The Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is dedicated to strengthening criminal justice systems, countering the flow of illegal narcotics, and minimizing transnational crime. Functioning democratic criminal justice systems strengthen international law enforcement and judicial effectiveness, bolster cooperation in legal affairs, and support the rule of law and respect for human rights. Strong criminal justice systems are also essential to counternarcotics efforts and minimizing transnational crime. In addition to traditional counternarcotics activities, such as disrupting the overseas production and trafficking of illicit drugs, INL supports the development of capable police and competent judicial officials. In order for counternarcotics efforts to be sustainable, strong criminal justice systems must be developed. Similarly, minimizing transnational crime requires both specialized assistance and the overall development of criminal justice systems.
International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) and Andean Counterdrug Program (ACP) funds support the U.S. foreign policy objective of Achieving Peace and Security and Governing Justly and Democratically. To achieve these objectives, INL works closely with a broad range of other USG agencies, including ONDCP, Justice, Defense, Homeland Security, DEA, USAID, FBI, IRS, CIA, Treasury, and Commerce.
Within the Foreign Assistance Strategic Framework, the primary program areas and program elements that INL program funds target are:
Functional Objective: Peace and Security
Program Area 1.3: Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform
Program Element 1.3.1: Operations Support
Program Element 1.3.6: Defense, Military, and Border Restructuring, Reform and Operations
Program Element 1.3.7: Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations
Program Area 1.4: Counter-Narcotics
Program Element 1.4.1: Eradication
Program Element 1.4.2: Alternative Development and Alternative Livelihoods
Program Element 1.4.3: Interdiction
Program Element 1.4.4: Drug Demand Reduction
Program Area 1.5: Transnational Crime
Program Element 1.5.1: Financial Crimes and Money Laundering
Program Element 1.5.2: Intellectual Property Theft, Corporate Espionage, and Cyber Security
Program Element 1.5.3: Trafficking-in-Persons and Migrant Smuggling
Program Element 1.5.4: Organized and Gang-related Crime
Functional Objective: Governing Justly and Democratically
Program Area 2.1: Rule of Law and Human Rights
Program Element 2.1.3: Justice System
Program Element 2.1.4: Human Rights
Program Area 2.2: Good Governance
Program Element 2.2.4: Anti-Corruption Reforms
Program Element 2.2.5: Governance of the Security Sector
INL strategies are:
Establish governmental control and rule of law in conflict and post-conflict areas; safeguarding human rights and increasing freedom-of-movement.
Strengthen law enforcement and the judicial systems to deter, investigate, and prosecute domestic crimes within identified nation-states.
Reduce the cultivation and production of drugs.
Restrict and remove trafficking options and capabilities of criminal organizations.
Prevent the resurgence of drug production and limit the collateral effects of the drug trade through international drug control and demand reduction projects.
Protect the homeland by enhancing the physical and procedural security at designated international sites.
Build institutional capacity for international cooperation in combating transnational crimes while correcting weaknesses in international and regional multilateral institutions, international financial markets and transnational law enforcement regimes.
INL programs produce:
Fewer illegal and dangerous drugs on America's streets;
Greater host nation law enforcement capabilities to work jointly with U.S. agencies on counterdrug, countercrime and counterterrorism operations;
Improved security and political stability in post-conflict situations;
Enhanced host nation capabilities to stem money laundering and interdict sources of terrorist financing, fight corruption, protect intellectual property rights, deter cybercrime, secure borders, and counter alien smuggling;
Greater host nation capacity to directly combat corruption and organized crime; and
Improved adherence to international human rights standards by the police and the prison systems.
INL counterdrug and law enforcement country programs are the primary vehicles for the provision of bilateral assistance. Country programs:
Are developed on the basis of country strategies coordinated at post by the Country Teams and/or Law Enforcement Working Groups and host nation officials;
Are formalized through bilateral Letters of Agreement that set out key objectives, program priorities, performance targets, and funding levels;
Strengthen relationships with various host country ministries and law enforcement authorities;
Support operational law enforcement cooperation between the host governments and the FBI, DEA, and others by providing valuable training/equipment/technical assistance platforms;
Are coordinated at post by Narcotics/Law Enforcement Section Officers directly linked to INL;
Are supported in Washington by INL subject and country experts and policy apparatus;
Are implemented by a wide variety of U.S. law enforcement and regulatory agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and international assistance agencies.
INL's centrally-managed programs complement country programs in key areas:
Interregional aviation provides aviation support to respective country programs for aerial eradication, mobility, interdiction, reconnaissance and logistical support.
Anticorruption programs strengthen the political will to reduce corruption and implement international standards in transparency and good governance;
Regional law enforcement training brings together professionals from neighboring countries and builds them into a network for future cooperation;
Demand reduction programs reach out to grass-roots constituencies with education and support, improving American's own image in the process;
Anti-money laundering/terrorist financing programs identify vulnerabilities in key countries and provide speedy assistance to create sound financial institutions;
Anti-alien smuggling and border security programs help extend our first line of defense against all forms of transnational crime;
Cybercrime, cybersecurity and intellectual property crime programs address the growing impact of criminal misuse of information technology.
Global recognition of the dangers of drugs and crime -- and the need for stronger international cooperation to fight those threats -- has steadily increased. The one-time divide between “producer” and “consumer” countries of illicit narcotics has vanished, replaced by understanding that all countries are vulnerable and that domestic drug problems are on the increase in drug producing and trafficking states around the world. Similarly, nations on all continents have begun to accept that corruption and money laundering associated with trafficking relentlessly undermine governments and national economies. U.S. leadership has galvanized support for new multilateral instruments, such as conventions against organized crime and corruption. Meanwhile, the international community continues to support strongly the ambitious antidrug commitments embodied in the three U.N. drug conventions.
The fight against transnational crime and international narcotics is a national security and foreign policy priority. INL plays a key role in carrying out the President’s foreign policy agenda by coordinating U.S. international drug polices with the Office of National Drug Control Policy and leading in the development and coordination of U.S. international drug and crime assistance. For countries in transition from conflict, INL’s policies and programs promote stable environments, good governance and stronger public institutions. INL also uses technical expertise and capacity-building in developing and transforming nations in order to create reliable partners within a network of international legal cooperation. With sustaining partners, such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Group of Eight, the Organization of American States and others, INL works to strengthen the international legal network of laws and conventions against narcotics trade, international organized and gang-related crime, and corruption.
To deal with the increasing linkage and overlap among drug, crime, and terrorist groups, INL has an integrated law enforcement effort through a range of bilateral, regional, and global initiatives to build up the law enforcement capabilities of foreign governments so they can help stop these threats before they reach U.S. soil. This includes extending our first line of defense by strengthening border controls of other countries, enhancing the ability of foreign governments to work together cooperatively, closing off international safe havens for drug, crime and terrorist groups, helping to fight official corruption that that thwarts the effective functioning of foreign criminal justice sectors, and responding to emerging crime challenges, such as cyber crime.
INL efforts center on two Department performance goals, which relate to the foreign assistance framework areas of promoting peace and security, and governing justly and democratically:
Achieving Peace and Security: The United States promotes peace, liberty, and prosperity for all people; security is a necessary precursor to these worthy goals. The Department and USAID use a broad range of skills and other resources to achieve this goal: traditional and transformational diplomacy, both bilateral and multilateral; vigilant and informed consular operations; reformed and effective foreign assistance; creative and energetic public diplomacy; and where appropriate, new technologies and operating constructs. State will directly confront threats to national and international security from terrorism, transnational crime and narcotics, weapons proliferation, failed or failing states, and political violence. State will strengthen the capability of the U.S. Government and of international partners to prevent or mitigate conflict, stabilize countries in crisis, promote regional stability, protect civilians, and promote just application of government and law. Our diplomatic, consular, and foreign assistance activities will help shape the international security environment in ways that promote political and economic freedom and protect the dignity and human rights of all people.
For INL this means employing counternarcotics programs and combating transnational crime. For counternarcotics, this includes reducing drug crop cultivation through law enforcement, eradication, and alternative development programs in key source countries, and improving the capacity of host nation police and military forces to dismantle narcotics production and trafficking centers and to interdict drugs during shipment. It also includes strengthening the ability of both source and transit countries to investigate and prosecute major drug trafficking organizations, arrest and imprison their leaders, and block and seize their assets.
Governing Justly and Democratically: The United States supports just and democratic governance for three distinct but related reasons: as a matter of principle; as a contribution to U.S. national security; and as a cornerstone of our broader development agenda. First, our political system and national identity are grounded in the belief that all people share fundamental rights that are best exercised and guaranteed by capable and democratic governance. Second, as outlined in the President’s Freedom Agenda and the National Security Strategy, anticorruption, good governance and democracy promotion are central to our national security and global war on terror. Failed and authoritarian states that do not respond to the needs of their people or respect international human rights and democratic norms pose a long-term threat to the security of the United States and other democracies. Finally, U.S. support for anticorruption, good governance and democratization reinforces our development and transformational diplomacy goals of working with partners to help them build their own sustainable institutions of democratic governance. The U.S. Government’s goal is to promote and strengthen effective democracies and move them along a continuum toward democratic consolidation.
