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Diplomacy in Action

South Asia


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2008 Program and Budget Guide
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 2007
Report
September 18, 2007

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Afghanistan

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2007 Supp

FY 2008 Request

232,650

209,740

42,000

274,800

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL's overall program objective is to work with the Government of Afghanistan (GOA) and the international community to reduce poppy cultivation, improve law enforcement capabilities, and reform the Afghan criminal justice system to enhance public security, strengthen the rule of law, and attack illegal drug production and trafficking. INL program objectives in Afghanistan are consistent with the USG longer-term goal to create stability so as to prevent Afghanistan from again becoming a haven for terrorists and criminal activities. The following programs are based upon an integrated approach. All of these objectives must be pursued simultaneously on a holistic basis to achieve success.

Counternarcotics

Working with the United Kingdom on counternarcotics activities in Afghanistan, INL programs will seek to reduce poppy cultivation through an integrated program of poppy eradication, strengthening counternarcotics law enforcement and interdiction efforts, and continuing public information and demand reduction programs, in conjunction with USAID alternative development programs. Included in our counternarcotics efforts:

Poppy Elimination Program (PEP) teams made up of Afghans and international advisors will back up governors' counternarcotics efforts in the provinces - urging farmers to abstain from planting poppy and to eradicate poppy fields - and will verify and report cultivation and eradication results to central authorities when external assistance is required.

Afghan Eradication Force (AEF) teams under the direction of the central government will conduct manual and mechanical eradication in areas where provincial eradication did not take place to reduce the poppy harvest and to deter planting next year.

An aerial support component will increase the effectiveness of the ground eradication program and allow its extension into areas currently inaccessible for security or logistical reasons.

An aggressive and ongoing public information campaign will contribute to an additional reduction in poppy cultivation by increasing Afghan farmers' perceptions of the risks associated with poppy cultivation and informing the Afghan public at large about the Government of Afghanistan's counternarcotics programs and the negative impact of the poppy trade on the country.

Drug intelligence, investigation, and interdiction units of the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) will operate nationwide to disrupt processing operations and trafficking networks.

Working with the Ministries of Public Health, Information and Culture, Education, and Telecommunications, the Ministry for Counter Narcotics will coordinate a national drug abuse prevention and treatment program with INL demand reduction assistance.

Administration of Justice

INL rule of law programs in Afghanistan will continue to work with the Government of Afghanistan and our international allies to strengthen the criminal justice system throughout the country as well as provide support for the development of the corrections system. In doing so, our justice programs also support police and counternarcotics initiatives by improving police-prosecutor coordination and helping to arrest, try and punish narcotics offenders. Our administration of justice programs:

Provide advisory and technical support to Afghan justice administrators to improve management, operation and coordination in the Ministry of Justice (MOJ), Ministry of Interior (MOI), Attorney General's Office, and Supreme Court.

Provide infrastructure assistance to key justice institutions, including the Attorney General's Office, to help modernize outdated systems, provide efficient work environments, and support organizational reform goals.

Conduct standardized training for justice personnel (including prosecutors, defense counsel and judges) focusing on Afghan and international law, human rights, and criminal justice procedures. Special focus will be put on training that increases cooperation between key justice ministries, such as joint police-prosecutor training.

Mentor Afghan justice personnel to improve investigations, police-prosecutor coordination, case management, trial advocacy and adjudication of criminal cases.

Provide advisory services and technical support to the MOJ Prison Directorate to improve the capacity of the nationwide corrections system.

Conduct standardized corrections training in Kabul and key provinces with an emphasis on human rights and corrections management and operations.

Provide assistance to the Ministry of Justice in developing an engineering office to repair dilapidated correctional facilities, as well as develop plans for new correctional facilities.

Organize and mentor key correctional initiatives such as data management, transportation, and prison industries.

Provide equipment and infrastructure support to justice and corrections facilities near U.S. funded police Regional Training Centers and courts in provincial locations and in major poppy growing and drug trafficking regions.

Support development of legal professional organizations and institutions including a licensing regime as well as legal training and aid centers. Reintegrating women into the legal sector will remain a focus through FY 2008.

Support specialized training and mentoring for judges, prosecutors, and investigators on issues such as counternarcotics, trafficking, corruption, and prosecutorial investigations.

Support a specialized, secure facility to contain offices and secure courtrooms for counternarcotics prosecutors and investigators, and Counternarcotics Tribunal judges. Facility will also contain secure detention center for narcotics defendants.

Civilian Law Enforcement

The USG police assistance mission is to contribute to an international effort led by Germany and coordinated with the Afghan Ministry of Interior to rapidly develop an Afghan capacity to provide public security. Our goal is to help Afghanistan develop a competent, professional, democratic police force with the necessary training, equipment, infrastructure, institutional capacity and organizational structure to enforce the rule of law in Afghanistan. To reach that goal, we are continuing to enhance our basic training program with specialized training and mentoring, technical assistance and institutional capacity building and reform to enhance security throughout Afghanistan. Training, mentoring and reform activities taking place in FY 2007 are funded by a transfer of $399,000,000 of FY 2006 Supplemental Department of Defense funds to the Department of State, and will:

Continue to support maintenance and operation costs for our eight INL Regional Training Centers and police training advisors to enhance and expand our basic training program with an increased focus on field training for police officers and specialized courses to address the need for advanced counternarcotics, anticorruption, criminal investigative and other critical skills.

Continue to support, expand and extend the reach of the field mentoring program including the establishment and support of forward operating bases in remote locations to ensure police throughout the country receive on the job training and guidance to enhance and reinforce training provided in the classroom.

Complete Ministry of Interior reform efforts including the conclusion of the Pay and Rank Reform Initiative, which restructures, reorders and reforms the MOI organizational and payroll systems.

Provide continued support for community policing initiatives, revenue-generation initiatives and continued support for the establishment of specialized police units such as the Afghanistan National Civil Order Police, Domestic Violence Unit, and anti-corruption efforts across the police sector.

Transformational Diplomacy

FY 2008 INCLE funds will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy objectives of "Peace and Security" and "Governing Justly and Democratically" in the following ways:

(1) Opium poppy crop control and eradication program reduces Afghanistan's illicit opium economy ($3.1 billion) and related violent conflict, corruption, and political instability. Afghanistan's illicit opium economy accounts for 1/3 of its total GDP and fosters corruption that prevents the government from governing justly and democratically. The opium-financed Taliban resurgency, sacrificing hard-won peace and security, demonstrates the need for eradication. Opium-financed corruption also undermines economic development, social and political stability, and security.

(2) The public information program promotes engagement on counternarcotics issues with all sectors of Afghan society, including federal, provincial, local, tribal, and religious leaders as well as farmers and the general public by amplifying community outreach activities. In the long term, these programs will serve to build lasting partnerships between Afghanistan and the United States, create common ground on shared values, and promote a self-sufficient federal communications function within the Government of Afghanistan.

(3) Drug Enforcement and Interdiction Programs provide funding and support to projects designed to enhance the GOA's counternarcotic law enforcement and interdiction capabilities. Training, mentoring, and investigative assistance support the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan and continue to develop the capacity of the Ministry of Interior. These projects address key security challenges within the country as evidence increasingly links the insurgency to narcotics trafficking.

(4) The Demand Reduction Program advances the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding counternarcotics projects designed to prevent and reduce drug abuse. This complies with a key objective of the National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD # 25) on International Drug Control Policy, which urges the Secretary of State to "expand U.S. international demand reduction assistance and information sharing programs in key source and transit countries." The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health and welfare of all countries, in addition to undermining economic development, social and political stability, and security in developing countries that are strategic U.S. allies.

(5) The Administration of Justice Program will play a central role in helping the Government of Afghanistan establish a solid criminal justice framework to support security, governance, economic development, counter-narcotics and anti-corruption efforts. Funds will: enhance the professionalism of prosecutors, judges, defense attorneys and prison guards; reform and build the justice institutions; and promote fairness and equity in the criminal justice realm including criminal defense, human rights and women's rights. This program will help build public confidence in the Rule of Law and the central government.

