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Diplomacy in Action

FY 2009 Program and Budget Guide: Andean Counterdrug Program


Report
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 13, 2008

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Bolivia

Budget Summary ($000)

 

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008* Estimate

FY 2009 Request

ACP

66,000

29,757

31,000

INCLE

---

397

---

Total

66,000

30,154

31,000

*FY 2008 is the first year that funding for Alternative Development (AD) is not included in the ACP Account; AD funds will fall under the ESF account from FY 2008 onward.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Fortify law enforcement cooperation and strengthen law enforcement capability in areas such as interdiction, building local support for increased coca control, regulation and eradication, and highlighting the damage to Bolivian society and Bolivia’s neighbors caused by increased coca cultivation, cocaine, and human trafficking.

Increased institutional capability to interdict narcotics and precursors produced within or transiting through Bolivia.

Increased control of the marketing of legal coca and eradication of illicit coca.

Interdiction of at least 16% of Bolivia's potential cocaine production and reduction in the amount of hectares of coca in the country as established by Law 1008.

Increased institutional capability to identify, prevent, and prosecute cases of trafficking in persons and increased public awareness of the threat of trafficking to vulnerable populations in Bolivia.

Strengthen the ministerial National Drug Prevention Coordinating Council (CONALTID) that coordinates the GOB’s anti-drug strategy; develop the coordination and policy development capacity of the Vice Ministries of Social Defense and Integrated Development and Coca.

The Government of Bolivia’s (GOB) policies lead to a net reduction in coca cultivation.

Transformational Diplomacy

Bolivia’s Counternarcotics Program advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding counternarcotics projects designed to reduce the production and distribution of illegal narcotics and precursors in Bolivia, encourage more effective coca control, and support initiatives to explain the dangers of excess coca production, drug production, and consumption to Bolivian society. Bolivia’s weak institutions, history of political exclusion and corruption, endemic poverty and a succession of short-lived governments have created fertile conditions for narcotics traffickers, diverse criminal interests and trafficking in persons. While all three counternarcotics pillars (eradication, interdiction and alternative development) are critical to combating cocaine production and trafficking, the GOB’s permissive coca cultivation policy undercuts one of the three pillars. Therefore, funding is primarily directed towards interdiction and pre-cursor chemical control. We will build local support for more effective coca control and eradication.

Program Justification

Bolivia remains the poorest nation in South America and the third largest producer of illicit coca and cocaine, with serious social and economic problems and regional fragmentation. The policies of President Evo Morales, raise concern over the expansion of coca cultivation in Bolivia and the extent to which the GOB intends to cooperate bilaterally on counternarcotics. Nonetheless, Bolivia's role in illicit drug production merits continued engagement.

The principal challenges facing Bolivia include: the control of coca cultivation especially near and in the Yungas; the need to develop new laws and regulations to control precursor chemicals; and the necessity of new laws to modify the current Code of Criminal Procedures, which handicaps drug case prosecutions. Bolivia has produced coca leaf for traditional uses for centuries, and current Bolivian law permits up to 12,000 hectares of legal coca cultivation (mostly in the Yungas) to supply this licit market. The GOB has proposed to increase this amount to 20,000 hectares, in violation of Law 1008 and the 1988 UN Convention. Significant quantities of cocaine from Peru and Colombia traverse Bolivia to enter Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. An increasing proportion of the cocaine both transiting and produced within Bolivia is destined for Europe, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Mexico (in the case of the last, probably for eventual sale in the United States).

Program Accomplishments

The GOB eradicated 6,269 hectares of coca in 2007 (360 hectares in the Yungas). The Counternarcotics Police Force ‘s (FELCN) interdiction results for 2007 improved over those of 2006, seizing 1,705 metric tons of coca leaf, 17.8 metric tons of cocaine base and cocaine hydrochloride (HCl), 423metric tons of marijuana, 1,435,419 liters of liquid precursors and 653 metric tons of solid precursor chemicals. The FELCN also destroyed 4,076 cocaine base labs and detained 4,268 suspects. In the early part of 2007, USAID, in consultation with GOB counterparts, adjusted its Alternative Development (AD) programs to support the GOB’s net coca rationalization strategy and diversified development more strategically with declining budget resources. USG assistance directly supported the cultivation of 11,475 new hectares of crops such as bananas, cocoa, and palm hearts and the annual value of USAID-promoted exports reached almost $26 million.

In 2007, most USG-supported demand reduction efforts were coordinated with local municipalities and departmental governments. The GOB expanded the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program and implementation of a Drug Demand Reduction Decentralization Project in 20 municipalities which worked to coordinate demand reduction programs at a local level, and a project on accreditation of rehabilitation centers. In cooperation with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the USG supported the second phase of a master’s degree program in drug abuse prevention and rehabilitation for 32 students, implemented a community based drug abuse prevention program reaching 30,000 people, and released a study on prevalence and characteristics of drug use in Bolivian jails.

FY 2009 Program

Interdiction

The Special Counternarcotics Police Force (FELCN) is a Bolivian National Police (BNP) entity (comprising approximately 1,500 personnel) which reports to the Vice Ministry of Social Defense and includes a command staff and UMOPAR (rural patrol units), plus various specialized police groups, including K-9 (drug detection dogs) units and the FOE (Special Operations Force). The FOE comprises some 463 personnel, incorporated from the former intelligence and special operations group, the chemical control group and the money laundering investigations group under one command. It also includes a vetted unit, GRIRMO (mobile roadblocks unit) and GICC (containers investigation group). The FOE provides coordination of counternarcotics operations and initiates action based on real-time intelligence. In FY 2009, funds will provide support for interdiction personnel, including field equipment and maintenance, operational expenses, medical care, and office rental costs. Funds will also go towards incentives, travel, and training, insuring that all interdiction forces have the support required to continue to be effective in the interdiction of illegal drugs and precursor chemicals.

The Garras del Valor School is an academy for training new counternarcotics personnel in basic criminal investigation procedures, the basics of the Bolivian legal system, human rights, and jungle survival skills. The Garras School (16 personnel) also serves as a regional training center for counternarcotics police from other Latin American countries, and thus, promotes regional cooperation. The interdiction project includes support for 71 counternarcotics prosecutors and legal assistants who lead the investigations undertaken by the FELCN elements. Funding will assist in enhancing the effectiveness of the GOB to prosecute narcotics-related cases by providing support for office rentals, computers, communication and other equipment, travel, incentive payments and training. Heretofore, the prosecutors did not have the capability to get out in the field when needed to conduct investigations and related requirements, so funds will also provide 30 vehicles and 29 motorcycles throughout the country. Additionally, funds will support Bolivia’s financial intelligence unit to investigate money laundering and other financial crimes by providing office equipment, communication equipment, and training. INL will also provide 21 vehicles and maintenance support for those and four other vehicles provided by the United Nations.

Eradication

The Joint Eradication Task Force (JTF) consists of approximately 2,000 military, police, and civilian personnel with separate units conducting eradication (including the provision of force protection) in the two zones. The Directorate General for Integral Development of Coca Producing Regions (DIGPROCOCA) supervises the destruction of coca crops and verifies the eradication by helping to measure the fields before and after eradication is to take place. The Ecological Police provide perimeter security for the JTF and locate coca fields to eradicate. Funds will be primarily directed towards interdiction with sufficient eradication support for operations that the GOB is willing to undertake, such as in the national parks, and to maintain eradication resources available for potential increased operations. Assistance will provide food for approximately 1,600 eradicators (including police) in the field, and equipment for 4,500 personnel (three rotations per year), such as uniforms and medical/hygienic supplies. Funds will also be used for medical care, ground transportation support, tents, cooking equipment, and aviation support.

Operational/Logistical Support

The entire range of USG counternarcotics projects rely upon a logistical infrastructure involving airplanes, boats, various land vehicles, helicopters, and a decentralized warehousing and supply system. This extensive support enables eradication and interdiction to operate effectively in the often primitive conditions that characterize Bolivia. FY 2009 assistance for the Operational/Logistical Project will provide the GOB with technical advice, equipment, and training for the Green Devil Task Force (GDTF), the Blue Devil Task Force (BDTF), and Infrastructure (INFRA).

The Green Devils Task Force (GDTF), a unit of 125 Bolivian Army personnel with a fleet of approximately 119 light, medium, and heavy-lift utility and other types of vehicles provided by the USG, provides ground transportation in support to interdiction and eradication operations. FY 2009 support will provide for the repair and maintenance of the fleet of vehicles, including the provision of motors, spare parts, and fuel, as well as personnel support, to include travel costs and economic incentives.

The Blue Devils Task Force (BDTF) is a special unit within the Bolivian Navy consisting of 170 members, six land bases, five mobile bases (each with a large supply ship and various patrol craft) responsible for interdiction across the country’s extensive river system, collecting actionable intelligence, and controlling natural river chokepoints. While we reduced the scale of the project in FY 2008, in FY 2009 the project will need to continue some support for the maintenance and replacement of aged equipment to ensure operational effectiveness of the BDTF. This includes 25 boat motors and 30 Zodiacs, as needed, along with an inventory of 30,000 spare parts.