Since drug and crime groups tend to thrive best in developing nations where justice sector institutions are weak, institution building in the criminal justice sector is a core ingredient of INL programs. This includes training and technical assistance for judges, prosecutors, and police, assistance designed to modernize the management of justice sector institutions and to make them more transparent, and initiatives to make police and related agencies more publicly accountable and more responsive to human rights.
To carry out our institutional development and cooperation programs, INL works closely with, and draws on, the expertise of sixteen other USG agencies, including (but not limited to) USAID, Justice, Treasury, Commerce, Homeland Security (Customs, Immigration and Coast Guard) Defense, DEA, FBI and the CIA.
Although the FY 2009 INL counternarcotics budget represents only a small part of the federal drug control budget, INL bilateral and multilateral programs and diplomatic initiatives are currently strengthening counternarcotics and law enforcement efforts in more than 150 countries around the world in support of the President’s 2008 National Drug Control Strategy and other strategies aimed at fighting crime and protecting our national security interests. INL’s counternarcotics and criminal justice sector capacity building programs are focused on Afghanistan and on the countries of the Andean Region in South America, the world’s primary source of the heroin and cocaine, respectively. INL is committed to combating the threat posed by criminal gangs from Central America and Mexico and to working in cooperation with other countries principally affected by it. INL is also giving increased attention the entry of synthetic drugs via the Western Hemisphere into the United States, particularly Mexico, which is a source country for methamphetamines as well as heroin and marijuana.
The International Law Enforcement Academies strengthen qualitative capabilities and regional cooperation by training 2,800 law enforcement officials from over 70 countries in topics such as counter-terrorism, corruption, criminal investigations, drug trafficking, and organized crime. INL also continues law enforcement advisory operations in Haiti, Iraq, and Liberia as the United States and its allies work to build stability, democracy, and economic progress in difficult post-conflict environments. Highlights of INL programmatic and diplomatic accomplishments over the year include the following:
ACP: Promoting Peaceful Stability by Combating Narcoterrorism
In 2007, many of the seven ACP countries made good progress combating the cultivation and distribution of illegal narcotics. The Government of Colombia continued to set record levels in eradication of illegal crops, maintained a robust interdiction effort and close cooperation with the United States on extraditions. In Peru, despite violent ambushes of police and intimidation of alternative development teams in coca growing areas by the terrorist group Shining Path/Sendero Luminoso, the government of Peru exceeded its eradication goals. The Government of Bolivia exceeded its own eradication goal for 2007, however the eradication operations did not keep pace with the replantings of coca.
Colombia: Colombia continued its series of consecutive record-breaking years for eradication of illicit crops in 2007, spraying 153,133 hectares of coca and manually eradicating more than 66,000 hectares. Cooperation between the United States and Colombia on extraditions remains good. Colombia extradited a record 164 defendants in 2007. Since December 1987, when Colombia revised its domestic law permitting extraditions of Colombian nationals, more than 640 individuals have been sent to the United States to stand trial, including several key drug traffickers and ex-militants. Significant progress was also made in expanding Colombia’s transition to a new, accusatory judicial system.
Peru: Eradicated 11,065 hectares of coca and over 1,000 hectares in voluntary eradication linked to alternative development. Port programs directed at interdicting maritime drug shipments contributed to the seizure of over 11 metric tons of cocaine and 800 metric tons of precursor chemicals in 2007. The U.S. supported alternative development program accelerated the implementation of infrastructure and productive activities in communities participating in voluntary eradication. In 2007 an additional 727 police officers with a three-year commitment to counternarcotics graduated from USG-supported police academies in March, reinforcing the 400 police who graduated in 2005. By the end of 2008, over 3,000 new police will be operating in the source zones. The influx of well-trained police in 2007 allowed the Peruvian National Police (PNP) to effect sustained interdiction in the Apurimac and Ene River Valleys (VRAE) and to carry out eradication in areas of the Huallaga valley that have violently resisted programmed eradication in the past.
Bolivia: Estimated coca cultivation rose 14 percent in 2007 to 29,500 hectares and the Government of Bolivia (GOB) eradicated 6,269 hectares. However, the GOB also continued to push for policies that would expand coca cultivation in violation of its own laws and international agreements if implemented. The GOB continued a strong interdiction performance in 2007, seizing 17.8 metric tons of cocaine, destroying 4,076 cocaine base labs and detaining 4,268 suspects. Alternative development efforts contributed to licit family income increases. Assistance to farm communities and businesses helped generate 3,700 new jobs and new sales of AD products of $16.5 million (a 45% increase over 2006). In FY 2007, 12,671 families benefited directly from USG assistance.
Other ACP Successes: Seizures of cocaine (22.45 metric tons (MT)) in 2007 were down in Ecuador from 2006 levels, however, the Government of Ecuador (GOE) destroyed cocaine laboratories capable of refining multi-ton quantities of cocaine, and police and military units destroyed several multi-hectare plots of coca plants near the Colombian border. Persistent narcotics activity by Colombian armed insurgent groups has rendered Ecuador's northern border region particularly vulnerable.
In 2007, Brazil seized 13.1 MT of cocaine HCl, 916 kg of cocaine base, 488 kg of crack cocaine, 153.1 MT of marijuana, and 16 kg of heroin. U.S.-Brazil cooperation helped bring about the capture in Sao Paulo of Juan Carlos Ramírez-Abadia, a notorious Colombian drug cartel leader whose multi-billion dollar drug and money laundering ring stretches from the United States to Europe.
In 2007, Panama seized a record 60 MT of cocaine in collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard, including the largest on-record maritime seizure of cocaine (over16 MT), and also seized 96 kg of heroin, 3.9 MT of marijuana, and made 207 arrests for international drug-related offenses. The joint Department of Homeland Security (DHS)-Department of Energy (DOE) Container Security Initiative (CSI), was launched in Panama in October to enhance container security from the threat posed by high-risk shipments.
Although the U.S. seeks better cooperation with Venezuela on stopping the flow of drugs through its territory, the impact of Venezuela’s lack of cooperation goes well beyond its borders. Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic are among those who have seen the largest increase in Venezuelan-sourced drug shipments. Seizures in Europe and Africa of cocaine which leaves South America via Venezuela are also on the rise. The President determined in 2007, as in 2006 and 2005, that Venezuela failed demonstrably to adhere to its obligations under international counternarcotics agreements. The GOV has not signed a letter of agreement with the United States since 2004, which prevents the U.S. from making new funding available for projects.
Other Key Successes
Afghanistan: Total poppy cultivation increased by 17 percent over 2006 numbers due to an increasingly deteriorating security situation primarily in the southern provinces. However, the number of poppy-free provinces more than doubled from six to 13 among relatively stable and secure northern provinces. USG-supported eradication in 2007 increased by 25% from 2006 and continues to serve as a deterrent to poppy cultivation.
Although the political and economic situation in Afghanistan is improving, significant increases in poppy cultivation, processing, and trafficking over the past year undermines economic reconstruction, weakens the rule of law, and threatens regional stability. Proceeds from the drug trade also help fund the insurgency and the Taliban. The U.S. five pillar approach to the opium problem, which pillars are Eradication, Interdiction, Rule of Law, Alternative Livelihoods, and Public Information, continues to complement the Government of Afghanistan’s (GOA) eight pillar approach and in 2007, the U.S. had significant success in each pillar.
The GOA’s Poppy Eradication Force (PEF) has developed into a more flexible and mobile force, with INL air support increasing the central government’s eradication capabilities. Aerial support for ground eradication efforts have increased the effectiveness of the program, and allowed for its expansion into areas otherwise inaccessible for security or logistical reasons. In 2007 eradication increased to 19,047 hectares, a 25% increase over 2006. The PEF initiated pre-planting campaigns encourage farmers to plant licit crops and to increase the awareness of alternative livelihood.
In 2007, the U.S. and UK mentored Counternarcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) stood up two vetted units with the assistance of INL, DOD, and DEA. The Sensitive Investigative Unit and the Technical Intercept Unit will work in conjunction with the existing National Interdiction Unit (NIU) to provide evidence leading to arrests and successful prosecutions of high value targets. The base for the NIU also opened in late 2007 which allows the 216 member force to forward deploy from that location. In 2007, CNPA also reported the following seizures: 39,304 KG of opium, 4,249 KG of heroine, and 617 KG of morphine base in 2007. Total arrests in 2007 were 760 for narcotics-related crimes offenders while 50 drug labs were destroyed. In April 2007, Taliban-linked Afghan heroin trafficker Mohammad Essa was removed to the U.S., where he was charged with conspiring to import approximately $25 million worth of heroin in the U.S. and other countries. In November 2007, the CNPA NIU and DEA FAST in Nangarhar arrested and transferred Khan Mohammed to DOJ custody for drug trafficking. Mohammad is also under U.S. indictment for Narco-terrorism (Title 21 USC 960a), representing the first Afghan charged with this offense and only the fourth 960a indictment charge in the U.S.