(6) Civilian Law Enforcement Program is critical to the Government of Afghanistan's ability to provide peace and security for its people. Professional, capable, well-trained and equipped police to secure Afghanistan's borders, interior and sustain the rule of law are necessary to the success of Afghanistan as a country capable of self-governance. Funds will provide critically needed training and mentoring to Afghan police particularly for priority groups such as the Afghan National Auxiliary Police (ANAP), Afghan Border Police (ABP), and Afghan National Civil Order Police (ANCOP), and will also support the conclusion of pay and rank reform and other related reform efforts at the Afghan Ministry of Interior.

Program Justification

INL programs in Afghanistan reflect that country's centrality in the Global War on Terrorism. INL programs in Afghanistan support U.S. counterterrorism, counter drug and anticrime goals. The FY 2008 INL program will continue to enhance the three main components that began with FY 2002 supplemental funding and continued with FY 2004 through FY 2007 foreign assistance and supplemental appropriations: counternarcotics activities, criminal justice sector (including corrections) reform, and police training and reform. INL programs are coordinated closely with U.S. coalition partners.

Although the political and economic situation in Afghanistan is improving, opium poppy production and trafficking still accounts for roughly one-third of Afghanistan's total GDP, licit and illicit. The huge drug trade undermines economic reconstruction, weakens democratic governance based on the rule of law, and threatens regional stability, funding in part the attempted Taliban resurgence. Dangerous security conditions and corruption constrain efforts to combat the drug trade and provide alternative incomes.

Programs in 2006 also provided mixed news: the total cultivation of opium poppy increased by 61 percent (from 107,400 hectares to 172,600 hectares according to U.S. Government sources.) Due to difficult growing conditions, however, the net opium yield increased only 26 percent, less than half the increase in cultivation. The increased crop was greatly spurred by limited eradication (5,100 hectares) in 2005. USG-supported eradication in 2006 tripled (to 15,300 hectares), modestly increasing deterrence against planting for 2007. The GOA committed itself to getting the 2007 harvest down to under 140,000 hectares. The public awareness campaign has contributed to a growing recognition of Afghans that poppy cultivation is illegal and immoral. Prosecution of counternarcotics offenders continues, and increasingly high value traffickers are being prosecuted by the Criminal Justice Task Force.

Restoration of the rule of law is vital to increasing security, ensuring stability, promoting economic growth, and protecting human rights. A transparent and fair justice system is critical to ensuring that the people of Afghanistan respect the authority and decision-making of the central government. In particular, a criminal defense system that affords due process and respects international human rights standards is a cornerstone of a society functioning under the rule of law. U.S. law enforcement must have the ability to work with Afghanistan in the future on crucial law enforcement issues. Despite Afghan progress on a Constitution and the development of governmental mechanisms and agencies that support justice reform, much work is needed. Critical tasks include establishment of a functioning judiciary, training prosecutors to build effective cases, establishment of a defense bar, reintegration of women legal professionals, and a reliable penal system.

Providing support, training, and capacity building to CNPA investigative teams to carry out investigations will aid the GOA in obtaining the necessary evidence for successful prosecutions of those involved in the drug trade. Similar support to interdiction efforts and arrests will contribute to their ability to play key roles in disrupting trafficking organizations and drug processing operations. Enhancing Afghanistan's counternarcotic law enforcement and interdiction capacities aids in improving the enforcement of current drug laws, the successful prosecutions of violators, and the disruption of drug activity, playing a significant role in establishing rule of law and stability.

FY 2008 funding will enable INL to continue to work with the Government of Afghanistan and the international community to improve law enforcement capabilities by strengthening the rule of law and enhancing public security throughout the country. Professionalization of the MOI and development of advanced policing skills are critical to ensuring the long-term capability of the Afghan MOI to address such critical law enforcement issues such as narcotics, corruption and organized crime. While basic training of the police force is important, it is imperative that such training is reinforced in the field and enhanced with additional instruction in operational policing skills. Equally important is the goal of developing the criminal justice system to prosecute offenders after arrest by the police.

Program Accomplishments

Counternarcotics

The U.S., in concert with the UK, has worked to ensure that counternarcotics is at the forefront of Afghan policy initiatives. With U.S. and UK support, the GOA established the Poppy Elimination Program (PEP) in May, 2005. PEP is designed to reduce poppy cultivation through year-round targeted public information campaigns to dissuade poppy planting, alternative livelihoods programs to spur rural development, and governor-led eradication of poppy crops. PEP teams have fully deployed in the seven key provinces producing over 80 percent of the opium in Afghanistan. These teams, comprised of public information, alternative livelihoods and monitoring/verification officers, work with governors to deter opium planting and support governor-led eradication by providing monitoring and verification of eradication efforts. The GOA's Afghan Eradication Force (AEF) also developed into a more flexible and more mobile force with air support increasing the central government's eradication capabilities.

A public information and media campaign complemented PEP team activities by relaying key counternarcotics messages to poppy farmers, local leaders, and the general public via radio, television, print materials, and community events in both Dari and Pashtu. In 2006, a new program was launched to better engage local, tribal, and religious leaders on counternarcotics themes. Early reports indicate cultivation is down in some northern provinces due, in part, to these kinds of public information and community outreach efforts. The public information program funding also enabled communications capacity building in Afghanistan's Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development, and Ministry of Agriculture.

The CNPA continues to be developed and enhanced with the creation of specialized investigative units, to include a Sensitive Investigative Unit, and Technical Investigative Unit, to further aid the investigative capacities of the CNPA. Mentors have also been assigned to provide training to these new teams as well as to the existing National Interdiction Unit teams.

On the legal front, the Criminal Justice Task Force (CJTF) continues to prosecute narcotics traffickers under the Anti-narcotics Law adopted in December, 2005. In the summer of 2006, the entire CJTF, plus the 14-judge Central Narcotics Tribunal, were all subjected to polygraph tests, and continue to be trained and mentored daily by U.S. and Norwegian lawyers and judges. As their prosecutorial skills develop, the Criminal Justice Task Force is able to prosecute higher value targets, and will branch into narcotics related crimes, such as corruption, during FY 2008.

Our demand reduction efforts in Afghanistan have resulted in the issuance of major fatwas and resolutions (by leading Islamic clerics and organizations) that lend strong support to U.S. policies/programs designed to reduce drug production, trafficking and abuse. Additionally, our collaboration with the Afghan Religious Affairs Ministry (3,000 mullahs) has provided us with rare access to mosques, allowing us to establish prevention and outreach centers in these institutions.

The INL section at Embassy Kabul is now fully staffed with 11 U.S. personnel, covering the counternarcotics, police, justice, and aviation sectors. In contrast with a single American Director's position in 2004, the program has expanded to include personnel responsible for various projects, including a Director, Deputy Director, Administrative Officer, Counternarcotics Program Officer, Public Information Coordinator, Aviation Advisor, Rule of Law and Law enforcement Advisors, and an Office Management Specialist to manage this growing program. In addition, INL supports the Counternarcotics Task Force Coordinator's Office.

Administration of Justice

The Afghan government adopted a Constitution that respects human rights, the rights of women, and adheres to due process standards. Afghanistan has also made progress in drafting and approving a national development strategy for the justice sector. INL's justice program has directly supported the Afghan government by providing provincial justice assessments and conferences, and by conducting basic and specialized criminal justice and corrections training. We have provided basic equipment and supplies to justice institutions, and mentored Afghan defense attorneys. We are helping to reorganize and reform the Attorney General's Office, and are providing substantial infrastructure and equipment support to modernize the office. We are training and mentoring joint classes of investigatory police and prosecutors. INL has also established a comprehensive corrections program providing basic and in-service corrections training; capacity-building through development of standard operating procedures and policies; and equipment and infrastructure support to improve conditions, management and operation of prison and detention facilities nationwide.

