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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Regional and Global Programs


International Narcotics and Law Enforcement: FY 2008 Program and Budget Guide
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
September 2007
Report
September 18, 2007

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Anti-Crime Programs

Fighting Corruption 

Budget Summary ($000)  

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

3,960

4,500

4,500

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL has in recent years pursued a mix of diplomatic, policy, and programmatic efforts designed to achieve the following anticorruption objectives: increasing the number of governments committed to implementing comprehensive regimes to prevent kleptocracies from developing and address their corruption problems; increasing international cooperation among governments in the fight against corruption; increasing the number of countries where political will exists to pursue high-level corrupt actors and problems; and developing innovative methods to tackle corruption that show measurable effect.

INL advances these objectives through a four-pillar approach. These four pillars, articulated in various Department reports to Congress over the past few years pursuant to the International Anticorruption and Good Governance Act, include the following:

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitments

The USG opens the door to enhanced cooperation through the creation of global anticorruption goals and standards. This, in turn, encourages the sharing of best practices, builds trust and relationships between cooperating countries, and ultimately increases the effectiveness of USG government and other aid programs that assist these efforts.

Related objectives:

Increased number of reports issued annually by mutual evaluation mechanisms.

Increased number of countries that have signed and ratified the United Nations Convention Against Corruption.

Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments

The fight against corruption begins at the national and local levels. Where pockets of political and/or popular will exist, the USG can assist governments in taking effective action against corruption. This includes, inter alia, helping governments take a wide range of actions to address corruption, such as enforcing anticorruption laws and instituting preventive measures within the public administration. The U.S. is also beginning, through the USAID Anticorruption Strategy, the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), and other multilateral initiatives, to reward those countries that are committed to effectively rooting out corruption.

Related objective:

Increase the number of countries that publicly adhere to and enforce the "No Safe Haven" policy and make efforts to combat kleptocracy.

Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action

Popular will is the best expediter of political will against corruption. The USG can help enhance popular will in other countries by encouraging civil society, the media, and the private sector to be active in the fight against corruption, increase transparency in governments, and increase integrity in the private sector.

Related objective:

Targeted countries have improved scores in anticorruption and transparency indices.

Leading By Example

The USG has been a leader in the fight against corruption by promoting integrity within our own country and making our actions an example for the world. The international community can benefit from our examples, particularly regarding efforts to deny safe haven in the U.S. to corrupt officials, prevent U.S. multinational business from bribing overseas, enforce corruption laws, promote good public/corporate governance, and build tools and institutions to prevent corruption.

Related objectives:

Implementation and balanced use of the new presidential proclamation to deny entry into the United States of corrupt officials, those who corrupt them, and their dependents.

Participating as an evaluated party in two (OAS, COE) multilateral anticorruption monitoring mechanisms.

Transformational Diplomacy

Fighting corruption helps to strengthen the goals of Transformational Diplomacy by ensuring that good governance, transparency and accountability measures are a critical component of states aiming to govern justly and conduct themselves responsibly in the international system. FY 2008 funds will promote efforts that promote international cooperation to prosecute high-level corruption, deny safe haven to corrupt officials, and through the UN Convention Against Corruption, enhance commitment to recover and return assets that can be used to promote development and accountability.

Program Justification

The Administration has made the international fight against corruption one of its top foreign policy priorities. The USG has clear foreign policy and national security interests in seeing corruption addressed on an international scale. Corrupt interests continually hamper global economic activity of American firms, interfere with the accomplishments of USG foreign assistance goals and programs, facilitate the continuing growth of transnational crime and international criminal organizations, and threaten democracy. Terrorists thrive on corruption, using it to facilitate the laundering of funds and the illicit trade of weapons, passports, drugs, and persons; obtain sensitive information from government sources; and move money and themselves across borders to find safe havens.

Program Accomplishments

Uniting Governments Under Common Anticorruption Commitments

Over the past several years, INL has helped negotiate and develop several significant regional multilateral anticorruption commitments, including the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC), Council of Europe conventions, Stability Pact compact, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Initiative to Fight Corruption and Ensure Transparency, and, most recently, the OECD/UNDP Middle East and North Africa (MENA) "Good Governance for Development for Arab States" Initiative. The United States became a party to the UNCAC in November 2006. INL continues to make it a top priority to encourage other governments to sign, accede to, or ratify the UNCAC. In July 2006, the President unveiled his National Strategy to Internationalize Efforts Against Kleptocracy. From a diplomatic perspective, the biennial ministerial Global Forum on Fighting Corruption (GF) process is by far the most high-level existing intergovernmental forum for promoting the fight against corruption, and INL continues to lead U.S. efforts to develop and define that process. The United States plans to send a very high level delegation to the V Ministerial Global Forum which will be hosted by the Republic of South Africa in April 2007. The United States intends to promote the President's National Strategy to Internationalize Efforts Against Kleptocracy and international cooperation related to the UNCAC including asset recovery of stolen assets.

Helping Governments Meet or Exceed Those Commitments

INL has focused its attention and resources on promoting implementation of multilateral anticorruption commitments (e.g., monitoring mechanisms) and helping develop effective governmental approaches to preventing corruption (e.g., addressing corruption within the criminal justice system through the legal profession and private bars). INL has provided or led USG experts and assistance to help over 60 countries implement anticorruption commitments through mechanisms within the Organization of American States (OAS), Council of Europe, Stability Pact Anticorruption Initiative for Southeast Europe, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation's (APEC) Anticorruption Initiative, and the OECD/UNDP "Good Governance for Development for Arab States" Initiative. INL has also targeted anticorruption advisors and technical assistance to help governments address weaknesses discovered during these evaluation processes. INL continues to lead U.S. law enforcement-related anticorruption assistance, particularly to help countries build their capacities to investigate and prosecute corruption cases.

Mobilizing Popular Will and Private Sector Action

INL has developed and funded innovative technical assistance programs that help build the popular will against corruption and promote integrity within the private sector. Recent examples include the development of a Culture of Lawfulness educational program in several countries targeted at middle-school students and support to develop a corporate governance blueprint for Russian businesses.

Leading By Example

INL has led recent USG interagency participation, including the Department of Justice, Department of the Treasury, Department of Commerce, Office of Government Ethics, and others, in key multilateral mechanisms to observe U.S. anticorruption institutions and activities, and has helped effectively showcase our efforts as a model for other countries. INL also led efforts to advance the "No Safe Haven" policy through implementation of a Presidential Proclamation to deny entry to the corrupt, those who corrupt them, and their dependents, signed in early 2004. The G8 member countries, in the 2003 Evian Declaration and reinforced in the 2004 Sea Island Declarations, committed to the "No Safe Haven" policy. World leaders at the Special Summit of the Americas and APEC made a similar commitment in January and November 2004, respectively. With INL's leadership, the United States worked with other G8 countries to make high-level corruption a top priority at the 2007 G8 Leaders' St. Petersburg Summit.

FY 2008 Program

FY 2008 funds will be used through the United Nations or relevant regional organizations to help countries that have ratified the new United Nations Convention Against Corruption to implement the convention's prevention and criminalization chapters.

Funds will expand the Middle East Governance for Development (GfD) Network, an Arab-led effort which was launched in the Dead Sea, Jordan in February 2005, with the G8, UNDP, OECD and World Bank, to create an intergovernmental anticorruption forum. The forum will work towards developing capacity, tools, and systems - such as national action plans, stronger laws, codes of conduct, and better trained investigators, prosecutors, and judges - to detect, prosecute and enforce corruption cases. As part of the GfD Initiative, President Bush pledged to help Arab nations that embrace clear standards of economic, political, and social reform.

Funds will also help APEC developing economies implement their commitments related to the APEC Leaders' Santiago Commitment and Anticorruption Course of Action. The "Santiago Commitment and APEC Course of Action" requires member countries to: deny safe haven to officials and individuals guilty of public corruption, those who corrupt them, and their assets; implement anticorruption policies and practices consistent with the UN Convention Against Corruption; implement the APEC Transparency Standards, with particular emphasis on government procurement and customs procedures; encourage collaboration to fight corruption and ensure transparency, including through cooperation with other multilateral and regional intergovernmental institutions; and develop innovative training and technical assistance programs to fight corruption and ensure transparency.

INL will also start an innovative Kleptocracy Project that will help countries bring focused attention to high-level, large-scale corruption by public officials, increase public-private partnerships, and facilitate targeting of the proceeds of grand corruption through asset international cooperation in asset recovery and law enforcement.

FY 2008 funds would additionally be used to pay contributions/dues to support two multilateral monitoring mechanisms - the Council of Europe's Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO) and the OAS Follow-up Mechanism - that promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in over 70 countries.

Border Security/Alien Smuggling

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

594

1,250

1,500

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL will continue to assist selected countries to strengthen their border control regimes and make it more difficult for criminals and terrorists who threaten the interests of the United States to pass through without being detected and apprehended. INL will also work with our international partners to interdict and halt alien smuggling as far from our borders as possible.

INL border security programs help priority countries improve their port and airport security practices, through education initiatives, training, and technical assistance. The strengthening of security at ports and airports will help to prevent criminal and terrorist acts that could have an adverse impact on trade and transportation with the United States. INL has set goals for border security to include: conducting training to improve the proficiency of customs, immigration, and other border control officials; installing entry/exit systems at selected airports and seaports; assisting in the development of passport issuance systems with biometric capabilities; purchasing computers and software for immigration authorities at the international airports; providing funding to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) for capacity building programs; and providing funding to the Organization of American States (OAS) counter-terrorism subcommittee to improve port security practices through a program of technical assistance.

INL work helps improve integration and coordination among various law enforcement entities at the borders. Border security improvements will enhance law enforcement cooperation, reduce corruption, increase revenue collections, and strengthen rule of law in developing countries. Performance measures will include better law enforcement controls and intelligence; increased identification and apprehension of criminals; and less illegal movement of aliens destined for the United States. INL's attention to alien smuggling will focus on helping coordinate the activities of the interagency anti-smuggling community in their efforts to disrupt major alien smuggling rings which operate both domestically and overseas.

Transformational Diplomacy

INL's programs on border security and to counter alien smuggling directly facilitate the Transformational Diplomacy goal of strengthening peace and security through building capacity to address transnational crime. Strong border controls help deter transnational crime such as migrant smuggling, and make it more difficult for criminals and terrorists to operate on a transnational scope.

Program Justification

Porous borders are a threat to developing countries, as well as to the United States. Lax border controls greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid these controls, suborn them through corruption, negate them with falsified documentation, or overwhelm them. In many countries, effective control of the movement of persons, vehicles, and cargo across national borders is non-existent. Border control officials are poorly trained and equipped and inspections facilities are substandard.

As the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls provide substantial deterrence to smugglers and other criminals. They can force them into other, less attractive, routes, provoke traffickers into taking measures that raise their operational costs, and make traffickers more vulnerable to law enforcement countermeasures. Borders are also the points at which to collect important intelligence. Information gleaned from seizures, arrests, and documents can provide leads useful to making even bigger cases that help dismantle major international criminal syndicates. Successful enforcement at the border is also a powerful instrument for generating greater public support for fighting transnational crime.

The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. Identifying, disrupting and dismantling criminal networks, especially those that can be used by extremist groups, has become a high priority for U.S. authorities. An important aspect of the U.S. government's approach to deterring and preventing the flow of illegal aliens into the United States involves disrupting alien smuggling organizations as far from our shores as possible. This means that the fight against alien smuggling must begin in foreign lands where our influence and law enforcement authorities are more limited. Weak foreign law enforcement institutions, corrupt public officials, and inadequately trained police make it imperative that guidance and technical assistance be provided to illegal alien source and transit countries. Without adequate technical assistance many of these countries will continue to contribute to the stream of illegal aliens entering the United States. This stream, if uncontrolled, will allow foreign nationals with terrorist links to slip into the United States undetected.

Program Accomplishments

Our goal is to strategically utilize funding to ensure the most impact in this critical area. INL's critical border security program provided numerous training programs in Central America and the Caribbean

Funding provided to the OAS counter terrorism subcommittee to improve security practices in the Caribbean tourism and recreation industries, in preparation for the 2007 Cricket World Cup. The training was conducted in Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Lucia.

In response to the migrant smuggling, trafficking, and terrorist mobility challenges, and to further our anti-alien smuggling objectives, INL helped create and is helping fund the inter-agency Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC). The Center brings together federal agency representatives from the policy, law enforcement, intelligence, and diplomatic arenas to work together on a full-time basis to achieve increased greater integration and effectiveness in addressing human smuggling, human trafficking, and smuggler support of clandestine terrorist travel, particularly in terms of converting intelligence into effective enforcement, diplomatic and assistance actions. The Center collates, analyzes, produces and disseminates intelligence and other information to facilitate coordinated international law enforcement efforts against illegal alien smuggling, terrorist mobility, and trafficking in persons.