The Afghan Police Program (APP) has also made significant strides. INL has established police training centers in Kabul, Kandahar, Konduz, Jalalabad, Gardez, Bamiyan, Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif; opened a Forward Operating Base (FOB) at Islam Qala; and trained over 88,000 police officers on basic police skills. Expansion of the field training program to all major provinces is currently underway, and more than 500 mentors and trainers have been deployed to over 24 provinces. Nearly 200 mentors are deployed on Police Mentor Teams (PMTs) at the district level and are engaging with local Afghan police officials. Ministry of Interior (MOI) Reform is also proceeding well. Rank reform, having started at the highest levels of the MOI, has now been completed through the field grade officer level. Pay reform is being implemented in tandem with rank reform, with each phase of the former following just after each phase of the latter. The international community agreed in October 2007 that ANP who have completed basic training at an RTC or the CTC (Central Training Center) should receive pay parity with ANA: $100 per month of basic pay. The combination of these two reform measures has boosted morale and police loyalty.
In July 2007, the Rome Conference on the Rule of Law in Afghanistan, attended by Afghan President Hamid Karzai and other world leaders, re-confirmed a political commitment to justice reform; and generated new donor funding for assistance programs. The U.S. committed funding at the Rome Conference to support justice and corrections salaries through multilateral mechanisms that will simultaneously implement civil service reforms. The U.S. also played a key role in encouraging the expansion of provincial justice, by developing the Provincial Justice Coordination Mechanism (PJCM). The PJCM will deploy rule of law coordinators across Afghanistan to ensure that bilateral programs are complimentary and integrated.
Significant strides were made in alternative livelihoods for farmers to discourage them from planting poppy. Farmers were given in season licit seeds to plant instead of poppy and access to markets and arable land and the planting of high-value crops continued to be explored.
The Counternarcotics Advisory Team (CNAT) formerly known as the Poppy Elimination Program (PEP), has increased its effectiveness in dis-incentivizing poppy cultivation through year-round targeted public information campaigns to dissuade farmers from planting, the promotion alternative livelihoods programs to spur rural development, and supporting governor-led eradication of poppy crops. CNAT teams have fully deployed in the seven key provinces that produce over 80 percent of the opium in Afghanistan.
Iraq: INL has continued to provide hundreds of international police advisors, with DOD funding, to support the further development of the Government of Iraq’s civil security forces under the leadership of the Multi-National Forces-Iraq (MNF-I). INL also is continuing to help the Iraqis strengthen their criminal justice and corrections capacities through technical and advisory assistance and ongoing prison construction efforts.
Pakistan: Pakistan is a key ally in the Global War on Terrorism and was named a Major Non-NATO Ally in early 2004. Since September 11, 2001, the GOP has taken into custody roughly 600 suspected al-Qaida (AQ) and/or Taliban militants. Pakistan’s 1,600 km border with Afghanistan and 900 km border with Iran runs through rough, mountainous, and desert terrain that is remote and thus provides abundant hiding space for terrorists, drug traffickers, and other criminals. Commodities, infrastructure support, and training already provided by the USG, have improved the capabilities and will to fight of agencies operating on the border. INL-funded rural road construction programs begun in the FATA in opium poppy growing areas a decade ago continue to succeed in facilitating law enforcement access for eradication and interdiction activities. At the same time, this improved infrastructure opened these remote areas for legitimate commerce, counter-drug education efforts, economic development projects, and vital health and education facilities, and the development of civil society. In FY 2007, INL-funded programs in Pakistan produced significant results on multiple fronts.
The Ministry of Interior’s Air Wing (50th Squadron) was established with INL funding in 2002. It currently has nine Huey II helicopters and three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft, two equipped with Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) night vision enhancement systems, operating from Quetta, Balochistan.
In 2007, the nine Huey IIs of the Air Wing executed 186 operational missions. These included transporting law enforcement forces to raid suspected drug compounds and drug processing facilities, poppy surveys, casualty evacuations (casevacs) for personnel injured during Frontier Corp (FC) and Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) operations, support for law enforcement agencies along the Afghan border, and border reconnaissance.
In terms of counternarcotics efforts, INL-supported GOP security forces reported seizing 10.9 metric tons of heroin/ morphine, 93.8 metric tons of hashish, and 15.3 metric tons of opium. The near doubling of opium seizures over 2006 reflects both the increase in the Afghan crop and success against traffickers in Balochistan.
One of the key elements of the Counternarcotics programs in Pakistan, has been the construction of roads into previously inaccessible areas. To date, 500 kilometers of counternarcotics roads have been completed in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber agencies. An additional 60 kilometers are underway in the Khyber, as well as 50 kilometers in Kala Dhaka. In addition, construction of 113 kilometers of border security roads in FATA is complete, and ongoing construction of 266 kilometers continues to open up areas along the Afghan border.
Also in 2007, INL trained over 1,500 police personnel, totaling over 4,000 law enforcement officers since 2002. Police training focuses on crime scene investigations, leadership, management issues, and curriculum development, with a train-the-trainer approach.
Mexico: Protecting our Border and Partnering Against International Threats: In 2007, Mexico made unprecedented efforts in attacking the corrosive effects of drug trafficking and consumption during the first complete year of the Calderon Administration, including launching aggressive operations across Mexico to reassert control over areas that had fallen under the virtual dominion of drug cartels. Mexican authorities extradited a record 83 fugitives to the United States, including the leader of the Gulf Cartel. Among the many important successes registered by law enforcement authorities was the seizure of over $200 million in cash from a methamphetamine precursor operator, and the seizure of over 48 metric tons (MT) of cocaine (more than twice the amount seized during 2006). Although the Government of Mexico (GOM) continued to eradicate opium poppy and marijuana, total cultivation rose. The GOM greatly reduced the amount of imports of methamphetamine precursors in 2007, and implemented new regulations that will eliminate imports in 2008. Mexican law enforcement also interdicted 2,174 MT of marijuana; 292 kgs of opium gum; 298 kgs of heroin; and, 899 kgs of methamphetamine in 2007. The record interdiction of illicit drugs in 2007 was complemented by the seizure of 6,310 illegal firearms and the arrest of 19,384 persons on drug-related charges, including 19,120 Mexicans and 264 foreigners. According to the Mexican Attorney General’s Office (PGR), 26 drug processing laboratories were dismantled in Mexico during 2007; DEA reports that nine of these were classified as methamphetamine "super labs" (i.e., having a production capacity of 10 pounds or more per processing cycle). In October, the Presidents of Mexico and the United States announced the Merida Initiative, a historic plan to achieve deeper and stronger law enforcement cooperation.
The Central Americans also cooperated with USG law enforcement during 2007, successfully collaborating in seizures in international waters through the exercise of ship-rider agreements, rapid granting of permission to board flagged vessels, and turning over evidence to U.S. authorities. Both Honduras and Costa Rica participated in maritime operations that netted record seizures of 2 metric tons and 14 metric tons of cocaine respectively. Nicaragua interdicted 13 metric tons of cocaine and seized over $6 million in currency following the disruption of trafficking efforts of the Mexican Sinaloa Cartel.
In the Caribbean, 2007 was notable for the continuing high level of cooperation between USG and Caribbean law enforcement. Dominican and Haitian drug police participated in “Operation Rum Punch,” a three-month long operation led by DEA that successfully deterred drug smuggling flights from Venezuela to Hispaniola. In Jamaica, the police continued their participation in “Operation Kingfish” a multinational task force that brings together UK, U.S., and Canadian law enforcement to combat drug-trafficking and other criminal organizations. Operation Kingfish celebrated it third anniversary in 2007 and mounted 864 operations. In the Bahamas, the authorities seized $7.8 million in drug-related assets, while in Haiti, the Central Financial Intelligence Unit was restructured to improve the transparency of money laundering and anti-corruption investigations and the effective prosecution of such cases.
Liberia: Using a combination of INCLE, Peace Keeping Operations (PKO), and Economic Support Funds (ESF) (INCLE and PKO funds for support of the Liberian National Police (LNP) and ESF funds for support of the Liberian justice sector), the INL Civilian Police (CIVPOL), Justice Sector Support (JSSL), and Emergency Response Unit (ERU) programs represented material and technical support to the Liberian government. Up to ten American CIVPOL police officers, working through the UN Police, provide mentoring, training, and other technical assistance for the LNP while an additional four American CIVPOL police officers, also working through the UN Police, comprise the Senior Advisors Team (SAT) which mentors the LNP leadership. The JSSL team conducts training and mentoring activities outside of the capital and continues to supervise and fund the renovation of the main judicial building in Liberia. An international effort to create and advise an ERU within the LNP which helps maintain security while observing human rights and democratic principles is being spearheaded by INL with the use of PKO funds.
Lebanon: During 2007, a comprehensive police development program was launched in Lebanon to assist the Lebanese Internal Security Forces (ISF) by building their capacity to combat terrorist and other criminal threats in Lebanon through intensive training, essential equipment donations and law enforcement infrastructure development. This program has begun to instill a professional culture within the organization and is laying the groundwork for establishing the ISF as Lebanon’s primary security sector institution responsible for addressing internal security threats, a role that has heretofore been carried out by the Lebanese army.