INL has awarded a grant for a U.S./Afghan LLM and Certificate Program for Afghan law professors to help improve the education of legal professionals. Afghan legal educators, following intensive English training, are participating in a year-long LLM program, which provides them with exposure to modern law school teaching techniques, modern university life, law school administration, emerging legal trends and doctrine, the U.S. judicial system and basic governing structures. The grant also supports establishing a strong partnership between the Kabul University Law School and the University of Washington Asia Law Center in the U.S.

Civilian Law Enforcement

Since the inception of the program over four years ago, INL has established police training centers in Kabul, Kandahar, Konduz, Jalalabad, Gardez, Bamiyan, Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif and trained over 68,000 police officers. Expansion of the field training program to all major provinces is underway; 400 mentors have been deployed to more than 24 provinces and have begun engaging with local Afghan police officials. Forward operating bases are being established in remote border locations to ensure that all police, particularly those at vulnerable border crossing points, receive critically needed training and guidance. Advanced training courses in defensive driving, firearms, crowd control, literacy, computer skills, anti-corruption, domestic violence and other critical courses are being developed and implemented at all of the regional training centers and in the field.

MOI reform is proceeding well. Phases I, II and II of pay and rank reform, which addressed 472 senior and mid level MOI officials (31 generals, 86 brigadier generals, and 355 colonels) are complete, reducing the number of flag rank officers from 319 to 117 and the number of colonels from 2,447 to 355. Each successive phase focuses on larger groups of police, recompeting positions and forcing applicants to demonstrate that they are qualified. Preparations for Phase IV are already well underway. New ID cards have also been distributed to most Afghan Police containing personnel data and payroll information. These cards are being utilized to pilot electronic payment systems in several provinces as well as standardize non-electronic payment throughout the rest of the country and help to eliminate opportunities for corruption in the payroll process.

FY 2008 Program

Continued insecurity and increased challenges to democratic stability in Afghanistan requires the acceleration and substantial expansion of three main INL programs: counternarcotics, civilian law enforcement, and administration of justice. FY 2008 INCLE and FY 2006 Supplemental DOD funding will increase support of programs to improve national law enforcement capabilities, strengthen the rule of law, and enhance public security including disruption of drug trafficking and associated criminal activity throughout the country, as well as a significant eradication program. INL programs in FY 2008 will continue these enhanced programs.

Counternarcotics

INL funding for counternarcotics in FY 2008 will support programs for poppy crop reduction through public information, province-based dissuasion against planting and robust eradication, and drug control institution building that includes support for interdiction, public outreach, and demand reduction.

Elimination/Eradication: This program is aimed at reducing large-scale poppy cultivation through: (a) an intensified province-based effort focusing on key poppy producing regions to proactively discourage poppy cultivation, combined with aggressive, governor-led eradication supported by seven PEP monitoring and verification teams; (b) robust application of a central government directed national manual and mechanical eradication program that begun in FY 2004 and matured into four, 150-person mobile eradication teams by 2006; and (c) intensified support and incentives for province-based, governor-led eradication (GLE). FY 2008 funds will be provided to pay for salaries and support to PEP teams as well as providing salaries for Afghan police eradication and protection teams; fuel and supplies; vehicles and equipment; transportation, training, evaluation, and monitoring of the program; and contractor overhead and costs. FY 2008 funds will also be used to provide increased air support for poppy elimination and eradication programs. Support to a small fleet of U.S.-owned rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft for security, reconnaissance, resupply, medevac, and search and rescue will be provided through INL's aviation support contract. Additional funds will lease airlift support for AEF and PEP teams. Aircraft will also provide support for interdiction operations when not engaged in supporting elimination/eradication activities. Funds will be used for shipping, support infrastructure, fuel, ammunition, personnel, repair and maintenance, contractor overhead, and flying hour operational costs.

Drug Enforcement: This program is aimed at disrupting drug trafficking, dismantling trafficking organizations, and associated criminal activity within Afghanistan to improve enforcement of drug laws and increase prosecutions of drug offenders. Funds will continue U.S. support to the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA), including expansion and training of the National Interdiction Unit (NIU), and the new Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU) and Technical Investigative Unit (TIU). Funds will also be allocated to the support and maintenance of central and provincial interdiction facilities to support the Afghan Ministry of Interior's interdiction forces. The CNPA will also continue to be supported through special training in case management, investigations, and police/prosecutor coordination, and will be focused on arresting those involved in the drug trade and providing efficient, effective, and fair trials.

Demand Reduction:FY 2008 funds will combat rising Afghan drug abuse rates and an emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic fueled by injecting drug use. Funds will be used to strengthen the operation of mosque-based prevention and aftercare programs; provide youth with preventive drug education programs; promote awareness among religious leaders and district council members of drug abuse issues; strengthen the local community and faith-based organizations in demand reduction; train Mosque-based program operators in outreach and treatment skills; and establish treatment facilities for drug dependents, especially women.

Public Information: Funding for counternarcotics public information in FY 2008 will continue to emphasize the anti-planting message and threat of government-led eradication and enforcement activities in order to promote not only awareness, but behavior change on the individual level. The campaign will focus attention on the connections between the drug trade and crime, corruption, and conflict. Messages will continue to be channeled through radio, television, and print media, but will increasingly be relayed through partnerships with local, tribal, and religious leaders. Public information activities will continue to highlight the progress made by the Government of Afghanistan in its national drug control program and justice sector reform over the past four years. Our activities will continue to promote increased capability for Afghan ownership over public information programs.

Trafficking In Persons (TIP): Funding will be used to assist the government of Afghanistan to strengthen law enforcement and the rule of law to interrupt TIP national and transnational crime networks. Training and technical assistance for law enforcement on how to identify and rescue victims, investigate cases, coordinate and prepare prosecutions, and collaborate with non-governmental organizations are imperative. Funding will also be used to adopt anti-trafficking laws, improve the legal framework for addressing TIP, and strengthen the capacity of civil society to work effectively with justice systems to promote the rescue and protection of victims.

Program Development and Support (PD&S): PD&S funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, ICASS costs and other general administrative and operating expenses for counternarcotics and anticrime program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

Administration of Justice

FY 2008 resources will enable INL to continue to work with the GOA and the international community to strengthen the rule of law throughout the country. Tying police, criminal justice, and corrections systems together and expanding these efforts to more provincial population centers will continue to be a priority. In this context, supporting the arrest, prosecution, and punishment of narcotics offenders will be a major focus. Three strategic objectives form the foundation of INL's justice program in Afghanistan: (1) development of institutional capacity of the permanent justice institutions; (2) development of the operational capacity of criminal justice sector actors (including law enforcement) to fairly and transparently investigate crimes and prosecute/punish offenders; and (3) professionalization of justice sector personnel and promotion of human rights.

Funds will be used to cover operational costs to maintain the justice and corrections programs, including program support and security as well as direct assistance to the Afghan government. These resources will:

Improve institutional capacity of the justice institutions, including the Ministry of Justice and Attorney General's Office, by providing technical support and standardized training for justice administrators, assisting in organizational reform, assisting in the development and nationwide implementation of policies and procedures, and training and mentoring practitioners in each ministry.

Provide infrastructure assistance to key justice institutions to help modernize outdated systems, provide efficient work environments, and support organizational reform goals.

Enhance leadership, managerial, and administrative skills of police, prosecutors, defense counsels, and judges through criminal justice training and mentoring, including courses on investigation, criminal procedure, human rights, and fair trials.

Improve the operational capacity of the Afghan corrections system through a comprehensive program in Kabul and key provinces consisting of corrections training and mentoring, capacity-building, and infrastructure and equipment support.

Support and mentor the development of key corrections initiatives such as data management, transportation, and prison industries.