In addition to producing a number of strategic assessments and intelligence reports, and contributing to other agencies' products, the HSTC has submitted two required reports for Congress. The first, submitted in June, was a report on the status of implementation of the Center with information identifying staffing and resource needs. The second is an annual strategic assessment of vulnerabilities in the United States and foreign travel systems that can be exploited by terrorists, alien smugglers, traffickers, and their facilitators. Enactment of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act will require a third report to Congress on links between trafficking in persons and terrorism, including links between the proceeds of trafficking and terrorist finance.

FY 2008 Program

INL will continue to support the OAS counterterrorism committee in its efforts to improve law enforcement training and border controls in the Western Hemisphere. This will be done through a series of initiatives including airport and seaport security training, law enforcement workshops, border and port security vulnerability assessments, and document security programs. Strengthening entry-exit controls at selected foreign airports, land border points, and seaports will also be a priority. Programs designed to improve document security will also receive attention. These programs may focus on identity documents and passport issuance systems.

Effective border control programs depend on having adequate training, visa regimes, and equipment, including automated systems to track the movement of cargo and people through ports of entry. Through our border assessments, INL will identify vulnerable countries and will work with them to upgrade their border control systems, including assisting them to improve travel document issuance systems and customs controls. Funds will also support conferences and organizations working to improve and enhance border security.

Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property Rights and Critical Infrastructure Protection

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

3,366

3,750

4,000

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL training and technical assistance programs facilitate USG assistance to, and cooperation with, key foreign nations on matters involving cybercrime, critical information infrastructure protection (CIIP), and intellectual property rights (IP) crime. INL's training and technical assistance programs assist foreign nations draft effective laws and build strong enforcement capacity. INL also continues to participate in a range of USG diplomatic initiatives aimed at strengthening international standards and cooperation in combating transnational high tech and IP crime.

In the area of cybercrime, INL continues to build the capacity of foreign law enforcement partners through training and technical assistance programs targeted at identifying, investigating, prosecuting, and preventing crimes committed through the criminal misuse of information technology (IT). Improved cooperation between the USG and foreign law enforcement officials and increased successful domestic and foreign prosecutions of criminals misusing IT demonstrate the program's success. In the area of international CIIP, INL will continue to support the PM-chaired USG interagency efforts to expand outreach to critical countries, with success measured by an increase in the number of nations and multilateral and multinational organizations embracing enhanced cybersecurity policies and practices. These outreach programs assist foreign nations with whom the U.S. has shared vulnerabilities to develop policies and capacities to secure their critical information infrastructures. This fills gaps in our national security that can be exploited by transnational criminals and other state or non-state entities.

In the area of IP enforcement, INL training and technical assistance programs combat IP violations by building capacity among foreign border and customs officials, investigators, law enforcement officials, prosecutors, and judges to detect, investigate, prosecute and prevent these crimes.

Transformational Diplomacy

INL programs to counter IPR theft and cybercrime fit well into the continuum of Transformational Diplomacy. These programs directly contribute to the goal of strengthening international peace and security through building the capacity of governments and the international community to address transnational crime. IPR violations and cybercrime are specific transnational crimes that are priorities for international attention and our peace and security objective.

Program Justification

Intellectual Property (IP) Crime

IP crime presents a growing threat to the most innovative sectors of the U.S. economy. Losses to the U.S. copyright, patent, and trademark industries in areas such as hard goods, optical media, and pharmaceuticals have been staggering. One particularly troubling phenomenon is the growing involvement of transnational crime groups in IP crime. These groups have the potential to outstrip the capabilities of hard-pressed law enforcement to counter them. As a signatory to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, the USG is committed to a global enforcement effort to eliminate safe havens for online pirates and other IP criminals. Although INL has long been engaged on issues related to protection of IP, the explosion in IP crime and the growing sophistication of IP criminals has led INL to ramp up its resources dedicated to this issue. The rise of the IP organized crime threat prompted the President to order the development of the new Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy (STOP) initiative. Under the overall policy guidance of STOP, as co-chair with the Department of State's Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs of the inter-agency training coordination group (TCG), which includes both government and industry participation, INL promotes foreign training and technical assistance projects targeted to foreign nations where IP violations are most severe. INL's assistance includes seminars on developing TRIPS compliant laws, training police officers, investigators, prosecutors, and judges to combat IP crime, and providing direct technical assistance, such as forensic equipment to allow foreign law enforcement to successfully identify counterfeit items. Since much of the growth of violations of IP rights is fueled by the criminal misuse of IT (e.g., online piracy) there is a significant overlap with INL's mission to fight cybercrime. More recently, INL and EB have begun to coordinate their training activities with the G8 and EU, whose Member States have indicated an interest in closer coordination with the USG.

Cybercrime

The criminal misuse of IT has increased exponentially in the last several years. Cybercrimes can include activities such as fraud, child pornography, and extortion, through which IT is a means for carrying out the elements of the crime, and also activities such as hacking, intrusion, and denial of service attacks, in which information networks are themselves targeted. As one of the first nations to sign and ratify (in September 2006) the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime - the first multilateral treaty dedicated to cybercrime - the USG is one of the international leaders in promoting mutual cooperation, effective laws, and strong enforcement institutions. INL provides training and technical assistance to foreign law enforcement personnel to identify, investigate, prosecute, and prevent high-tech crimes. Given the nascence of cybercrime in many developing nations, INL's assistance includes enabling USG subject matter experts to give key nations legislative drafting advice. INL also participates in developing USG policy positions on cybercrime in organizations such as the G8, the Council of Europe, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization of American States (OAS), and the United Nations, where INL is working alongside DOJ to staff a new UN expert group on Identity Theft. INL has also provided assistance to help stand up a new G8-Interpol Child Sexual Exploitation Database, which will help international law enforcement investigate and prosecute those who use information technology to prey on children.

In the realm of cybersecurity, the vast expansion of the Internet and the spread of IT have created new challenges for the USG in the areas of law enforcement, national security, and national economic security. Hacking, denial of service attacks, and viruses disseminated through information networks are increasing rapidly. The President has responded to this challenge by directing the issuance of the first National Cyberspace Strategy. The Strategy recognizes that the interdependence of infrastructures across communications, energy, finance, trade, and transportation sectors means that a physical or cyber attack on the critical information infrastructures of one nation will likely impact other nations. Consequently, U.S. national security depends not only on U.S. CIIP efforts within U.S. borders, but also on the capabilities and cooperation of foreign nations whose infrastructure the U.S. government and industry interact with. The National Strategy contains a strong international outreach component, focusing on the promotion of watch-and-warning networks and a global culture of cybersecurity. Within the Department of State, INL has responsibility for law enforcement related CIIP issues. INL has already stepped up to support CIIP outreach by providing training and technical assistance to key partner nations. INL expects an increase in the demand for training to combat cybercrime with the expansion of USG outreach to developing nations. INL will continue to target our resources in consultation with U.S. agencies such as Commerce, Treasury, Justice and Homeland Security, which have strong and evolving responsibilities in the areas of cybercrime and cybersecurity.

Program Accomplishments

As the State Department's designated coordinator for federal law enforcement overseas assistance, INL is the funding source for almost all USG "cop-to-cop" law enforcement training and maintains the State Department lead on law enforcement with respect to IP rights. With respect to intellectual property rights, INL funds training and technical assistance programs to investigators, law enforcement personnel, prosecutors, judges, and other foreign officials and policy makers who investigate, prosecute, punish, and prevent violations of intellectual property rights.

INL selects the training and technical assistance programs through the consideration of criteria and metrics designed to identify gaps in countries/regions where inadequate laws or weak enforcement fail to protect intellectual property rights. More particularly, INL determines the needs necessary to reduce intellectual property violations and identifies a strategy to fill in the gaps through training and technical assistance programs. In making funding decisions, INL considers input from STOP, the TCG, USTR's Special 301 Report, U.S. industry, U.S. missions and Congress to ensure the assistance is targeted to fit long-range planning goals. In 2006, INL provided funding to DOJ to establish a brand new IP coordinator position in Bulgaria to address the explosion of IP crime in Eastern Europe.

Similarly, in the field of cybercrime, INL was able to support stepped-up activities by DOJ in advising key nations in the APEC and OAS regions in designing effective laws, in training foreign police and prosecutors in cyber investigations, and in related CIIP activities. INL has also continued to help advance our diplomatic objectives through participation in bilateral discussions with close allies, and with multilateral organizations like the OAS, the Council of Europe, APEC, the G8, and the United Nations. INL also stepped up to provide USG support for creation of a new G8-Interpol International Child Sexual Exploitation Database.

FY 2008 Program

As co-chair of the TCG, INL will continue to fight IP crime through increased funding for foreign law enforcement training and technical assistance. INL will be consulting closely with STOP, the USG interagency community, U.S. Missions and industry groups to ensure that INL's assistance does not duplicate or overshadow industry efforts. In particular, we note that the industry groups have urged INL to provide additional law enforcement training to fill critical gaps in their own efforts to assist foreign countries in fighting IP crime. As such, INL will seek not only to increase the numbers of such programs, but also to better integrate input and participation from private industry into our long term IP assistance plans. The countries INL is particularly likely to work with to build institutions to address IPR challenges include the People's Republic of China, Mexico, Colombia, South Africa, and India, as well as programs in cooperation with regional bodies like APEC, ASEAN and the CAFTA-DR countries. IP should continue to have a high profile among multilateral organizations such as the G8, which is expected to open a new initiative on IP enforcement, and in discussions between the US and EU Justice and Home Affairs Ministers

On CIIP, INL will continue to participate as part of the Department of State Inter-Agency Working Group on international outreach activities. This will include working with our closest allies to facilitate sector-to-sector relationships and connectivity between law enforcement, as well as expanding our circle of contacts to selected countries and multilateral organizations. INL expects to fully coordinate its activities with the Department of Homeland Security and other U.S. agencies. INL expects demand for training and technical assistance to combat the criminal misuse of IT to increase throughout the range of existing INL programs. We also envision in 2008 further activities in the OAS to follow-up the success of the first OAS cybersecurity conference held in 2004 in Buenos Aires with INL funding. On cybercrime, INL will assist by providing training to fight either cybercrime itself or substantive crimes such as money laundering and child pornography that are furthered through use of IT. In particular, INL expects demands for assistance from developing nations to increase in response to the success of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime as a global model. The USG is now in a stronger position to urge nations to accede to the COE Convention now that we ourselves have ratified the instrument. INL will also work to meet the demand from APEC and OAS member states as they advance their regional strategy to fight criminal misuse of information technology. INL expects to work closely with DHS and DOJ in assessing existing cybercrime training offerings for their effectiveness, and with State Department Diplomatic Security (DS/ATA) in determining how our crime fighting and anti-terrorist cyber training can complement each other. Finally, INL expects to continue our close coordination with DOJ on the UN Crime Commission as it considers further actions in the area of identity theft.

INL believes that its efforts, as outlined above, are making a significant contribution to the United States' fight against cybercrime, IP violations, and breaches of information infrastructures. In each of the areas cited, INL has increased its efforts in recognition of the growing importance of these issues to U.S. interests.

Financial Crimes and Money Laundering

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

2,475

4,000

4,000

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Denying funds to terrorist organizations is a national security priority. Thwarting terrorist financing requires the development of robust anti-money laundering regimes that contain the legislative, enforcement and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. INL will continue to promote and develop activities and programs that will strengthen global cooperation against financial crime and terrorist financing. We will work with foreign governments to establish or update enforcement and regulatory tools and to implement international anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing standards. INL will encourage and assist in the formation of financial intelligence units (FIUs), and enhance their ability to share critical financial intelligence by providing technical assistance to those countries that have adequate and appropriate anti-money laundering laws and regulations in place and by encouraging them to become members of the Egmont Group of FIUs. INL also will continue to support the expansion of Trade Transparency Units, model FIUs, and strengthen the Pacific Island Anti-Money Laundering Program (PALP), a regional technical assistance/training program.

Indicators of our work include the following: the numbers of successful investigations and prosecutions abroad of important terrorist financing and money laundering cases will increase. There will be an increase in the number of jurisdictions in compliance with international anti-money laundering standards, including the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Special Nine Recommendations on Terrorist Financing, as reflected by mutual and other evaluations conducted by FATF and other international standard-setting and peer review bodies. There will be an increase in the number of countries that have criminalized terrorist financing, and an increase in the number of effective FIUs. There will be an expanded network of Trade Transparency Units in operation in countries of most concern. The network will combat the misuse of trade in money laundering and terrorist financing. There will be additional intermittent term mentors provided to the regional Pacific Island Anti-Money Laundering Program initiated in FY 2005.