Fighting Corruption and Setting International Standards Against Crime: The fight against global corruption remains a top national security priority for the United States. In support of this objective, INL championed and helped deliver the first global and most comprehensive instrument against corruption – the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC). In 2006, the United States became a party to UNCAC, and the Department played a key role in promoting international acceptance and implementation of UNCAC. Efforts included working with the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other countries to promote ratification and acceptance of UNCAC and promoting UNCAC as a pillar in regional anticorruption groups in the Middle East, Asia and other parts of the world. As a result, UNCAC is increasingly incorporated in those policy arenas and used as a framework for technical assistance. The U.S.-led efforts to launch a pilot program to review convention implementation in which 16 countries participated; over the next year efforts will be made to expand the pilot. The U.S. is also championing and supporting the development of a formal monitoring process for the Convention, and secured a decision to that effect at the UNCAC 2nd Conference of States Parties. The U.S. also worked in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, the Organization of American States (OAS), and other fora to promote acceptance of the "denial of safe haven" policy related to corrupt officials and their assets. The United States continues to advance a strong anticorruption agenda in Asia Pacific, Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and the Americas. The U.S. also used INCLE funding to support two multilateral monitoring mechanisms – the Council of Europe’s Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), and the OAS Follow-up Mechanism – that promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in dozens of countries. INL is planning efforts to build capacity in developing countries in Africa and within Eurasia to address corruption and to combat high-level corruption by investigating and prosecuting corruption crimes as a precursor for recovering assets.
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering: Terrorist groups, drug traffickers, and traditional transnational crime organizations share many traits, but none so compelling as the need to launder, hide, or secretly move their profits and operating funds. Over the past several years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. For example, in the past, INL funding has provided multi-agency training, bilaterally or through multilateral organizations, to more than 100 countries. To assist countries in combating money laundering, INL, in conjunction with DHS/ICE, has assisted in the development of Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) in South America. Developed as a bilateral mechanism to detect trade-based money laundering and customs fraud, TTUs have been established in Colombia, Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. To promote global cooperation on anti-money laundering, INL provides support to the multilateral Financial Action Task Force (FATF), which has set the international standard through its 49 recommendations enveloping both anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing, and to FATF-style regional bodies. Through INL funding, the Council of Europe’s MONEYVAL Committee conducted a series of typology exercises in fall 2007, and the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG) received assessor training as well as conducted the first of its mutual assessments in mid-2007. INL has also provided assistance to nearly half of the more than 24 states identified by the USG as most “at risk” for terrorist financing operations. INL’s regional Pacific Anti-Money Laundering Program, designed to assist the development of viable anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist regimes to the fourteen non-FATF member states of the Pacific Islands Forum.
International Law Enforcement Academies: To date, the five International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, New Mexico and El Salvador (includes the Regional Training Center in Lima, Peru) have trained approximately 28,000 officials from over 75 countries, including over 3,400 officials trained in 2007. ILEA curricula will continue to be modified to respond to emerging transnational criminal trends in terrorism, terrorist financing, organized crime, financial crimes and human trafficking.
Demand Reduction: Independent, science-based evaluations on the long-range impact of INL-funded training for drug treatment programs revealed that overall hard-core drug use in the target population in Peru was reduced from 90% to 34% in the target treatment population, while overall drug use in Thailand was reduced from 90% to 8% in the target population. Coca paste and cocaine use in Peru was reduced from 62% to 22% and 30% to 8%, respectively. Methamphetamine abuse in Thailand was reduced from 82% to 7% in the target treatment population and arrests for other crimes were reduced from 40% to 6%. A similar evaluation of drug prevention training in Colombia revealed drug use declined from 54% to 10% in eight target cities. “Best Practice” studies of INL-funded drug treatment initiatives in Southeast Asia reported success rates (percent of clients remaining drug-free after treatment) of over 70 % compared to 15 % in other developing countries.
Establishing Rule of Law in Post Conflict Societies: To meet urgent needs in countries in the post-conflict period, INL is taking measures to enhance the USG capacity to identify, train, equip, deploy and support civilian police and law enforcement and criminal justice advisors to participate in multilateral peacekeeping and complex security operations. Using INCLE, Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF), Afghanistan Security Forces Funds (ASFF), Peace Keeping Operations (PKO), Freedom Support Act (FSA) and Support for East European Democracy (SEED) money, INL currently deploys more than 1,000 police and corrections advisors and justice experts in eight countries, including over 300 uniformed U.S. police to support law enforcement operations and reform in UN peacekeeping missions in Kosovo, Haiti, Liberia and Sudan. INL continues to implement programs that have helped establish, train, and equip 8,600 members of the new Kosovo Police Service as well as provide training for more than 3,000 Haitian National Police (HNP) cadets. Programs in Liberia provide mentoring, training and technical assistance for the 3,500-member Liberian police service and struggling court system. INL also deployed civilian police advisors to the UN-AU Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and provided direct assistance to the Government of Southern Sudan through the provision of law enforcement and correctional experts to provide training and assistance to enhancing the capabilities in its criminal justice sector. In Iraq, INL provided approximately 700 international police liaison officers to support the reconstruction of the Iraqi police and the Iraqi Government's efforts to provide effective internal security. In Afghanistan, INL is managing police and justice programs designed to stand up and train 82,000 police in eight training centers in Kabul and the provinces, as well as assist with reform of the criminal justice system including the Attorney General’s Office the Ministry of Justice and the Central Prisons Department.
The FY 2009 INL budget request of approximately $1.609 billion is designed to support President Bush’s comprehensive strategy for combating the global threat of narcotics, organized crime, and terrorism. The ACP request will support counterdrug programs in the seven ACP countries, although the main focus will be on the three source countries for cocaine (Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia). Support will reduce the flow of drugs to the United States, addressing instability in the Andean region and strengthening the ability of both source and transit countries to investigate and prosecute major drug trafficking organizations and their leaders and to block and seize their assets.
The INCLE request supports country and global programs critical to combat transnational crime and illicit threats, including efforts against terrorist networks in the illegal drug trade and illicit enterprises. Programs supported with INCLE funds seek to close the gap between law enforcement jurisdictions and strengthen law enforcement institutions that are weak and corrupt. Many INCLE funds are focused where security situations are most dire and where U.S. resources are used in tandem with host country government strategies in order to maximize impact. Resources are also focused in countries that have specific challenges to overcome to establish a secure, stable environment, such as Mexico, Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, and Indonesia.
Country and Account Programs
Andean Counterdrug Program (ACP) – $406.8 million
Colombia ($329.6 million): U.S. assistance has helped the government and people of Colombia make notable progress in combating the drug traffickers and narcoterrorists that only recently threatened the stability of this nation. Colombia remains the supplier of roughly 90 percent of the cocaine entering the United States and the primary source of heroin east of the Mississippi River. Aggressive disruption of the illicit drug trade through a combination of eradication, interdiction and promotion of the rule of law remains a top USG priority. FY 2009 funds will solidify recent gains and ensure sustainability of counternarcotics and rule of law programs we are working to nationalize. The Government of Colombia (GOC) has already taken ownership of several important programs, and while we will continue close coordination with the GOC on transferring additional operational and financial responsibilities, U.S. support will continue to be needed for activities such as training local aviation personnel, training and equipping Colombian police and supporting vital aviation operations, which are essential to the GOC’s ability to project its presence through the country and conduct aerial and manual eradication missions. In FY 2009, we seek to further Colombia’s transformational process in the areas of Peace and Security and Governing Justly and Democratically by continuing to support Colombia’s successful counternarcotics, public security, and judicial reform programs.
Peru ($37 million): FY 2009 plans include the continuing the enhancement capabilities of the Peruvian National Police Narcotics Directorate (DIRANDRO) to conduct advanced road interdiction, riot control, greater security for eradication teams, and interdiction in source-zone areas. There will be an expanded eradication effort by the Government of Peru’s Coca Reduction Agency (CORAH) in entrenched coca growing areas and areas of coca expansion, and continual monitoring of new coca. An increased number of police and eradicators, and expansion of the area of operations will fully engage the Huey IIs, INL-owned fixed wing aircraft, and available Peruvian MI-17 helicopters. FY 2009 funds will also support fuel, aircraft maintenance, maintenance of hangars, warehousing, aircraft rental when needed, and operational support for PNP Aviation (DIRAVPOL) personnel. Additionally, FY 2009 funds will support advanced training for prosecutors who oversee police and military drug enforcement operations and maintain the on-going media campaign to better inform the Peruvian public about the issues surrounding the illegal drug trade.