Support the professionalization of justice personnel through legal education and training, and assist in the establishment of legal professional organizations and associated facilities.

Help identify, draft, and implement key legislation and procedures to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the criminal justice system. Assist in the translation of key international treaties and standards ratified by Afghanistan into Dari and Pashtu, focusing on those related to human rights, rule of law, and due process in criminal cases.

Identify and provide equipment and infrastructure support to justice institutions and facilities in both Kabul and the provinces.

Develop measures of effectiveness for the criminal justice system as a whole.

INL funding for counternarcotics prosecution will also be used to deploy and support mentors to train the Criminal Justice Task Force made up of prosecutors and investigators specifically dedicated to narcotics cases. Funds will also support the Counternarcotics Tribunal, made up of judges assigned to hear only narcotics cases. A special focus of training will be investigator-prosecutor relations and specialized counternarcotics issues. Funds will also be used to support the Counternarcotics Justice Center, a secure facility that will contain office space for the task force and judges, courtrooms, and secure detention space for narcotics defendants.

Civilian Law Enforcement

Assistance to train police in FY 2008 will continue to be funded through the transfer of FY 2006 Supplemental funds from the Department of Defense. Funds will be used to:

Support maintenance and operation costs for eight INL Regional Training Centers and police trainer-advisors to expand and enhance the training program with advanced courses in specialized skills including counternarcotics, criminal investigative and anti-corruption training;

Continue to provide basic and refresher training for national, border and highway police;

Support increased deployment of experienced U.S. law enforcement professionals as mentors to Afghan police throughout Afghanistan;

Complete Ministry of Interior reform efforts that focus on organizational development including the conclusion of the Pay and Rank Reform Initiative which restructures, reorders and reforms the MOI organizational and payroll systems, continued support for community policing initiatives, revenue-generation initiatives and continued support for the establishment of specialized police units such as the Domestic Violence Unit and Afghan National Civil Order Police.

Afghanistan
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006 Supp FY 2007 FY 2007 Supp FY 2008
Counternarcotics Support
Crop Control/Eradication 134,000 - 146,740 20,000 180,300
Sustainable Alternative Development - - - - -
Public Information 2,000 - 4,000 2,000 1,000
Drug Enforcement- Interdiction * 5,000 - 7,000 5,000 13,000
Drug Control Capacity Building - - - - -
Trafficking in Persons and Migrant Smuggling - - - - 500
Demand Reduction 2,650 - 2,000 - 2,000
Sub Total 143,650 - 159,740 27,000 196,800
Administration of Justice **
Justice Sector Training Program 8,000 - 32,000 15,000 51,000
Corrections Reform & Infrastructure 18,500 - 8,000 - 17,000
CNJC and Vert Pros Task Force - - - - -
Support to International Efforts -
Sub Total 26,500 - 40,000 15,000 68,000
Program Development and Support **
U.S. Personnel 2,000 - 6,000 - 6,000
Non-U.S. Personnel 400 - 1,200 - 1,200
ICASS Costs 600 - 1,800 - 1,800
Program Support 1,000 - 1,000 - 1,000
Sub-Total 4,000 - 10,000 - 10,000
Total Drug Control Programs 174,150 - 209,740 42,000 274,800
Civilian Law Enforcement ***
Training and Mentoring of Afghan Police 49,000 - *** - ****
Airwing - - *** - ****
PD&S 9,500 - *** - ****
LOTFA - - *** - ****
Total Law Enforcement Programs 58,500 - 399,000 - ****
Total Drug Control and Law Enforcement Programs 232,650 - 608,740 42,000 274,800
* The FY 2007 SUPP Interdiction funds are for "Regional Interdiction Cooperation" (Tajik-Afghan border posts, and CARICC).
** The Administration of Justice and Program Development and Support provide support to both counternarcotics and crime activities.
*** The FY 2007 Civilian Law Enforcement Program is being funded through a transfer of funds from FY06 DOD Supplemental.
**** It is anticipated that the FY 2008 Civilian Law Enforcement Program will be funded through a transfer of funds from DOD.

Bangladesh

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

1,500

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Deny funds to terrorist organizations and other international criminal organizations.

The number of successful investigations and prosecutions of terrorist financing and money laundering cases; as well as the number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards.

Provide Intellectual Property enforcement and training to combat violations.

The ability of capacity building among foreign border and customs officials, investigators, law enforcement officials, prosecutors, and judges to detect, investigate, prosecute and prevent these crimes.

Establish effective narcotics interdiction institution, systems and initiatives.

Training and technical assistance will build the capacity of the government of Bangladesh counternarcotics institutions, lead to the development of more effective narcotics interdiction efforts, and increase the number of successful interdictions.

Demand reduction assistance in training in treatment centers.

To improve to secure foreign country support for U.S.-driven supply reduction efforts, while at the same time reducing drug consumption in Bangladesh and thereby cutting-off a potential source of terrorist financing.

Transformational Diplomacy

The FY 2008 funding of $1,500,000 expands the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key remaining challenges focusing on money laundering and terrorist financing, drug demand reduction, interdiction, intellectual property, and trafficking in persons. Recognizing these challenges urges the Secretary of State to expand U.S. international demand reduction assistance and information sharing programs in key source and transit countries.

Program Justification

Financial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat not only to the United States but also globally. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds 3-5 percent of Global Domestic Product - or $1.5-$1.8 trillion per year -- and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Terrorists, on the other hand, appear to be relying less on the formal financial sector than to alternative remittance systems, such as hawala and cash couriers, that pose significant challenges to law enforcement. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free markets.

In addition to financial crimes, Intellectual Property (IP) crimes present a growing threat to the most innovative sectors of the US economy. Losses to the US copyright, patent, and trademark industries in areas such as hard goods, optical media, and pharmaceuticals have been staggering. One particularly troubling phenomenon is the growing involvement of transnational crime groups in IP crime. These groups have the potential to outstrip the capabilities of hard-pressed law enforcement to counter them. As a signatory to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, the USG is committed to a global enforcement effort to eliminate safe havens for online pirates and other IP criminals. Although INL has long been engaged on issues related to protection of IP, the explosion in IP crime and the growing sophistication of IP criminals has led INL to ramp up its resources dedicated to this issue. As co-chair of the inter-agency training coordination group (TCG), which includes both government and industry participation, INL promotes foreign training and technical assistance projects targeted to foreign nations where IP violations are most severe.

On the narcotics front, demand reduction efforts aim to reduce the use and abuse of illicit drugs worldwide. The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health, welfare, stability, security, and economy of all countries. At the same time, the role of demand reduction in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic has become more readily apparent as the recent worldwide increases in this epidemic are primarily concentrated among intravenous (IV) drug user populations, in addition to high-risk behavior associated with use of other non-narcotic drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants. The role of drug treatment in decreasing rates of drug use and relapse benefits U.S. foreign assistance efforts because any decrease in drug use among high-risk populations has the added benefit of decreasing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Demand reduction assistance has subsequently evolved as a key foreign policy tool to address the inter-connected threats of drugs, crime and terrorism.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2008 will be the first year of funding for the various programs in Bangladesh.

FY 2008 Program

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering

The funding for the financial crimes and money laundering program will allow for INL to support the new innovative Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) concept that responds to the increasing propensity of criminals and terrorists to move funds outside of formal financial sectors through use of alternative remittance systems and falsified trade data. The concept borrows from the international network of Financial Investigative Units that examine financial intelligence. The establishment of TTUs in Bangladesh will improve efforts in detecting money laundering and terrorist financing.

Trafficking in Persons (TIP)

FY 2008 funds will be used to assist the government to strengthen law enforcement and the rule of law to interrupt TIP national and transnational crime networks. Training and technical assistance for law enforcement on how to identify and rescue victims, investigate cases, coordinate and prepare prosecutions, and collaborate with nongovernmental organizations are imperative. Funding will also be used to adopt anti-trafficking laws, improve the legal framework for addressing TIP, and strengthen the capacity of civil society to work effectively with justice systems to promote the rescue and protection of victims.