The Field Support Program (INFRA) supports the operating expenses for Embassy Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) facilities located outside of La Paz (including field offices, procurement, accounting, vehicle maintenance facilities and warehouses in located Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Trinidad, Chimore, and Villa Tunari). This infrastructure provides a common support platform for NAS and DEA-supported activities throughout the country. Assistance in FY 2009 will support administrative and operating expenses not attributable to individual projects, such as personal services contract (PSC) and locally employed staff personnel salaries/benefits, travel, transportation expenses, real property rentals, office supplies, phones/utilities, and other contracted services needed in support of NAS-supported projects within their jurisdictions.

Aviation

This project provides fixed- and rotary-wing aviation logistical support to GOB interdiction and eradication operations. Funds will provide the GOB with technical advice, equipment, and training in support of the Red Devils Task Force and Black Devils Task Force.

Red Devils Task Force (RDTF): The RDTF provides rotary- and small fixed-wing general aviation support for the eradication and interdiction programs. American citizen contractors assist the RDTF with maintenance, quality control, logistics and training, with day-to-day contract oversight. In FY 2009, the project will provide support to GOB forced eradication in the National Parks, and continued limited eradication operations in the Yungas and Chapare. The project supports operations and maintenance for ten UH-1H helicopters and two light fixed-wing aircraft; and supports a qualified force of helicopter pilots, fixed-wing pilots, crew chiefs and support technicians, as well as qualification requirements for maintenance technicians as flying crew chiefs.

Black Devils Task Force (BDTF): The incorporation of a refurbished King Air aircraft into the project’s assets in FY 2009 will enhance the GOB's effectiveness in carrying out interdiction and eradication activities. Other project assets include three C-130B aircraft, that transport project personnel and supplies throughout Bolivia and move RDTF and BDTF spare aircraft parts, supplies and other project equipment to and from the United States. Support includes all maintenance, repairs, spare parts, and required major inspections at U.S. facilities, as well as in-country costs for fuel and per diem, uniforms, equipment and economic incentives for 81 personnel (19 pilots, co-pilots and navigators, and 62 enlisted personnel who provide maintenance support). FY 2009 funds will enable the GOB to maintain a trained, reliable medium-lift-capable aviation unit that provides aviation support to counternarcotics projects, with an operational rate of 90 percent of requested missions; and support an American PSC who provides technical assistance, four technicians who supervise maintenance, and a locally employed staff warehouseman to maintain control of the multi-million dollar spare parts inventory.

Policy Development/Demand Reduction

The ministerial-level National Drug Control Council (CONALTID) is the GOB’s central policy-making body for counternarcotics. The Vice Ministries of Social Defense and Coca, Foreign Affairs and Cultures Integrated Development are the most significant contributors towards these policies. This project supports the operations of these entities by providing technical advice, equipment, training, consulting and other support.

This project also supports demand reduction activities, focusing principally on enabling civil society, through training and other interventions, to provide basic rehabilitation, diagnostic centers, and other services the public sector remains incapable of delivering. The project also supports the DARE program, which will seek to reach more than 45,000 middle school students in a broader base of cities. FY 2009 assistance will also support technical schools in coca growing regions, and innovative departmental demand reduction programs such as training in drug abuse prevention, and university degree programs in demand reduction.

This project also has a public affairs component that promotes compliance with international standards on drug issues, provides accurate information on counternarcotics questions and policies to the media, enhances the professionalism of the media (especially on drug-related themes) and helps generate information useful to the interests of the USG. FY 2009 assistance will support national contests for preventive theater, programs for journalists, workshops, and a toll-free telephone hotline to field questions and requests for information.

Trafficking in Persons (TIP)

INCLE funds will be used to assist the GOB in strengthening law enforcement and the rule of law to interrupt TIP national and transnational crime networks. Project funds will be allocated to prevention programs, including television and radio spots, and a telephone line; training for prosecutors, police, judges, and government and school officials; equipment; infrastructure such as shelters for victims and more police TIP units; and legal services support including tracking cases as they move through the Bolivian justice system.

Administration of Justice

The Law Enforcement Training and Developing Program will continue to provide both training and development to the Bolivian National Police (BNP) forces throughout the country. During 2007, as an example, this program coordinated the delivery of 56 courses, which provided training to just almost 3,000 BNP officers and drug prosecutors in areas such as basic and advanced criminal investigation, immediate action, advanced interview techniques, criminalistics, and human rights. In addition, funds provided technical assistance and equipment to the BNP to further developing their institutional capabilities. The Prosecutor Program will continue to develop the capabilities of the GOB’s counternarcotics prosecutors. This program is being expanded to include support, training and technical assistance to the GOB’s Public Ministry's Fiscals that will significantly approve this institution’s capabilities to investigate and prosecute criminal cases.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Bolivia
INL BUDGET
($000)
  

FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2009
Interdiction

FELCN, UMOPAR, GIOE, GISUQ, GIAEF, K9, Garras School, Prosecutors
14,646
-
10,648
10,648

OPR, LEDP
1,000
-
-
-

Operational/Logistical Support (BDTF, GDTF, Field Support)
2,872
-
3,533
3,533

Aviation (RDTF, BlkDTF, Helo Upgrade (if applicable))
3,324
-
3,957
3,957

Sub Total
21,842
-
18,138
18,138
Eradication

JTF, Eco Police, DIRECO, DIGECO
4,200
-
4,175
4,418

Operational/Logistical Support (BDTF, GDTF, Field Support)

2,128
-
1,467
1,467

Aviation (RDTF, BlkDTF, Helo Upgrade (if applicable))
2,216
-
1,643
1,643

Sub Total
8,544
7,285
7,528
Demand Reduction
600
-
534
534

VM/SD, Demand Reduction

Money Laundering
214
-
-
-

LEDP, FIU Development

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
808
-
808
808

Non-U.S. Personnel
1,287
-
1,304
1,304

ICASS Costs
800
-
800
800

Program Support
905
-
888
888

Sub Total
3,800
-
3,800
3,800
Administration of Justice * ** ***
3,000
-
-
400
Alternative Development * ** ***
28,000
-
-
-
Trafficking in Persons ****
-
-
-
600
Total

66,000
-
29,757
31,000
*
In FY 2007, funds are transferred to USAID who manages these programs.
**
Beginning in FY 2008 Alternative Development managed under Economic Support Funds (ESF).
***
In FY 2008, AOJ and AD funding comes out of the ESF Account.
****
In FY 2008, trafficking-in-persons is funded out of the INCLE account for $397,000.


Brazil

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

4,000

992

1,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Assistance to the Government of Brazil (GOB) is focused on building up and strengthening Brazil’s interagency law enforcement and drug interdiction operations. Support will also enhance federal, state, civil, and military law enforcement capabilities by providing operational support, training, and equipment to conduct more effective investigations and interdiction operations against international narcotics organizations. Specifically, assistance will:

Enable the GOB to dismantle and/or disrupt major drug trafficking organizations that operate in and/or through Brazil and have criminal ties to the United States;

Increase the number of bilateral and multi-lateral drug investigations that Brazil participates in, leading to an increase in drugs and assets seized by the Brazilian Federal Police;

Provide training to enhance GOB port and airport security which will be reflected by an increase in the number of arrests and drug seizures;

Improve the ability of federal and state law enforcement authorities to combat gang activities, such as drug and weapons trafficking, and prison violence.

Transformational Diplomacy

The counternarcotics program in Brazil advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by strengthening Brazil’s ability to combat narco-trafficking and gang violence, and by promoting demand reduction. In pursuit of this goal, assistance to Brazil will focus on strengthening interdiction operations and enabling the Brazilian law enforcement authorities to operate more efficiently and eventually become self-sustaining. Assistance will also directly target state police forces and the Public Security Secretariat (SENASP) to combat the increasingly violent gang activity in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and other states.

Program Justification

Brazil is a transit country for cocaine and cocaine base originating from Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia and going to North America and Europe, as well as the Brazilian domestic market. Brazil cooperates with its neighbors in an attempt to control its remote and expansive border areas where illicit drugs are transported. Additionally, cocaine and marijuana are used among youths in the country's cities, particularly Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, where powerful and heavily-armed organized drug gangs are involved in narcotics-related arms trafficking. By assisting Brazil to improve its law enforcement capabilities, the United States will diminish the flow of illicit drugs passing through Brazil to the United States, as well as have an impact on illegal arms shipments and money laundering in Brazil.