Bolivia ($31 million): In FY 2009, counternarcotics assistance to the Government of Bolivia (GOB) will focus on continuing to fortify law enforcement cooperation and strengthen law enforcement capability in areas such as interdiction, building local support for coca control and eradication, and highlighting the damage to Bolivian society and Bolivia’s neighbors caused by increased coca cultivation, cocaine, and human trafficking. Support will boost the presence and effectiveness of the police in the Yungas and replace obsolete equipment throughout Bolivia. Funding in FY 2009 is primarily directed towards interdiction, with sufficient eradication support for operations the GOB is willing to undertake, such as in the national parks, and to maintain sufficient eradication resources available for potential increased operations. Assistance will directly support the police units that conduct interdiction operations and security for the eradication operations, and the military counternarcotics units that provide ground, aviation and riverine support for the police. FY 2009 funding will continue maintenance support and fuel for vehicles, boats and aircraft deployed in interdiction and eradication operations. FY 2009 funds will also support demand reduction activities to enable civil society, through training and other interventions, to provide basic rehabilitation, diagnostic centers, and other services the public sector remains incapable of delivering. Support for the Law Enforcement Training and Development Program will continue training for the Bolivian National Police Force in basic and advanced criminal investigation, advanced law enforcement techniques, and Human Rights.
Ecuador ($7.2 million): Counternarcotics assistance for the Counternarcotics Police Directorate (DNA), responsible for nearly all of the land-based drug seizures in Ecuador, will support port and canine operations and acquisition of law enforcement and communications equipment. Funds will support expanding police presence and counternarcotics operations to sensitive outlying locations inadequately protected against narcotics trafficking. USG support will extend and refine training for judges, prosecutors and judicial police in implementation of the new criminal code. Supporting the military and coastal control units on the border will further strengthen Ecuador’s ability to protect its national territory against narco-terrorist incursions and to seize illicit international shipments of drugs and precursor chemicals. It will also give these forces the ability to rapidly deploy to remote areas in response to reports of drug trafficking activity. USG assistance will support the formation, training and operations of the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU), a key aspect of effectively implementing the money laundering law. Also FY 2009 demand reduction support for the Ecuadorian Ministry of Education and non-governmental organizations will increase awareness of the dangers of drug abuse and disseminate information about abuse prevention.
Brazil ($1 million): Funds will contribute to the Government of Brazil’s efforts to increase its intelligence and investigative reach throughout the country but especially in the major urban areas and at specific sites in the border areas with Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, Guyana and Suriname. Funds will be directed primarily to the Brazilian Federal Police (DPF) for the purchase of equipment for the Sensitive Investigative Units (SIUs) and the Joint Investigative Units (JICs) to support investigations and interdiction operations against major drug trafficking organizations present in and/or operating within Brazil.
Panama ($1 million): Funds will enhance Panama’s interdiction capability to disrupt the regional flow of illicit drugs, chemicals, weapons, and people by improving its law enforcement infrastructure, standing up a Coast Guard modeled after the U.S. Coast Guard, and control of its borders and international ports of entry and exit.
International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement – $1,194.3 million
Africa – $37.4 million
Democratic Republic of Congo ($1.7 million): Funds will continue sustainable improvements in the capacity of Democratic Republic of Congo law enforcement institutions. The program will focus on training and may include training on general policing skills and border control, as well as police academy development, and specialized training courses.
Liberia ($4.1 million): Strengthening Liberia’s law enforcement and criminal justice capacity remains a key priority of the USG. FY 2009 funds will continue to assist Liberia develop a credible and competent criminal justice system through provision of material support and advisors for the Liberian National Police, the Emergency Response Unit, the Ministry of Justice, and the judiciary.
Nigeria ($1.2 million): Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade, transporting drugs to the United States, Europe, and Asia. Nigeria-based criminal organizations are engaged in advance-fee fraud, and other forms of financial crime, including identity theft, that defraud American citizens and businesses. Corruption is endemic in Nigeria and permeates all aspects of private lives and government. FY 2009 funding will be used for counternarcotics and interdiction training for Nigerian law enforcement and customs institutions, and the assistance to the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission.
Sudan ($24 million): Since the signing of the North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005, the United States has been working to support the implementation of the agreement and to assist the development of the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS). To this end, INL programs in FY 2007 and FY 2008 continued to provide support to the UN Mission in Sudan through the assignment of 15 police, corrections, and judicial officers. Bilateral assistance to the GOSS criminal justice system included INL support for a newly opened law library, which is the most comprehensive legal collection in Southern Sudan. The GOSS recently signed an agreement with INL to begin a long term comprehensive criminal justice sector development program, which will include equipment, technical assistance and training.
Africa Regional (Trans Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP)) ($2.5 million): The TSCTP is a multi-faceted, multi-year strategy aimed at defeating terrorist organizations by strengthening regional counterterrorism capabilities, enhancing and institutionalizing cooperation among the region's security forces, and promoting democratic governance. Developing general policing capabilities in TSCTP member states advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security Objective through supporting and building law enforcement and border control services with the capacity to investigate and dismantle criminal and terrorist groups, interdict trafficking and smuggling, manage crime scenes, and cooperate with regional and USG law enforcement agencies in investigations of complex transnational crimes. INL is working in conjunction with DS/ATA and the regional bureaus on this endeavor.
West Africa ($1.8 million): Drugs transiting West Africa en route to Europe and other destinations are threatening the stability and law enforcement organizations of the region. Funds for programs in these countries will focus on training and equipping police to investigate and interdict drugs. Where possible, INL funding will used to augment and bolster UN and European programs focusing on drug trafficking. INL funds will also address drug related corruption and money laundering.
Other Africa ($2 million): Weak law enforcement institutions throughout Africa corrupt and weaken governments, undermine progress toward democracy and provide an attractive environment for terrorism and transnational organized crime. The Africa program supports states in the region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing, and the political will to achieve these goals. FY 2009 funds will be used for programs designed to upgrade basic policing and prosecutorial skills. Programs will improve the capacity of governments to combat trafficking in narcotics and other contraband, illegal migration, public corruption, and financial fraud.
East Asia and the Pacific – $15.9 million
Indonesia ($9.5 million): Indonesia, the world’s third largest democracy, with the largest population of Muslims in the world, is a key strategic partner in terms of fighting transnational criminal organizations and promoting regional stability. As an emerging democracy, Indonesia is an important nation in providing leadership to the Islamic world. Indonesia is also a center of criminal activity, including drug trafficking, cyber-crime, illegal migration, piracy, and is a home to terrorists. Corruption is endemic in Indonesia, including within Indonesia's National Police (INP), though lessening as a result of INP-INL efforts. Indonesia’s maritime borders, which stretch across 17,000 islands and the strategically important Malacca Strait, are largely unprotected and undefended, leaving the country vulnerable to a range of criminal activities from narcotics smuggling to terrorist infiltration. With FY 2009 funds, INL-funded projects managed by the Senior Law Enforcement Advisor will continue to assist INP establish organization-wide mechanisms to root out corruption. INL projects will also enhance the Marine Police's effectiveness by providing both patrol craft and training. FY 2009 assistance will also continue efforts to assist Indonesian in building a well-trained police force based on democratic principles, community policing, and respect for rule of law and individual rights. INL-funded Resident Legal Advisor projects will assist and advise on prosecutorial and judicial reform, criminal code of procedure revisions, and the like.
Laos ($1 million): Laos is one of the world’s least developed countries, with an almost total lack of infrastructure such as roads and rail that isolates rural villages from the market economy and most government services and influence. Laos is also the second largest producer of opium in Southeast Asia. Opium crop control projects have been highly successful, with an estimated 83 percent drop in the area under cultivation between 2004 and 2006. During the same period, production declined from an estimated 49 metric tons to only 8 ½ metric tons. INL development projects reduce the production, trafficking and abuse of illicit opium by detoxifying and vocationally-training addicts and providing market-based income alternatives for farmers. Regionally produced amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) have eclipsed opium. With the nearly completed highways connecting China to Thailand through Laos, and Thailand to Vietnam, again through Laos, plus the Mekong River, Laos remains a transit route of choice for Burmese drugs going to China and other Souteast Asian states. Preliminary data from late February 2008 indicate a resurgence of opium poppy cultivation; TCAS and host country counternarcotics agency and provincial governor are meeting to address. With FY 2009 funding, INL development will continue efforts to stem production, and deter trafficking and abuse of illicit opium by providing market-based income alternatives for farmers. FY 2008 funding will also support INL’s support of Lao law enforcement operations and reform, drug awareness and demand reduction programs.
Philippines ($1.2 million): The Philippines is a strategic ally and a partner in the global war on terrorism. Enhancing the capabilities of Philippine law enforcement and criminal justice sector is central to strengthening our mutual security. FY 2009 funds will continue to support law enforcement development, improve overall justice delivery in Jolo, with emphasis on police-prosecutor cooperation.
Thailand ($1.4 million): Thailand is a long-time U.S. ally in the fight against drugs and host to one of our regional International Law Enforcement Academies. It also plays a leading regional role in the fight against narcotics and transnational crime. At one time, a source country for heroin, Thailand’s aggressive counternarcotics strategy kept opium poppy cultivation below 1,000 hectares in 2006, for the eighth year in a row, and at the lowest level since the mid-1980s. Even so, Thailand serves as a transit zone for heroin and the sharp increase in methamphetamines coming out of Burma and other states in the region. At U.S. urging and with INL assistance, Thailand is in the process of amending virtually all of its basic narcotics laws and all substantive and procedural criminal laws, including those that pertain to money laundering and official corruption.