Intellectual Property (IP)

The funding for the IP program will provide training and assistance in seminars on developing TRIPS compliant laws, and also on training police officers, investigators, prosecutors, and judges to combat IP crime.

Demand Reduction

FY 2008 funds will be used for the support of INL-funded demand reduction training treatment center. In addition, funding will assist for a community drug-awareness outreach. Treatment centers will play an economical role in order to provide comprehensive assistance to several areas in the region that suffer and share similar drug abuse problems.

Bangladesh
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Financial Crimes & Money Laundering - - - - 500
Intellectual Property - - - - 200
Demand Reduction - - - - 300
Trafficking in Persons - - - - 200
Interdiction - - - - 300
Total - - - - 1,500

India

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

400

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Drug addiction treatment and awareness will be the main focus for the Government of India (GOI).

To combat abuse opiate, heroin and other narcotic drugs, support will provide technical assistance and equipment to the narcotics treatment center. Demand reduction education programs will significantly reduce drug use and delay onset of first use in target populations.

Transformational Diplomacy

The FY 2008 funds will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key remaining challenges to Drug Demand Reduction (Peace & Security sub element 1.4.4).

Program Justification

Newspapers frequently refer to ecstasy and cocaine use on the Mumbai and New Delhi "party circuit," but there is little information on the extent of their use. There has been a considerable amount of reporting in local newspapers indicating that the use of cocaine and ecstasy are on the rise. While smoking "brown sugar" heroin (morphine base) and cannabis remain India's principal recreational drugs, intravenous drug use (IDU) of licit opiate/psychotropic pharmaceuticals (LOPPS) is rising in India, replacing, almost completely, "white" heroin. In parts of India where IDUs have been denied access to LOPPS, IDUs have turned to injecting "brown sugar" heroin. Various licitly produced psychotropic drugs and opiate painkillers, cough medicines, and codeine are just some of the substances that have emerged as the new drugs of choice.

In 2004, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MSJE) released a drug abuse study conducted in partnership with UNODC in 2001. The study found that licit opiate abuse accounted for 43 percent of Indian drug abuse. Although drug abuse cuts across a wide spectrum of Indian society, more than a quarter of drug abusers are homeless, nearly half are unmarried, and 40 percent had less than a primary school education. Itinerant populations (e.g., truck drivers) are extremely susceptible to drug use.

Program Accomplishments

In 2006, the Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN) continued issuing microprocessor chip-based cards (Smart Identity Cards) to opium poppy cultivators. The card carries the personal details of the cultivator, the licensed area, the measured/test measured field area and the opium tendered by him to the CBN. The card also stores the previous years' data. The information stored on the card is read with handheld terminal/read-write machines that are provided to field divisions. CBN personnel will enter cultivation data into the cultivators' cards and the data will be uploaded to computers at CBN HQs and regional offices. The cards are delivered to cultivators at the time of licensing. For crop year 2005/2006, the project was expanded to include all of the 17 Opium Divisions, the three State Unit Headquarters and the Central Headquarters in Gwalior.

The GOI periodically raises the official price per kilo of opium, but illicit market prices are four to five times higher than the base government price. Farmers who submit opium at levels above the MQY receive a premium, but premium prices can only act as a modest positive incentive. In the 2005/2006 opium harvest year, CBN significantly decreased the number of hectares licensed from 8,771 in 2004 and 2005 to 6,976 in 2005 and 2006, and the number of farmers licensed from 87,682 in 2004 and 2005 to 72,478 in 2005 and 2006. Much of this reduction took place in Uttar Pradesh, where CBN is in the process of phasing out opium cultivation. The estimated yield for the 2006 crop year was 372 metric tons of opium.

Although there is no reliable estimate of diversion from India's licit opium industry, clearly, some diversion does take place. It is estimated that between 20 - 30 percent of the opium crop is diverted. However, it is not possible to pinpoint the amount accurately and there is no evidence that significant quantities of opium or its derivatives diverted from India's fields reaches the United States. In 2006, the GOI reported it seized 142 kilograms of licit opium and closed down three morphine manufacturing facilities.

FY 2008 Program

Demand Reduction

FY 2008 funds will be used for the support INL-funded narcotics treatment center. INL assistance will give particular attention to address the recurring opiate abuse in India and address the heroin threat from other regions in Asia. A continued area of focus will be in anti-drug programs that are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network.

The program will be divided into three general categories, a coalition and network building program; training and technical assistance program, and research and demonstration program. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The research and demonstration programs initiative will allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect "best practices" that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome).

India
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction - - - - 400
Total - - - - 400

Nepal

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

2,700

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Nepal (GON) will develop effective civilian-led police forces.

Organizational management reform, curriculum reform, training and technical assistance will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks of the Nepal Police (NP) and the Armed Police Force of Nepal (AFP). Training and technical assistance provided to the rank and file members will help improve the NP's criminal investigative skill, promote integrity and instill a sense of professionalism in the force.

Transformational Diplomacy

Funds will advance the Secretary of State's Transformational Diplomacy goal for Nepal, a state emerging from and rebuilding after internal conflict, specifically to prevent or mitigate a state failure or a resort to renewed violent conflict. The program will focus on Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations (Peace & Security sub element 1.3.7), Justice System (Governing Justly & Democratically sub element 2.1.3), Human Rights (Governing Justly & Democratically sub element 2.1.4), and Program Support (Governing Justly & Democratically sub element 2.1.5).

Program Justification

Law and order are prerequisites to the re-establishment of peace and security in Nepal, following the ten plus year insurgency; the alternative being a failed state. Unenfranchised sizeable minorities are resorting to Maoist tactics of violent protest and strikes to seek inclusion in the political process in the run up to the Constituent Assembly elections, part of Nepal's constitutional drafting and adoption as well as the establishment of a new government.

Formerly, the Nepal Army was an integral part of the security sector, and provided logistics support during country elections. Per the settlement with the Maoists, Nepal Army forces are now confined to their barracks, and thus removed from the equation. The other two elements in the security sector, the NP and AFP, cannot as presently staffed, equipped and trained, fill the security sector gap left by the Nepal Army's confinement to barracks. The NP and AFP, having been mostly focused on counterinsurgency efforts for the past ten years, are woefully under equipped and lack modern police training to enforce law and order throughout Nepal, let alone ensure safe and fair democratic elections. Another challenge to the ability of the NP and AFP to enforce the law is a lack of political will and leadership to re-establish law and order; the current government must equally and fairly enforce the laws irrespective of the political stripe of the perpetrator.

A recent state-of-nation poll was conducted in Nepal with 9,629 respondents from throughout Nepal. The poll results (published in the February 25, 2007, edition of the Himalayan News) indicated that 69 percent believe the most important challenge before the country is maintaining law and order. The article further stated that the survey findings "in effect, indicate a total breakdown of the law and order mechanism, especially in the rural countryside."

The preliminary conclusions of a joint INL/ICITAP assessment conducted in February 2007 in Nepal support these concerns. The assessment underlines the need for law and order as a prerequisite to fair, safe and democratic elections, to a return to a rule of law based civil society in which security and visible presence and actions by the NP, and support of the NP by the GON. The most common fear expressed by the stakeholders during the ICITAP assessment was of intimidation and violence during the elections at the hands of the Maoists. The assessment revealed that Nepal is experiencing some unique challenges regarding the rule of law. Any training or logistical support must not only help the election effort, but needs to add to the overall ability of the NP to reform itself into a police organization that is customer-focused, service-oriented and that understands the importance of human rights in law enforcement.

Program Accomplishments

In 2006, INL funded the deployment of a Senior Law Enforcement Advisor (a retired Police Chief with extensive organizational reform experience), to build relationships with the Home Ministry, the Nepal Police and the Armed Police, review the NP's and APF's organizational structure and needs, and prepare the way for the joint INL-DOJ/ICITAP assessment team. He also advised on election security, how to identify a new mission for the APF (formerly focused solely on counter-insurgency efforts), and developing community policing concepts.