Transformational Diplomacy

INL's anti-money laundering programs directly accomplish the Transformational Diplomacy goal of supporting peace and security through building the capacity of the international community to address transnational crimes such as money laundering and financial crimes. Criminals and terrorists involved in all sorts of illicit activities rely on money laundering to facilitate their illicit activities and for the purpose of enjoying the benefit of such activities. Government and private sector efforts to counter money laundering will be more effective if the international community works in tandem and towards commonly accepted goals.

Program Justification

Financial crime, terrorist financing, and money laundering pose a significant national security threat not only to the United States but also globally. These activities have the power to corrupt officials, distort economies, skew currency markets, undermine the integrity of financial systems, and destabilize governments. Criminals seek to access the financial systems of countries to fund their operations and launder funds stemming from a variety of illegal activities, including drug trafficking, corruption, arms trafficking, theft of state assets, and a variety of other financial crimes, such as trade-based money laundering, that until very recently has frequently eluded law enforcement. Experts estimate that global money laundering exceeds 3-5 percent of Global Domestic Product - or $1.5-$1.8 trillion per year -- and continues to grow through a variety of new innovative schemes only limited by the imagination of criminals and their organizations. Terrorists, on the other hand, appear to be relying less on the formal financial sector than to alternative remittance systems, such as hawala and cash couriers, that pose significant challenges to law enforcement. Our ability to conduct foreign policy, promote our economic security and prosperity, and safeguard our citizens is hindered by these threats to democracy and free markets.

Program Accomplishments

In the past several years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime and money laundering, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. Between FY 2002 and FY 2006, INL provided approximately $15 million in training and technical assistance programs that delivered courses to bank regulators, bankers, law enforcement, prosecutorial and judicial personnel, and financial intelligence unit personnel from 120 governments. We draw upon a multi-agency team of experts representing the Departments of State, Treasury, Justice, and Homeland Security, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), and the Federal Reserve Board of Governors to deliver the training and technical assistance to most of these countries. INL's contributions to Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD), the Pacific Island Forum, and to the UN Global Programme against Money Laundering also played a key role in providing assistance to many of these countries. INL provided $2 million to support the President's East Africa Counter-Terrorism Initiative. In addition, INL provided contributions to multilateral organizations such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and the FATF-style regional bodies (FSRBs): the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG), the Council of Europe (MONEYVAL), the Eastern and Southern African Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), the South American Financial Action Task Force (GAFISUD), to support anti-money laundering efforts. The members of these FSRBs have made a commitment to meet international anti-money laundering standards and undergo mutual evaluations by their peers. Our contributions support the ongoing operations of these bodies and fund special programs, such as mutual evaluation training seminars.

During 2000-2006, INL also participated in the development of the FATF's Non-Cooperating Countries and Territories (NCCT) program to identify jurisdictions not cooperating in the fight against money laundering. All 23 jurisdictions that FATF identified as NCCTs were the subject of U.S. Treasury Department advisories, warning all U.S. financial institutions to exercise enhanced scrutiny of financial transactions with the listed NCCTs. INL provided training and technical assistance to nearly all of these jurisdictions to help them correct the deficiencies identified by the FATF. Because of the improvements these countries made in their anti-money laundering regimes, FATF removed four of them from the list in 2001, eight in 2002, two in 2003, three in 2004, and four in 2005. In 2006, FATF removed Burma and Nigeria - the last remaining countries from its NCCT list.

INL and the Department of State's Bureau of Counterterrorism (S/CT) chair an interagency process to identify the countries most vulnerable to terrorist financing activities around the world. INL is a central contributor to assessing the anti-terrorist financing needs of these countries, developing implementation plans for them, and funding anti-terrorist financing technical assistance programs so countries can combat this threat. INL also participates in some of the training programs.

In FY 2005, INL funding enabled DHS/ICE to establish Trade Transparency Units in Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. In 2006, as a result of this initiative, DHS/ICE agents teamed with Brazilian authorities to target a scheme involving the under valuation of U.S. exports to Brazil to evade more than $200 million in Brazilina customs duties over the past five years. The scheme involved tax evasion, document fraud, public corruption and other illegal activities in Brazil and the United States. In an excellent example of the long-reach of law enforcement, more than 128 arrest warrants and numerous search warrants were simultaneously served in 238 locations in Brazil.

FY 2008 Program

INL, with the DHS, will continue to support the development Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) concept that responds to the increasing propensity of criminals and terrorists to move funds outside of formal financial sectors through use of alternative remittance systems and falsified trade data. The concept borrows from the international network of FIUs that examine financial intelligence. A similar TTU network is envisioned that will analyze countries' trade data, searching for anomalies indicating trade fraud, money laundering and/or terrorist financing. Following the establishment of TTUs in Southeast Asia in 2006-2007, INL will continue to provide training and equipment to set up TTUs in strategic countries. In 2008, we plan to establish a TTU in the Middle East or Southern Africa and one in a Pacific. With the addition of the new TTUs, the beginning of a global network of TTUs will emerge.

In 2008, INL will fund the fourth year of the Pacific Island Anti-Money Laundering Program. This program, modeled on the Caribbean Anti-money Laundering Program (CALP), is an economical way to provide comprehensive training and technical assistance to several countries in a region that share similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. The program has installed resident advisors and support staff to work in key areas needed to bring the anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes in the region up to international standards by assisting in drafting laws and regulations, and by training regulators and law enforcement officials, including prosecutors and judges.

INL is committed to assisting countries that want to establish new Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs), particularly countries that have the requisite legal framework but lack the funds to purchase the necessary, but expensive, software and hardware. In FY 2008, INL will continue to fund an innovative "FIU in a Box" initiative that will develop scaled-down software that will enable small FIUs to collect, analyze and disseminate financial intelligence to domestic law enforcement and to other FIUs globally. These "FIUs in a Box" will enable jurisdictions that lack fiscal and human resources to become active players in the global effort to thwart money laundering and terrorist financing at a fraction of the current cost to develop a full-scale FIU. Working cooperatively with the Australian Financial Intelligence Unit that pioneered the "FIU in a Box" concept, and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime that is developing a similar model, INL's goal in FY 2008 is to have at least two Financial Intelligence Units established through the PALP that meet the qualifications for membership in the Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units.

INL will also provide funding for the placement of intermittent and long-term advisors in countries to assist in the development of legislative frameworks, regulatory schemes and FIUs. INL will continue to work closely with other USG agencies to provide this assistance, including the FBI, Justice, Treasury, FinCEN, DHS/ICE, Internal Revenue Service, the FDIC, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, and the OCC. INL will continue to provide funding to the UN Global Programme against Money Laundering and OAS/CICAD - organizations that are able to attract experts from a global pool of applicants. It is expected that training will focus on the countries considered to be most vulnerable to terrorist financing. Efforts will also be directed at other strategic jurisdictions that need resources and assistance to develop anti-money laundering laws to protect their economy and financial services sector against financial crime and terrorism.

INL will continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the FATF, other anti-money laundering bodies, such as the APG, MONEYVAL, CFATF, GAFISUD, ESAAMLG, OAS/CICAD, and the UN Global Program Against Money Laundering, as well as the Middle East and North African Financial Action Task Force (MENAFATF) and the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism (EAG) - the new FSRBS established in late 2004. In particular, INL wants to ensure that the FSRB's incorporate anti-terrorist financing training into their anti-money laundering criteria, that they conduct a steady stream of mutual evaluations of their members, and that they train a core of evaluators to conduct these evaluations.

INL Anticrime Programs
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Fighting Corruption 2,475 - 4,500 - 4,500
Anti-Corruption Compacts 1,485 - - - -
Border Security/Alien Smuggling 594 - 1,250 - 1,500
Cyber Crime, Intellectual Property Rights and Critical Infrastructure Protection    3,366 - 3,750 - 4,000
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering    2,475 - 4,000 - 4,000
Total 10,395 - 13,500 - 14,000

Civilian Police and Justice Program

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

1,980

2,000

2,000

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The overall program objectives are to sustain the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police, justice sector and corrections components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations involving U.S. and international coalitions; and to assist in strengthening the capabilities of the USG, United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and other regional organizations and countries to address police, justice, and prison development issues in areas emerging from conflict.

The FY 2008 program will sustain INL's capacity to manage and oversee the recruitment, selection, training, equipping, deployment and support for uniformed and non-uniformed U.S. civilian police, trainers and advisors overseas participating in and supporting peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. The program will also:

Maintain a capacity to deploy U.S. police, law enforcement advisors, justice and corrections experts.

Promote high quality, standardized civilian police, justice sector and corrections pre-deployment training.

Maintain INL management and oversight capabilities by further developing in-house law enforcement and criminal justice expertise and options to address peacekeeping and complex security operations.

Transformational Diplomacy

These funds support the objective of peace and security, program area of stabilization operations and security sector reform, program element 1.7, law enforcement reform, restructuring and operations. The funds ensure that there are qualified and available individuals to serve in peacekeeping and complex security missions anytime there is a need, and standardized, comprehensive pre-deployment training to prepare those individuals for the challenging tasks they will be assigned. It also supports senior-level in-house expertise in law enforcement, corrections and criminal justice systems to assist with program development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. These efforts raise the quality and effectiveness of all of our programs.

Program Justification

U.S. participation in complex security operations and international civilian police missions overseas is expected to continue in FY 2008 and beyond. INL will sustain a capacity to deploy and support experienced U.S. police, justice and corrections personnel assigned to countries and areas of operation as determined by policy makers. The world-wide support contracts awarded in 2004 provide a mechanism to conduct rapid competition and deployment of experienced law enforcement and corrections officers and criminal justice experts to support U.S. foreign policy interests in post-conflict regions around the world.

Deployment of U.S. police and law enforcement and criminal justice advisors can range from short-term assessments, training and advisory activities requiring only a few weeks, to long-term secondments of a year or more, to operational missions in dangerous and volatile environments that may include authority to carry weapons and perform the full range of law enforcement functions. To prepare for such operations, U.S. law enforcement personnel are given a standard course of training applicable to all deployments. Special equipment and materials, briefings, training and medical precautions needed to accommodate a particular operating environment are provided immediately prior to an actual deployment. Such equipment may include communications equipment, uniforms and other clothing, medical supplies and protective gear to meet conditions in the particular area of operation, and camping gear in the event lodging accommodations are not available. Regional or special accounts, line-item appropriations, or funds made available from supplemental budgets fund the operational support and such special needs as enhanced protective security needed to maintain and protect U.S. police in actual operations.

The FY 2008 program sustains logistical capabilities to ensure a rapid and timely U.S. response and requests from the UN or other international organizations to contribute American police and/or advisors to address a special circumstance or participate in an international effort to assist a country emerging from a crisis situation. Key elements of this capacity are maintained by existing services contractors and include transporting U.S. personnel and equipment; pre-positioning field support items for rapid deployment; providing security, emergency medical support and evacuation services; providing operational transportation and communications capabilities; and administrative and logistical support in the field.

FY 2008 funds will also sustain outreach efforts to U.S. local, state, and federal law enforcement and criminal justice agencies and professional associations for the purpose of attracting and encouraging more interest and participation in international police and criminal justice missions. In-house senior-level expertise will increase our ability to assess, conceptualize, plan, prepare, implement, manage, and evaluate U.S. participation in complex security operations and international peacekeeping missions.

Program Accomplishments

INL manages three contractors to support program implementation and funds a police training advisor, and senior corrections and police advisors.

INL implements programs that support international efforts to train and equip the 7,350-member Kosovo Police Service that we also helped build from the ground up; provide training to prosecutors and judges; develop and support practical legal clinics for law students and organize professional organizations for prosecutors.

INL provides 690 International Police Liaison Officers (IPLOs) and 191 police trainers to support the Multi-National Security Transition Command - Iraq (MNSTC-I) and international efforts to re-establish, re-organize and train approximately 135,000 Iraqi police at the U.S.-funded Jordan International Police Training Center near Amman, Jordan. INL also supports approximately 80 prison advisors and 13 justice advisors in Baghdad and on the Provincial Reconstruction Teams s to assist with reform and reconstruction efforts and help implement specific criminal justice and anti-corruption projects. Beginning with FY 2006 Supplemental funds, INL also is expanding jail/prison capacity through construction projects with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. INL obtained authorization to substantially increase staff dedicated to contract management, oversight and administration functions in key operational areas, including Iraq.

INL provides the U.S. contribution of 50 U.S. police to the civilian police (CIVPOL) component of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, and provides training and technical assistance designed to enhance the Haitian government's efforts to re-establish Haitian National Police and criminal justice functions, specifically including 3 corrections advisors. INL is additionally developing and supporting the Haiti Stabilization Initiative to target high-crime areas through the creation of model police stations and intensive, focused anti-crime programs.