TimorL’Este ($1 million): Funds will be used in coordination with Australian assistance to develop the civilian-led national police service, focusing on organizational management, curriculum development, training and technical assistance that will lead to the development of management, leadership and executive strategic planning skills among senior ranks.
Other East Asia and the Pacific ($1.9 million): Funds will be used primarily for law enforcement reform and development, criminal justice institution development (including the RLA program in China), narcotics interdiction, and border security projects.
Europe – $0.3 million
Turkey ($0.3 million): Funding would also be used to build on joint Turkish-Afghan counterdrug training conducted in early 2007, bringing in other key partners as appropriate, for example, investigative agencies from Southeastern Europe. Training and technical assistance, provided by DEA and/or other training experts will be directed at Turkish counterdrug, customs and other law enforcement entities on border control and detection techniques at land and sea ports of entry.
Near East – $112.3
Iraq ($75 million): INL will continue key criminal justice programs vital to promoting security, stability and respect for the rule of law in Iraq. In support of DOD/CENTCOM’s lead on Iraq security forces development, as prescribed in NSPD-36, INL will continue to contribute police expertise to that mission with funding from DOD. The INCLE budget will fund the further development of the other two essential components of the Iraqi criminal justice system – courts/judiciary and corrections. Specifically, INL will support justice advisors to work with Iraqi counterparts in Baghdad and in the provinces on capacity development. INL also will support protection for courts, witnesses and the judiciary through training, technical assistance, small scale equipment purchases and operation of witness security camps. Training, mentoring and technical assistance will expand the skills, professionalism, and efficiency of Iraqi judges, investigators, court administrators, prosecutors and corrections officers. INL will continue to fund the deployment of U.S. federal law enforcement advisors working with Iraqi counterparts on the Major Crimes Task Force to enable them to investigate high profile crimes. INL will also use FY 2009 funds to develop, manage, and oversee its programs in Iraq as well as to monitor contracts that maintain a capacity in country to provide logistics, transportation, life support, and security for advisors and trainers deployed to Iraq.
Egypt ($3 million): Egypt is a democratizing and moderate Muslim state that is not only a victim of terrorism, but also a committed partner in the global war on terrorism. FY 2009 funds will build on ongoing efforts to assist Egypt’s law enforcement agencies to improve the management and administrative skills of its officers, expand capacity for strategic planning, and promote organizational transparency. In FY 2009 we will continue a workshop series focusing on police best practices that support the migration of the Egyptian National Police (ENP) to more democratic organization. Workshops would include: Strategic Planning (Year II) tools, instruments and practical application, police selection, evaluation & motivation, crime trends, analysis and available technology, and train the trainer adult learning techniques for Police Academy senior staff. Also, workshops will build on the Community Policing concepts and initiatives discussed and presented at the Workshop in March 2008. We will conduct an International Study Tour of 6-8 select ENP senior leaders to visit, observe and interact with select proactive community policing agencies in the United States. The educational approach of this study tour would be a peer teaching & learning experience for ENP senior leaders and U.S. host country participants. The Study Tour would provide an up close and personal view of how an effective and successful community policing program works in practice.
Jordan ($1.5 million): Jordan is a key U.S. ally, committed to progressive democratic reform, and in lockstep with the United States in the war on terrorism. However, Jordan's progress implementing reform is constrained by external threats and domestic economic and political challenges. Jordan suffered two serious terrorist attacks in 2005, and disrupted numerous other plots. Jordan is buffeted by conflicts and instability on most of its borders, and faces a critical terrorism threat. A deterioration of the security environment would damage the tourism sector and prompt foreign investors to retreat from Jordan's markets, devastating the economy, and creating political instability. The FY 2009 INL program will build on progress we made in the inaugural FY 2008 program by enhancing the capabilities of the Jordanian security sector institutions to combat transnational criminal threats and contribute to national counter-terrorism efforts, and thereby strengthening an important partner in the Middle East.
Lebanon ($6 million): In the wake of the 2006 Hezbollah-Israel war, much of Lebanon lies in ruins, especially in the south. Lebanon had just recovered from decades of war and outside occupation and seemed headed for unprecedented economic growth and democratic development following the April 2005 withdrawal of Syrian military forces and the election of the first “made in Lebanon” government in nearly 30 years. However, Lebanon’s democracy remains fragile due to sectarian tensions and continuing Syrian interference using local proxies, Hezbollah, and heavily armed Palestinian rejectionist (terrorist) groups. Despite the war, Hezbollah retains its arms and its dangerous state-within-a-state status. Lebanon’s massive reconstruction program and the UN-supported deployment of Lebanese security forces into hitherto-Hezbollah-controlled southern Lebanon provide the opportunity not only to restore Lebanon’s economy but to rebalance its political system and help restore Lebanon’s full sovereignty.
Supporting the democratic government of Lebanon, and the people of Lebanon, are urgent U.S. priorities. We are working toward the rapid and full implementation of UNSCR 1701, the establishment of the full sovereignty of a Lebanese Government representing all its people, and Lebanese security forces capable of protecting Lebanon’s borders, sovereignty and dignity. The FY 2009 program will build on the successes of the ongoing INL train and equip program to further enhance the capabilities of the Internal Security Forces (ISF). A more professionalized ISF will be prepared to absorb more specialized training and equipment in FY 2009, and INL will develop appropriate initiatives to build on the successes of the continued USG support through training, technical assistance, equipment donations and law enforcement infrastructure development that will assist the ISF in combating security threats posed by terrorist and other criminal groups who operate in Lebanon and cross its borders. The FY 2009 program will take into account especially the security challenges of working in Lebanon.
Morocco ($1 million): Morocco is a liberalizing, democratizing, and moderate Muslim state that is not only a victim of terrorism, but also a committed partner in the global war on terrorism. Morocco has relatively weak border control systems that could be exploited by terrorists and other transnational criminals. Due to its long and poorly controlled borders, extensive coastline, and proximity to Europe, Morocco has substantial problems with illegal migration, human smuggling, the movement of transnational terrorists through its territory, drug production and trafficking, and commercial smuggling. The profits from these illicit enterprises could provide revenue sources to terrorists. These criminal activities serve to undermine the rule of law in Morocco, lead to corruption of public officials, and weaken Moroccan institutions. INL programs in FY 2009 will provide training and technical assistance to Moroccan security sector institutions such as border protection agencies and corrections facilities to enhance their ability to combat transnational criminal threats and develop the capacity of some of Morocco’s previously trained legal professionals as trainers to implement anti-corruption and economic crimes training programs throughout the country.
West Bank/Gaza ($25 million): Funds will support U.S. activities which complement broader international efforts, as called for in the Roadmap, to transform and strengthen security capabilities of the President of the Palestinian Authority (PA). Our efforts will enhance current and future operational effectiveness with the goals of: bolstering the capabilities of the National Security Forces to act as a Gendarmerie-like organization to maintain public order, confront major criminal activity, and support the civilian police when they encounter overwhelming resistance and fire power. The funds will also provide technical and other assistance to the newly created Strategic Planning Department in the Ministry of Interior which has the responsibility for conducting central planning, budgeting, and coordination of the PA’s security forces, including being a central point of contact for assistance-related matters. A portion of the funds will be used to staff and manage the INL office in Jerusalem that oversees this program.
Yemen ($0.8 million): Yemen has distinguished itself as a solid partner in the fight against global terrorism. In 2004, a Yemeni court sentenced two men to death for their roles in the bombing of the USS Cole, and four others were sentenced to prison terms of five to ten years for their involvement. Given threats to peace and security in Yemen, particularly from terrorist and other transnational groups, INL assistance in FY 2009 will be used to help enhance security by building the capacity of Yemeni law enforcement to combat these threats. Also, Trafficking in Persons (TIP) programs will work with Yemeni law enforcement to adopt anti-trafficking laws, improve the legal framework for addressing TIP, and/or strengthen the capacity of civil society to work effectively with justice systems to promote the rescue and protection of victims.
South Asia - $293.6 million
Afghanistan ($250 million): The U.S. will continue to work in cooperation with the United Kingdom in a joint effort to combat insecurity and narcotics proliferation in Afghanistan. Given these current challenges to establishment of fully functional democracy, INL will continue its efforts to improve national law enforcement capabilities, support a strong eradication program, strengthen the rule of law, and enhance public security in FY 2009. INL will fund efforts to reduce poppy cultivation through media outreach, province-based dissuasion against planting campaigns, robust eradication efforts, as well as drug control institution building that includes support for interdiction and demand reduction programs. There will be a new emphasis on relaying anti-drug messages through partnerships with local, tribal, and religious leaders. INL will also continue to work with the GOA and the international community in combined efforts towards strengthening the rule of law throughout Afghanistan. In particular, these efforts will focus on increasing the capacities of attorneys, judges, and others in the justice and corrections sectors; especially further out in the provinces.