In 2007, INL funded a joint INL-DOJ/ICITAP assessment, covering not only the Central District and Kathmandu valley (interviewing or meeting with officials from the Home Ministry, the Election Commission, members of Nepal's parliament, the head of the Nepal Police and his direct reports, the head of the Armed Police Force and his direct reports, the UN Secretary General's Special Envoy, Indian diplomats, members of human rights organizations and other non-governmental organizations, members of the EU Commission's delegation, UK representatives, as well as the U.S. Ambassador and many of his mission team), but also visiting regional and district centers in the Far West District, and the West District.

FY 2008 Program

The major components of the FY 2008 program are assisting in security sector reform, coordinating assistance for and directly aiding law enforcement restructuring, reform and operations, incorporating human rights into basic curriculum and into the continuum of appropriate force used in the rules of engagement, improve police-prosecutorial cooperation as well as assisting in the incorporation of modern evidentiary rules of evidence into the judicial system, and supporting GON efforts to strengthen respect for the rule of law.

Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform, and Operations

FY 2008 funds will focus on improving the quality and transparency of civilian rule of law through assisting the NP and APF with strategic planning, competency-building, development of a continuum of appropriate applied force, and sustainable training programs for the two organization's respective personnel. The program will achieve these assistance goals by providing resident technical advisors and training programs for targeted groups of law enforcement officers, prosecutors and jurists.

Improving the Justice System

The effectiveness of law enforcement's working relationship with the prosecutors will be an important component of this program. The FY 2008 program will include efforts to improve police-prosecutor cooperation to better manage crime scenes, preserve evidence and bring criminals to justice. Strengthening the working relationship between police and prosecutors through the implementation of policies and procedures - that will require the police to consult with prosecutors during investigations - will further establish corruption-fighting mechanisms and initiate improvements in judicial administration and criminal case management. Funding will used to provide technical assistance and training.

Program Development & Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will cover the foreign national direct-hire and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Nepal
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement
Restructuring, Reform & Operations - - - - 800
Equipment and Infrastructure - - - - 800
Sub Total - - - - 1,600
Administration of Justice
Justice System - - - - 800
Human Rights - - - - 100
Sub Total - - - - 900
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel - - - - -
Non-U.S. Personnel - - - - 20
ICASS Costs - - - - -
Program Support - - - - 180
Sub-Total - - - - 200
Total - - - - 2,700

Pakistan

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

37,620

24,000

32,000

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Pakistani control over the border with Afghanistan and Iran is further strengthened.

Ability to monitor the 2,000-mile border with Afghanistan and Iran to interdict the passage of terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and other criminals will be improved. Access to previously inaccessible territory and the presence of security forces will be expanded through road construction. The Government of Pakistan's (GOP) border security surveillance and interdiction capabilities will be increased through continued air support, ongoing training activities, increased mobility, intelligence sharing, and expanded communications and other equipment (e.g. surveillance equipment).

The capability of the GOP to investigate and prevent criminal and terrorist activity is improved.

Technical assistance, training, and equipment will augment the capacity of Pakistani law enforcement and security agencies. Modern forensic and fingerprint identification methodologies will be instituted as standard procedures in criminal investigations. Institutional police reform programs will emphasize executive management skills, improved police training, infrastructure development, strategic planning, and internal controls to prevent corruption. Police reform programs will also include the provision of model policing projects and support for a national dialogue among law enforcement agencies.

The ability of the Government of Pakistan to deter and eradicate opium poppy cultivation and interdict narcotics trafficking is expanded.

Opium poppy eradication efforts will result in the destruction of any poppy sown in accessible areas. Poppy cultivation will decline as alternative crop programs and road infrastructure projects expand. Demand reduction and narcotics awareness public education efforts will be expanded to prevent drug abuse.

Transformational Diplomacy

Funds will advance the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy objectives of "Peace and Security" and "Governing Justly and Democratically" by addressing the challenges that the Government of Pakistan faces in the following ways:

The Border Security Project provides operational support, commodities, and training to the Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) and other law enforcement agencies. U.S. assistance has enabled construction of additional Frontier Corps outposts along the porous Afghanistan-Pakistan border and of new roads to open up remote areas to law enforcement, allow forces to eradicate poppy, and facilitate farmer-to-market access for legal crops.

Drug Enforcement and Interdiction Program provides funding and support to projects designed to enhance the GOP's law enforcement and counternarcotics interdiction capabilities. Training, mentoring, and prosecutorial and investigative assistance support the Anti-Narcotics Force. In the long-term, this assistance will increase the number of cases and prosecutions of high-level drug traffickers by the ANF and will build capacity in Pakistan's justice sector as a whole.

The Demand Reduction Program advances the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding counternarcotics projects designed to prevent and reduce drug abuse. To this end, the United States will continue its partnership with the Anti-Narcotics Force to convene demand reduction awareness workshops and to establish faith-based drug treatment and outreach centers.

Program Justification

Pakistan is a key ally in the Global War on Terrorism and was named a Major Non-NATO Ally in early 2004. The GOP has demonstrated a commitment to combat transnational threats such as terrorism, organized crime, and narcotics trafficking. Since September 11, 2001, the GOP has taken into custody roughly 600 suspected al-Qaida and/or Taliban militants. In addition, the United States, Afghanistan, and Pakistan are working together through a Tripartite Commission to promote mutual understanding and stability in the region.

Pakistan's border with Afghanistan and Iran runs approximately 2,000 miles through rough mountainous and desert terrain that is remote and thus provides a potential safe haven for terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals. Monitoring and maintaining control over this border has long posed a challenge for the under-equipped and under-trained Pakistani security agencies. This situation is made more serious and difficult by the state of play in Afghanistan, including countering the massive scale of opium poppy cultivation there, arms trafficking, and continuing concerns about the movement of al-Qaida and Taliban militants into Pakistan to seek refuge and plan further terrorist acts, potentially including operations directed against U.S. interests. Commodities and infrastructure support, as well as training, already provided by the USG have improved the capabilities of agencies operating on the border, but still do not come close to meeting the requirements of these forces that collectively number more than 80,000 personnel. Ongoing assistance over a period of years, at a rate the GOP can absorb, will be necessary.

Large areas of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) along the border with Afghanistan are virtually inaccessible, including to law enforcement agencies. This renders frontier areas attractive to terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals who seek refuge. INL-funded rural road construction programs begun in the FATA in opium poppy growing areas a decade ago and succeeded in facilitating law enforcement access for eradication and interdiction activities. At the same time, improved infrastructure opened these remote areas for legitimate commerce, counter-drug education efforts, economic development projects, and vital health and education facilities and also extended the Government's presence into the areas. The INL-funded roads are accompanied by small infrastructure projects that improve the lives of the people and help gain their support for the entry of law enforcement into these areas. This program is expanding into areas along the Afghan border where al-Qaida and Taliban militants may otherwise find safe haven. Continued road construction is needed in the tribal areas through FY 2008 to sufficiently open up these inaccessible areas.

Law enforcement institutions in Pakistan have been neglected for decades, predominantly in favor of intelligence agencies with collection capabilities. This has resulted in a very weak capacity to investigate even basic crimes, such as stolen vehicles, and much less the far more serious threats posed by terrorists and narcotics traffickers. GOP capacity to combat terrorism and other serious forms of criminality successfully requires not just an infusion of resources, but also comprehensive reform and improvements to law enforcement institutions countrywide. These reforms include better cooperation and coordination among law enforcement organizations, more focus on service to the community, and overall enhancement of technical skills, particularly in forensics.