Program Accomplishments

In 2007, the Brazilian Federal Police (DPF) seized 15.9 metric tons (MT) of cocaine and 566 kilograms (kg) of crack and 1.2 MT of cocaine base. Marijuana seizures totaled 161.1 MT in 2007. The DPF also seized10 kg of heroin. The DPF had a number of successes in 2007 against foreign narcotrafficking organizations operating within Brazilian territory. The most significant of which was the capture in Sao Paulo of Juan Carlos Ramirez-Abadia, a notorious Colombian drug cartel leader whose multi-billion dollar drug and money laundering ring stretches from the United States to Europe. Several million dollars’ worth of assets was seized in the raid. The GOB also broke up Mexican and Colombian groups involved in sending heroin to the United States and is now targeting groups that sell prescription drugs illegally, including those illegal sold via the internet. Following a six-month investigation, in February 2007 the DPF dismantled an ecstasy lab – believed to the be the first in Brazil – in the state of Goias, and seized approximately 30,000 tablets estimated to be worth $450,000. The DPF played a major role in "Operation Seis Fronteras,” a multi-country operation aimed at disrupting the illegal flow of precursor chemicals in the region. The GOB also supported "Operation Alliance" with Brazilian and Paraguayan counterdrug interdiction forces in the Paraguayan-Brazilian border area.

FY 2009 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

This project will contribute the additional resources and training needed to enhance BFP effectiveness in its counternarcotics efforts. Funding will support training by various USG agencies on arms trafficking. Additionally, funds will provide equipment, such as bullet-proof vests, communications equipments and GPS devices that will help protect Brazilian law enforcement personnel and improve their capabilities in remote areas.

State Security Law Enforcement

Funds from this project will assist SENASP and various state-level civil and military police forces by providing training and equipment for use in conducting investigations and interdiction operations against gangs and narcotics cartel leaders and their associates.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Brazil
INL BUDGET
($000)

 

FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2009
Interdiction

Federal Police Enforcement & Training
876
-
100
100

Northern Brazil Law Enforcement
943
-
100
100

State Security Law Enforcement
900
-
92
100

Sub-Total
2,719
-
292
300
Demand Control & Demand Reduction
581
-
-
-
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
176
-
160
180

Non-U.S. Personnel
160
-
160
165

ICASS Costs
170
-
185
180

Program Support
194
-
195
175

Sub-Total
700
-
700
700
Total

4,000
-
992
1,000


Colombia

Budget Summary ($000)

   

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008* Estimate

FY 2009 Request

ACP

465,000

244,618

329,557

INCLE

---

41,907

---

CFSP

61,035

(38,982)**

(45,000)

Total

526,035

286,526

329,557

* FY 2008 is the first year that funding for Alternative Development (AD) is not included in the ACP account, AD funds will fall under the ESF account from FY 2008 onward.

** The Critical Flight Safety Program (CFSP) was merged into Colombia’s ACP budget in FY2008.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Disrupt Illicit Drugs

Maintain operational tempo of aerial spraying while supporting the Government of Colombia’s (GOC) increasing manual eradication efforts, particularly in areas where aerial spraying is not practical or possible; counter the rapid replanting and pruning of coca; and ensure that cultivation in border areas, national parks and indigenous reserves is addressed.

Reduction of coca cultivation and opium poppy to a non-commercial level.

Assist Colombia’s fight against narcoterrorists, drug cartels and emerging criminal gangs.

Interdiction of cocaine and heroin at current high levels until production has been more severely reduced.

Drug producing laboratories are identified and destroyed to prevent the processing of cocaine and heroin and to deny funding to drug traffickers and narcoterrorists.

Increased GOC control in the Pacific coastal zones.

Provide technical assistance and training to GOC law enforcement.

The GOC is able to investigate, arrest, prosecute, and convict more narcoterrorists.

Extradition of more major narcotraffickers to the United States.

Strengthen Institutions

Enhance rule of law throughout Colombia and increase access and transparency of new accusatorial judicial system.

Police presence is enhanced in conflictive areas to reinforce government presence.

More judges, prosecutors and investigators trained to operate within the oral accusatory system of justice.

More former paramilitary and narcoterrorists are demobilized and reintegrated into society or prosecuted.

Improved asset forfeiture regime has a shortened period from seizure to liquidation and improved distribution of proceeds, particularly among law enforcement agencies.

Nationalization

Continue to transfer greater operational and financial responsibility to the GOC for counternarcotics and rule of law programs and continue to build local capacity to assume new tasks.

Ensured sustainability of programs nationalized.

Transformational Diplomacy

Peace and Security: In recent years, there have been a number of notable successes in the stabilization and growth of Colombia as a modern, economically developing democracy. Murder rates have declined over 40 percent since 2002, and kidnappings have plummeted 76 percent. Increased security has helped economic growth, which includes a 20 percent decline in poverty since 2002, and a Government presence in all 1,099 municipalities has improved freedom of movement and security along roads and highways. More than 45,000 combatants, mostly paramilitaries, have laid down their arms and most are participating in GOC reintegration programs.

INL assistance to Colombia’s military, police and judicial institutions in FY 2009 will help provide the security and stability necessary for continued socio-economic development. Funds will be devoted to supporting Colombia’s aerial and manual eradication of illegal crops, interdicting drugs and providing training for both the military and police so that local institutional capacity will allow a sustainable transfer and nationalization of many of these programs.

Governing Justly & Democratically: Colombia’s transition to a new accusatorial judicial system was implemented country-wide in January 2008. U.S. programs will continue to support the effective implementation and operation of the new justice system, including training for police and judicial personnel. Training and technical assistance will also be provided to support GOC investigation and prosecution of human rights abuse cases and complex forensic investigations.

Program Justification

Colombia remains a strong ally, and FY 2009 assistance will focus on supporting Colombia’s fight against drug traffickers, narcoterrorists and criminal gangs. Colombia remains the supplier of roughly 90 percent of the cocaine and a large quantity of the heroin entering the United States. Aggressive disruption of the illicit drug trade, therefore, remains a top USG priority. The funding requested in FY 2009 will continue to consolidate the successes of the Plan Colombia Emergency Supplemental of 2000 and the subsequent funding programs. It will also be used to further develop and strengthen the GOC’s institutions, a necessary prerequisite for Colombia’s full ownership of USG-supported programs.

Program Accomplishments

Colombia’s USG-supported aerial and manual eradication programs eliminated almost 220,000 hectares of coca in 2007, spraying 153,133 hectares of coca and manually eradicating another 66,396 hectares. While more resources were shifted towards manual eradication, total eradication remained at record levels. Colombia also eradicated about 375 hectares of opium poppy in 2007.

Colombia interdicted 191.3 metric tons of cocaine and cocaine base in 2007, an increase of over 7 percent versus 2006. Additionally, sustained actions against coca refining operations resulted in the destruction of 2,875 rustic cocaine base labs and 240 major cocaine HCl labs in 2007. Major cocaine HCl labs can produce tons of cocaine a year.

The USG continued to support the Air Bridge Denial (ABD) program, which has completed its fourth year of operations. The ABD program is responsible for the significant decrease in illegal flights over Colombia, from 637 suspected and known illegal flights over Colombia in 2003 to only 171 in 2007, a decrease of more than 73 percent. The program had six law enforcement actions in 2007, resulting in the capture of one aircraft, two boats and two vehicles, the seizure of 1.2 metric tons of cocaine, the destruction of an estimated two metric tons of cocaine, and seven arrests.

The GOC achieved significant success against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) leadership in 2007. Over a dozen mid-to-high level FARC commanders were killed or apprehended, including FARC 16th Front leader, Tomas Molina Caracas, alias ‘Negro Acacio.’ Molina Caracas was considered a Consolidated Priority Organization Target (CPOT) by the USG and was one of 50 FARC commanders indicted in the United States in March 2006 for allegedly running the country’s largest cocaine smuggling organization. Several other notorious drug cartel kingpins were apprehended, including FBI Top Ten Fugitive Diego Leon Montoya Sanchez, alias ‘Don Diego,’ of the Norte de Valle cartel.

Colombia’s justice system officially converted to an oral accusatorial system similar to that of the U.S. in January 2008. Although many cases already initiated must be adjudicated under the old system, the new system has allowed criminal cases to be resolved in months instead of years, and conviction rates have risen from less than three percent to over sixty percent under the new system. This new judicial system is strengthening Colombia’s ability to bring to justice narcotraffickers, narcoterrorists, and other criminals.

The GOC extradited a record 164 defendants in 2007, including Luis Gomez-Bustamante, alias ‘Rasguño,’ Aldemar Rendon Ramirez, Hernan Prada-Cortes, Juan Manuel Bernal-Palacios, and CPOT Ricardo Mauricio Bernal-Palacios. In addition, the GOC extradited AUC leader Hector Rodriguez. Overall, since December 1987, when Colombia revised its domestic law to permit the extradition of Colombian nationals, 647 individuals have been extradited to the United States, 581 since President Uribe assumed office in 2002.

Since 2002, the GOC estimates over 45,000 persons have demobilized - 14,000 under the individual desertion program and over 31,000 AUC (paramilitary) under the collective program. AUC members who chose not to demobilize, as well as those who do not qualify for the demobilization program, will continue to be investigated and prosecuted under normal Colombian law. In 2007, FARC desertion increased over 50 percent compared to 2006.