INL supports peacekeeping and justice reform in Liberia through the contribution of 10 U.S. police officers to the CIVPOL component of the United Nations Mission in Liberia, five justice sector advisors, funding for police academy development, the donation of non-lethal equipment for the Liberian National Police, and bilateral technical assistance for the courts, judiciary and prosecution services.

FY 2008 Program

The FY 2008 budget sustains INL's capacity to identify, train, equip, pre-position, deploy and support law enforcement and other criminal justice personnel who participate in an overseas mission. Three companies provide the capabilities to support INL worldwide police, justice, and corrections programs as a result of full and open competition. The FY 2008 program will sustain standardized organizational structures, operating procedures, code of conduct, ethics standards, and systems needed to effectively manage this complex program. Through these efforts, U.S. police will receive basic and advanced pre-deployment instruction that is unique to the organizational and operational challenges presented by international missions. The FY 2008 program sustains an INL training coordinator, and senior police and corrections advisors. The FY 2008 program maintains personnel and resources dedicated to supporting INL capabilities to address peacekeeping and complex security matters and provide management and oversight of police, justice and prison programs.

Civilian Police Program
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Civilian Police Program 1,980 - 2,000 - 2,000
Total 1,980 - 2,000 - 2,000

Criminal Youth Gangs

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

---

*

5,000

* This new program was initially funded with reprogrammed funds of $3.5M notified to Congress in November 2006, and approved in January 2007.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

This regional program is designed to combat a transnational crime problem with a multi-nation approach. The affected countries of Central America will share techniques, experiences and data, and increase regional cooperation. The program will begin in 2007 in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, and will expand to include activities in Panama. Host nation entities will train together using best practices from each country as well as from the United States. The program will strengthen the capacity of host governments and civil society to:

Use intelligence-based law enforcement to target criminal leaders, sharing biometric and crime investigation information and law enforcement techniques.

Gang-related crime will decrease through improved law enforcement.

Number of arrests and convictions for gang related crime in USG assisted areas will increase.

Number of information-based activities to improve collection, analysis and sharing of gang-related data will increase.

Increased number of law enforcement/justice system personnel trained in anti-gang techniques.

Train and field multi-disciplinary anti-gang units using an integral strategy combining prevention, enforcement, and improved justice system.

Participating countries form and use Gangs Task Forces that integrate law enforcement, prosecution, juvenile justice, prevention and rehabilitation entities.

Strengthen prevention programs to keep at-risk youth from becoming members of gangs.

Increased number of people enrolled in USG assisted gang prevention programs

Youth enrolled in gang-prevention programs remain uninvolved in gangs

Transformational Diplomacy

The initial funding will concentrate on the three most affected countries, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, with activities in Panama added in the second year, 2008. Guatemala is a developing country, Honduras and El Salvador are transforming countries, and Panama is a sustaining country, but all share problems that fuel gang membership: poverty, unemployment and out-migration that disrupt families and society. Under the Peace and Security Objective, the program supports efforts against transnational crime, specifically Organized and Gang-Related Crime. It also supports Drug Control Programs and Demand Reduction under the Counternarcotics Program Area through the prevention and rehabilitation elements of the program. Under the Governing Justly and Democratically Objective, the program supports the Rule of Law and Human Rights Program Area through work with the Justice Systems Program Element. This includes work with the Juvenile and Adult Justice Systems.

Program Justification

Criminal youth gangs are a transnational problem, affecting communities in the United States as well as Central America. Analyses of the complex problem have made it clear that solutions must include prevention as well as law enforcement, and communities as well as the full spectrum of the justice system. The program was developed in line with the U.S. Interagency Anti-Gang Strategy. The goal of this program is to improve the ability of participating countries to combat gang crime and protect vulnerable youth by pooling resources and knowledge, regionally sharing information and lessons learned, and collaborating on anti-gang programs.

Program Accomplishments

The program has not yet begun operations.

FY 2008 Program

The Regional Criminal Youth Gangs program will initially focus on the three most heavily impacted countries, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala, but will add activities in Panama once established. The program is designed integrate law enforcement, prevention and rehabilitation through regional training and technical assistance. Technical assistance and tools will give law enforcement authorities a way to target key criminal leaders and build strong cases for conviction. Activities are planned to build on and be coordinated with programs of other agencies, such as USAID, and the Departments of Justice and Homeland Security and will complement host country programs.

Anti-Gang Units

The program will provide training, technical assistance and limited amounts of equipment to anti-gang units. It will encourage participating countries to include prevention, investigation, juvenile justice and community representatives in each unit, to promote an integrated approach to the gangs problem. Training will be regional, allowing participants to share experience and best practices and to build working relationships.

Law-Enforcement Tools

The program will support regional sharing of law-enforcement information, including shared access to fingerprint data and crime data bases. The first priority will be updated fingerprint analysis equipment and training for El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala that will allow the three countries to share fingerprint information with each other and with the United States. The second priority is updating and integrating crime data bases.

Coordination with Prevention

The program will fund activities needed to complement and coordinate with prevention and rehabilitation interventions. Depending on the specific prevention activity, this will include activities such as police and community training, preparation of neighborhood-specific prevention materials, or funds for working with at-risk youth.

Regional Gangs Advisor

The program will be directed by an expert U.S. regional gangs advisor assisted by a locally hired coordinator. The advisor and coordinator will be based in Guatemala to take advantage of administrative and logistical support through the INL office there, but will travel extensively in the region.

Criminal Youth Gangs
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Criminal Youth Gangs - - - - 5,000
Total - - - - 5,000

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

9,900

8,000

3,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Select foreign countries will be able to apply "best practices" and new prevention and treatment technologies that are scientifically sound and effective at the national and community levels.

Training and technical assistance delivered and effectively utilized by public/private sector demand reduction organizations in Central/South America, Africa and Southeast Asia, resulting in new or enhanced programs that significantly reduce drug use and delay onset of first use in target populations.

Regional institutions that foster dissemination and utilization of "best practices" and scientific knowledge about effective prevention and treatment technologies will be established to better enable foreign countries to improve demand reduction services.

Technology transfer centers enhanced in Southeast Asia and Latin America; delivery and implementation of core training curriculum; utilization of new prevention and treatment technologies will result in significant reductions of drug use in target populations.

The international community will be better educated about U.S. policies, programs, and successes in combating drug abuse.

Provision of one regional-level seminar in Latin America for U.S. embassy officials and key foreign government and NGO leaders resulting in increased understanding of, and support for, U.S. international anti-drug policies and programs.

Multilateral alliances will be established to build public support and political will to combat drug trafficking and abuse, develop support for U.S. foreign anti-drug policies and initiatives, and improve America's image overseas.

Training, technical assistance, web sites, newsletters, and knowledge exchange forums delivered and effectively utilized in Africa, Asia, and Latin American countries by public/private sector agencies, civil society, and grassroots organizations resulting in reduced drug use and delayed onset of first use.

International program accomplishments and lessons learned will be utilized to benefit both U.S. and foreign demand reduction services.

Four long-term, outcome-based evaluations of INL demand reduction training programs (Colombia, Vietnam, Thailand, Brazil) will be concluded and disseminated, documenting effective approaches and strategies as "best practices" that can be used to improve service delivery in demand reduction programs worldwide.

Transformational Diplomacy

The International Demand Reduction Program advances the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding counter-narcotics projects designed to prevent and reduce drug abuse. The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health and welfare of all countries, in addition to undermining economic development, social and political stability, and security in emerging democracies and developing countries that are strategic U.S. allies. As such, drug abuse hinders successful transformation from rebuilding or developing countries to transforming or sustained partnership countries. In reducing the demand for illicit drugs, these funds enable recipient countries to create a secure and stable environment for development to flourish. These funds also empower marginalized and vulnerable populations such as women, children, minorities, and victims of violence to take part in the development of their communities.

As the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) points out in its 2002 report, the drug trade brings with it crime, violence and extraordinary inflows of illicit money - the combination of which undermines the rule of law, distorts the economy, and corrupts the political system. Recognizing this threat, a key objective of the National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD # 25) on International Drug Control Policy urges the Secretary of State to "expand U.S. international demand reduction assistance and information sharing programs in key source and transit countries."

Program Justification

Demand reduction efforts aim to reduce the use and abuse of illicit drugs worldwide. The need for demand reduction is reflected in escalating drug use that takes a devastating toll on the health, welfare, stability, security, and economy of all countries. At the same time, the role of demand reduction in addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic has become more readily apparent as the recent worldwide increases in this epidemic are primarily concentrated among intravenous (IV) drug user populations, in addition to high-risk behavior associated with use of other non-narcotic drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants. The role of drug treatment in decreasing rates of drug use and relapse benefits U.S. foreign assistance efforts because any decrease in drug use among high-risk populations has the added benefit of decreasing the spread of HIV/AIDS.

In addition, the President's National Strategy for Combating Terrorism directs us to "work with moderate and modern governments in the Muslim world to reverse the spread of extremist ideology and those who seek to impose totalitarian ideologies on our Muslim allies and friends." Collaboration in Afghanistan and Asia with our network of 400 Muslim-based, anti-drug programs enables us to provide alternatives to radical schools that recruit young terrorists and to reduce drug consumption that fuels the coffers of terrorist groups. This network has provided us with rare access to mosques and madrassahs in volatile regions thereby enabling us to establish a prevention component to the "War on Terror." Demand reduction assistance has subsequently evolved as a key foreign policy tool to address the inter-connected threats of drugs, crime and terrorism.

Finally, foreign countries recognize the vast U.S. experience and efforts in reducing drug demand. As part of their cooperation with supply reduction efforts, many drug producing and transit countries request U.S. assistance with demand reduction technology, since drug consumption also has debilitating effects on their society and children. Demand reduction assistance thereby helps secure foreign country support for U.S.-driven supply reduction efforts, while at the same time reducing drug consumption in that country and thereby cutting-off a potential source of terrorist financing.

Program Accomplishments

Independent, science-based evaluations on the long-range impact of INL-funded training for drug treatment programs revealed that overall hard-core drug use in the target population in Peru was reduced from 90 percent to 34 percent in the target treatment population, while overall drug use in Thailand was reduced from 90 percent to 8 percent in the target population. Coca paste and cocaine use in Peru was reduced from 62 percent to 22 percent and 30 percent to 8 percent, respectively. Methamphetamine abuse in Thailand was reduced from 82 percent to 7 percent in the target treatment population and arrests for other crimes were reduced from 40 percent to 6 percent. A similar evaluation of drug prevention training in Colombia revealed drug use declined from 54 percent to 10 percent in eight target cities. "Best Practice" studies of INL-funded drug treatment initiatives in Southeast Asia reported success rates (percent of clients remaining drug-free after treatment) of over 70 percent compared to 15 percent in other developing countries.

INL-funded regional demand reduction symposiums in Malaysia and Afghanistan resulted in the commitment of over 500 Afghanistan mullahs to cooperate with the United States on providing mosque-based, drug prevention and intervention services, in addition to a major Fatwa against drug production, trafficking and abuse in Afghanistan that lends credence and critical support to the opium poppy eradication program. This assistance also resulted in the establishment of mosque-based aftercare and outreach centers in all Afghan provinces, 12 drug prevention centers in Indonesian religious schools, and a total of 6 outreach centers in Pakistan, Malaysia, and the southern Philippines.

FY 2008 Program

INL assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, the drug-related HIV/AIDS epidemics in Southeast Asia and Africa, the gang problem in Central America, and address the heroin threat from Asia, Afghanistan and Colombia. A continued area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network.

The FY 2008 program is divided into three general categories. A training and technical assistance program, begun in 1990, imposes a four-year limit on all countries for receiving such assistance. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The research and demonstration program initiative that began in 2000 has a three/four-year time limit in order to allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect "best practices" that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome). The coalition and network building program has a three-year time limit per region.

Training and Technical Assistance

Regional Training Centers: INL funding will provide support for its strategically located, sub-regional demand reduction training centers in Brazil (Southern Cone region), Colombia (Andean region), and Thailand (Southeast Asia) with the aim of better disseminating the President's new goals and priorities for demand reduction, in addition to the use of "best practices" and science-based prevention and treatment methods to reduce drug consumption and related violence. Training will specifically target methamphetamine abuse and intravenous drug use that leads to increased prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Additional training topics will include family support groups, relapse prevention/aftercare methods, drug use among gang members, school and peer-based prevention programs, and community and correctional-based treatment services. Success will be measured by reductions in overall drug use, including high-risk behavior (e.g., intravenous drug use) that contributes to HIV/AIDS. These centers (co-funded by other international organizations and donor countries) are an economical way to provide comprehensive assistance to several countries in a region that suffer and share similar drug abuse problems.