The USG will continue and expand the Afghan Police training and mentoring program as well. In addition to continued support for current training programs at the eight Regional and Central Training Centers, INL will support the training of the Afghan Civil Order Police at the new Adraskan Facility, work cooperatively with CSTC-A at the new National Training Center, and focus on moving further forward with the Ministry of Interior reform program; especially the completion of the Pay and Rank Reform initiative.
FY 2009 funds will also continue support the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA). This effort will include expansion and training of the National Interdiction Unit (NIU), the Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU), and the Technical Investigative Unit (TIU). Funds will also be allocated to the operational support and maintenance of central and provincial facilities for the Afghan Ministry of Interior’s drug enforcement and interdiction forces.
The Afghan demand reduction program will focus on addressing the growing drug abuse rates and an emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic fueled by intravenous drug use. Funds will be used to strengthen the operation of mosque-based prevention and aftercare programs; provide youth with preventive drug education programs; promote awareness among religious leaders and district council members of drug abuse issues; strengthen the local community and faith-based organizations in demand reduction; train program operators in outreach and treatment skills; and establish treatment facilities for drug dependents, especially women.
Nepal ($10 million): Law and order are prerequisites to the re-establishment of peace and security in Nepal, following the ten plus-year insurgency; the alternative being a failed state. Disenfranchised sizeable minorities are resorting to Maoist tactics of violent protest and strikes to seek inclusion in the political process in the run up to the Constituent Assembly elections, part of Nepal’s constitution drafting and adoption, as well as the establishment of a new government. The Nepal Police (NP) and Nepal's Armed Police Force (APF), cannot as presently staffed, equipped and trained, fill the security sector gap left by the Nepal Army’s confinement to barracks. The NP and APF, having been mostly focused on counterinsurgency efforts for the past ten years, are woefully under equipped and lack modern police training to enforce law and order throughout Nepal, let alone ensure safe and fair democratic elections. INL-funded assistance, be it training or logistical support, is focused on assisting the NP and APF in their efforts to reform into police organizations that are customer-focused, service-oriented and that understand the importance of human rights in law enforcement.
Pakistan ($32 million): The events of September 11 shifted the focus of INL assistance to Pakistan from drug control and related programs to law enforcement, including security of the critical border with Afghanistan and Iran. The Border Security Project provides operational support, commodities, and training to the Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) and other law enforcement agencies to strengthen the capacity of law enforcement agencies in Pakistan to secure the western border against terrorists, criminal elements, and narcotics traffickers.
U.S. assistance has enabled construction of additional Frontier Corps outposts along the porous Afghanistan-Pakistan border and of new roads to open up remote areas to law enforcement, allow forces to eradicate poppy, and facilitate farmer-to-market access for legal crops. Funding will also provide maintenance, support, and operating expenses for the USG-established Ministry of Interior Air Wing, based in Quetta. The Air Wing provides aviation support to several law enforcement agencies, particularly the Anti-Narcotics Force, the Frontier Corps in NWFP and Balochistan, and the Pakistan Coast Guards, to increase surveillance capability, improve mobility in remote areas, and assist with aerial poppy surveys. INL will also continue to support law enforcement and development activities to help modernize Pakistan’s antiquated crime prevention and investigation system.
Funds will be used to further enhance law enforcement capacities and to encourage more effective law enforcement cooperation within the Government of Pakistan, as well as with the United States and other countries. Funding will provide training, technical assistance, and equipment to expand investigative skills and forensics capacities, build accountability and internal control structures, enhance police training institutions, and improve managerial and leadership expertise. Due to the ever-increasing threat of opiates from Afghanistan, INL’s counternarcotics program will begin to increase resources for interdiction, including disruption of transit routes, while maintaining resources devoted toward source disruption. Funding will also support construction of roads in opium poppy growing areas and will include small water schemes to improve the economic potential of newly accessible areas and encourage the cultivation of high-value, legitimate crops and intensive farming.
On a more limited scale, we will continue to fund the introduction of alternative crops, such as off-season tomatoes, particularly in the non-traditional areas. We will also continue to fund drug demand reduction initiatives, including support for faith-based outreach centers and drug rehabilitation NGOs.
Other South Asia ($1.6 million): Funds will be used primarily for money laundering and trafficking in persons assistance to Bangladesh, drug awareness and demand reduction activities in India, and law enforcement reform and development in Sri Lanka.
Western Hemisphere – $605.6 million
Merida Initiative – Mexico ($450 million): The FY 2009 program represents the second year of the multi-year $1.4 billion Merida Initiative and builds on the FY 2008 Supplemental request consisting of $500 million for Mexico and $50 million for Central America. The proposed FY 2009 package is for $450 million for Mexico and $100 million for Central America, and is organized under the same categories as the Supplemental: Counternarcotics, Counterterrorism, and Border Security; Public Security and Law Enforcement; Institution Building and the Rule of Law. The overall objectives of the assistance also remain the same: break the power and impunity of criminal organizations; strengthen border, air, and maritime controls from the Southwest border of the United States to Panama; improve the capacity of justice systems in the region to conduct investigations and prosecutions; consolidate the rule of law, protect human rights, and reform prison management; curtail criminal gang activity; and reduce the demand for drugs throughout the region.
Mexico (base) ($27.8 million): The FY 2009 funds will strengthen the Government of Mexico’s (GOM) ability to control its borders, ports of entry, and choke points within its national transportation system through the detection and interdiction of illicit narcotics, contraband (including explosives, weapons and precursor chemicals), bulk cash shipments, trafficked/smuggled persons, and individuals seeking to enter the United States to conduct terrorist activities. The funding will enhance the GOM’s capabilities to disrupt the command and control of Mexico’s drug trafficking organizations. In order to maximize coordination of joint operations and investigations, INL will support GOM initiatives to improve its justice system and law enforcement capabilities by providing computers and communications equipment to establish a case-tracking system that will provide law enforcement officials access to a unified computer database, and enhance a project that identifies and facilitates the effective prosecution of violent human smugglers along the U.S./Mexico border. INL will also provide equipment and technical assistance to modernize the GOM’s forensic laboratory capabilities. INL will also support the professionalization and modernization of Mexico’s law enforcement institutions and criminal justice sectors. For example, INL will provide special investigative equipment, vehicles, and computers to support the new Federal Police Corps and its Special Investigative Units. INL will provide the GOM with equipment and specially trained canines for responding to drug-related crimes and work with DHS/CBP to assess security and recommend corrective action at Mexico's largest maritime ports. FY 2009 funds will be used to provide a wide variety of law enforcement training, including specialized training courses such as ethics in government, criminal investigative techniques, crime scene search and preservation of evidence, and anti-corruption training. Under social sector support, the funding would enhance demand reduction programs to educate the public about the harmful effects of drug abuse, as well as support initiatives taken by the GOM, state governments and NGOs in drug prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation, particularly along the northern border with the United States.
Merida Initiative – Central America ($100 million): FY 2009 funds will continue support to the seven countries of Central America in three areas of security: Counternarcotics, Counterterrorism, and Border Security, Public Security and Law Enforcement, and Institution Building and Rule of Law. The first area will concentrate on improving regional information sharing and actions against traffickers by providing training, technical assistance, computerized information exchange, and renovations to maritime interdiction equipment, coupled with limited amounts of new maritime and inspection equipment. The second line of action will focus on improving police performance and helping partner countries fight gang crime through improved law enforcement and prevention. The third area of intervention will be to strengthen justice sector institutions, primarily through training. This includes courts, prosecutors, community policing, prison management, and public oversight to fight corruption.
Haiti ($15 million): The FY 2009 program is divided in three general categories: police programs (crime control assistance), corrections program (criminal justice assistance) and counterdrug programs. The U.S. will contribute up to 50 police officers to the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) stabilization mission. U.S. officers will continue providing expertise in the areas of academy training, field training, patrols, community policing, investigations, traffic, crime analysis, forensics, police management, supervisory skills, police administration, and other specialized skills. Technical assistance on corrections issues will be provided, as well as support for refurbishing some corrections facilities. These programs will closely coordinate with the Haiti Stabilization Initiative (HSI) aimed at providing concentrated, comprehensive support to Cite Soleil, including a criminal justice component. Funding will support the operations of vetted units of Haitian police officers, established by DEA, with special authority to conduct drug investigations. Technical assistance and training by financial investigative mentors will be provided to the restructured Central Financial Intelligence Unit in support of anti-money laundering and anti-corruption efforts. In partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard, funding will continue the ongoing effort aimed at restoring the logistical and maintenance capacity of the HCG. The refurbishment of bases at Killick and Cap Haitien will continue and funding will be directed toward equipping and training the HCG for maritime drug interdiction operations.
Central America ($8.5 million): Funding in FY 2009 will concentrate on land and maritime interdiction of drugs and drug-generated cash in Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala, and eradication of opium poppy in Guatemala. In Guatemala USG funding will also support special prosecutors and anti-corruption measures. To complement the Regional Gangs program, FY 2009 funds will support anti-gang programs in Central America, including extending the Guatemala Model Precinct program to Honduras and El Salvador. FY 2009 funds will also provide programs supporting victims of Trafficking in Persons in Nicaragua.