FY 2009 Program

Colombian Army (COLAR) Counterdrug Mobile Brigade

Support to the Colombian Army Counterdrug Mobile Brigade (COLAR CD) consists of rations, force protection material, ammunition, communications, weapons repair and maintenance, training, transportation, medical, canines, and mine detecting equipment. The COLAR CD Brigade directly supports aerial eradication missions in Colombia by increasing ground security in spray zones, which has greatly reduced ground fire targeting spray aircraft. The CD Brigade also conducts operations against high-value narcoterrorist targets in the areas to be sprayed, including attacking known FARC, ex-AUC, and National Liberation Army, Colombia (ELN) concentrations, conducting drug interdiction operations and destroying cocaine processing labs, storage facilities, and precursor chemicals.

Colombian Army Aviation Support (COLAR)

The ability to operate in remote regions of Colombia is an integral part of combating the growth of illegal drugs and assisting the GOC in its efforts to solidify its presence throughout the country. In FY 2009, funding for COLAR aviation will go toward providing the Colombian Army the air mobility to operate in remote locations and support interdiction, eradication, high-value target and humanitarian operations. There are currently 52 active INL-supported Plan Colombia helicopters within the Army’s Aviation Brigade, which helps support counternarcotics operations conducted by the CD Brigade and other human rights vetted units. Funds for this program will provide maintenance and logistics support to COLAR aviation aircraft and continue nationalization efforts to train more Colombian pilots and mechanics.

Air Bridge Denial (ABD)

This program provides the logistical and technical support to assist the Colombian Air Force (COLAF) in monitoring its airspace and interdicting unauthorized flights in coordination with COLAR and CNP Aviation units. These funds will provide continued operational and maintenance support for five Cessna Citation 560 and two C-26 aircraft. It will also provide continued training for Colombian aircrews and ground and air safety monitors. Costs of replacement and refresher training of COLAF pilots are also included as are the required logistical support to upgrade and maintain locations where USG personnel are based. The nationalization of the ABD program is moving forward, and a two-year withdrawal of USG maintenance support should be completed by December 2009.

Navy Maritime Interdiction

Funds will support the expansion and operations of a special Colombian Navy unit developed to conduct clandestine coastal interdiction operations against narcotraffickers and narcoterrorists shipping illegal drugs from Colombia’s seacoasts. The importance of a strong GOC naval interdiction unit remains a critical component to stopping drugs before they reach their destination, particularly as traffickers use more sophisticated means, such as semi-submersible vessels. Support for this unit is shared by the GOC, the United Kingdom and United States. The Colombian Navy provides personnel and operational and logistical support, and the U.S. and UK provide specialized training, logistical support, and equipment.

In FY2005, the three country partners began a five-year plan to expand this unit’s ability to cover the entire Caribbean coast, as well as the Pacific coast where more than 50 percent of cocaine departs. The desired end state will be three units, with 50 personnel each, based in three locations throughout Colombia. Each unit will be capable of conducting independent reconnaissance and assault operations. The Caribbean coast portion of this program is in the sustainment phase and the primary focus is now on the Pacific theater.

Colombian National Police Aviation Support (ARAVI)

This program directly supports the counternarcotics and counterterrorism mission of the Aviation Wing (ARAVI) of the Colombian Antinarcotics Police (DIRAN). The USG-supported ARAVI program is one of the most flexible and responsive aviation programs in Colombia, providing transport aircraft, aerial and manual eradication escorts, logistical support, and intelligence platforms for interdiction and eradication operations. Funds will support a fleet of approximately 49 rotary-wing and 13 fixed-wing ARAVI aircraft. Funds for this program will cover ongoing logistical expenses and the maintenance of aircraft, and continue to improve the capabilities of DIRAN in the areas of communications, intelligence and data processing. Other assistance will be training for CNP mechanics and the purchase of spare parts, tools, contract labor maintenance, training, and aviation-related infrastructure costs. Funds will also supply ammunition and armament, communications, and facilities refurbishment, renovation, and improvement projects.

Colombian National Police Support for Eradication

Funds will provide for operations and maintenance for the eradication air fleet (13 AT-802 spray planes, 15 UH-1N helicopters, 4 C-27 cargo planes and 2 Cessna 208s) that support both aerial and manual eradication. Funds will also be used to purchase herbicide for the spraying of coca, support contract costs, conduct environmental monitoring, purchase equipment for manual eradication, and cover operational expenses associated with the detection and aerial and manual eradication of illicit crops as well as the verification of the efficacy of spray and manual eradication missions.

Resources will be used to contract spray pilots, helicopter crews, maintenance, operations, logistics and safety personnel, train host country pilots, contract host country national and American personal services contractors (PSC) to provide accounting, end use monitoring and oversight of the eradication program. Additional funding will be dedicated to enhancing aerial surveillance though cameras mounted on CNP aircraft, which will help increase eradication efficiency and provide better data on the habits of coca growers.

Colombian National Police Support for Interdiction

As with eradication, interdiction programs are a necessary component of making the illicit drug trade unsustainable in Colombia. The majority of expenditures under this program go directly to commodities and training that enhance the ability of the CNP to interdict illicit drugs inside Colombia. Funds will also be used to improve and strengthen bases that support interdiction operations throughout Colombia. USG assistance in FY 2009 will also continue to support training at U.S. military and commercial institutions for the CNP’s Anti-Narcotics Directorate (DIRAN) 20 operational companies and three airmobile interdiction companies (Junglas). The project will also focus on integration of DIRAN’s intelligence and communications architecture with that of the larger CNP, the Colombian military, and ensuring connections with the U.S. intelligence community. Support is also provided to DIRAN’s air and seaport group that was formed to interdict drugs transiting through Colombia’s commercial air and sea ports.

Carabineros (Rural Police)

The effect of a multi-year plan to reestablish government security in former conflict zones is producing positive results. Rural Colombia is a much safer place than it was in 2002. The movement and supply corridors of the FARC and other illegal armed groups have been disrupted, entire terrorist units have been dismantled, and internally displaced persons are returning to their towns and farms. In addition, 68 Carabinero squadrons (120-man mobile rural police units), which included 14 units assigned to DIRAN to protect manual eradicators, have been established. FY 2009 funds will be used to train and equip police to be stationed in new areas or dangerous areas as well as support the 120-man mobile “Carabineros” squadrons, which also provide significant protection for manual eradicators. Equipment purchases will include field equipment, light weapons and munitions, radios that will integrate Carabinero squadrons and police stations with the CNP network, medical supplies, and ongoing maintenance and replacement for mine detectors and bomb detection dogs. Funds will also be used to improve base security for high-risk stations, which includes defensive walls, bunkers and sandbags. Funds will also provide for approximately 30 transport trucks and 270 motorcycles to improve police mobility. Additional funds will be needed to support training, including at the CNP national field training center near Espinal, and for U.S.-based training courses that provide instruction on human rights, tactics, officer and non-commissioned officer development, intelligence and logistics management. The Espinal training center houses both the Carabineros training course and various counternarcotics police training courses, including the Junglas course.

Judicial Reforms Program

Although Colombia has made the transition to the new accusatorial judicial system, additional training and technical assistance for police, judges and prosecutors in the new procedures will continue to be needed in FY 2009 to ensure the enormous effort to initiate the new system is solidified. This significant and dramatic change is a process which will need to be monitored, encouraged and assisted, particularly with respect to adjustments and focus on complex crimes. There has already been significant progress in shortening the length of time to resolve criminal cases and increasing conviction numbers and rates, and the Department of Justice (DOJ)-Administered Justice Sector Reform Program (JSRP) will continue to assist the GOC in this process. FY 2009 funds will support provision of significant training and technical assistance in complex areas of criminal investigations, such as money laundering, asset forfeiture, and organized crime investigations. DOJ will also support the GOC’s Fiscalia Human Rights Unit, which is tasked with investigating and prosecuting human rights cases, including labor cases. Assistance will include training in relevant international human rights law, managing crime scenes, investigation and prosecutorial techniques as well as enhancing forensic capabilities, particularly in the area of exhumations and the identification of victim remains. In addition to the training, equipment will be provided such as computers, vehicles, crime scene kits and forensic equipment. DOJ, USAID, and other USG agencies will provide the assistance needed to strengthen the justice system and its institutions.

Other Programs to Promote the Rule of Law

Rule of Law (ROL) programs cover a wide array of activities, including support for the reinsertion of demobilized militants, combating financial crimes, and increasing awareness of the dangers of illegal narcotics and importance of a lawful, democratic society. USG support for the Reinsertion of Armed Groups will help network the GOC’s desertion and demobilization program by providing training and equipment for this GOC Ministry of Defense initiative. To increase the GOC’s ability to go after the illegal proceeds of drug traffickers and other financial crimes, the U.S. seeks to increase its training and technical assistance to GOC investigative and prosecutorial units, focusing on combating money laundering and other financial crimes. To help Colombian officials educate their citizens about the dangers of illegal narcotics, funds will provide training, equipment and educational materials to GOC to support drug prevention programs. Additionally, the USG-backed Culture of Lawfulness initiative will continue its efforts to educate parents, teachers and Colombian police on the role of a citizen within a democratic, lawful society.