Knowledge Exchange Forums: Funding will be devoted to recurring regional drug prevention and treatment conferences (attended by the key leaders and decision-makers from the public and private sectors) to mobilize international opinion and cooperation against the drug trade, encourage governments to develop and implement strong anti-drug policies and programs, strengthen support for USG anti-drug policies/programs and existing UN conventions, and disseminate the latest science-based information on effective methods to reduce drug consumption and prevent onset of use. Funding will support two regional forums (Africa, Middle East). These events will include funding from other donor countries and international organizations to reflect an emphasis on increased multilateral collaboration.

Research and Demonstration Programs

Muslim-based Anti-Drug Demonstration Programs: Funding will be utilized for year-two of a three-year initiative to establish anti-drug outreach and aftercare centers in volatile Muslim regions where the U.S. needs to increase access to civil society such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Indonesia. These centers were established in mosques and madrassahs in collaboration with the INL/Colombo Plan network of Muslim-based anti-drug programs/civil society organizations in the Middle East and South/Southeast Asia, which includes the participation of 500 Afghan mullahs. This initiative will also benefit efforts to reduce drug consumption whose proceeds are a potential source of terrorist financing, cut into the recruitment base of terrorist organizations, enhance America's image in Muslim countries, and provide youth in at-risk areas with alternatives to radical or terrorist indoctrination centers. It addresses a key priority in the President's National Strategy for Combating Terrorism that directs us to "work with moderate and modern governments in the Muslim world to reverse the spread of extremist ideology and those who seek to impose totalitarian ideologies on our Muslim allies and friends." Funding will cease after two years, at which time the centers are expected to be firmly established in volatile regions, helping to reduce the high rates of drug use, relapse, and drug-related violence in their target populations.

Coalition and Network Building

Drug-Free Community Coalitions: Funding will support the enhancement of effective drug-free community coalition programs in Central America and the Andean sub-region of South America the that assist civil society/grassroots organizations in fighting illegal drugs. These public/private sector coalitions work towards reducing substance abuse among youth, enhancing intergovernmental collaboration, and strengthening collaboration among organizations and agencies in both the private and public sectors across countries. Funds will provide for four technical assistance sessions each in the two target regions. The planned life of this initiative is three years, after which the coalitions will be effective vehicles for reducing drug consumption and related violence in the respective countries of each region. A new cycle of assistance for the Asian region and Africa region will commence in 2009. 

Demand Reduction
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Coalitions and Networks 2,000 1,000 500
Research & Demonstration Programs 1,500 500 500
Training & Technical Assistance 6,400 6,500 2,500
Total 9,900 - 8,000 - 3,500

International Law Enforcement Academies

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

15,840

16,500

16,500

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

National law enforcement capabilities will be strengthened and stronger linkages between U.S. law enforcement entities, foreign law enforcement authorities, and future criminal justice leaders will be established through training at the five International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs): Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador and Roswell. This will result in greater cooperation between U.S. and foreign law enforcement authorities and more successful investigation and prosecution of more important cases abroad.

ILEA curriculum will encourage graduates to interact with other alumni regionally and internationally to address law enforcement issues.

ILEA graduates will adopt methods and technologies learned at the academies to conduct successful criminal investigations.

ILEA alumni will be actively engaged in training others, either at their national academies or on-the-job.

Specific areas of growing international criminal activity will continue to be addressed by presenting training on counterterrorism, trafficking in persons, intellectual property rights and cyber crimes to combat these trends.

The total number of students' trained at all five academies will be approximately 2,700.

Transformational Diplomacy

The International Law Enforcement Academy program helps advance transformational diplomacy by supporting emerging democracies through the strengthening of criminal justice institutions and the creation of a new cadre of decision makers who will work in unison with U.S. and regional counterparts to fight transnational crime while promoting social, political, and economic stability. This network of alumni will become tomorrow's leaders and agents of change in their respective countries, who will be instrumental in achieving the goal of peace and security through the rule of law, respect for human rights and international cooperation.

Peace & Security - The ILEAs provide high-quality training and technical assistance, support institution building and enforcement capability, and foster relationships of U.S. law enforcement agencies with their counterparts and regional organizations in their areas of influence. FY 2008 funds will be utilized to support the administration, academy infrastructure and USG trainer costs for the existing academies in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, San Salvador (includes the Regional Training Center in Peru) and Roswell. Training will target international criminal activities such as terrorism, financial crimes, organized crime, corruption, illegal narcotics and human trafficking.

Program Justification

ILEAs help advance U.S. interests through international cooperation while promoting social, political, and economic stability by combating crime. To achieve these goals, the ILEAs provide high-quality training and technical assistance, support institution building and enforcement capability, and foster relationships of American law enforcement agencies with their counterparts in the regions they serve. The ILEAs encourage strong partnerships among regional countries to address common problems associated with criminal activity. The ILEAs also develop an extensive network of alumni - who will become the leaders and decision-makers in their respective countries - to exchange information with their U.S. counterparts and assist in transnational investigations.

The Department of State works with the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, Treasury, and with foreign governments to implement the ILEA program. The regional ILEAs offer three different types of programs: the Core program, specialized training courses, and regional seminars, all targeted at mid-level officials in the police and criminal justice services of strategic countries throughout the world. State's primary roles are to provide foreign policy guidance to the ILEA Directors, ensure availability of adequate funding to support ILEA operations, and provide oversight that will ensure that U.S. foreign policy objectives are achieved.

The ILEAs will continue to be a dynamic training program, providing relevant, timely, and quality training against the backdrop of diverse and often shifting regional economic, social and political environments and in anticipation of and response to constantly changing international crime-related challenges such as terrorism, financial crimes, organized crime, corruption, illegal narcotics and trafficking in persons.

Program Accomplishments

INL has established ILEAs in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, El Salvador and New Mexico. To date, these ILEAs have trained over 20,800 officials from over 75 countries.

The ILEA in Budapest, Hungary, opened in 1995 and has trained over 10,814 officials from Central, Southern European countries as well as Russia and the former Soviet Union. ILEA Bangkok in Thailand opened in 1999 and has trained over 4998 officials from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ILEA Gaborone in Botswana opened in 2001 and has since trained over 2,524 officials from the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and other Sub-Saharan countries. INL opened a graduate style ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico in 2001 and has trained over 2,024 international criminal justice officials who had graduated from the regional academies. The newest ILEA in San Salvador, El Salvador opened in 2005 and has trained over 538 students from Central and South America and the Caribbean.

FY 2008 Program

INL will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell and San Salvador. INL will also continue to encourage ILEA alumni to be actively engaged in training other instructors and mentors in methods and technologies learned at the academies, either at their national academies or on-the-job. This in turn will open and strengthen lines of communications to conduct joint investigations, and to share information with US counterparts.

INL will continue the development of the newest ILEA in El Salvador. Similar to the other regional ILEAs' curricula, the ILEA will offer a mid-level management core program for law enforcement and criminal justice officials as well as specialized courses for police, prosecutors, and judicial officials. The training program will concentrate on attacking the most salient crime threats in the region, including drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, gang proliferation, money laundering, terrorist financing, and financial crimes and accountability in government, as well as enhancing the ability of law enforcement to anticipate and respond to terrorist threats. These courses will be designed to conform to regional nuances of these criminal activities as identified by ILEA needs assessment mechanisms.

INL will continue taking steps to develop the ILEA Regional Training Center located in Peru, to augment the delivery of region-specific training for Latin America. This center will concentrate on specialized courses on critical topics for countries in the Southern Cone and Andean Regions. 

International Law Enforcement Academy
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Bangkok, Thailand 2,800 2,900 2,900
Budapest, Hungary 1,640 1,900 2,350
Gaborone, Botswana 4,000 3,900 3,900
Roswell, New Mexico 5,500 5,000 4,000
Latin America 1,900 2,500 3,000
Program Administration 300 350
Total 15,840 - 16,500 - 16,500

International Organizations

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

3,960

5,400

5,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The international organizations account supports counternarcotics and anti-crime efforts of three international organizations: the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), and the Organization of American States' Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD). U.S. multilateral support to these organizations not only complements our bilateral programs, but also generates increased buy-in and support from other countries for our overall counter-narcotics and anti-crime efforts.

UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Drug and Crime Program

Utilize resources through the IO budget line to enable the UN Office on Drugs and Crime to develop and implement counternarcotics and crime-control projects in countries where ongoing criminal activities, the production and transit of illicit narcotics, and illegally-diverted precursor chemicals threaten U.S. interests. Project aims include:

Promoting implementation of the 1988 UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances;

Promoting implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its supplementary protocols;

Preventing and combating money laundering and terrorist financing;

Assisting states with ratification and implementation of the universal legal instruments against terrorism through the provision of legal technical assistance;

Enhancing precursor chemical controls used in the production of cocaine, heroin and amphetamine type stimulants, including methamphetamine; and

Strengthening UNODC's ability to effectively implement its programs.

Enhance law enforcement investigative capabilities through training and the provision of modern equipment, thereby disrupting the activities of criminal and drug trafficking syndicates, increasing the number of arrests and seizures, and enhancing the capabilities of law enforcement agencies to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals:

Support states in passing or strengthening legislation to prohibit and penalize illicit drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorist financing, and other ancillary crimes; and improve mutual legal assistance, extradition, and asset forfeiture cooperation, in compliance with UN drug-control and anti-crime treaties;

Provide technical advice to states on how to upgrade national legislation regarding all aspects of narcotics control in line with international best practices and the UN drug control treaties; develop financial intelligence units and train financial institutions to prevent money laundering and related financial crimes through placement of international experts to select high-risk countries; coordinate with other international bodies in the delivery of this assistance; and

Assist in the development of legal frameworks for chemical diversion control as required by the international drug control conventions, and train and equip appropriate personnel, particularly in South East Asia, in order to implement chemical control regimes.

Inhibit international organized crime and its impact on society and individuals through ncreased implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and its supplemental protocols against human trafficking and migrant smuggling:

Strengthen the legal framework and law enforcement capacity to prevent, investigate, prosecute and adjudicate organized crime. In-country expert mentors will continue to work in select high-risk countries including Guatemala, Peru and Ghana in order to aid in implementing the TOC's component provisions, including assistance in modern investigative and analytical practices for law enforcement practitioners, extradition requests, the provision of mutual legal assistance, and witness protection.

Increase UN member states' abilities to combat and prevent terrorism by utilizing criminal justice measures and international cooperation, particularly through the adoption of the universal legal instruments against terrorism:

UNODC's Terrorism Prevention Branch will provide technical assistance, upon request, to states to: ratify and implement all of the universal legal instruments against terrorism; fully integrate the provisions of the instruments into national law; and train criminal justice officials on the application of the new national anti-terrorism legislative provisions.

Ensure efficient UNODC program implementation by strengthening the Independent Evaluation function of UNODC:

Plan and coordinate UNODC's program and project evaluation activities; provide impartial, independent assessments on the efficiency and effectiveness of UNODC programs as well as administration and management systems for distribution to UNODC senior management and donor states, including the United States.

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission

Strengthen counter-narcotics capacity and performance by countries in the Western Hemisphere (Organization of American States Members):

The Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) - a peer review system created as part of the Summit of the Americas process - to identify gaps or weaknesses in the antidrug efforts of the OAS Member States and provides them substantive recommendations, thereby providing recommendations to CICAD's Executive Secretariat in prioritizing its assistance and training resources, and permitting the OAS to measure progress being made by individual countries and by the Hemisphere as a whole.

Increase counternarcotics cooperation among OAS Member States:

Promote active and practical cooperation among the countries of the Western Hemisphere against drug production, trafficking (cross-border and maritime smuggling), money laundering (including terrorist financing), arms trafficking, chemical diversion, and youth gangs. Ensure that Member States are equipped with appropriate modern legal tools to confront drug-related crime and to share common legal definitions and standards to be able to work effectively together by producing and periodically updating hemispheric model regulations and best practices guides.

Continue progress in the inter-American region to curb money laundering, terrorist financing, and chemical diversion.

Update CICAD's model legislation on money laundering and chemical control by executing technical assistance training programs to improve and enhance implementation of said legislation.

Transformational Diplomacy

The FY 2008 International Organizations Program advances the Secretary's Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding projects that counter narcotics, international crime and terrorism around the globe. As the UNODC notes, "the recent increase in the scope, intensity and sophistication of crime around the world threatens the safety of citizens everywhere and hampers countries in their social, economic and cultural development." By actively supporting the work of these international organizations, assistance is provided that not only helps to build societies that respect the rule of law and promote good governance, but the United States also engages with its partners in a collaborative, multilateral setting.