In October 2002, Pakistan promulgated Police Order 2002, a roadmap for reform. Two boards, the National Police Management Board and the National Police Training Management Board, have been convened to oversee reform efforts and to facilitate coordination and standardization of law enforcement training, policies, and procedures across the country. Pakistan needs expert assistance and resources to implement these reforms fully. In support of this effort, INL assistance is providing leadership and management training at senior law enforcement levels in addition to furnishing training in basic and advanced criminal investigation techniques. Emphasis is placed on curriculum development, promotion of organizational change, and development of high accountability and public awareness standards.

In 1990, Pakistan was a major producer of opium poppy. With assistance from the United States, Pakistan embarked on a 10-year plan to become poppy free. It essentially achieved that goal by 2000; however, due in part to massive cultivation in Afghanistan, Pakistan experienced a resurgence of opium poppy cultivation in 2002-2003. This included an expansion of cultivation into non-traditional areas along the western border in both the FATA and Balochistan. It is important that opium poppy cultivation be first contained and then eliminated as soon as possible, before its economic impact becomes too deeply rooted. Crop control efforts, including enhanced poppy monitoring and increased economic alternatives and infrastructure projects, will decrease opium production. Since the GOP is committed to this effort, but lacks the resources necessary to implement effective anti-poppy efforts, INL programs seek to fill the gap and continue to assist the GOP in reaching its goal of regaining poppy-free status.

GOP seizures of narcotics - primarily heroin, opium and hashish - are significant and increasing, but undoubtedly represent only a small fraction of what actually is transiting the country. Arrests of traffickers in the remote border areas are difficult, as traffickers generally are far better equipped than law enforcement agencies. The continued provision of vehicles, radios, and surveillance equipment as part of the Border Security Program is expanding the capacity of law enforcement agencies to monitor and interdict narcotics trafficking. Additional resources still are needed, especially as increased efforts to combat narcotics in Afghanistan will put pressure on neighboring Pakistan to stop any elements of the drug trade that try to move east across the border.

Pakistan also is combating an increasing drug addiction problem that threatens the welfare and economic stability of its society. A National Assessment of Drug Abuse in 2000 estimated 500,000 heroin addicts in Pakistan between the ages of 18 and 25. The new survey will likely be made public in the spring 2007 and will announce a much larger group of drug users, probably in the two to three million-range. There are also concerns about a growing number of intravenous drug users. The GOP needs additional resources in demand reduction to complement its supply-side efforts.

Program Accomplishments

The Ministry of Interior's Air Wing (50th Squadron) was established with INL funding in 2002. It currently has nine Huey II helicopters, a decrease by one due to a January 2007 crash, and three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft, two equipped with Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) night vision enhancement systems, operating from Quetta, Balochistan. The program has trained three Frontier Corps (FC) elite Heliborne Assault Force (HAF) platoons from the Rapid Interdiction Force (RIF) as well as ANF units and is now capable of a integrated air-ground operations, deployment of both fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, and night vision goggle operations. These included air assaults on a suspected drug compound and drug processing facilities, poppy surveys, medevacs for personnel injured during FC and Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) operations, support for Operation MOUNTAIN THRUST along the Afghan border, and border reconnaissance. The three fixed-wing Cessna Caravans, equipped with FLIR surveillance equipment, executed 87 missions, including surveillance, medevacs, and command and control support for large operations.

More than 1,500 vehicles and hundreds of pieces of communications equipment have been delivered so far to the Frontier Corps in Balochistan and the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), the Anti-Narcotics Force, and other agencies operating on the border. Despite security and aircraft availability limitations, the Border Security Project finished construction of approximately 50 Frontier Corps outposts in Balochistan and NWFP and 50 new outposts are under way in NWFP and Balochistan, for a total of 100 outposts. These resources provide border security and law enforcement personnel better access to rugged areas of the western border, and improved coordination and communication among those agencies. Police training programs have trained over 3,000 law enforcement officers, particularly in investigative capacity and leadership and management since FY 2002. Other courses have included first responder/crime scene investigation, instructor development, and building managerial capacity. The National Police Academy and all five police colleges, which train over 10,000 personnel per year, have integrated USG investigative materials into their curricula. The training schedule expanded again in 2006 and includes all the provinces. From January to December 2006, GOP security forces reported seizing 35.4 metric tons of heroin (including morphine-base), 110.5 metric tons of hashish, and 8 metric tons of opium, a substantial increase from in 2005. Other drugs seized by ANF in 2006 include over 1,630 kg of opium poppy straw, 50 kg of synthetic drugs, 1.7 kg of cocaine, 301,895 units of morphine injections, buprenophine injections, Ecstasy tablets, and other synthetic drugs. The ANF attributes its greater capacity on the border to the Border Security Program.

To date, 449 kilometers of counternarcotics roads have been completed in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber agencies and an additional 60 kilometers are underway in the Khyber. In addition, construction of 72 kilometers of roads in the border areas of the FATA is complete, and ongoing construction of 288 kilometers continues to open up remote areas to law enforcement. To date, the State Department has funded construction of more than 500 kilometers of counternarcotics program roads, which allow forces to eradicate poppy, facilitated farmer-to-market access for legitimate crops, and implemented 732 small schemes and alternative crops in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber Agencies with an additional 21 schemes projected for completion in early 2007.

Training courses involving personnel from fourteen different agencies have begun to improve skills in basic criminal investigations, small unit tactics, port of entry operations, first response at crime scenes, use of continuum of force, building organizational capacity, instructor development, and executive management. INL-funded technical assistance has been provided in the development of an organization and structure for the Federal Investigation Agency Special Investigative Group (SIG), including 153 standard operating procedures (SOPs) for police management and operations. Assistance has also been provided to adapt these SOPs to Pakistan police organizations and a Police Reform Study has been provided to the Minister of Interior and the President. Forensics assessments were conducted at Quetta, Peshawar, Lahore, and Karachi in order to better equip laboratories, train personnel, and effectively integrate the newly created agency responsible for Pakistan's forensic laboratories, the National Forensic Sciences Agency (NFSA), into law enforcement operations.

GOP law enforcement agencies began using the international standard 10-print fingerprint card nationwide in recent years; over 350,000 acceptable 10-print cards have been collected and are being entered into the AFIS system. A central fingerprint repository, a key requirement for such fingerprint database systems, was established in the Federal Investigative Agency.

The GOP promulgated Police Order 2002, a broad framework for reform, in 2002. Public safety commissions, designed to promote community involvement in policing and police accountability to the public, are being established throughout Pakistan in accordance with the Order. Discussions continued with GOP officials on furthering reform efforts, including through strategic planning and systemic reform. In support of building training capacities, training has so far been provided to police personnel from throughout Pakistan on leadership and management, organizational capacity, continuum of force, instructor development, and training management. In order to institutionalize change and reach a larger audience of police personnel, emphasis was placed on working with provincial and national training institutions to adopt the training curricula. All five provincial Police Colleges, Sihala (Punjab), Hangu (NWFP), Quetta (Balochistan), Saeedabad and Shadadpur (Sindh) have integrated several USG courses into their basic course curriculum. This is significant due to the thousands of personnel they train annually.

The GOP has made a strong commitment to combating opium poppy cultivation and improving monitoring and eradication efforts. Pakistan's example of being declared poppy free in 2001 by the UN is used as a model in promoting counter-drug efforts around the world. Although opium poppy cultivation increased from a record low of 213 hectares in 2001 to 7,571 hectares in 2004, it dropped to approximately 3147 hectares in 2005 and dropped again to approximately 1,908 hectares in 2006. After eradication, total yield of Pakistan's poppy crop was 1545 hectares, just shy of "poppy-free" status.