Critical Flight Safety Program

The primary objective of the multi-year Critical Flight Safety Program (CFSP) is to ensure aircrew and aircraft safety, specifically structural integrity, of the aircraft operated by INL in Colombia. Upon completion of this program the Department will have ensured to the best of its ability that the INL aviation fleet will not suffer loss of life or valuable aviation resources due to structural fatigue and aging aircraft. The secondary objective of the Critical Flight Safety Plan is to refurbish 30-year old, Vietnam-era military aircraft to a modern commercially supportable standard, thereby making them less costly to operate, easier to maintain, more reliable and easier to nationalize. The CFSP will increase safety for aircrews and personnel flying in these aircraft; extend the service life of these aircraft, maximizing their value; control or potentially eliminate large increases in maintenance and part costs; make aircraft commercially supportable; and increase operational readiness and sustain mission success.

In FY 2009, funds will be used to perform at least four UH-1N service life extensions (major refurbishments), two Huey-II helicopter modifications, rewiring on selected Huey-II helicopters and initiate Depot Level Maintenance programs for UH-60, C-208, and C-27 aircraft. This extensive work, including labor, parts/components, and materials will be accomplished using INL’s aviation support contract and subcontracts and will benefit the CNP aerial eradication and Colombian Army aviation programs.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Colombia

INL BUDGET
($000)

FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2009
Support to the Colombia Military

Army Counterdrug Mobile Brigade
2,200
-
2,200
2,000

Army Aviation Support
104,080
-
51,898
93,892

Air Bridge Denial Program
15,800
-
10,048
10,000

Navy Maritime Interdiction Support
1,000
-
1,000
1,000

Sub-Total
123,080
-
65,146
106,892
Support to Colombian National Police

Aviation Support
69,000
-
52,520
60,446

Support For Eradication
81,950
-
63,980
64,232

Support For Interdiction
16,500
-
16,500
15,000

Administrative Support
1,000
-
-
-

Sub-Total
168,450
-
133,000
139,678
Carabineros
18,650
-
-
19,247
Judicial Reforms Program
6,754
-
-
9,500
Individual Deserter Program
500
-
-
500
Demand Reduction
500
-
-
211
Culture of Lawfulness
250
-
-
250
Money Laundering
250
-
-
879

Sub-Total
26,904
-
-
30,587
Program, Development & Support

U.S. Personnel
1,915
-
2,252
2,300

LES
2,696
-
3,000
1,800

ICASS Costs
938
-
1,700
1,200

Program Support
1,851
-
538
2,100

Sub-Total
7,400
-
7,490
7,400
NAS Sub-Total
325,834
-
205,636
284,557
Critical Flight Safety
61,035
-
38,982
45,000
Alternative Development (USAID)

Support for Democracy
24,774
-
-
-

Alternative Development
68,192
-
-
-

Support for Vulnerable Groups/IDP
31,050
-
-
-

Demobilization and Reintegration
15,150
-
-
-
AID Sub-Total
139,166
-
-
-
Counternarcotics Total
526,035
-
244,618
329,557
INCLE Funding **
41,907

Rule of Law Program
39,428

CNP Manual Eradiction Support (transfer from ACP)
2,479

*
Beginning in FY 2008 Alternative Development managed under Economic Support Funds (ESF)
**
Congress redirected ACP funds specifically for ROL programs under the INCLE account; of which all but $496K (includes rescission) was earmarked limiting ability to continue funding the Carabineros program.


Ecuador

Budget Summary ($000)

 

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008* Estimate

FY 2009 Request

ACP

17,300

6,943

7,200

INCLE

---

99

---

Total

17,300

7,042

7,200

* FY 2008 is the first year that funding for Alternative Development (AD) is not included in the ACP account, AD funds will fall under the ESF account from FY 2008 onward.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Interdiction

Strengthen Ecuadorian National Police (ENP) and military forces in order to dismantle major drug trafficking organizations.

Increased ENP presence to ensure effective control of airports, seaports, and land routes used by traffickers to transport illegal narcotics and precursor chemicals;

Enhanced interdiction operations by the Ecuadorian military along land and maritime borders with improved mobility, communications and technical operations.

Criminal Justice Development

Strengthen the capacity of the Ecuadorian justice sector to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes and implement the comprehensive money laundering law.

Justice sector reforms are implemented to more efficiently prosecute cases;

Government institutions are able to better combat drug and other organized crime groups because Ecuadorian police and military personnel have the required knowledge and skills; police, prosecutors and judges have a common understanding of permissible and best-practice investigatory techniques; documentation and evidentiary requirements; and oral testimony and other necessary elements to conduct more successful investigations and prosecutions of significant drug cases under the new code of criminal procedures.

Money laundering and precursor chemical controls are implemented with greater specialized expertise, resulting in increased prosecutions and convictions for violations.

Transformational Diplomacy

Ecuador has been a cooperative partner in the fight against narco-trafficking, regional terrorism and trafficking in persons. Maintaining a military and police presence on the Northern Border has disrupted Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) logistical support and counternarcotics activities. The Government of Ecuador (GOE) has also cooperated with the Northern Border development programs which strengthen local governments and provide alternative sources of income to illicit, FARC-related activities. USG continued engagement with and support for Ecuadorian central and local governments and police and military forces are key to advancing our objectives of stability and security in Ecuador. Ecuador has become an increasingly important transit route for Colombian cocaine, but has so far avoided the growth in coca cultivation affecting its neighbors.

A majority of U.S. counternarcotics assistance will be allocated for interdiction efforts. Project funds will bolster police interdiction operations which are responsible for nearly all of the drug seizures in Ecuador, improve mobility for military units conducting counternarcotics operations, which is essential to discouraging and counteracting incursions by Colombian insurgents on the northern border, and support police and judicial training programs. Assistance will also combat alien smuggling and trafficking in persons. Because Ecuador has a dollarized economy, it is an attractive site for money-laundering by international criminal organizations. Assistance will help train Ecuadorian law enforcement authorities to detect money laundering and other illegal financial transactions. Judicial institutions will train police, prosecutors and judges for their roles under the revised criminal procedures, and USG programs seek to increase awareness of the dangers of drug abuse and to disseminate proper information about abuse prevention through demand reduction programs.

Program Justification

Ecuador is a major transit country for illicit drugs trafficked to the United States and chemical precursors for drug production. While the GOE is actively combating illegal narcotics activities, drug traffickers from Colombia and Peru continue to take advantage of large, sparsely populated border regions and difficult-to-monitor maritime routes to move cocaine, heroin and precursor chemicals through Ecuador. In 2007, the GOE identified cocaine laboratories capable of refining multi-ton quantities of cocaine, and police and military units destroyed several multi-hectare plots of coca plants near the Colombian border. Persistent narcotics activity by Colombian armed insurgent groups has rendered Ecuador's northern border region particularly vulnerable.

In 2007, traffickers attempted to transport, by private aircraft, more than three tons of cocaine from northern Ecuador to Mexico. There was a significant increase in land seizures of cocaine in 2007 over previous years; maritime seizures of multi-ton loads of cocaine were down from the previous two years but still well above historic levels. Protocols that streamline boarding procedures established between the United States and Ecuador in 2006 continue facilitated maritime interdictions. Uneven implementation of the criminal procedures code and a slow and sometimes corrupt judicial system hamper prosecutions, although there was some progress in this area in 2007.

While Ecuador generally cooperates with the United States in the fight against narco-trafficking and regional terrorism, drug trafficking has steadily increased in recent years. Ecuador’s law enforcement and border control programs are inadequate to deal with this growing trend, and weak institutions, widespread corruption and an unstable government further impede progress. The ENP and military forces are inadequately equipped and trained to deal with international criminal or insurgent pressures.

Program Accomplishments

Under President Rafael Correa’s administration, the GOE has taken a tougher stance on combating narco-trafficking by implementing new policies and programs and by increasing police and military operations, particularly on the northern border. The Ecuadorian Armed Forces conducted seventeen operations in 2007 compared to just nine in 2006. This led to the discovery and destruction of three cocaine producing laboratories, 47 FARC camps, the eradication of 36 hectares of coca, and the confiscation of weapons, communications equipment and other support equipment.

Responding to higher levels of maritime seizures in recent years, drug traffickers are changing their tactics, resorting to alternative methods of transport, including by air and in liquid form, while also increasing their quantities per shipment. While total seizures by the GOE decreased slightly, land-based seizures hit record levels.

The National Drug Council (CONSEP) is implementing changes to improve the agency’s drug abuse prevention programs and the management and disposal of seized assets. Shortly after taking office, President Correa appointed the previous Director of the Anti-Narcotics Police (DNA) as Commanding General of the National Police, which has helped give anti-narcotics higher visibility. The new Director of the National Postal System improved anti-narcotics controls at international postal facilities by installing USG-purchased screening equipment and signing an agreement with the DNA to ensure increased canine screening at the postal facilities.

USG assistance in 2007 included providing new counternarcotics facilities, such as a pier at an Ecuadorian Marine base and a provincial DNA headquarters; alternative crop development; helping facilitate the military and DNA’s mobility and communications abilities; and promoting better cooperation between the military and the police. USG assistance to the judicial sector produced the first ever automated database of criminal cases in Ecuador. INL also continued to support the startup of a Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) and the formation and training of other police investigative units.