Program Justification

UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Drug and Crime Program

Located in Vienna, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is the major multilateral organization providing assistance to combat drugs and crime on a global scale. It enhances countries' bilateral programs worldwide and also implements projects that are politically infeasible on a bilateral basis. U.S. support to UNODC complements INL bilateral programs and leverages U.S. funds by promoting increased buy-in and support from a broader array of donor countries. UNODC is the only multilateral institution providing technical assistance on a global basis for the development of modern law enforcement, financial regulatory and judicial institutions and practices. It has a unique role in assisting states in ratifying and implementing international conventions including the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC), the UN Convention against Corruption (CAC), the three UN anti-drug conventions as well as the universal instruments against terrorism. It is also the only multilateral organization that maintains the global reach and credibility necessary to deliver technical assistance in relation to these aforementioned instruments. The United States will remain a strong advocate of these important international documents in bilateral dialogues and offer direct USG assistance to promote implementation where appropriate. The organization is a steadfast ally in support of strict enforcement efforts against illicit drugs, organized crime, and terrorism, as required under international law.

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission

The Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), the drug control arm of the Organization of American States (OAS), is the premier counterdrug forum for the Western Hemisphere. It is also one of the most effective entities within the OAS. CICAD combines a policy-level Commission that meets twice a year with a technical Executive Secretariat that supports the Commission and conducts programs and training throughout the year. CICAD's technical sub-groups facilitate valuable exchanges of information and experience among national experts on topics ranging from money laundering to drug abuse treatment and prevention and lay the basis for action plans. The Secretariat provides a central resource and coordination point for hemispheric statistics and information, training and technical support, legal standards, national experiences and research. The Secretariat, using funds from INL and other donors, provide a wide array of technical assistance to Member States, some on an individual basis (e.g., national drug strategies) but most often in sub-regional groupings (e.g., Central America, the English-speaking Caribbean, the Andes).

Much of CICAD's success has been due to sustained U.S. foreign policy efforts to promote a strong anti-drug coalition and sense of shared responsibility among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. Active participation by the U.S. interagency community in specialized CICAD activities has been critical to achieving high standards of performance as well as keeping CICAD's efforts relevant to U.S. counterdrug agencies. CICAD has been instrumental in developing hemispheric solidarity on the drug issue and ended finger pointing between "supplier" and "consumer" nations. Hemispheric efforts are guided by the Summit of the Americas-mandated "Anti-Drug Strategy in the Americas." With INL funding, CICAD has been a useful and effective forum to address emerging threats in the counternaroctics area like internet-based drug sales and methamphetamine trafficking.

Funding will be used for CICAD projects, training and technical assistance that advance the goals of the hemispheric drug strategy, including: development of sound national anti-drug policies and programs, promulgation of modern laws and regulations, elimination of drug production and drug abuse, and control of chemical diversion, arms trafficking, and money laundering. CICAD programs complement INL's bilateral programs and fill gaps in multinational support efforts (e.g., on alternative development projects in the Andes). INL has encouraged close collaboration between CICAD technical staff and U.S. Embassy program managers.

While the OAS has become more engaged in counterterrorism and other security-related matters since 2001, drug trafficking remains a major preoccupation for all 34 OAS Member States. Because of its recognized expertise in areas such as money laundering and arms trafficking control, CICAD has emerged as an important player in the hemispheric response to terrorism, partnering with the OAS' Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE) to confront terrorist financing.

Program Accomplishments

UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Drug and Crime Program

Funding from INL supports a wide range of UNODC technical assistance and legal reform projects.

INL supported UNODC's efforts to ratify and implement the three UN drug control conventions and their requisite obligations, including through relevant judicial and legislative reforms and direct on-site operational support to prosecution and judicial services in ongoing prosecution and asset forfeiture casework. For example, in 2006, UNODC provided legal advice and assistance in drafting legislation to nine countries on drug control, anti-money laundering, and anti-corruption issues. It organized justice system training to 20 countries in areas such as special investigative techniques and modernizing drug courts. It worked with numerous other countries, including many former Soviet countries, to improve mutual legal assistance, extradition and confiscation casework cooperation. The program also launched a mutual legal assistance request writer tool, which supports justice authorities in drafting mutual legal assistance letters for cross-border crimes. UNODC previewed this tool to practitioners in over 140 countries.

Since September of 2003, UNODC has performed a crucial role in promoting the ratification and implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and its supplementary protocols to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling. In January 2006, the program was revised to focus on implementation through partnerships, direct technical assistance and development of training materials and best practice guides. In 2005, technical assistance mentors in Peru (who also covers Ecuador and now Central America), Guatemala and Ghana conducted law enforcement assessments, reviewed applicable legislation and developed legislative implementation guides to promote compliance with the TOC, provided technical assistance to specialized investigators working in the area of organized crime, focusing on investigative techniques, and organized legislative training and held roundtable events for policymakers and other relevant government officials.

In 2006, the Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) continued to provide assistance to requesting countries for the ratification and implementation of the universal instruments against terrorism. With U.S. funds, it provided direct technical assistance services to eight countries on the universal legal instruments against terrorism, and conducted or provided input to seven regional and subregional workshops. In 2006, the TPB also organized a training workshop in collaboration with the International Bar Association in order to familiarize Iraqi criminal justice officials with key aspects of international counter-terrorism laws and obligations.

UNODC implemented chemical control projects in Southeast Asia, a major drug transit region for precursor chemicals intended for illicit drug production. INL supported the International Narcotics Control Board's (INCB) Database for Precursor Chemical Control, which plays a vital role in the INCB's two projects that focus on precursor chemicals. In 2006, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) passed a resolution requesting that Member States provide the INCB with their legitimate requirements for precursor chemicals used to make synthetic drugs, as well as the pharmaceutical preparations containing these precursor chemicals. U.S. funding for the INCB helps support implementation of this resolution, which in turn will help prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals from licit commerce.

In 2006, the INCB developed a web-based pre-export notification system, which is used by governments for the real-time exchange of information between exporters and importers on shipments of precursor chemicals. In the second half of 2006, Project Prism, which targets precursors used in the illicit manufacture of the amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), prevented the diversion of 21 shipments of 77 tones of precursor chemicals. Project Cohesion, formerly know as Operations Purple and Topaz, which targets precursors used in the illicit manufacture of heroin and cocaine, monitored nearly 1,000 shipments of precursor chemicals used for these drugs.

UNODC's Global Program Against Money Laundering (UNGPML) places mentors in countries and regional centers across the globe that help draft modern anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist finance legislation, train prosecutors and financial investigators, and develop financial intelligence units. In total, the UNGPML provided technical assistance on combating money laundering and terrorist financing to more than 50 countries and jurisdictions throughout the world in 2006. Additionally, its interactive computer-based anti-money laundering program is universally acclaimed and has been translated into Spanish (by the OAS), French, Russian and Chinese. No other multilateral organization cooperates more with the international funding institutions or entities such as the Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units.

INL funding also supported the Independent Evaluation Unit (IEU). The IEU has already produced numerous reports, which provided recommendations for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of its counternarcotics enforcement projects in Central Asia, as well as examined overall UNODC management.

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission

The Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM) is considered one of the most successful programs of the OAS in general. Mandated by the Heads of State and Government of the Hemisphere, it has become a diagnostic tool in all drug-related matters in most countries of the Hemisphere. The MEM serves as a tool to guide policy and programs. CICAD's Executive Secretariat has increasingly used MEM Recommendations as a determining factor when deciding on the technical and financial assistance given to countries. The MEM process has matured in its evaluative component over its three evaluation rounds. However, the promotion of the MEM among government officials in the Hemisphere is important to consolidate it as a policy-making tool. This has become an important priority for the CICAD Executive Secretariat.

In conjunction with the Inter-American Development Bank, CICAD undertook the program to create and strengthen, as necessary, financial intelligence units to control money-laundering activities in South American countries. Given the success of this program in South America, it has been extended to include the countries of Central America and the Dominican Republic in 2007-2008. This program addresses four different thematic areas - legal, institutional, training, and technical - according to the plan and the needs established by each individual country.

With the assistance of CICAD, 25 member states have drafted National Drug Plans that cover the full range of law enforcement, demand reduction, supply reduction, and research program areas according to the specific needs of each, facilitating the integration of, often complex, multi-agency counter-drug efforts. In a similar way, national drug councils have been strengthened and/or created to respond to the priorities and strategies set out in the national drug plans.

CICAD has developed and supervised drug use prevalence studies, through its standardized methodology - SIDUC, in 29 member states. Through this, it has been possible to measure drug consumption in the Americas, and using the standardizing methodology it is possible to analyze trends over time, and compare consumption behaviors across the countries of the Hemisphere.

CICAD has developed hemispheric guidelines for school-based prevention. CICAD has also introduced content on drug prevention, addiction, treatment, and social reintegration, as well as outreach and research activities in the curricula of universities throughout Latin America. In a similar way, CICAD has encouraged the introduction of Life Skills and Culture of Lawfulness curricula for school-based drug prevention, following the Hemispheric Guidelines for School-based Prevention approved by the CICAD Commission.

Through the Supply Reduction and Anti-Money Laundering programs, drug law enforcement officers throughout the Americas have been trained in diverse techniques to control drug shipments, money laundering, and related crimes. CICAD has established a drug intelligence school in Lima, Peru, the Andean Regional Counterdrug Intelligence School (ERCAIAD), for the training of law enforcement officers in operational and strategic intelligence and analysis as well as training in specialized areas of intelligence for counterdrug intelligence analysts. In the same manner, CICAD has trained judges and prosecutors to try money laundering cases, and instructed bankers and regulators in techniques to prevent and detect money laundering schemes.

CICAD has implemented a new model for alternative development in the Andes to bring farmers into licit agricultural production through the creation of farmers' organizations, the introduction of high-yielding disease resistant varieties of cacao and banana, and the development of organic crop management, harvesting and marketing. CICAD has now undertaken the coordination of Andean Countries Cacao Export Support Opportunity (ACCESO), whose goal is to promote production of high quality cacao that meets private industry standards in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. CICAD will implement the productivity and quality improvement component through the establishment of Farmer Field Schools of cacao.

CICAD works closely with a number of international organizations, and has gained prestige in forging partnerships in order to build a strong and united front against the constantly evolving trends in substance abuse and international drug markets.

FY 2008 Program

INL funding to UNODC programs in FY 2008 will be programmed for the following initiatives:

UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Drug and Crime Program

Global Legal Advisory Program: This program promotes the adoption and implementation of the three UN drug control conventions, assisting countries in developing and implementing adequate laws to meet the requirements of the instruments. Specifically, INL funds will be used to establish drug control legal frameworks in countries recently emerging from conflict. Priorities include: improving mutual legal assistance, extradition and asset forfeiture cooperation; and upgrading model legislation.

Precursor Chemical Control: Funds will be used to continue support for one of UNODC's regional projects in Southeast Asia, which tracks the flow of precursor chemicals used to manufacture cocaine, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants, including methamphetamine. These projects aim to train law enforcement officials in order to strengthen the capacity of countries to prevent domestic and regional diversion and trafficking of precursor chemicals. UNODC will work to enhance regional cooperation to further this end. In addition, INL resources will be provided to support the INCB's global database of precursor chemical shipments and legitimate industrial needs.

Implementation of the TOC: This project utilizes the expertise of in-country, expert mentors in order to provide assistance in the implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and its supplementary protocols. Funds will be used to expand and deepen the activities of resident mentors in Peru, Guatemala and Ghana. Mentors provide extensive training to law enforcement and judicial officials on the criminalization and investigatory standards inscribed in the Convention, as well as its mutual legal assistance provisions.

Global Program Against Money Laundering (GPML): INL will continue to support UNODC's continuing global efforts to enhance effective legal and regulatory regimes against money laundering and terrorist financing. These funds will be used to support the placement of resident mentors in selected countries to assist in bringing their money laundering and counter-terrorist finance laws and regulations up to international financial standards, develop and strengthen Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs), and train law enforcement, prosecutors, regulators, investigators, and financial regulators in the implementation of the legislation. The GPML will also continue to expand its universally acclaimed interactive anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing computer program that has been translated into numerous languages.

Ratification and Implementation of Universal Legal Instruments Against Terrorism: UNODC's Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) developed a global project entitled, "Strengthening the Legal Regime against Terrorism," which provides the overall framework for delivering technical assistance with global, sub-regional and country-specific components and activities. Funds will be used to continue support to this aforementioned project, which has already yielded positive results. In addition to assisting states in ratifying all of these instruments, the focus of TPB will shift to legislative implementation assistance and the need to integrate the provisions of the instruments into national legislation. TPB will also initiate assistance to countries to update their existing legislation.