Crop substitution programs, begun over a decade ago, have created a number of alternative economic opportunities. Initial reports suggest there has been a dramatic increase in the number of operations conducted against drug traffickers. Arrests of narcotics traffickers, although many being low-level couriers, increase annually. DEA is working closely with the Anti-Narcotics Force's vetted unit, the Special Investigative Cell, to better enable it to disrupt and dismantle trafficking organizations. The Anti-Narcotics Force was granted permission to appeal the verdicts of two high-profile cases of concern (Manj and Notazai). Pakistan participated for the first time in the Paris Pact expert meetings under the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in Vienna in October 2004, and hosted a Paris Pact expert roundtable in Islamabad in early 2005, underscoring its interest in working in a multilateral context to counter narcotics production and trafficking. With assistance from UNODC, Pakistan is also part of an Intergovernmental Technical Committee with Iran and Afghanistan to block the flow of drugs across borders. Pakistan is also part of the Counternarcotics Working Group (CNWG), composed of senior diplomatic and military representatives from Afghanistan and the United States to increase regional cooperation and offer a forum for the in-depth exchange of views on topics of mutual concern, including security of the regions between Pakistan and Afghanistan and development of mechanisms for information sharing. Additionally, efforts are underway to engage Gulf countries to design a regional strategy.

FY 2008 Program

The FY 2008 program has three major components that build on efforts undertaken in previous years, particularly since 9/11. The program also includes program development and support (PD&S) funds.

Border Security Program

FY 2008 funds will be used to build on the successful implementation of commodity support (vehicles, communications equipment, and surveillance equipment), training, and technical assistance that were started with FY 2001 ERF Supplemental funding. The Border Security Program supports and expands law enforcement capacity to secure the western frontier against terrorists, narcotics traffickers, and other criminal elements. Beneficiaries include the Ministry of Interior, Anti-Narcotics Force, Frontier Corps - Balochistan and NWFP, Federal Investigation Agency, Coast Guards, Customs, and Home Departments.

Funds will be used to provide ongoing maintenance, support, and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing, which includes three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft and nine Huey II helicopters that are based at Quetta, Balochistan province. These aircraft permit monitoring and interception of terrorists, drug and other contraband traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas.

Law Enforcement Program

Funds will be used to further enhance law enforcement capacities and to encourage more effective law enforcement cooperation within the Government of Pakistan, as well as with the United States and other countries. Funds will be used to continue providing training, technical assistance, and equipment to expand investigative skills and forensics capacities, build accountability and internal control structures, enhance police training institutions, and improve managerial and leadership expertise. Resources will also be used for police reorganization efforts and will include technical assistance, training, and executive travel to observe modern and progressive law enforcement organizations in the United States. Funds will also be used to support continuing community policing and professional standards pilot projects through training, technical assistance, and equipment. Funds will be used to continue the police leadership institute program at the National Police Academy for superintendent-level personnel, the police supervision academy curriculum at the Police College level for inspector training, and training facility upgrades at the National Police Academy, Police Colleges, and Police Training Centers to accommodate proficiency skills training.

Counternarcotics Program

Due in large part to INL's role in curbing poppy growth in Pakistan, we have witnessed an improved Government of Pakistan capability to eradicate poppy, which will likely result in Pakistan regaining its "poppy-free" status in the next few years. Due to the ever-increasing threat of opiates flowing into Pakistan from Afghanistan, INL's counternarcotics program will begin to increase resources for interdiction, including disruption of transit routes, while maintaining resources devoted toward source disruption. Funds will be used to support the construction of roads in opium poppy growing areas and increasingly in areas where narcotics are trafficked from Afghanistan. These roads projects will include small water schemes to improve the economic potential of newly accessible areas and encourage the cultivation of high-value, legitimate crops and intensive farming. On a more limited scale, we will continue to fund the introduction of alternative crops, such as off-season tomatoes, particularly in the non-traditional areas.

In an effort to increase aid to law enforcement agencies focused on narcotics interdiction, we will provide operational support to several law enforcement agencies, particularly the Anti-Narcotics Force. This support will increase their communications capabilities and ground and air mobility in remote areas where narcotics traffickers do business and will also assist with aerial poppy surveys, poppy eradication efforts, and demand reduction activities.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

These funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Pakistan 
INL Budget  
($000)   

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 * FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Border Security Program
FATA Road Projects 6,700 - - - -
Aviation 11,620 - 8,000 - 15,200
Infrastructure/Commodities 6,000 - 2,202 - 500
Training/Training Materials - - 1,000 - 1,000
GOP Interagency Coordination - - -
Sub Total 24,320 - 11,202 - 16,700
Law Enforcement/Judicial System
Law Enforcement Reform * 4,000 - 3,148 - 5,000
Trafficking in Persons - - - - -
Rule of Law - - - - 2,500
National Criminal Data/AFIS 1,000 - 1,000 - -
Sub Total 5,000 - 4,148 - 7,500
Counternarcotics Program
Crop Control 6,000 - 2,300 - 4,000
Interdiction - - - -
Demand Reduction - - 500 - 1,000
Ops support to LE agencies 1,000 - 1,700 - 1,000
Sub Total 7,000 4,500 6,000
Program Development and Support
U.S. Personnel 405 - 590 - 700
Non-U.S. Personnel 150 - 180 - 320
ICASS Costs 380 - 380 - 380
Program Support 365 - 350 - 400
Sub-Total 1,300 - 1,500 - 1,800
Total 37,620 - 21,350 - 32,000
* A total of $24M is estimated for Pakistan in FY 2007. However, $2.65M was reprogrammed from Pakistan to the Haitian
Presidential Security Unit, resulting in an obligation plan of $21.35M for Pakistan in FY 2007.

Sri Lanka

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

---

350

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

To improve Sri Lankan law enforcement capabilities within its Police Narcotics Bureau (PNB) of the Sri Lanka National Police (SLNP).

The institutionalization of modern police training curricula and adult teaching methodologies, community policing program for the national police reserve, training in investigative skills, and organizational development, including establishment of a steering committee to develop a strategic plan for the police department.

Transformational Diplomacy

Funds will promote the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy goals of addressing key challenges to security and law enforcement for this country, focusing on Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations.

Program Justification

Since 1983, the Government of Sri Lanka has fought the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a terrorist organization fighting for a separate ethnic Tamil state in the north and east of the country. During this period the police command structure in northern and eastern provinces was closely integrated with the other security organizations under the authority of the Joint Operations Command. Many police stations in the east were over-run and numerous police officers were killed. In December 2001, the Government and the LTTE each announced unilateral cease fires. As a result of the peace process, there has been a sharp reduction in roadblocks and checkpoints around the country. At the present time the cease fire is still in place and the police are no longer functioning as an extension of the military arm of the Government. The present number of Sri Lanka National Police is believed to be approximately 70,000.

About 74 percent of the population of Sri Lanka is of Sinhalese descent. The largest minority groups are the Sri Lankan Tamils and the Indian Tamils, which together make up about 18 percent of the population. Over 75 percent of the population lives in rural areas of the Island. The official languages of Sri Lanka are Sinhala and Tamil. Sinhala is spoken by three fourths of the population. Tamil is a Dravidian language of northern and eastern provinces of the country. English, the former official language of the country until 1957, is still widely spoken. In working with such a diverse population that speaks multiple languages, the SLNP must perform police services while avoiding the perception of favoritism in the forms of language and ethnicity.

The Sri Lanka National Police is headed by an Inspector General of Police (IG), who reports to the Minister of the Interior. Prior to January 2002, the police reported to the Minister of Defense and were an integral part of the nation's security forces, holding primary responsibility for internal security. Specially trained commando units of the police were regularly deployed in joint operations with the armed forces.

INL has been assisting in the transition of the Sri Lankan police to a civilian force after 25 years of civil war. Therefore, INL programs that provide training and support to the country's police will improve Sri Lanka to manage such threats.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2008 will be the first year of funding for the police assistance program in Sri Lanka.

FY 2008 Program

Funds will be used to assist to train the PNB in investigative skills and organizational development, including establishment of a steering committee to develop a strategic plan for the police department.

Sri Lanka
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Law Enforcement Reform - - - - 350
Total - - - - 350



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