These increased efforts contributed to the discovery and destruction of three cocaine producing labs; the destruction of coca plants at two locations; and the confiscation of weapons, go-fast vessels, communications equipment and other auxiliary equipment. Total seizures for the GOE in 2007 were 22.45 metric tones of cocaine, 180 kg of heroin, and 740 kg of cannabis.

FY 2009 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Police Operations: This project is responsible for nearly all of the land-based drug seizures in Ecuador. USG assistance is helping to expand police presence throughout Ecuador by providing operational and administrative support. Project funding will support the Counternarcotics Police Directorate (DNA), which includes the Special Mobile Anti-Drug Group (GEMA), port and canine operations; travel and investigative expenses of the anti-smuggling police unit; acquisition of law enforcement and communications equipment; vehicle acquisition, maintenance, repair and operational costs; and the cost of providing a port advisor from the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency (DHS/CBP).

Police Facilities Support: Funds will give the DNA much greater presence in critical areas of the country by maintaining and upgrading DNA bases located in sensitive outlying locations. Funding will upgrade inspection facilities and living quarters, which will enable the GOE to maintain units at key interdiction points on the northern, southern and maritime borders as well as major roadways connecting the border with Ecuadorian ports.

Police and Judicial Training: Law enforcement training is essential to improving the detection and seizure of drugs and drug-related contraband. There is a continuing need to professionalize the anti-narcotics police with basic and advanced training emphasizing ground and airborne field operations, intelligence methods, and cargo and personnel inspection techniques. This training will include to the extent possible inter-operational courses with military forces having counternarcotics-related missions. Funds will build on the experience and the trained personnel base developed in the foregoing years to extend and refine training for judges, prosecutors and judicial police in implementation of the new criminal code. It will emphasize practical application of the criminal code in areas such as chain of evidence, forensic science, and oral trial practice. Strong emphasis will also be given to training in proper implementation of the comprehensive money laundering law.

Money Laundering and Chemical Control: Ecuador’s dollarized economy and weak banking controls allows for the bulk currency to enter and leave the country with little or no control. In order to combat this problem, the GOE approved a draft comprehensive money laundering law in 2005. USG assistance will support the formation, training and operations of the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU), a key aspect of effectively implementing the money laundering law. The country also produces chemical precursors and is a transit corridor for diverted chemicals. U.S. law enforcement officials generally believe that the illicit traffic in chemicals in Ecuador is greater than indicated by the relatively small volume of chemicals seized. In FY 2009, USG support will assist the GOE establish chemical control units through training and provision of equipment.

Border and Coastal Control

To discourage and counteract production and trafficking of narcotics by armed insurgents, particularly on the northern border, the Ecuadorian armed forces, which is often the only official presence, must be able to effectively react to illegal activities and strike targets based on developed intelligence. FY 2009 funding will provide operational support, vehicles, and field equipment to the Ecuadorian Coast Guard and military units conducting counternarcotics missions. This support will increase mobility and also give these forces the ability to rapidly deploy to remote areas, particularly along the northern and maritime borders. A priority will be placed on integrating anti-narcotics police into military operations against counternarcotics targets in order to initiate judicial proceedings from evidence obtained in the operations.

Program Development & Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances and travel of direct hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, residential leasing, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs and other administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Ecuador
INL BUDGET
($000)

FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2009
Interdiction

Police Operations
3,000
-
2,693
3,300

Police Facilities Support
500
-
1,600
855

Police and Judicial Training
1,100
-
770
855

Military Border and Coastal Control
3,000
-
950
1,360

Sub-Total
7,600
-
6,013
6,370
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction
60
40
-
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering

Money Laundering/Chemical Control
440
-
90
200

Sub-Total
440
-
90
200
Alternative Development
8,400
-
*
*
Program Development and Support
800
-
800
630
Counternarcotics Total
17,300
-
6,943
7,200
*Alternative Development now managed under Economic Support Funds (ESF)

INCLE Funding **

Trafficking in Persons

**
In FY 2008, trafficking-in-persons was funded out of the INCLE account for $99,000.


Panama

FY 2007 ActualFY 2008 EstimateFY 2009 Request

4,000

992

1,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Enhance the Government of Panama’s (GOP) interdiction capability to disrupt the regional flow of illicit drugs, chemicals, weapons, and people by improving its law enforcement infrastructure and control of its borders and international ports of entry and exit.

Assistance to increase operational readiness of the Panamanian National Police (PNP), the K-9 unit, airport groups, and special operations units within the Directorate of Information and Intelligence (DIIP) will result in a 10 percent increase in seizures of illegal drugs by PNP components over FY 2008.

Strengthen GOP coastal/interdiction capabilities with better interagency communications and augment anti-terrorism capability for specialized units. 

Seizures of illicit drugs in Panama’s border regions will increase by 10 percent over FY 2008 levels.

Support the newly formed GOP Coast Guard.

Maritime seizures of drugs and other illegal contraband in Panamanian waters will increase by 10 percent.

Transformational Diplomacy

Panama’s Interdiction Program advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding counternarcotics projects designed to reduce the flow of illegal narcotics and other contraband through Panama and its surrounding waterways to the United States. Panama is a major global air traffic, financial, communications, and world commerce hub. This makes Panama a natural nexus for transnational crime, including drug and precursor chemical trafficking, money laundering, arms trafficking, and illegal immigrants. The flow of illicit drugs has contributed to increasing domestic drug abuse, encouraged public corruption, and undermined the GOP’s criminal justice system.

Program Justification

By virtue of its geographic position and well-developed transportation infrastructure, Panama is a major drug transshipment point to the United States and Europe. Panama’s containerized seaports, the Pan-American Highway, an established international hub airport, numerous uncontrolled airfields, and unguarded coastlines on both the Atlantic and Pacific facilitate drug movement. Drugs are moved in fishing vessels, cargo ships, small aircraft, and go-fast boats. Illegal airplanes utilize hundreds of abandoned or unmonitored legal airstrips for refueling, pickups, and deliveries. Panama’s budgetary constraints limit its law enforcement efforts, so U.S. support to Panama’s law enforcement agencies remains crucial to ensure fulfillment of agency missions.

Program Accomplishments

In 2007, the GOP seized a record 60 metric tons of cocaine in collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard. This included a 16 metric ton maritime seizure of cocaine in March, which was the largest on record. Several sensitive vetted units continue to operate with impressive results. The former head of the National Maritime Service (SMN) was arrested and jailed on charges of corruption and illegal enrichment. In another high profile case, Colombian trafficker Jose Nelson Urrego Cardenas was arrested and his numerous properties confiscated.

GOP authorities seized 96 kg of heroin, nearly 3.9 metric tons of marijuana, and made 207 arrests for international drug-related offenses. Several USG-supported GOP vetted units expanded operations in 2007. The joint Department of Homeland Security -Department of Energy Container Security Initiative (CSI) to enhance global container security from the threat posed by high-risk shipments was launched in Panama in October.

FY 2009 Program

Interdiction/Border Control

Panamanian National Police (PNP): The PNP (Division of Judicial investigations) bears the principal responsibility for disrupting the large volume of Colombian narcotics being transshipped to the United States as well as other contraband being smuggled along this principal trafficking corridor. FY 2009 support will provide operational assistance and training to enhance the PNP’s ability to respond to these threats. Support will also include equipment (including vehicle spare parts for vehicles previously donated by the Embassy Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS)), training, and operational expenses for the PNP mobile interdiction team and the PNP’s K-9 unit.

Border Enhancement: This project assists GOP law enforcement agencies with controlling trafficking of narcotics, arms, illegal migrants, and other contraband along the country’s major transportation routes. FY 2009 funds will support training, provision of equipment, such as outboard motors and two vehicles, as well as minor improvements to existing infrastructure on PNP operating bases along the Panama/Costa Rican border and at the Meteti in the Darien. Funds will also support provision of technical assistance on enhancing security controls at Panama’s major airports and choke points along the Pan-American Highway.