Independent Evaluation Unit: This independent assessment unit provides reporting and analysis on the efficiency and effectiveness of UNODC program implementation to UNODC senior management, as well as the donor states, including the United States. Funding support will enable the Unit to carry out such activities and assessments.

Counternarcotics and Anti-Crime Policy Position: Funding will also provide for a senior counter-narcotics and anti-crime policy officer to be stationed at the U.S. Mission to the European Union.

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission

In FY 2008, sustained funding to CICAD is needed to continue to support the implementation of the hemispheric drug strategy, including the operation of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM). Much of the funding will be devoted to providing technical support and training to address shortcomings in country anti-drug programs identified by the MEM. It will also support expansion of CICAD's practical and useful demand-side, supply-side and legal development programs. INL funding will be used to support programs in the following priority areas:

Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM): The MEM is a peer review system that provides governments with recommendations on how to strengthen their anti-drug efforts (staff, travel, and processing costs) with follow-on training and technical support. In 2008, the MEM will begin its fifth round of evaluation with a newly streamlined review process adopted by an inter-governmental group that reduced costs of the mechanism to permit more funding to be directed towards implementing recommendations.

Strengthening national drug control commissions: This program assists governments in developing anti-drug strategies, national coordinating bodies, national analytical centers and systems as well as establishes data banks and tracking systems for chemical precursors. In FY 2008 CICAD will promote national public anti-drug awareness campaigns through individual national drug control commissions.

Legal development: INL will continue to support the updating of a regional model legislation (money laundering and chemicals), orientation for legislators and judges; communications systems to facilitate regional exchange of information and cooperation; and programs relating to the control of money laundering and chemical diversion; training for regulators (financial and chemical) and investigators. CICAD will provide basic and advanced training for specialized technology-based law enforcement investigations for illegal internet drug sales.

Supply Reduction Efforts: This program intensifies/expands work in promoting maritime and port security, customs controls, and cooperation/communication among law enforcement entities throughout the Americas through training, technical assistance, best practices guidelines, building public-private partnerships. It assists governments in complying with the requirements of the best practices in the International Maritime Organization's International Port Security System (IPSS). In FY 2008, funds will be used to continue ongoing alternative development projects, including exploration of new technologies for use in supporting national supply reduction and alternative development efforts.

Demand reduction and youth programs: CICAD assists Member States build effective national drug awareness/education programs, conduct epidemiological surveillance (according to hemispheric standards), train nurses and other health professionals in drug treatment, and support development of an English-language version of the on-line Masters Program in drug abuse prevention. This program will continue to include regional demand reduction training, adoption of minimum standards of drug treatment, and policy and program development for at-risk populations, e.g. street children and youth gang members.

Maintenance of a hemispheric data collection system: Continued support will be provided for CICAD's Hemispheric Observatory on Drugs, the hemispheric statistical systems (demand and supply side) in order to maintain a centralized, dependable source of statistics to track progress in hemispheric anti-drug programs. The unit has developed and is training governments in a standardized approach to estimating social and economic costs of the drug problem to assist decision makers in determining budget priorities and to better inform the public, legislatures and media about the impact of drugs on a society and its economy. 

International Organizations
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
UNODC 2,960 - 4,000 - 4,000
OAS/CICAD 1,000 - 1,400 - 1,500
Total 3,960 - 5,400 - 5,500

Interregional Aviation Support

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

62,865

63,000

60,100

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Interregional Aviation Support budget provides coordinated core-level services necessary to operate the Department's fleet of 189 fixed and rotary wing aircraft supporting counternarcotics aviation activities worldwide. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. Centrally administrated oversight includes: setting, implementing and monitoring uniform safety and training standards consistent with aviation industry practices; compliance with standard operational procedures; a logistics support system for acquiring, storing and shipping critical aviation parts and components worldwide; fleet-wide maintenance management; management of the Critical Flight Safety Program; and administration of the aviation support contract. INL air assets are deployed as directed by administration policy, with aircraft employed in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The air assets are also available, as needed, to support other temporary deployment locations. This budget is augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local Embassy and cooperating host government missions.

In FY 2008, INL will continue to assist the Government of Colombia (GOC) in conducting an aggressive aerial eradication program to reduce coca cultivation to minimum levels.

With GOC concurrence, areas of coca cultivation in Colombia will be aerially sprayed with herbicide, and cocaine production will be reduced as a result of this eradication.

Successful interdiction missions will be conducted against narco-terrorists and their infrastructure.

The Governments of Peru and Bolivia (with INL provided air transportation support to move people and materials) will continue to conduct manual eradication efforts in outlying areas of their respective countries.

In Bolivia, coca cultivation will be reduced and new plantings will be prevented in the Chapare region (subject to the cooperation of the host government).

In Peru, coca cultivation will be reduced as evidenced by the eradication/ abandonment of remaining coca fields (subject to the cooperation of the host government). Opium poppy field surveillance will be increased.

INL will support missions to transport host government law enforcement or counternarcotics military personnel by air in Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, and other countries for the purpose of destroying cocaine and heroin processing laboratories and interdicting drug trafficking activities to the extent possible using current assets.

The number of interdiction and eradication missions flown in Peru will continue at a high level using the helicopter fleet which has been upgraded to Huey-II configuration and expanded to 23 aircraft. Aerial reconnaissance missions will be conducted to locate drug crops and production facilities, and verify eradication program results.

Drug production areas and facilities will be successfully identified and mapped year-round in Colombia and on an as-needed basis in other countries.

Border security reconnaissance and interdiction operations in Pakistan will be effective against trafficking of narcotics and weapons, illegal border crossings, and terrorism.

Operations, training, and logistical support provided to the Pakistani border security aviation program will result in more frequent and more effective surveillance and interdiction missions.

The aerial eradication and interdiction programs will be performed to the highest standards of safety and efficiency with due regard for increased security risks.

Technological innovations will be developed and implemented to improve the effectiveness and safety of aerial eradication and interdiction efforts.

INL will continue to provide aerial support to Afghan manual eradication and interdiction efforts in FY 2008.

Transformational Diplomacy

The interregional aviation program supports transformational diplomacy by providing centralized professional aviation services to counternarcotics programs overseas. This activity supports both eradication and interdiction program elements in the counternarcotics program area of the Department's peace and security objective. INL's efforts support the Department's objectives in the rebuilding countries of Colombia and Afghanistan by combating illicit drug enterprises that pose a threat to U.S. and global security and undermine good governance and economic growth. Similarly, aviation support to counternarcotics activities in Peru and Pakistan, as well as border security in Pakistan, bolsters efforts to improve peace and security, good governance and economic growth in those developing nations. In Bolivia, the aviation support has been instrumental in developing viable host nation institutional capabilities for counternarcotics operations and will continue to support sustainment of peace and security in that transforming country.

Program Justification

The INL aviation program is the backbone of our counternarcotics objectives in the key source countries of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. INL assists these governments and others to locate and eradicate drug crops, interdict drug production and trafficking activities, protect borders, and develop internal institutional counternarcotics aviation capabilities. FY 2008 funding will provide for continuation of core activities with the existing fleet. Potential losses and upgrades of aircraft are not included.

The aviation program provides eradication, mobility, interdiction, and logistical support that augment and facilitate ground operations and in many cases perform functions that would not be possible by any other means. In Colombia, the program conducts aerial eradication in hostile, remote and increasingly scattered regions. In Peru and Bolivia, the program supports transportation for manual eradication. Airplanes and helicopters transport law enforcement personnel, critical supplies, and equipment to remote, underdeveloped, and unsecured regions that would otherwise be inaccessible, as well as provide medical evacuation capability for eradicators and law enforcement personnel when needed. Air reconnaissance assets are essential in locating, identifying, and targeting drug activities and verifying operational results.

Afghanistan represents a tremendous challenge in the international fight against drugs. Aviation support to eradication and interdiction efforts is absolutely essential in conducting operations in this large, rugged country with poor road networks and widely dispersed areas of cultivation, production and trafficking.

In all assisted countries, the assets are also employed for interdiction efforts. In Colombia they are also used to conduct operations against narco-terrorists under expanded authorities. In Pakistan, the assets are used for the monitoring and interception of terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals operating in remote areas.

By working closely with host government personnel to instill aviation technical and management skills and technology transfer, INL supports the operational goal of enhancing political determination to combat illegal drug production and trafficking. This builds long-lasting institutions that have the trained personnel and demonstrated abilities to assume increased responsibility for counternarcotics air activities.

Program Accomplishments

In 2006, INL-owned aircraft flew 53,618 flight hours; airplanes flew 11,921 and helicopters flew 41,697 flight hours, an average of approximately 1,030 flight hours per week.

Colombia - Eradication

The Interregional Aviation Support program has made possible the expansion of aerial eradication in Colombia that, along with alternative development, is the backbone of that country's counternarcotics strategy. INL and the Colombian National Police (CNP) have collaborated in mounting an effective campaign using T-65 Turbo Thrush, OV-10D Bronco, and AT-802 Air Tractor spray planes to eradicate coca and opium poppy cultivation. In 2006, over 169,000 hectares of coca were sprayed - another record setting year. From 2001 to 2006, we have sprayed over 770,000 hectares of coca that would have produced 6.1 metric tons of cocaine. INL has assisted the CNP with training, maintenance, logistics, and operational support to make this effort possible. The program also provided logistical and operational support in the form of C-27 cargo airplanes and a Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS) mounted on a Cessna C-208 Caravan for identification and mapping of coca. In 2006, INL Air Wing aircraft supporting aerial eradication and the Colombian Army (COLAR) helicopter program sustained 189 hits from hostile ground fire which, although down from 332 hits in 2006, still caused the loss of several aircraft and downtime due to extensive maintenance repairs.

Colombia - COLAR

Besides supporting Colombian National Police aerial eradication activities, the Interregional Aviation Support program initiated and helps sustain the Colombian Army (COLAR) Aviation Brigade that provides rotary wing air mobility to the Counter Drug Brigade (CD Brigade). Most of the aviation support and maintenance for the Colombian Army Aviation Program, also known as the "Plan Colombia Helicopter Program" (PCHP), is part of a contract administered by the INL Air Wing. The Air Wing's contractor provides pilots, maintenance technicians, trainers, and logistics support to the PCHP, since the Government of Colombia is not able to provide all the resources necessary to support these operations. The current PCHP helicopter fleet consists of 28 Huey-II helicopters, 22 UH-1N helicopters, 15 UH-60L "Blackhawk" helicopters, and 5 K-Max helicopters. The result of this effort, a fully trained COLAR aviation unit capable of conducting air mobile operations, is yielding results in terms of interdiction and ground support to aerial eradication. That unit has flown over 62,449 hours since its inception. PCHP assets have been instrumental in the takedown of a number of major narco-terrorist targets.

Peru and Bolivia

INL aviation support to Peru and Bolivia has been instrumental in continued coca reduction operations. In Peru, INL-owned helicopters and fixed wing aircraft (C-208, B 1900D, and rented PNP Antonov 32s and MI-17s) continue to transport manual eradication teams and Peruvian counternarcotics police in order to implement far-reaching counternarcotics operations using a mobile-basing strategy. In Bolivia, INL helicopters have enabled the government to project authority over vast areas where drug traffickers previously operated with impunity, and establish mobile, forward operating bases. During times of violent attacks against eradicators and law enforcement personnel, the air assets have conducted life-saving medical evacuations. The significant eradication of coca in the Chapare region of Bolivia would not have been possible without the helicopter support provided through the INL aviation program. INL provided aviation technical support and training, and logistical support was an essential ingredient of the success enjoyed by host nation personnel operating these helicopters. The aviation program has also continued to make progress in establishing self-sufficiency in host nation counternarcotics aviation organizations.

Regional Aerial Reconnaissance and Eradication (RARE) Program

INL has provided support to other Latin American countries in identifying and curtailing drug cultivation through its RARE program. In FY 2006, we conducted reconnaissance of illicit poppy cultivation in Guatemala, and provided the host nation with photography and GPS mapping of poppy field locations.

Pakistan

INL established in 2002, and now supports, a project in Pakistan to assist the host government in securing its border with Afghanistan. This project provides ten Huey-II helicopters and three C-208 Cessna Caravan airplanes to the Ministry of the Interior in order to provide law enforcement personnel with the operational capability to interdict drug trafficking and other illegal activities. Due to the receptiveness of the host nation team towards the operational and mechanic's training program, we were able to reduce aviation mechanic contractor presence in 2003. During the past year, these aviation assets assisted the GOP in accomplishing many objectives, including aerial surveillance of opium poppy fields utilizing mounted cameras and GPS capabilities, medevac and rescue operations, and counter-terrorism activities. These aircraft provide Pakistan with an Air Wing capability for integrated helicopter, fixed-wing, and ground forces operations in day and night, including use of night vision goggles (NVGs). These aircraft make up the only NVG aviation interdiction force in Pakistan, and due to its unique capability and past performance, this unit is considered to be the premier interdiction force. The aircraft provide surveillance along the porous Afghanistan-Pakistan border area. The unit participates in the interdiction of trafficking in persons, narcotics, arms, and other contraband, as well as in assisting in monitoring areas where opium poppy is cultivated to permit eradication efforts.

