USG training and methods, and funding laboratory upgrades beyond that provided by INL.

The Ugandan government optimized U.S. Government training to fund the replication of successful programs at its own expense. A law enforcement development project for the Criminal Investigation Division (CID) of the Ugandan Police Force (UPF) initiated in November 2003 provided practical training to approximately 550 members of the UPF in instructor and curriculum development, and a forensic overview. The USG-funded training included a criminal investigation simulation and mock trial. An INL-funded advisor assisted the Government of Uganda in the development and purchase of equipment for a criminal information database that has the potential to link with similar systems in Kenya and Tanzania. The Ugandan government supplemented this project by purchasing additional computer equipment.

In 2004, the Ugandan government began applying the U.S.-developed training curriculum to train over 500 UPF recruits. Overall, more than 900 Ugandan police recruits received some USG sponsored training in 2004. In February 2004, instructors taught a 16-week Basic Skills Development Program using a "train-the-trainer" curriculum with 24 instructors from the UPF: twelve officer and twelve basic recruit instructors. In Kampala, these instructors worked with UPF student-trainers to develop their instruction of skills-based training. In Masindi, trainers mentored the student-trainers as they delivered the newly acquired learning techniques to several hundred UPF basic recruits. Since training began, the annual conviction rates of cases taken to court have increased from 31.5 percent to 36.9 percent. In the span of a month, between February and March 2004, there were 39 criminal cases in Mbale; 26 resulted in convictions, six in acquittals, four in discharges, and one in adjournment. In addition, UPF members, across the board, have displayed greater confidence. The UPF has created a training video library, covering issues as diverse as handcuffing and human rights. The Inspector General of the Police hopes to develop a training program that can be of benefit to other regional countries. In May 2005, INL funded management training for field training officers in the UPF, which built upon the basic skills training development program conducted in 2004. Case management training took place during the year.

Forensic training for the Uganda Police Force, which began in 2004, continued during the year. A Senior Forensic Advisor (TA) advised on the lab design during the renovation of the building to house the forensic lab. INL-funded trainers also provided training to the laboratory staff in Crime Scene Investigation, Basic and Advanced Fingerprint Examination, Digital Photography and specialized Computer Software Programs. Additionally, INL funds were used to provide equipment and advanced training in Forensic Autopsy Procedures to the forensic pathologists at Mulago Hospital, which performs autopsies for the Ugandan Police Force. The success of the forensic program is noteworthy. Recently,a student of a 2005 INL-funded fingerprint course was called to a crime scene involving major fraud of U.S. currency. Using a specific technique (never used in Uganda) and advice offered by the TA, a fingerprint was successfully lifted and subsequently identified as belonging to a suspect who had been arrested. This was the only direct evidence that the police had obtained that linked the suspect to the package.

FY 2008 Program

FY 2008 funds will be used to continue development of the Uganda Police Force (UPF) forensic laboratory to facilitate evidence-based investigations and prosecutions. Funds will be used to provide technical advisory services, training and appropriate lab equipment. The forensic advisor will continue to work with the director of the UPF forensic laboratory to provide management and supervisory training, review and enhance policy manuals, and identify the most pressing technical training needs.

Funds will also sponsor community policing initiatives and training for law enforcement in Northern Uganda. Funds will provide training for Ugandan law enforcement officers to develop capacities to sustain positive and cooperative police/community relationships.

Uganda
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Police Development and Reform - - - - 350
Total - - - - 350



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