Coast Guard: The Coast Guard provides law enforcement and security for Panama’s territorial waters (including the Panama Canal), a major smuggling corridor for drugs and other contraband. FY 2009 funds will support provision of equipment (including two new vehicles that will be used to support mobile boat maintenance teams), training, maintenance on previously USG-donated 82 ft patrol boats, minor infrastructure improvement (including floating piers, boat ramps, and maintenance facilities) for two forward operating posts in the Chiriqui province, and operational support for the Coast Guard’s small boat unit. Since the SMN and the National Air Services (SAN) recently merged to create the Coast Guard, funds would also provide training to pilots, mechanics and aircrew to operate a King Air medium range aircraft that will be used for aerial surveillance and target detection; and help the GOP establish a spare-parts logistics infrastructure to support previously donated USG equipment; as well as improve the Coast Guard’s communications inter-operability with other Panamanian Public Forces

Program Development & Support (PD&S)

PD&S funds will be used to pay salaries, benefits, and allowances for U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, field travel, and International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Panama
INL BUDGET
($000)


FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Interdiction/Border Control

National Police
635
-
292
300

National Air Service
150
-
-
-

Border Enhancement
300
-
100
100

National Maritime Service
560
-
200
200

Joint Intelligence Coordination

Center (JICC)
75
-
-
-

Sub-Total
1,720
-
592
600
Law Enforcement Restructuring

Technical Judicial Police
425
-
-
-

Law Enforcement Modernization
300
-
-
-

Sub-Total
725
-
-
-
Financial Investigations Unit
150
-
-
-
Anti-Corruption Initiatives*
300
-
-
-
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction
50
-
-
-
Justice Systems**
300
-
-
-
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
347
-
200
200

Non-U.S. Personnel
45
-
45
45

ICASS Costs
242
-
155
155

Program Support
121
-
-
-

Sub-Total
755
-
400
400
Total
4,000
-
992
1,000

* A portion of these funds will be administered by USAID.

** This is an INL funded and USAID administered program in FY 2007


Peru

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate *

FY 2009 Request

103,165

36,546

37,000

*FY 2008 is the first year that funding for Alternative Development (AD) is not included in the ACP account, AD funds will fall under the ESF account from FY 2008 onward

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The Government of Peru (GOP) institutionalizes policy-making and coordination and begins to take over management of certain counternarcotics programs. Indicators include:

The maintenance and operation of Peruvian National Police (PNP) air wing is performed 100 percent by Peruvian nationals. USG contractor provides oversight on maintenance, training, and operations of equipment and helicopters.

Improved coordination and capabilities of Peruvian agencies involved in counternarcotics law enforcement lead to effect action against illicit drug trafficking.

Graduate at least 1,000 new counternarcotics police to spread the Peruvian National Counternarcotics anti-drug police (DIRANDRO) presence and ability to enforce law, provide security for legal activity and deny freedom of action for narcotics trafficking activities.

Maintain a comprehensive maritime and port interdiction program to diminish substantially the exploitation of Peru’s northern ports by drug traffickers through an increase of seizures by 10 percent and the inclusion of the National Cargo Manifest Review Unit.

Reciprocal maritime operational procedures are established and employed with the USG to expedite communications and decisive interdiction action between USG and GOP maritime operations centers.

Improvements in the efficiency of the Peruvian judicial sector allow it to effectively prosecute drug cases.

Increased number of arrests/prosecutions of major criminals and narco-traffickers.

Asset forfeiture legislation is implemented and mechanisms are established to provide forfeited narco-assets to counternarcotics and other law enforcement efforts.

Peru reduces illegal cultivation of coca and opium poppy and becomes a marginal rather than major source of illicit drugs and drug trafficking.

The GOP establishes a reliable tracking system of the production of traditional licit coca.

The GOP, with the help of the USG, develops a reconnaissance capability to identify and eradicate opium poppy cultivation.

The number of port and road counternarcotics interdiction checkpoints east of the Peruvian Andes is increased by ten percent in FY 2009, resulting in a ten percent increase in the number and amount of cocaine seizures over previous years.

An increased awareness of the dangers of drug trafficking and drug abuse increases public support for counternarcotics policies and leads to a reduction in the demand for illicit drugs.

Peru conducts surveys that generate statistical data on public concerns about drug abuse and related criminal activity. The survey results are used to design, implement, and evaluate public awareness campaigns.

Public support buttress GOP political will for increasing law enforcement efforts against illegal drug cultivation and trafficking are realized and maintained at high levels.

Both survey results and GOP actions indicate that Peruvians do not tolerate illegal drug cultivation and trafficking and that a vast majority of the Peruvian population recognize coca cultivation and drug trafficking as a threat to national wellbeing.

Transformational Diplomacy

U.S. assistance will serve to strengthen governance and create space for legal lifestyles in isolated areas where drug traffickers and terrorists operate, using aggressive eradication, interdiction and chemical control to reduce drug production, in conjunction with alternative development that reduces dependence on illicit coca cultivation. It will help the government improve its counter-terrorism efforts and publicize the links between drug production and common crime, so that Peruvians understand that their quality of life (and not just that of United States citizens) is degraded by drug-trafficking. This is the most resource-intensive objective because it requires high operational cost; equipment such as helicopters and labor-intensive manual eradication that requires significant security.

Program Justification

Peru is the second largest cocaine producing country in the world and a major exporter of cocaine and cocaine base to markets in South America, Mexico, the United States, and Europe. According to a United Nation's assessment, the 51,400 hectares of coca under cultivation in Peru could produce a potential annual harvest of approximately 114,000 metric tons of coca leaf yielding up to 280 metric tons of cocaine. The price of coca leaf has steadily increased, particularly over the past five years. While the number of hectares under cultivation has stabilized with programmed eradication, the density of planting and efficiency of alkaloid extraction has increased substantially. According to the Peruvian Institute of Statistics and Information (INEI), approximately 4 million Peruvians use up to 9,000 metric tons of coca leaf each year for legal purposes such as chewing and making tea, leaving approximately 105,000 metric tons of coca leaf available to produce an estimated 230 metric tons of cocaine HCl annually. A relatively small percentage of Peruvians are involved in growing coca, processing coca leaf and trafficking cocaine and cocaine base. Despite these obstacles, the Peruvian Government made significant progress in 2007 in funding and implementing Peru’s National Drug Plan 2007-2011 that emphasized the nexus between interdiction, including eradication, alternative development and prevention.

Program Accomplishments

In 2007, positive developments by the GOP included anti-terrorism sweeps that led to arrests of Sendero Luminoso (SL) collaborators. The Peruvian Congress passed a package of laws addressing organized crime, drugs and terrorism. The Congress strengthened provisions of the Precursor Chemical law of 2004 with passage of Law 29037 and Law 28305, which modified the Penal Code to impose stiffer penalties and strengthened procedures to ensure proper handling of controlled chemicals. In September, the Supreme Court upheld the conviction and 20-year sentence of drug “kingpin” Fernando Zevallos.

After a decade of impressive reductions of coca cultivation, the price for Peruvian coca leaf has hit 12-year highs, creating a strong economic incentive for greater production. Using a Cocaine Production Averted (CPA) formula developed by the GOP and USG, eradication of 12,000 hectares of coca prevented over 56 metric tons of cocaine from being produced in 2007. The Ministry of Interior’s coca eradication group (CORAH) eradicated 12,073 hectares in 2007 (11,057 programmed, 1,016 voluntary). Additionally, the GOP conducted operations on land, sea, and air to disrupt the production and transshipment of cocaine. Peruvian law enforcement authorities seized 7.9 metric tons of cocaine HCl and 7.5 metric tons of cocaine base in these CY 2007 operations.

Aside from its eradication efforts, INL support assisted the GOP in successfully accomplishing a number of strategic drug control goals. In 2007, Peru made significant progress in strengthening police capacity east of the Andes with 1,552 new police officers dedicated to counternarcotics law enforcement, reinforcing the approximately 400 police who have graduated since 2005 to reach a 2007 total of 1,938. In 2008, an additional 1,000 counternarcotics police recruits are anticipated to graduate from area police academies and begin assignments in the East Andes. Their entry on duty has allowed the PNP to effect sustained interdiction in source zones and to carry out eradication in valleys where coca growers have violently resisted programmed eradication in the past.

The GOP also made progress in addressing the smuggling of cocaine through its air and sea ports, which is becoming the primary method of exporting multi-ton loads of cocaine. At the Jorge Chavez International Airport in Lima, interdiction operations netted 4.2 metric tons of cocaine, leading to more than 750 arrests in 2007. Also in 2007, seven drug-detection canines and their Peruvian handlers were trained in the United States, doubling Peruvian Customs canine capacity and resulting in the seizure of over 10 metric tons of cocaine HCl since their first deployment in 2006. In the ports of Callao and Paita, Peruvians Customs continued to improve its interdiction efforts through better intelligence collection and by using technologically advanced equipment to conduct more effective searches that included USG-provided non-intrusive inspection equipment (NIIE), such as ion-scanners, density detectors, fiber-optics, mobile x-ray units and CAB-2000 container scanners. In 2007, 54 percent of all containerized cargo exported from Peru received XRAY scanning and at least three percent received intensive inspections. Both major ports now provide electronic manifests to Peruvian Customs and all Port Captains can track and report suspect vessels and cargo electronically.

There was a remarkable push by non-governmental organizations, universities and the mass media to heighten the Peruvian public’s concern about the extent of influence of narco-trafficking and the connection between coca growing and drug production. As a result, many Peruvians have lost their sympathy for “oppressed” coca farmers, and there is widespread recognition of the link between coca leaf cultivation and drug consumption.