Technology

INL has put into place many technological innovations to enhance the safety and effectiveness of its programs. INL has continued to modify its OV-10D aircraft to provide appropriate armoring and night vision goggle capability in addition to state-of-the-art, satellite-guided spray systems. This has provided more protection and safety for crews while delivering herbicide precisely. Many of these same features were incorporated into the more recently acquired AT-802 spray planes. The aviation program continues to improve and expand the use of a technologically advanced system for identifying, plotting, and targeting coca cultivation, known as the Multi-spectral Digital Imaging System (MDIS).

Afghanistan

INL effectively employs ten Huey-II helicopters and several leased fixed and rotary wing aircraft in Afghanistan to support manual eradication and interdiction efforts. This support is critical to progress in eradicating poppy and interdicting production and trafficking activities.

Self-sufficiency

INL will continue to support helicopter operations in Peru, Bolivia, and Pakistan. Training and institution building efforts will allow us to continue to reduce the number of American contractor personnel at these locations. At the same time, we will continue to pursue technological innovations to improve aircraft performance and explore the use of new variations of aircraft to enhance eradication capabilities at a reasonable cost.

FY 2008 Program

In FY 2008, the Interregional Aviation Support budget will continue to provide core-level services necessary to operate the current fleet of 189 fixed and rotary wing aircraft. These services include supporting counternarcotics aviation activities in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, and Afghanistan, and border security operations in Pakistan, and as needed, programs at other temporary deployment locations. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. This budget will be augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local NAS and cooperating host government missions.

Colombia

A primary concern will be the continued aerial eradication of Colombian coca and poppy. Further successes in the coca and poppy campaigns are expected to reduce the target population of the illicit crops. The program is expected to be conducted in a hostile environment as narco-terrorists fight back against our spray and support aircraft. Funding in FY 2008 does not cover replacement of destroyed assets.

Bolivia, Peru, and Pakistan

In Bolivia, INL will continue to support (with continuing GOB cooperation) the Red Devil Task Force (RDTF) efforts to eliminate residual coca and prevent new plantings in the Chapare region. INL aviation assets will also support interdiction operations along Bolivia's borders. In Peru, we will continue to support the reduction of coca cultivation, seek to aerially verify the extent of opium poppy cultivation, and support interdiction missions. In Pakistan, INL will continue to refine operational procedures and provide logistical support for the helicopters and fixed wing, sensor-equipped aircraft.

Afghanistan

INL will continue to employ aviation assets in Afghanistan to support movement of personnel and cargo for eradication and other counternarcotics missions. INL aircraft are essential for reaching distant areas without roads and infrastructure, and provide security, reconnaissance, medevac, command and control, logistics, and other capabilities that are invaluable to programs in the country.

Self-sufficiency

The establishment of host country self-sufficiency in counternarcotics and border security aviation programs will continue to be a priority. In 2008, we will operate with the minimum number of contractor and INL Air Wing staff in Bolivia and Peru required, effectively monitoring, and assisting as necessary, the daily operations and maintenance activities of the RDTF and the Peruvian National Police. In Colombia, we expect to begin to see results in this area with the COLAR aviation program, as personnel we have trained gain experience and maturity, allowing the gradual reduction of contractor presence. We expect that these advances will begin to permit greater host nation management of the assets. We will continue to emphasize technological improvements to maximize productivity and safety of spray platforms while maintaining cost effectiveness.

The Interregional Aviation Support program, augmented by country program funds for location-specific requirements, will continue to provide safe, professional aviation support to counternarcotics and border security programs worldwide. 

Interregional Aviation Support
INL Budget
($000)
    

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Aviation Support Services Contract 51,665 - 50,260 - 47,360
DOD-Source Parts Maintenance and Overhaul 2,000 - 2,000 - 2,000
Operations Support
Salaries and Benefits 6,000 - 7,000 - 7,000
Field Travel 300 - 350 - 350
Administrative Services and Program Support   2,400 - 2,800 - 2,800
Base Support at Patrick AFB 500 - 590 - 590
Sub Total 9,200 - 10,740 - 10,740
TOTAL 62,865 - 63,000 - 60,100

Program Development and Support

Budget Summary ($000)
 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

16,830

19,000

19,550

Program Justification

The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is charged with developing strategies and programs to achieve international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign-policy objectives. INL maintains a cadre of both domestic and overseas program and technical experts to carry out a wide range of initiatives. Washington personnel functions include, but are not limited to: international narcotics control and law enforcement policy formulation and implementation; coordination of policies and programs with other USG agencies and with other governments and international organizations; budget and financial management activities; program administration and analysis including development, implementation, oversight and evaluation of overseas programs; contract, procurement and information systems support; field assistance visits to Embassy Narcotics Affairs Sections and Law Enforcement Sections to review, analyze and make recommendations on programs, funds control and procurement; sponsoring regional policy and program management conferences and seminars; and, developing and providing training programs both domestically and overseas for embassy and INL personnel.

The Program Development and Support (PD&S) account funds the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL staff. Over three-quarters of the PD&S budget request is programmed for salaries and benefits of U.S. Direct Hire (USDH) employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel.

Field travel for the INL personnel based in Washington is funded from the PD&S account. This is an essential component of the bureau's program, needed for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics and criminal justice foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are utilized to maintain a reliable and secure information resource management system and operating infrastructure to enable bureau employees to pursue policy objectives and complete work requirements effectively and efficiently. In addition, funding for the following expenses ensure an adequate level of administrative support to allow the bureau to function effectively: office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, miscellaneous contractual services (Information Management non-personal services contractor personnel, INL office renovation expenses, etc.), materials, supplies, furniture, furnishings and equipment.

FY 2008 Program 

The PD&S budget request for FY 2008 is intended to cover the annual, government-wide cost of living increase, in-grade step increases and promotions that occur during that fiscal year. It is also intended to cover the annualized portion of wage increase for positions that INL plans to fill during FY 2008 to improve program oversight and expanded programs. In addition the PD&S budget covers costs for field travel and transportation costs; equipment rentals, communications and utility expenses; printing and reproduction; miscellaneous contractual services; and furniture, furnishings and equipment. 

Program Development and Support
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Personnel Compensation 10,730 - 12,114 - 12,465
Personnel Benefits 2,492 - 2,812 - 2,894
Field Travel and Transportation 680 - 768 - 790
Equipment Rentals, Communications and Utility Expenses   249 - 281 - 289
Printing and Reproduction 225 - 254 - 261
Miscellaneous Contractual Services 2,327 - 2,627 - 2,703
Materials and Supplies 91 - 103 - 106
Furniture, Furnishings and Equipment 36 - 41 - 42
Total 16,830 - 19,000 - 19,550

Trafficking in Persons

Budget Summary ($000)
 

FY 2006 Actual

FY 2007 Estimate

FY 2008 Request

4,950

5,000

4,950

 
Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

To strengthen the capacity of the criminal justice sector within targeted countries to investigate and arrest criminals engaged in trafficking in persons crimes and assist victims of trafficking.

Number of foreign government-civil society partnerships implementing cooperative programs as a result of U.S. Government efforts.

Number of individuals in host nation who receive training on trafficking in persons related issues.

Transformational Diplomacy

Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a growing transnational crime that undermines peace and security and the goal of transformational diplomacy. Through force, fraud, and coercion, TIP deprives people of their most basic human rights; people are bought and sold into prostitution, coerced into indentured servitude or bonded labor, and captured to serve as child soldiers and camel jockeys. High profits subvert the rule of law by corrupting government officials and weakening police and criminal justice institutions.

Human trafficking is a global problem that has country-specific, regional, and transnational elements. Tier rankings and country assessments prepared by the Department of State's Office to Monitor and Combat the Trafficking in Persons (G/TIP) for the annual Trafficking in Persons Report are used to prioritize countries most in need of foreign assistance to combat TIP.

Program Justification 

TIP is an egregious abuse of human rights that is also a public health menace and a global threat to the rule of law. This modern-day form of slavery involves both sexual and labor exploitation, and takes many forms. Around the world, people are sold into prostitution, coerced into indentured servitude or bonded labor, and captured to serve as child soldiers and camel jockeys. The U.S. Government estimates that hundreds of thousands of persons are trafficked across international borders each year for labor and sexual exploitation.

The lead government advocate on the issue is G/TIP, established in October 2001 pursuant to the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. This office is responsible for developing, monitoring and overseeing USG anti-trafficking policy and programs; compiling the largest government-produced annual Trafficking in Persons Report; and advancing public awareness and advocacy involving practical solutions to governmental organizations (NGOs), international organizations, Congress, and the media, toward the goal of eradicating this form of modern-day slavery.

Program Accomplishments

Trafficking in Persons Report

The annual Trafficking in Persons Report, produced by G/TIP, is the USG's principal diplomatic tool used to engage foreign governments on the issue of trafficking in persons. The sixth annual Trafficking in Persons Report was released in June 2006 and included ratings of close to 150 governments' anti-trafficking efforts. Countries included in the Report are placed in one of three Tiers based on whether they comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking contained in the Trafficking Victims Protection Act and whether they are making significant efforts to comply with those standards. Governments are rated objectively, under criteria created by the law. The Report continues to be a powerful and effective tool to spur foreign governments to take action to eradicate human trafficking. In 2006, sixteen countries moved up a tier or off the Tier 2 Watch List. Of these sixteen countries, eight moved up from Tier 3 to Tier 2 Watch List or Tier 2. Eight additional countries moved from the Tier 2 Watch List to Tier 2. Forty-one countries adopted new legislation or amended existing legislation to combat TIP. Concrete actions taken by foreign governments have resulted in more prosecutions, convictions, and prison sentences for traffickers and comprehensive assistance for victims.

International Programs

In 2006, G/TIP managed $4.9 million of INCLE funding for anti-trafficking programs abroad. These international programs supported public awareness and education campaigns; training for government officials, criminal justice professionals, and medical personnel; development of anti-trafficking laws; and a vast array of victim services, including medical and legal assistance, shelter, and reintegration efforts.

Interagency Coordination

The Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG) on trafficking in persons, chaired by the Director of G/TIP and staffed by G/TIP, continued to meet quarterly in Fiscal Year 2006. The Cabinet-level President's Interagency Task Force, chaired by the Secretary and staffed by G/TIP, met once. The Task Force approved a unified policy document on combating HIV/AIDS and human trafficking to demonstrate the high priority of both issues. The Task Force also approved three recommendations from the SPOG Domestic TIP Subcommittee to potentially improve the assistance and outreach to internally trafficked, U.S. Citizen TIP victims. A Subcommittee on U.S. TIP Statistics was formed and four other Subcommittees on Research, Public Affairs, Grant Making, and Regulations met regularly throughout the year.

Public Affairs and Outreach

G/TIP continued its international coverage and widespread dissemination of trafficking information through popular media outlets including print news articles, wire stories, TV and radio segments, Internet publication, and digital video conferences -reaching an estimated 500 million people in 2006. Outreach to the business community continues to strengthen strategies to prevent sex trafficking, child sex tourism, child labor and other forms of servitude. For example, to date over 250 travel companies in 23 countries have made a commitment to combat child sex tourism by signing the Global Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children in Travel and Tourism.

FY 2008 Program 

Efforts to combat human trafficking are still at an early stage. G/TIP will continue to use the annual Trafficking in Persons Report as a tool for aggressive diplomatic engagement. Continued foreign assistance will be needed to help draft trafficking legislation, train law enforcement, and encourage governments to develop or expand comprehensive assistance to victims. International programs to combat trafficking will provide foreign assistance to countries with economic need and the political will to address the problem and will be prioritized in four ways: a) support for projects in Tier 3 countries; b) support for projects in Tier 2 Watch List countries; support for projects in Tier 2 countries that target law enforcement or victim protection deficiencies that may jeopardize the Tier 2 ranking; and d) support for pilot projects that are replicable and show promise. Outreach efforts will be expanded and enhanced and will focus on the faith-based, legal, and medical communities. Interagency coordination will focus on facilitating increased federal support to combat trafficking in persons in the U.S. and globally.

Trafficking in Persons
INL Budget
($000)

FY 2006 FY 2006
Supp
FY 2007 FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Prosecution Program 3,950 - 4,500 - 3,000
Protection Program 800 - - - 1,450
Prevention Program 200 - 500 - 500
Total 4,950 - 5,000 - 4,950



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