Caribbean ($3.7 million): The Caribbean accounts for an estimated 10 percent of the drug flow to the United States. FY 2009 funding will concentrate on the maintenance of Caribbean capabilities in interdiction, law enforcement and administration of justice. In the Bahamas, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica, technical assistance will be provided to support vetted counterdrug units supervised by DEA. Funding will also support the development and prosecution of money laundering and other financial crime cases.
South America ($0.6 million): FY 2009 funding in Argentina will continue to support inter-agency interdiction operations along the northern border with Bolivia through training and upgrading of equipment as well as create a new north east task force that will target counternarcotics operations in the sensitive Tri-Border area. Additionally, FY 2009 funding in Argentina will provide trafficking-in-persons related training to judges and law enforcement officials. In Paraguay, FY 2009 funds will provide technical assistance and training to law enforcement officials conducting counternarcotics activities. Funds will also expand canine operations to new areas in Paraguay.
Centrally-Managed Programs – $129.3 million
Anticrime Programs ($14 million): INL will continue to support a range of diplomatic and programmatic anti-crime initiatives focusing on alien smuggling, border security, money laundering, various intellectual property theft and cyber-related threats, and corruption.
Alien Smuggling: The smuggling of illegal migrants, which can serve as a vehicle for terrorist entry into the United States, is a major national security concern. INL will address this concern by conducting fraudulent document training in South and Central America.
Border Security: Porous borders greatly enhance the ability of international criminals, smugglers, and terrorists to expand their operations and avoid apprehension. However, as the first line of defense for many countries, stiff border controls can be a substantial deterrent to such activity and be a vehicle for gleaning useful information for identifying, investigating, and dismantling crime syndicates. Funds will be used to support the counterterrorism staff of the Organization of American States in their efforts to provide police training to port and airport police and private security officials. A special effort will be made to provide practical training to customs officials on inspectional techniques. This training will be conducted in an operational environment to enhance the effectiveness of the training.
Anti-Money Laundering/Terrorist Financing: INL will promote the use of legislative, enforcement and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. Funding will support continuation of the regional technical assistance/training program in the Pacific Island region. Regional programs are particularly cost effective because they provide training and assistance to several countries sharing similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. Funding will also provide short- and long-term advisers to selected countries to help strengthen their overall anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes. Through the UN Global Programme against Money Laundering (UNGPML), INL will fund an innovative “Financial Investigative Unit (FIU) in a Box” initiative that will develop scaled-down software that will enable small FIUs to collect, analyze and disseminate financial intelligence to domestic law enforcement and to other FIUs globally. This program will enable jurisdictions that lack fiscal and human resources to become active players in the global effort to thwart money laundering and terrorist financing at a fraction of the current start-up costs for a full-scale FIU. INL will continue to fund UNGPML’s long-term residential mentoring program and innovative programs in the Western Hemisphere through the Organization of American States. INL will also continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and regional FATF-style bodies.
Cybercrime, Cybersecurity and Intellectual Property (IP) Crime: INL fills a key role in the overall USG strategy to combat criminal misuse of information technology through our ability to provide capacity-building training to foreign law enforcement. INL will continue to support law enforcement training and legislative-drafting workshops in critical IP countries. INL provides policy support and training assistance to our foreign partners to help them address cyber security concerns.
Fighting Corruption: Any effective anti-crime/anti-terrorism program must also attack corruption. Funding will support several international mechanisms – at the U.N., Council of Europe, OAS, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperative (APEC), MENA Governance for Development, and others – to monitor and assist implementation of anticorruption commitments by more than 100 nations. Funding will also support continued implementation of the UN Convention Against Corruption, a comprehensive global framework to fight corruption that has been signed by 140 countries and ratified by 107. Attention will be paid to launching new initiatives in Africa and Eurasia. Funding will also support application of Presidential Proclamation 7750 (no safe haven denial of entry to corrupt foreign officials and those who bribe them) and its application to extraction of natural resources by newly adopted Sec. 699L.
Civilian Police Program ($6 million): Funds will sustain the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police and criminal justice components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations. The FY 2009 program will sustain INL’s capacity to manage and oversee the recruitment, selection, training, equipping, deployment and support for uniformed and non-uniformed U.S. civilian police and law enforcement, justice and corrections trainers, advisors and experts overseas participating in and supporting peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. The program will also maintain a capacity to deploy these U.S. advisors, trainers and experts. Funds additionally support further development of relationships with federal, state and local law enforcement, justice and corrections associations, organizations and unions; promote high quality, standardized civilian police peacekeeping training; maintain INL management and oversight capabilities, and support in-house law enforcement, justice and corrections expertise. Funds will allow us to improve our capacity to implement these programs through outreach to domestic law enforcement agencies and by supporting international effort to create and deploy formed police units. INL expects to continue managing post conflict operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Haiti, Liberia and Sudan as well as new missions as determined by policy makers. In late FY 2007, INL began a program to train and equip members of the Palestinian Authority (PA) National Security Forces and Presidential Guard, and to support capacity building in the PA’s Ministry of Interior, as part of the Middle East Roadmap’s plan to enhance security in the West Bank. More than 1,000 security forces from these organizations are being trained by Jordanian instructors, with oversight from INL-funded mentors, at the Jordanian International Police Training Center.
Criminal Youth Gangs ($5 million): FY 2009 funding will continue supporting a regional advisor who will provide training and technical assistance to anti-gang units, other justice sector actors (including prisons) and community prevention groups in, El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. Activities, primarily prevention-related, will be extended to Belize, Nicaragua and Panama. The FY 2009 program will also promote regional sharing of law-enforcement information. Activities will complement country-specific bilaterally funded activities and programs funded under the Merida Initiative.
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction ($3.5 million): INL assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, the drug-related HIV/AIDS epidemics in Southeast Asia and Africa, the gang problem in Central America, the shortage of treatment facilities for pregnant and addicted women, and address the heroin threat from Southwest Asia and Afghanistan. A continued area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network.
The FY 2009 program is divided into three general categories. A training and technical assistance program, begun in 1990, imposes a four-year limit on all countries for receiving such assistance. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The research and demonstration program initiative that began in 2000 has a three/four-year time limit in order to allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect “best practices” that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome). The coalition and network building program has a three-year time limit per region.
International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) ($17 million): Funds will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell, and San Salvador. Instruction will continue to focus on critical topics such as counter-terrorism, financial crimes, drug trafficking, gang proliferation and human smuggling. Other activities will include continuing to modify curricula for core and specialized curriculum to address emerging international criminal activities, and also continue construction activities for the permanent facility. INL will also continue to develop the ILEA Regional Training Center (RTC) in Peru to augment the delivery of regional-specific training for Latin America.
International Organizations ($4.5 million): In FY 2009, funds will be provided to support programs of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Organization of American States, Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (OAS/CICAD), and will provide for a senior counternarcotics and anti-crime policy officer to be stationed at the U.S. Mission to the European Union (USEU). UNODC programs support strict enforcement of drug control and anti-crime policies including Precursor Chemical Control, implementation of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and its supplementary protocols. Funds will also be provided to the UNODC’s General Purpose Fund, which in part supports the field office infrastructure necessary to implement U.S.-funded projects. Assistance to OAS/CICAD will support the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM), legal development projects, supply reduction efforts, demand reduction and youth projects, and the maintenance of a hemispheric data collection system. The officer assigned to the USEU will work to promote the rapidly expanding law enforcement cooperation between the United States and the European Union in the areas of counternarcotics, justice and security.
Interregional Aviation Support ($55.1 million): In FY 2009, the Interregional Aviation Support (IAS) budget will continue to provide core-level services necessary to operate the current fleet of 165 fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. The IAS program will: continue to provide substantial aerial eradication and Colombian Army (COLAR) aviation support while continuing responsibility and equipment hand-off to the host government; continue to provide logistical and technical support and training to successful, mature aviation programs in Peru and Bolivia; provide critical aviation support to counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan and border security efforts in Pakistan; and will initiate a four helicopter air interdiction program in Guatemala directed against drug trafficking in the transit zone. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. This budget will be augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local U.S. Embassy and cooperating host government missions.
Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative ($4 million): Funds for this program, which is closely coordinated with the Bureau for Political – Military Affairs (PM), will provide support to the Center of Excellence for Stability Policing Units (COESPU), an international training center located in Vicenza, Italy. COESPU uses a “train the trainer” approach and acts as a hub for best practices and international standards development for Formed Police Units (FPU). Funds would support training expenses and other related costs of third country students attending COESPU; and equipment used by COESPU students while attending COESPU training.
Program Development and Support (PD&S) ($20.2 million): Funds will be used for the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL Staff. Funding covers the salaries and benefits of U.S. direct hire employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel. These funds also cover field travel necessary for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are also used to maintain reliable and secure information resource management systems, and for office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, and the purchase of materials, supplies, furniture and equipment.