FY 2009 Program

Narcotics Law Enforcement

Law Enforcement Support: FY 2009 funding will provide operational support for interdiction deployments, security for eradication operations, as well as training and field exercises to enhance the capabilities of the Peruvian National Police Narcotics Directorate (DIRANDRO). The goal is to drive down coca leaf and cocaine base prices by disrupting the market as well as to interdict drugs and chemicals. Support for enhanced law enforcement efforts in the Eastern Andes, including for the DINANDRO taskforce established in 2007, will include some renovations and refurbishment of existing infrastructure to house graduating officers from the NAS-supported Basic Police Academies, planned refurbishment of two Peruvian Army bases that are being turned over to the DIRANDRO in the Monzon Valley (Cachicoto and Monzon City), support for pre-academies, 38 additional vehicles for police transport, updated communications equipment, field gear, emergency/safety reaction gear, support to the drug detector canine unit, as well as the special operations and eradication security forces. This support will also enable the Taskforce interdiction teams to operate roadblocks with canines to detect narcotics and bulk cash shipments in the Monzon Valley and Ene-Apurimac River Valleys (VRAE) operating from the old base in Ayacucho.

Maritime and Port Security Support: Peru has achieved significant success in detecting drug shipments in Pacific ports and the Lima airport. This program will continue to improve the GOP’s capacity to examine cargo and passengers through facilities improvements; equipment acquisitions, such as ion scanners and palate scanners; training; and technical assistance to bolster operational planning and execution. Emphasis will be placed on the development of additional Manifest Review Units (MRUs), interdiction infrastructure, and the training and equipping of units based on the NAS-sponsored model MRU and Special Operations Brigade established at Peru's largest seaport of Callao.

Peruvian Customs: The Peruvian Customs Service inspects arriving and departing passengers and cargo at Lima's air and maritime terminals, at other air and maritime ports of entry, and at land border checkpoints. The Customs Service’s drug enforcement section interdicts narcotics, principally at the country’s airports and seaports. FY 2009 support will enable the Custom's drug enforcement section and DIRANDRO to bolster their programs at the country’s principal airport and seaport, as well as expand law enforcement support to other airports, seaports and land ports of entry used by trafficking organizations.

Eradication

Coca and Opium Poppy Eradication: In FY 2009, coca eradication will continue to focus on consolidating advances made by voluntary eradication in Tocache and Aucayaco, initiated eradication operations in the Monzon and continue programmed eradication in difficult areas such as Polvora-Pizana and northern Huánuco. This activity will support creation of a coca free corridor that will extend from Northern San Martin, through the Upper Huallaga Valley and northern Huánuco along the Fernando Belaunde Terry Highway. This corridor will, in turn, connect with the Federico Basadre Highway through Aguaytia leading to Pucallpa. The GOP eradication goal for CY 2009 is 10,000 hectares.

Aviation Support: Aviation support for narcotics law enforcement funds operating and maintenance costs for the National Police Aviation Division (DIRAVPOL), which provides airlift for interdiction, eradication, and logistical support to counternarcotics operations. Funding supports pilots, aircrews, and support personnel for 23 USG-owned UH-2 helicopters, four fixed-wing aircraft (including two C-26s which are used for counternarcotics missions), and limited operational support for Peruvian MI-17 helicopters, and fixed-wing aircraft -- all of which support coca eradication and law enforcement activity east of the Andes. Funding also supports fuel, maintenance, hangars and warehousing, aircraft rental when needed, and operational support for DIRAVPOL personnel.

Crop Monitoring and Research: A branch of CORAH called CADA (Corps for Assistance to Alternative Development) monitors and maps coca and poppy cultivation and provides a means to verify the extent of coca eradication within communities to determine whether alternative development programs can be provided to those communities. In FY 2009, this project will focus on developing a business plan to market CADA services in order to sustain operations. Demand for CADA expertise has been high, and information is shared with the USG, GOP and international organizations to guide counternarcotics efforts. CADA is collaborating with the police, the UN and GOP to develop a methodology to detect and map opium poppy that can overcome terrain and weather obstacles.

Alternative Crop Research & Extension (ICT): A joint USG-Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Drug Abuse Control (OAS/CICAD) Alternative Crop Research and Extension (ICT) project provides a research arm for Embassy Lima’s Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS). This project will continue to help NAS refine the Cocaine Production Averted formula, assist in determining the best methodology to measure coca plant density, perform field research into alternative development projects supported by NAS, rather than USAID, such as research into coffee and cacao diseases to find ways to increase production yields, and disseminating practical research results to farmers. The ICT project also incorporates a five-year strategic plan containing a strong marketing component to achieve self-sufficiency in 2010.

Administration of Justice

Narcotics Prosecution: 16 dedicated prosecutors are assigned to oversee police and military drug enforcement operations, interrogate suspects and witnesses, secure evidence, supervise the destruction of illegal facilities such as laboratories or airstrips, and prepare cases for trial. Prosecutors also accompany eradication teams in confrontational areas to serve as impartial witnesses to ensure that rights are not being violated and to defuse protests. FY 2009 funds will support advanced training for prosecutors already in the program and entry-level training for new prosecutors and for other prosecutors in many localities throughout Peru, who, while not dedicated to counternarcotics cases exclusively, will be able to support DINANDRO when needed.

Demand Reduction/Drug Awareness

Demand Reduction: The Demand Reduction Program has moved away from the more traditional programs that focused on educational workshops, epidemiological research, treatment, and the training of teachers and health professionals. Instead, FY 2009 continues initiatives from FY 2008 to use the community anti-drug coalitions (CAC) model that has been so successful in the United States and that have been adapted to the social realities in Peru. There are currently 11 CACs in eight municipalities. Initial drug use can be avoided and occasional drug abuse can be halted by providing social services to the community and establishing supervised facilities, like community centers to provide young people with alternative productive activities. Many community sectors (e.g., local government, schools, police, business, youth groups, health, and civil-society organizations) have committed to coordinate their efforts and share resources to fight drug abuse. Already more than 50 percent of the cost for CAC activities comes from local sources. Support from local stakeholders is already affecting drug-related municipal policies and norms. Through a social marketing and communications campaign, the successes of the municipal-level policies should positively influence the national political discourse on demand reduction and counternarcotics.

East of the Andes, NAS is working with regional and local governments, community leaders and NGO’s as well as private sector enterprises in Southern Peru (Ayacucho and the Valley of the Ene and Apurimac Rivers - the VRAE) where drugs are produced and trafficked and where for the past two decades there has been a violent onslaught of SL terrorism. The project’s main objective is to create bonds between these groups and the young leaders, promoting an inter-generational dialogue and injecting optimism and a positive attitude towards change that will lead to a culture of legality and generate jobs in the fields of tourism, cultural gastronomy, art, and others. Local youth leaders and local authorities will acts as “launching points” and agents to achieve change that are targeted to benefit 15,000 young people.

Public Relations and Media Engagement: Among some sectors in Peruvian society, the attitude has been that coca cultivation, which occurs far from major urban areas, does not adversely affect most Peruvians, particularly in Lima and on the coast. While the public are becoming more aware of the danger of narco-trafficking, too few public figures speak out against the nexus between coca cultivation, narcotics and terrorism in the local media, hindering the ability of the GOP to carry out its anti-drug program. FY 2009 funds will support an on-going campaign undertaken by NGO partners to better inform the Peruvian public of the nexus between the national security implications from indigenous terrorist involvement in the illegal drug trade and the effects to society from crime, corruption, and increased local drug use. This initiative is especially important in light of the narcotrafficking-financed attempts to position coca as the "sacred leaf" and producers as "poor farmers."

Program Development & Support (PD&S)

Program Development & Support (PD&S): Funds will cover salaries, benefits, and allowances for U.S. and foreign national direct hire and contract personnel, field travel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Service (ICASS) costs, and general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Peru
INL BUDGET
($000)



FY 2007

FY 2007 Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Eradication

Coca and Opium Poppy Eradication
8,000
-
8,000
8,140

Crop Research and Extension (ICT)
700
-
332
500

Aviation Support
22,300
-
11,264
4,760

Crop Monitoring and Research
1,500
-
900
1,000

Sub-Total
32,500
-
20,496
14,400
Interdiction

Law Enforcement Support
10,000
-
7,200
7,600

Port Security Program
2,450
-
1,800
1,750

Peruvian Customs
3,500
-
1,800
1,723

Public Relations and Media
750
-
500
500

Administration of Justice/Prosecution
500
-
200
200

Support to Armed Forces
500
-
-
-

Aviation Support
-
-
-
6,727

Sub-Total
17,700
-
11,500
18,500
Demand Reduction
1,400
-
500
300
Money Laundering
400
-
250
-
Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel
758
-
585
824

Non-U.S. Personnel
1,220
-
1,244
1,404

ICASS Costs
925
-
955
920

Program Support
1,097
-
1,016
652

Sub-Total
4,000
-
3,800
3,800
NAS Sub-Total
56,000
-
36,546
37,000
Alternative Development (USAID)

Alternative Livelihood
47,165
-
-*
-*

Program Support
-
-
-*
-*
AID Sub-Total
47,165
-
-*
-*
Counternarcotics Total
103,165
-
36,546
37,000
*
Beginning in FY 2008 Alternative Development managed under Economic Support Funds (ESF)



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